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How do I write an effective essay for the UPSC Mains?

It is one of those papers amongst 7 papers in UPSC Mains wherein marks vary widely. It could be anything from 80s to 170s out of 250. It is very difficult to imagine that with same content base of general studies , there is such huge variation in essay marks awarded to UPSC Mains candidates. Therefore, a specific strategy is required for Essay paper.In simple words, you have to justify the given topic of the essay (unless it is absolutely absurd) using the knowledge you have gathered in your general studies papers. For example, in CSE 2017 , there was a topic "Fulfilment of new woman in India is a myth" . Here , you had to justify the topic across the various dimensions like History , Society , Geography ( GS-1 Topics) , Polity , Governance , International Relations (GS-2 Topics) , Economy , Environment , Disaster Management , Security ( GS-3 Topics) and Ethics (GS-4 Topics).I mentioned justification rather than balancing while writing the essay. Balancing act is required but its proportion (i.e whether for or against and in what percentage) depends on the topic itself. For example , the above mentioned topic wants us to write on myth aspect more. Therefore, a good essay for above topic should have a heavy leaning (say 80% of Essay ) for the topic with a passing reference for against (say 20% of Essay).For a topic which has a question mark at its end (e.g. Has the NAM lost its relevance in multi polar world ? ) requires an analysis from both sides in significant proportion ( say 60% for and 40% against if you think it has lost its relevance) and then presenting your judgement. The basic idea is to deal with topic as it is mentioned rather just providing our views on the topic.Choosing a Topic : Choose the topic in which you are most comfortable with. Never think that the chosen topic is a common topic like Education , Women etc therefore it will be written by most candidates and consequently you will be awarded average marks. Your own comfort with the topic should be the most important criteria. Further, choose a topic which can be analyzed from varied dimensions rather limited to few dimensions. This should be done within 5 minutes. Try to use the 5 minutes when question paper is distributed beforehand the scheduled time for formalities.Broad Structuring : This ensures that your essay is well structured. Keep the structure simple. General templates can be :Introduction :Explaining the topicUsing anecdotes to drive home the topic and your stand on the topic ; for e.g. in above essay , A made up example of a well accomplished woman can be used who despite reaching at the top faced discrimination at her home , her workplace etc.Using facts related to the topicBodyJustify your stand using the various dimensions as explained aboveUse facts to substantiate your arguments. Back your arguments with data. For example , in above essay , women specific data related to education , health , political participation , economic participation etc can be usedThrow light on the other side of the topic ; use dimensional analysis as explained before.ConclusionGive solutions to the problems you have raised during your body of the essayHere , again either dimensions can be used or use of individual-> family -> community -> society -> nation-> international levels can be used for suggesting solutionsGive a futuristic tone to your conclusion. For example , show how fulfillment of new woman can lead to more sustainable societyBrainstorming :Keep the topic in mind and then start going through sub-topics mentioned across the 4 general studies papers. Using this technique you will never fall short of content irrespective of the topic. You will always have enough fodder to write using this technique.Before beginning to write , prioritize the generated points. For example , for above topic historical relevance of 'new woman' may be skipped while keeping major focus on contemporary relevance of the topic. Keep 20-25 minutes for this part.Writing the Essay :Despite knowing the basic template , some of you may find difficulty in finding the flow or coherence in essay. Practice is the key here. Practice 8-10 essays before going to the final exam. The question of flow or linkage between the paragraphs will be automatically taken care of.For the starters , the linkage can be simply shown as : For example , suppose you are justifying the above topic in educational sphere. In the last line of preceding para , use the fact that it has several other faces as well. Then you can jump to another dimension in next paragraph.Let the essay show your emotions , thought process and values. Do not let the mechanical nature of essay destroy the humanist aspect of it.In present form , you are required to write two essays in three hours. Give adequate attention to each essay to maximize your marks. With 20-25 minutes for topic selection and brainstorming , you are roughly left with 1 hour to write one essay.Quotes /Data : I rarely used quotes in my essay and got good marks. So, be assured that you can write your own viewpoints backed by suitable data or facts and can expect good marks in essay paper. One thing I heavily relied upon was data pertaining to different dimensions. I have attached it at the end.Headings/Sub Headings : You can use it to your convenience. I personally refrained from using it as it, somehow, constrained the flow of the essay by compartmentalizing it.Hope this answer gives you a head start to write an effective essay. I wish you all the best.My Score in Essay CSE 2017 : 147/250You can find the data pertaining to General Studies Papers here : https://drive.google.com/open?id=1yzkT_BglnK9Jv5loyio2hsxc3mtZtDAO

Why did "the greatest witch of her generation" hook up with Ron, the least competent wizard of his generation? Hermione obviously should have married Harry.

Shouldn’t you be in the dungeon waiting to bludgeon a girl to death? You’re not a very good troll m’dear.But let’s assume that you’re actually serious and not trying to start pointless drama by asking such a question with such oddly specific formulations.Let me tell you a secret.Yeah, come closer, here it goes…Hermione is not actually the “greatest witch of her generation”. Nor will she ever be.I know! It’s incredible, right? Incredible… but true!Alright, alright, I’m feeling generous, let me tell you another secret…Ron is not the least competent wizard of his generation, and never will be.And, and!! Guess what?Harry is not the most competent wizard of his generation, either.And!! Another one!! I’m just telling you ALL the secrets!!Hermione marrying Harry because he’d be “the most competent wizard of his generation” wouldn’t be love. It’d be eugenics.You know, eugenics! That cool thing fascist states can’t get enough of! That illuminating concept of a one true perfect human being that should be the template for EVERY other human being! That “Aryan race” thingy, about how the only acceptable characteristics of a human being should be blond hair, blue eyes and white skin! You know, just like how the Death Eaters thought there should only be Pureblood wizards because they were the “superior” wizards!Now, you obviously aren’t going to believe me. Probably because you’re a troll and you’re asking this question just to start drama because you have nothing better to do and you think it’s fun. But you know what? I think it’s fun to correct false assumptions about Ron, so it’s all good!Right, let me just pick ONE scene that collapses your entire question onto itself and destroys your reality as you know it.“That was really, really good, Harry,” said Hermione, when finally it was just her, Harry, and Ron left.“Yeah, it was!” said Ron enthusiastically, as they slipped out of the door and watched it melt back into stone behind them. “Did you see me disarm Hermione, Harry?”“Only once,” said Hermione, stung. “I got you loads more than you got me —”“I did not only get you once, I got you at least three times —”“Well, if you’re counting the one where you tripped over your own feet and knocked the wand out of my hand —”They argued all the way back to the common room, but Harry was not listening to them. He had one eye on the Marauder’s Map, but he was also thinking of how Cho had said he made her nervous… - Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 18Why look at that!The “greatest witch of her generation” got owned by the so-called “least competent wizard of his generation”.If she was so great surely this puny wizard shouldn’t be able to even land a hit on her oh-so superior and powerful person, even through luck. Because she’s so great. She’s so great she should be eating Voldemort for breakfast. Really Hermione, you’re slacking off, go kill Voldemort like the good perfect competent strong woman you’re supposed to be. After all you’re the greatest witch of your generation. Act like it.If she was so competent…Surely she wouldn’t have gone down first in the Department of Mysteries?And not in such a completely stupid manner too?‘Collo—’ began Hermione, but before she could complete the spell the door had burst open and the two Death Eaters had come hurtling inside.With a cry of triumph, both yelled:‘IMPEDIMENTA!’Harry, Hermione and Neville were all knocked backwards off their feet; Neville was thrown over the desk and disappeared from view; Hermione smashed into a bookcase and was promptly del­uged in a cascade of heavy books; the back of Harry’s head slammed into the stone wall behind him, tiny lights burst in front of his eyes and for a moment he was too dizzy and bewildered to react.‘WE’VE GOT HIM!’ yelled the Death Eater nearest Harry. ‘IN AN OFFICE OFF—’‘Silencio!’ cried Hermione and the man’s voice was extinguished. He continued to mouth through the hole in his mask, but no sound came out. He was thrust aside by his fellow Death Eater.Nice, Hermione, now he can’t warn his friends anymore! But… why didn’t you Stupefy him? Surely that would have the same effect -‘Petrificus Totalus!’ shouted Harry, as the second Death Eater raised his wand. His arms and legs snapped together and he fell forwards, face down on to the rug at Harry’s feet, stiff as a board and unable to move.Good. Good. Though, guys, you still have one Death Eater left, he’s Silenced but nonverbal spells exist you know -‘Well done, Ha—’THIS IS A FREAKING FIGHT TO THE DEATH YOU ABSOLUTE IDIOT YOU’RE NOT IN A GODDAMN CLASSROOM YOU’LL CONGRATULATE HIM ONCE YOU’RE BACK TO SAFETY -But the Death Eater Hermione had just struck dumb made a sudden slashing movement with his wand; a streak of what looked like purple flame passed right across Hermione’s chest. She gave a tiny ‘Oh!’ as though of surprise and crumpled on to the floor, where she lay motionless.*slow clap* good jorb, “brightest witch of your age”Now let’s see how the “least competent wizard of his generation” fared.So Harry Petrificuses the Death Eater who knocked Hermione out. Neville now carries Hermione, which means that Harry is two fighters short - again, the “brightest witch of her age”, everyone. This is why we leave strategy to Ron.Speaking of Ron:‘So which way d’you reck—?’But before they could make a decision as to which way to try, a door to their right sprang open and three people fell out of it.‘Ron!’ croaked Harry, dashing towards them. ‘Ginny — are you all -?’‘Harry,’ said Ron, giggling weakly, lurching forwards, seizing the front of Harry’s robes and gazing at him with unfocused eyes, ‘there you are... ha ha ha... you look funny, Harry... you’re all messed up...’… wait, he’s not normally that silly, especially not when there’s a battle to the death going on -Ron’s face was very white and something dark was trickling from the corner of his mouth. Next moment his knees had given way, but he still clutched the front of Harry’s robes, so that Harry was pulled into a kind of bow.Oh shit.‘Ginny?’ Harry said fearfully. ‘What happened?’But Ginny shook her head and slid down the wall into a sitting position, panting and holding her ankle.‘I think her ankle’s broken, I heard something crack,’ whispered Luna, who was bending over her and who alone seemed to be unhurt. ‘Four of them chased us into a dark room full of planets; it was a very odd place, some of the time we were just floating in the dark -’‘Harry, we saw Uranus up close!’ said Ron, still giggling feebly. ‘Get it, Harry? We saw Uranus — ha ha ha -’A bubble of blood grew at the corner of Ron’s mouth and burst.Oh shit oh shit oh shit.‘— anyway, one of them grabbed Ginny’s foot, I used the Reductor Curse and blew up Pluto in his face, but...’Luna gestured hopelessly at Ginny, who was breathing in a very shallow way, her eyes still closed.‘And what about Ron?’ said Harry fearfully, as Ron continued to giggle, still hanging off the front of Harry’s robes.‘I don’t know what they hit him with,’ said Luna sadly, ‘but he’s gone a bit funny, I could hardly get him along at all.’GREAT. OUR STRATEGIST IS DOWN. LET’S HOPE DUMBLEDORE HURRIES UP.Oh, by the way, notice anything?‘Four of them chased us into a dark room full of planets; it was a very odd place, some of the time we were just floating in the dark -’‘— anyway, one of them grabbed Ginny’s foot, I used the Reductor Curse and blew up Pluto in his face, but...’‘I don’t know what they hit him with,’You know what that means?Come on, I’m terrible at math but even I can figure out that one.Luna takes out the Death Eater that broke Ginny’s ankle.That leaves us with three Death Eaters unaccounted for.And Luna is telling us that “they” cursed Ron. As in “more than one person”. As in…As in Ron Weasley holding off three Death Eaters on his own to protect his baby sister and her friend.It’s not the first time Ron would throw himself in front of danger to protect his loved ones after all.I’m not just talking about the chess match, though that bit is iconic.I’m not talking about the legendary “If you want to kill Harry you’ll have to kill us too!” as he stoods on his broken leg to flip off a mass murderer. Which is also iconic.No. I’m talking about one bit that is too often neglected, too often goes missing from readers’ heads, too often is ignored.Namely, this bit:Ron was on his feet. As the dog sprang back toward them he pushed Harry aside; the dog’s jaws fastened instead around Ron’s outstretched arm. Harry lunged forward, he seized a handful of the brute’s hair, but it was dragging Ron away as easily as though he were a rag doll–RONALD MOTHERF*CKING WEASLEY’S FIRST FREAKING INSTINCT IS TO PUSH HARRY OUT OF HARM’S WAY AND TAKE THE HIT INSTEAD.THIS IS HOW RON GETS DRAGGED INTO THE WHOMPING WILLOW. NOT BECAUSE SIRIUS WENT FOR RON, BUT BECAUSE RON TOOK A HIT THAT WAS INTENDED FOR HARRY.Y’ALL WISH YOU COULD BE HALF A QUARTER AS GOOD AS RONALD MOTHERF*CKING WEASLEY.*cough* Anyway…Ron Weasley is goddamn competent, moreso than Hermione Granger. Sure he’s not as academical as she is. But when it actually matters - aka in real life, not in an exam where you’re in a safe, controlled, comfortable environment - he demonstrates that he’s 1. a total badass, 2. perfectly able to handle himself thank you very much.Really… it’s been clear from the very first book…Hermione had sunk to the floor in fright; Ron pulled out his own wand -- not knowing what he was going to do he heard himself cry the first spell that came into his head: "Wingardium Leviosa!"The club flew suddenly out of the troll's hand, rose high, high up into the air, turned slowly over -- and dropped, with a sickening crack, onto its owner's head. The troll swayed on the spot and then fell flat on its face, with a thud that made the whole room tremble.… to the very last.“Harry Potter is dead! Do you understand now, deluded ones? He was nothing, ever but a boy who relied on others to sacrifice themselves for him!”“He beat you!” yelled Ron, and the charm broke, and the defenders of Hogwarts were shouting and screaming again until a second, more powerful bang extinguished their voices once more.A Silencing Charm from Voldemort, done with the Elder Wand itself? That won’t stop Ronald Motherf*cKING Weasley.Really… why fangirl over Hermione when Ron is right there?

Was Philip Emeagwali the inventor of super computing and the internet?

Great question. This answer is based on an investigation done by Sahara Reporters in New York.Philip Emeagwali stirs up diverse emotions in Nigerians, Africans, and black people around the world. His claim of being a father of the Internet, of having invented the Connection Machine, of possessing 41patented inventions, of winning “the Nobel Prize of Computing” and of being a “doctor” and/or professor” have been conclusively debunked with widely documented evidence. [1]Yet, the figure of Emeagwali as a black scientific, engineering, and information technology genius and pioneer continues to loom large over discussions of black achievement. The legend of Philip Emeagwali’s purported inventions, widely proven to emanate from the perverse deceptive genius of the man himself, endures and proliferates among Nigerian and black groups around the world.Only recently, the USAfricadialogue googlegroups listserv managed by Professor Toyin Falola of the University of Texas hosted a discussion on Philip Emeagwali’s vast fraud. Participants in the discussion included Nigerian and African intellectuals, scientists, engineers, and IT professionals. Overall, the discussion reinforced and reiterated one of the worst kept secrets in the Nigerian Diaspora, especially in its online community: that none of Emeagwali’s highfalutin claims, on whose strength he has curried and continues to curry favor and recognition from gullible and hero-hungry black people, is true. Yet, just a few days ago, one of Nigeria’s more visible dailies, The Vanguard, included the academic and intellectual fraud in its list of 20 “most influential Nigerians.” Curiously, unlike previous Nigerian publications and profiles on Mr. Emeagwali, the biographical write-up accompanying the nomination does not repeat any of the well-known claims and “achievements” that Emeagwali has aggressively and fraudulently peddled about himself — claims that many of our people regard as truth. Apparently, the journalists at The Vanguard have become exposed to the widely available refutations of those claims and now know that they are false. But that, precisely, is the outrage. If they know that he is not a father of the internet, did not win “the Nobel Prize” of Computing as he claims, has no invention patents, did not invent the connection machine, does not have a single academic publication, and is neither a “doctor” nor a “professor” by any definition of those terms, why did they include him on the list? What makes Mr. Emeagwali “influential,” his ability to deceive Nigerians and line his pockets on the black speechmaking circuit?Nigerians and black people deserve to know who the real Philip Emeagwali is. This will save them from the embarrassment of continuing to celebrate a fraud while real black scientific achievers and pioneers starve for attention and recognition. To correct Nigeria’s scientific and technological lag there is a need for investments — both financial and motivational — in the sciences, engineering, and IT fields. Nigerian youths need inspiration in the quantitative and scientific disciplines, but they should get it from actual, not pretending, black scientific, computing, and engineering heroes, not from phonies like Mr. Emeagwali.Patented Inventions Or The Invention Of Patents?Debunking the many myths of Mr. Emeagwali’s “achievements” is one the easiest things to do on earth if you have a computer with Internet access. Let us start with his claim of possessing 41 (32 by some accounts on some hero-worshipping black websites) patents for various inventions. A simple search at the website of the US Patent and Trade Mark Office (here: http://tarr.uspto.gov/) reveals that Mr. Emeagwali has only one registered patent, for Philip Emeagwali - A Father of the Internet - Biography Supercomputer Computer, his website. He has no other patent listed against his name. It is the same patent that most owners of independent websites apply for to legally protect their proprietary rights over the website and its contents. We can state conclusively then that Mr. Emeagwali has no patented invention of any kind, contrary to his and his supporters’ claim.Specifically, Mr. Emeagwali claims to have invented the Connection Machine (CM-2). This false claim is displayed boldly and shamelessly on Philip Emeagwali - A Father of the Internet - Biography Supercomputer Computer in the section on “inventions” and “discoveries.” Some black websites like this one http://inventors.about.com/od/blackinventors/a/black_historyE.htmcredit Emeagwali with inventing the Hyberball Machine Networks (or the supercomputer). Both claims are demonstrably false. The connection Machine, which is capable of conducting simultaneous calculations using 65,000-processors, was conceived by Daniel Hills and built by Thinking Machine Corporation, which Mr. Hills, along with Sheryl Handler, founded in 1982. This information is widely available on the web. The so-called supercomputer is therefore clearly not the child of Mr. Emeagwali by even the most generous stretch of the imagination.Internet Pioneer?Mr. Emeagwali claims to have used the CM-2 Machine to carry out billions of calculations by connecting over 65,000 processors (computers) around the world. He claims that this was the rudimentary foundation of the Internet. It is on this ground that he has aggrandized to himself the title of “father of the internet.” But this is a barefaced lie at worst and an egregious exaggeration at best. And it is so absurd in its circular logic that it is hilarious. First, as stated earlier, Emeagwali did not invent the Connection Machine on which his “experiment” relied. Second, Emeagwali used more than 65,000 independent processors "around the world" (meaning on the Internet) to do his calculation. This means that the Internet already existed and that he RELIED ON it for his calculations. Unless the Internet he claims to have fathered is different from the Internet that already existed at the time of his experiment (and which we all know as the existing internet today), he COULD NOT have invented the Internet or fathered it. He could not have been using an internet that, by his claim, did not exist until he invented it. As this website WWW FAQs: Was Philip Emeagwali a "father of the Internet?" makes very clear, Emeagwali’s research did not contribute to or help invent any of the known components of what we now know as the internet:Philip Emeagwali did work in supercomputing in the [late] eighties……. But supercomputing and the Internet are very different areas. And Emeagwali did not contribute to even one of the hundreds of Internet standards, or RFCs (Requests For Comments), that were created in the early decades of the Internet—an open process that anyone could participate in. His supercomputing research was completely unrelated to the Internet.Emeagwali’s research was thus irrelevant to the evolution of the internet. Emeagwali did his supercomputing experiment in the late 1980s. By then, the “core standards” and protocols for information and data flow on the Internet already existed. And although, improvements have been made to the template since then, Emeagwali did not make any of those improvements and cannot therefore claim credit for them.Emeagwali's tenuous—and fraudulent—claim to internet fatherhood rests on his assertion that "the Supercomputer is the father of the Internet,” “because both are networks of computers working together.” This, experts agree, is not true, as supercomputing is just one component of the Internet and in fact RELIES ON the rudiments of what we know as the internet to work. So, if anything, the internet concept is the father of supercomputing, not vice versa. But even if we accept Emeagwali’s wrong logic, the fact that he did not invent or pioneer supercomputing means that even on this flawed premise and logic he cannot be considered a father of the internet.Authentic histories of the internet are accessible all over the web. One can be found here: Brief History of the Internet. Many people played leading roles in inventing, improving, and constituting the vast technologies, protocols, and ideas that gave birth to and perfected the Internet. It is interesting that none of them is nearly as vocal in claiming that he is a father of the internet as Mr. Emeagwali, who did not contribute to the invention of the internet in any shape or form and in fact relied on the already existing internet to conduct his research. One of the most significant contributors to and pioneers of the internet is Vinton Cerf, who is today a Vice President and Chief Internet Evangelist at Google Inc. Other important figures in the development of the Internet include JCR Licklider, Bob Taylor, Paul Baran, Donald Davies, and Lawrence Roberts. If anyone deserves the title of father of the Internet, it is these people. Yet, none of them craves or has appropriated the title. When interviewed about their contribution to the Internet, they often humbly outline their actual contribution, crediting others with other components and shunning the title or insinuation of having fathered the Internet.The only “history of the internet” source to even recognize Emeagwali as a legitimate computer scientist to be mentioned when chronicling the history of the internet is the book History of the Internet: A Chronology, 1843 to the Present by Christos J. P. Moschovitis, Hilary Poole, Tami Schuyler, Theresa M. Senft. The book was published in 2001. Although Mr. Emeagwali proudly displays the book’s reference to him on his website and claims that the “father of the internet” moniker (which has since been lazily picked up by several media platforms) originated in the book, there is absolutely no such reference in the book. The book’s reference to Emeagwali only states how Emeagwali’s research “effectively stimulate[d] petroleum reserves” by “harnessing the power of parallel computing.” And it is clear from a cursory analysis of the linguistic properties of this specific reference to Emeagwali that Emeagwali himself supplied the material and the claims articulated in it. It is also clear from the reference that it has nothing to do with the internet but is about improving the modeling of oilfields or oil reservoirs. The content and prose are eerily identical to the autobiographical write-ups and claims on Philip Emeagwali - A Father of the Internet - Biography Supercomputer Computer and on black websites that simply lift and republish Emeagwali’s claims and self-written biography.The Nobel Prize Of Computing?Emeagwali’s other claim is that of winning the “Nobel Prize of Computing.” He is, of course, referring to the Gordon Bell Prize, which he won in 1989. Many uninformed observers have since picked up this fraudulent reference, which emanated from Philip Emeagwali - A Father of the Internet - Biography Supercomputer Computer, and given it wings. The truth is that the Gordon Bell Prize does not come close to the Nobel in status, recognition or prize money and to compare the two prizes is to insult the prestige of the Nobel and grossly exaggerate the Gordon Bell’s importance. The Gordon Bell Prize is, properly speaking, an annual competition that young, driven, engineering upstarts — mostly graduate students — enter. Winners are usually those whose research are innovative and on the cutting edge of new processes in the field. So, on that score, winning the Gordon Bell Prize is a reward for doing research work that is important and solves an application problem at the time that the award is given. But let us put the award in perspective and recognize that it is actually a very minor award in the narrow field of supercomputing and in the larger computing and scientific community. Here is why the Gordon Bell Prize, Emeagwali’s only legitimate achievement, is much less than what he has portrayed it as:• The cash award for the prize is a mere $1000. Often, the amount of an award is a good guide to its prestige and significance in the field.• Consider the fact that the most prestigious prize in the field of computing (and yet it cannot even be called the Nobel of Computing without insulting the real Nobel) is the Turing Prize, which carries a cash prize of $100,000.• The Gordon Bell is awarded in the narrow subfield of supercomputing, thereby further thinning the applicant pool and reducing the intensity of the competition.• The prize is further subdivided into several categories. Emeagwali won in one of those categories, the price/performance category. The more prestigious overall Peak Performance category was won by the entry submitted by a team from Mobil and TMC.• It is interesting that apart from Emeagwali no other winner(s) of the Gordon Bell annual prize makes noise about winning it or claims to have won “the Nobel Prize of Computing.” They usually go on to do bigger and better research in the field, the Gordon Bell being just a launch pad for future significant work. The public does not even know the other winners because it is a minor prize even in the field of computing.• Finally, and most importantly, Philip Emeagwali only won the prize in the price/performance category by default. His calculation of 3.1 Gflops was the second fastest speed. The fastest speed belonged to the Mobil/TMC team’s entry, whose calculation, according to the official record of the IEEE, which administers the prize (IEEE Software, May 1990, p. 101), bested Emeagwali’s speed. The speed of the Mobil/TMC Team’s solution to the seismic data processing problem was almost twice that of Emeagwali’s at almost 6Gflops. Similarly, and of more relevance for our purpose here, the Mobil/TMC team’s entry achieved the best speed/cost ratio (price-performance) at 500 Mflops per $1 Million, beating out Emeagwali’s entry, whose speed/cost ration was less than 400 Mflops per $1 Million. In fact the prize in the price/performance category was actually awarded to the Mobil/TMC initially. However, because the Mobil TMC team won also won in the overall Peak Performance category and the IEEE’s prize rule does not allow more than one prize per entry, the Mobil/TMC team forfeited their prize in the price/performance category, sticking with the prize for overall Peak Performance, a more significant category. As a result, Emeagwali’s entry, the second placed entry with the second highest speed/cost ratio, was automatically bumped to first place.For all these reasons, it is the height of self-promotion and delusional exaggeration for Mr. Emeagwali to claim that he won the Nobel Prize of Computing or that the Gordon Bell is regarded as the Nobel of Computing. Nobody except Mr. Emeagwali regards the prize as such.It is noteworthy that both Emeagwali and the Mobile/TMC Team relied on the CM-2 Machine (the Connection Machine) for their calculations, the same machine that Emeagwali falsely claims to have invented!A final point to note here is that the research for which he won the Gordon Bell Prize (by default) has application and relevance only in the narrow area of oil flow reservoir modeling and oil prospecting. His entry for the competition utilized and optimized the capacity of parallel computing, that is, relied on an already existing Internet. Emeagwali’s own website states that he “accessed the supercomputers over the Internet from local workstations.” Neither the research nor the prize had anything to do with the Internet. The Internet was already invented and fairly perfected by then; otherwise he would not be, in his own words, “accessing the supercomputers over the Internet.” This clarification is necessary and important because some of Emeagwali’s supporters and victims tend to assume wrongly that his purported fatherhood of the internet derives from the research for which he won the Gordon Bell Prize. All these facts can be easily accessed here: http://www33.brinkster.com/iiiii/inventions/emeag.html“Dr.” Emeagwali Or Doctored Emeagwali?Emeagwali’s final fraudulent claim is that of being a “doctor” and “professor.” Several years ago, before eagle-eyed Nigerians and Africans decided to scrutinize his eye-popping claims, his website audaciously referred to him as “doctor” and “Professor.” Because of recent exposures of his scam, he no longer refers to himself on his website as “Dr. Emeagwali” or “Professor Emeagwali.” However, in what is typical of the Emeagwali scam, his website is still littered with many media references to “Dr Emeagwali” and “Professor Emeagwali.” These stealthily promoted references then get picked up by unsuspecting black media people who are eager to promote black achievement and excellence. Sometimes, he approaches black websites and organizations, asking them to link to or publish his false claims. In the course of the discussion on the USAfricadialogue forum, Ms. Funmi Okelola , the owner and webmaster of http://cafeafricana.com, revealed that Mr. Emeagwali approached her a few years ago, asking her to help propagate the lie that he is “a father of the internet.” Ms. Okelola, herself an Adjunct Professor of IT, flatly turned down his request, refusing to participate vicariously in his fraud. For good measure, she advised him to seek help for his delusions of grandeur.But many proprietors of black websites and publications have not been as alert to Emeagwali’s antics as Ms. Okelola and have been falling for his scam. In their eagerness to embrace what they believe to be the proud achievements of a “brother,” they have inadvertently donated space and platform to Emeagwali to consolidate and spread his false claims. Because of the virility of the internet, even some non-black websites have picked up these ubiquitous references that are patently false. Here, on this website Answers - The Most Trusted Place for Answering Life's Questions for instance you will find a clear reference not only to “Dr Emeagwali” but also the following reference in their documentation of his education: “Ph.D., Scientific Computing, University of Michigan, 1993.”He will not correct what is clearly a false reference, preferring to take cover in the deniability of being able to say that it is others, not him, who use these false, unearned titles to refer to him. The reason he will not correct this falsehood is that it emanated from him in the first place; most of the references were picked up from his website in the days before scrutiny spooked him into avoiding such direct self-referencing. The clearest evidence yet of his complicity and culpability in this misrepresentation is that he sits through interviews where the clueless, awed interviewers refer to him as “Doctor Emeagwali” and “Professor Emeagwali” and he does not correct them. There is a particularly revolting video on youtube <Conversations with Emeagwali>(http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=8244498418903739405#) in which the female interview repeatedly calls him Dr. Emeagwali, obviously assuming and/or reading from her script that he has a PhD. He sits there and nods and smiles through those references without correcting her. Having planted the false biographical information about himself in the first instance, he understandably makes no effort to discourage people from using it or to correct them.The false references to him as “doctor” and “professor” are not the only falsehoods that Emeagwali coyly and deftly promotes; he routinely lets interlocutors repeat the many false claims that are based on his own prolific misrepresentations. On this websitehttp://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa111097a.htm, for instance, the misinformed interviewer, a black woman who is proudly interviewing “a black inventor” for a book she was writing on black inventors, asks him the following question: “You have submitted 41 inventions to the U.S Patent and Trademark Office concerning seven technologies. Can you give us expanded details?” Clearly, the interviewer was repeatedly the false claim on Emeagwali’s website and in his self-written biographical profiles, without realizing that, as we showed at the beginning of this essay, he has no patent for any technology or invention.Here is Mr. Emeagwali’s response to her question: “Inventors are reluctant to provide expanded details of their inventions until they receive full patent protection. The reason is that the Patent and Trademark Office can deny patents to inventors that publicly provide details of their invention.” But the truth is that he has neither registered patents for his non-existent inventions nor a patent-pending status. He has no inventions or technologies to patent! The response itself contains a lie. Contrary to Emeagwali’s insinuation that inventors cannot publicly discuss their work until they are patented or that doing so would jeopardize their patent application with the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), inventions and products with “Patent Pending” status are routinely discussed, advertized, and marketed on American television. In fact these public discussions of unpatented inventions always carry the disclaimer that patents are pending, meaning that applications have been made. If public discussion of inventions and technologies were detrimental to patent applications, none of these unpatented and “patent pending” technologies and inventions would be on the American market or be advertized on television. This was Emeagwali seeking to perpetuate the myth that he has several technological inventions that are patented or awaiting patents but avoiding having to mention or discussion the specific fictitious inventions for which he claims to have patents in order to have deniability when checks are made at the USPTO and he is confronted with the truth of his falsehood.Racism Or Laziness?The case of Philip Emeagwali is a cautionary tale on the pitfalls of self-delusion, laziness, and a sense of entitlement. Mr. Emeagwali enrolled in a doctoral program in Civil Engineering at the University of Michigan in 1987. His coursework over, he took the comprehensive examination that qualifies one for candidacy. He failed the exam twice and did not take it a third time. In the meantime, he conducted the research that would later win him the Gordon Bell Prize, a research he began as a class project for one of his graduate courses. In 1991, two years after winning the Gordon Bell by default, he petitioned the Dean of the School of Engineering to be allowed to submit a dissertation (despite not having passed his candidacy exam and therefore not being a doctoral candidate) in a different department — the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. His request was curiously granted in what was clearly a sidestepping of standard procedure. Emeagwali submitted the dissertation, basically a rework of his entry for the Gordon Bell competition, on July 24, 1992. A team of internal and external evaluators examined it and found it unworthy of a doctorate and turned it down.Emeagwali then sued the University of Michigan for racial discrimination. The lawsuit was dismissed for lacking merit and also failed on appeal in 1999. The details of Emeagwali’s graduate school records and of the dueling contentions in the lawsuit are all documented herehttp://www.michbar.org/opinions/appeals/1999/102999/5473.htmlin the court record of the Michigan Court of Appeals.A dispassionate analysis of the details, affidavits, and arguments submitted in the lawsuit and in the appeals process reveals the following:• Emeagwali was a fairly brilliant student but he was lazy and would not put in the work necessary to earn his degree.• He had a sense of entitlement, feeling that since he was black and had made it into the University of Michigan, he was entitled to a special treatment and academic favors.• This sense of entitlement escalated after he won the Gordon Bell Prize. He thought that he was entitled to a PhD on the strength of the Gordon Bell competition entry when in fact he was not even a doctoral candidate, having failed his comprehensive examination twice.• Emeagwali was more concerned with parlaying his newfound default Gordon Bell fame into profitable self-promotion than with the serious academic effort required to complete the PhD.• He petitioned to be allowed to submit a dissertation only after he realized that he would not be taken seriously as a researcher and may not be able to find a secure job in research or teaching if he did not possess a PhD.This is a story of how a promising, modestly brilliant graduate student was destroyed by his own hubris, entitlement mentality, and laziness. What Emeagwali failed to earn through hard work and diligence, he has since appropriated to himself by calling himself and getting others to call him “doctor” and “professor.”Emeagwali is not a doctor of whatever kind. He is not a professor. He has not held any research or teaching job in any educational or research institution since he failed to get a doctorate degree at Michigan. He has also not done any new research. Emeagwali has no single publication in any scientific journal. A search of the most comprehensive scientific publication database (which can be done online) yields only a reference to his Masters Degree dissertation.Here we have a man who is unemployed, has no serious standing in the scientific, engineering, or computing communities. Yet he is widely referred to as “a father of the internet,” “an internet pioneer,” “the greatest black scientist that ever lived,” “Bill Gates of Africa,” among other over-the-top and unearned titles. The question to pose is: how did the world get so deceived and why did many reputable people and organizations buy into Emeagwali’s con job? Emeagwali is a very industrious, persistent, and successful scam artist; you have to give him that. Very few intellectual frauds have successfully mainstreamed their false claims as Emeagwali has done.Intellectual Fraud And Its Unwitting ValidatorsEven former president Bill Clinton was suckered by the fraud, famously referring to Emeagwali as “one of the great minds of the information age” in his speech to the Nigerian National Assembly in 2000. The Clinton reference has provided cover and alibi for Emeagwali to perfect and spread his false claims. Predictably, Emeagwali’s defenders point to the Clinton reference and to CNN’s and TIME Magazine’s references to him as “a father of the internet” and “the unsung hero” of the internet age respectively. These references are boldly displayed on http://Emeagali.com for the obvious purpose of convincing the uninformed that his claims have been vetted and endorsed by these entities. The problem is that these media organizations sadly endorsed the claims without vetting them. Part of it is sloppiness, but much of it is the result of what black intellectuals who live in the West understand and experience as white liberal pandering, which is itself borne out of white liberal guilt and the fear of the “r” word (racism).Obviously Clinton was pandering to his Nigerian hosts who believed Emeagwali to be a scientific genius and national hero. Clinton, the savvy politician that he is, and a man who perfected white liberal outreach and pandering to black/African peoples, was relying on the image and descriptions of Emeagwali that was already in the black and mainstream press —descriptions that are traceable to Emeagwali's own misrepresentations on his websites. What Emeagwali does is so clever as to ensnare even a skeptical and vigilant observer, especially one that is already inclined to believe or seek out claims of black scientific achievement for whatever reason. As indicated earlier, Emeagwali plants these autobiographical write-ups that are ridden with falsehoods and misrepresentations in unsuspecting black publications. He does this by aggressively pitching these claims to their editors as he tried to do unsuccessfully with Ms. Okelola. Then, fired by liberal guilt and a desire to seem welcoming to black achievement and excellence, the mainstream media like TIME and CNN, lazily pick up these references and descriptions. Emeagwali then links to, disseminates, and publicizes these mainstream press references and descriptions (which are actually based on his own descriptions of himself and his "achievements”), thus perfecting and furthering the fraud. This way, he creates deniability for himself. The deception comes full circle but the cycle continues to repeat itself, populating and repopulating the Internet with Emeagwali’s falsehoods.The sophistication and complexity of the fraud notwithstanding, there is no excuse for reputable organizations like CNN and TIME not to have done a simple due diligence on the false claims of Emeagwali. It is true that at the time that TIME and CNN made the glowing references to Emeagwali, the now widely available refutations of his claims were probably not yet available on the internet. Even so, a basic inquiry from the appropriate quarters would have revealed the truth about the claims on which the references to Emeagwali were based. The two reputable organizations failed to carry out this basic fact checking, an elemental reportorial and investigative duty of journalists. Instead, they relied on Emeagwali’s widely disseminated falsehoods for their stories. The case of TIME is particularly scandalous. The story in which it extols Emeagwali is clearly directly based on Emeagwali’s own autobiographical claims on Philip Emeagwali - A Father of the Internet - Biography Supercomputer Computer. In fact it is a faithful, almost verbatim reproduction of Emeagwali’s self-written profile. It is lazy, sloppy journalism at its worst.There is similarly no excuse for President Clinton’s speech writers not to have done basic checks or asked some of the president’s own appointees and advisers who are engineers and scientists about the true value of Emeagwali’s work. Had they done this relatively simply investigation, they would have realized that being a default winner in one category of a minor supercomputing competition for work that has a specific, limited application in the narrow field of oil reservoir modeling does not qualify one to be called “one of the greatest minds of the information age.”A Self-Replicating FraudWhen challenged, Emeagwali and his supporters can say he is merely repeating and linking to what others call him and say about him and that he does not call himself a father of the internet or a doctor or a professor. But the fraud is a self-replicating one, perpetuating and proliferating itself across both the print and virtual media worlds. Other publications that are searching for black scientific achievers do an internet search and then rely on the previous press descriptions of Emeagwali, which ultimately lead back to the man’s fraudulent biographical claims on his own website. The lazy journalists and Pan-African activists lift these published claims and references (which emanated from the man himself), concluding that they must be established facts if other media outlets had already published them. And on and on it goes. It is a very sophisticated fraud that is aided by the virility of the Internet. This is precisely how even the prestigious Law School Admission Test (LSAT) ended up including a passage about Emeagwali in their test, a passage that is exactly the same as what Emeagwali published on Philip Emeagwali - A Father of the Internet - Biography Supercomputer Computer about himself!! The examiners at the LSAT did not even bother to rewrite the passage. Nor did they bother to check the veracity of the claims therein. It is clear that they were simply interested including a passage about a "black achiever" to fulfill the need for diversity of content and to deflect or avoid accusations from black test takers and other minority groups that the test does not represent or reflect the experiences of black people and is thus biased against them.White liberal patronage of black people can be that shallow and sloppy — and insulting to the very people it purports to promote. It is political correctness and pandering marinated in a political agenda--that of ingratiating white liberal politicians and figures to blacks for political support and multicultural validation. The peak of this phenomenon is Black History Month in February when white liberal organizations and black institutions alike pull out all the stops to have self-promoting “black achievers” like Emeagwali speak to them. That's when they get invited by white liberal and African American organizations to showcase black achievement and innovation! White liberal patronage is a big industry in America. It takes many forms; one of them is what Pius Adesanmi calls the Mercy Industrial Complex (MIC). But the MIC is not as offensive as the false flattery and the silly excuses and defenses that white liberals advance for cuddling black failures and frauds. Hero-seeking black organizations have not helped matters with their patronage of people like Emeagwali. Emeagwali’s deception succeeds so well because of a multiracial coalition of consumers and enablers.Emeagwali is a very clever, self-conscious scam artist. That is however no excuse for the black community to allow itself to be used to actively promote a fraud.Footnotes[1] How Philip Emeagwali Lied His Way To Fame

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