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Why doesn't Australia use nuclear energy?

Due to these reasons:1969 Jervis Bay Plant proposalIn 1969, a 500 MW nuclear power plant was proposed for the Jervis Bay Territory, 200 km south of Sydney.A local opposition campaign began, and the South Coast Trades and Labour Council (covering workers in the region) announced that it would refuse to build the reactor. Some environmental studies and site works were completed, and two rounds of tenders were called and evaluated, but in 1971 the Australian government decided not to proceed with the project, citing economic reasons.1979 Perth proposalNuclear powerAs uranium prices began rising from about 2003, proponents of nuclear power advocated it as a solution to global warming and the Australian government began taking an interest. In late 2006 and early 2007, then Prime Minister John Howard made widely reported statements in favour of nuclear power, on environmental grounds. Faced with these proposals to examine nuclear power as a possible response to climate change, anti-nuclear campaigners and scientists in Australia emphasised claims that nuclear power could not significantly substitute for other power sources, and that uranium mining itself could become a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions.In 2006, the Howard Government commissioned the Switkowski report, an investigation into the merits of Nuclear power in Australia. The report concluded that nuclear power would be competitive with coal power plants if Carbon credit sanctions were implemented upon Australia. The Industry would have been able to produce its first plant in 10 years and could have delivered 25 plants by 2050 supplying Australia with a third of its base load power.Queensland introduced legislation to ban nuclear power development on 20 February 2007.Tasmania attempted a ban on nuclear power facilities but later did not pass the bill.Both bills were formulated in response to the pro-nuclear position of John Howard,and the release of the Switkowski report.Anti-nuclear campaigns were given added impetus by public concern about the sites for possible reactors: fears exploited by anti-nuclear power political parties in the lead-up to a national election in 2007.The Rudd Labor government was elected in November 2007 and was opposed to nuclear power for Australia.The anti-nuclear movement continues to be active in Australia, opposing expansion of existing uranium mines, lobbying against the development of nuclear power in Australia, and criticising proposals for nuclear waste disposal sites.At the same time, a number of Australian politicians feel that the development of nuclear power is in the country's best interests. Notably, on 13 June 2008, the annual New South Wales state conference of the National Party passed the resolution, proposed by the delegates from Dubbo, supporting research into the development of a nuclear power industry and the establishment of an international nuclear waste storage facility in Australia. The resolution was opposed by the delegates from NSW's north coast and by the party's state leader, Andrew Stoner.In 2005, the Australian government threatened to use its constitutional powers to take control of the approval process for new uranium mines from the anti-nuclear Northern Territory government. Also, the government is negotiating with China to weaken safeguard terms to allow uranium exports there.[citation needed] States controlled by the Australian Labor Party are blocking the development of new mines in their jurisdictions under the ALP's "No New Mines policy."The John Howard-led Coalition government went to the November 2007 federal election with a pro-nuclear power platform. This government was defeated by the Labor Party, however, which opposes nuclear power for Australia.source:internet...

Why don't we use renewable energy if it's more efficient?

COST. Wind and solar are intermittent and without battery storage (ineffecitve today) they are dependent on fossil fuels for back up when the wind does not blow and the sun does not shine. This plus direct subsidies double the costs.Only subsidies, not market forces keep these renewables alive today.US Still Subsidizing Renewable Energy to the Tune of Nearly $7 BillionHere is an example in England where the subsidy generates greater cash value than the solar energy produced.The burden of overpriced consumer electricity hits seniors hard forcing a choice between eat or heat?Shivering from inadequate heating research shows more seniors die from heat poverty than road accidents.The sacrifice of the poor to keep renewables alive is not worth the costly pain as the share of wind and solar is too small to matter to the climate or anything else.**Chart 6. World primary energy supply by share in 2017 **(the share of marine energy is too small to show). Data: Calculated using IEA(2019) online free version. This dataset is the only available that shows all energy sources.The World Energy System (The World Energy System)Countries around the world are seeking to reduce expensive subsidies because the harm to consumers forcing poor people among to choose whether to eat or heat. The science debunking any realistic impact of wind and solar on the climate is growing stronger each year. CO2 is first and foremost a vital plant food essential for all life and without any measurable climate effect.Green Madness: The Lights Are Going Out In New York CityDate: 22/07/19Robert Bryce, Crain's New York BusinessGov Andrew Cuomo’s green obsession is making the Russian roulette blackout game ever more dangerous.Since the five-hour blackout that hit Manhattan on Saturday night, Gov. Andrew Cuomo has repeatedly attacked Con Ed, the utility that provides electricity and gas to customers in the New York area. He has threatened to strip the utility of its operating license and said the city was playing “Russian roulette” with electricity reliability.That’s pretty rich. Over the past few years, Cuomo has repeatedly made political decisions that have reduced the reliability of New York’s energy infrastructure. Cuomo telling Con Ed that it needs to improve its reliability is like an arsonist telling the fire department to buy more pumper trucks.The most obvious example of the reliability risks facing New York City is the looming closure of the Indian Point nuclear plant, a move that Cuomo began pushing for back in 2011.Next April, one of the two operating reactors at the facility will be shuttered. The other reactor is slated for shutdown in 2021. While the premature closure of the 2,069-megawatt facility may please Cuomo’s friends at Riverkeeper and the Natural Resources Defense Council, the New York Independent System Operator, the agency that manages the state’s electric grid, has repeatedly warned about the threat to reliability.Indian Point provides about a quarter of the electricity consumed in the city. Further, it helps assure the stability of the grid. The electric grid runs on narrow tolerances of voltage, which is akin to water pressure in a pipeline. The grid must be continually tuned so that electricity production and electricity usage match and voltage on the grid stays at near-constant levels. If voltage fluctuates too much, blackouts can occur.In 2011, NYISO said that “under stress conditions, the voltage performance on the system without the Indian Point plant would be degraded.”In 2016, the agency reiterated its concerns, saying, “Retaining all existing nuclear generators is critical to the state’s carbon emission reduction requirements as well as maintaining electric system reliability.” That same year, two analysts—one from General Electric and another from consulting firm ICF—provided a presentation to the system operator that discussed a reliability standard known as “loss of load expectation,” or LOLE, an event in which electricity demand exceeds available generation.The reliability standard for grid operators in the U.S. allows for a LOLE of one day every 10 years, or 0.1 days per year. By 2030, the GE-ICF presentation estimated that closing Indian Point will result in the doubling of LOLE in the New York City area to 0.2 days per year.In addition to the premature closure of Indian Point, New York has been blocking new natural-gas pipelines that would help provide cleaner and cheaper energy supplies into the state and into New England. As I show in a recent report for Manhattan Institute, the governor’s appointees at the Department of Environmental Conservation have repeatedly refused to grant permits for new pipelines at the same time the grid has become more reliant on gas-fired generators.Since 2004 gas-fired electricity production in the state has nearly doubled and it will jump again after the closure of Indian Point. In response to Cuomo’s pipeline blockade, the region’s biggest utilities, Con Ed and National Grid, have said they will quit providing new gas connections in their service areas in and around New York City. That, in turn, forces some consumers to continue relying on heating oil, which is more expensive and more polluting.Finally, Cuomo has agreed to implement the Climate and Community Protection Act, which mandates that 70% of electricity consumed in the state come from renewables by 2030 and 100% from carbon-free sources by 2040. Forcing the electric grid to rely more heavily on intermittent sources such as solar and wind will put yet more stress on the grid, particularly during extreme weather.In short, Cuomo is pushing for the biggest changes in New York’s electric grid since Thomas Edison launched the Electric Age on Pearl Street in 1882, and he’s doing so without any understanding of how those changes may affect reliability.Green Madness: The Lights Are Going Out In New York City - The Global Warming Policy Forum (GWPF)Deutschland’s Delusion: Renewable Energy ‘Transition’ in Tatters – CO2 Targets Missed as Power Prices Spiral Out of ControlOctober 12, 2018 by stopthesethings 5 CommentsDestroyer of worlds: wrecking villages and an entire economy.Germany has a history of clinging to lost causes: its ‘inevitable’ transition to wind and solar is just the latest example. As Berlin was overrun by the Red Army in April 1945, Hitler and his loyal aides and commanders kidded themselves that the Reich might soon ride again.The Fuhrer and his newly wedded wife, Eva literally went out in a blaze of glory, rather than face capture and humiliation of the kind dished out to his Italian mate Mussolini. (There’s always something a little poetic about captains going down with sinking ships, even if the captain in question was a deranged monster, responsible for destroying Europe and tens of millions of innocent lives.)A few generations on, Germans are watching history repeat.This time it’s their position as Europe’s industrial and manufacturing superpower that’s facing, deliberate and self-inflicted annihilation. Germany’s economic prosperity is threatened by rocketing power prices and the unreliable supply of electricity. However, you wouldn’t know it from the manner in which those responsible for the disaster are reacting to it.In the chaos that overtook Hitler’s Berlin bunker as the Soviets closed in, the rational and levelheaded, who understood all too well that the game was over and all was lost, were berated by their increasingly delusional boss for so much as mentioning reality. So it is, with the implosion of Germany’s Energiewende. Germany’s Federal Audit Office has delivered a report which deems the ‘transition’ to wind and solar an unmitigated disaster. However, the government has responded by bunkering down and, yet again, clinging to another lost cause.Germany’s Energiewende program exposed as a catastrophic failureWatts Up with That?Larrie Hamlin30 September 2018An audit of the EU’s leading climate alarmism energy policy program concludes that Germany’s Energiewende is a colossal and hugely expensive debacle.“Germany’s Federal Audit Office has accused the federal government of having largely failed to manage the transformation of Germany’s energy systems.”“A little more than a year before Germany’s climate-policy “milestone 2020”, the auditing body has concluded a catastrophic assessment of the government’s energy policy. Germany would miss its targets for both reducing greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy consumption as well as for increasing energy productivity and the share of renewable energy in transport. At the same time, policy makers had burdened the nation with enormous costs.”The audit further concluded that the program is a monumental bureaucratic nightmare where “The Federal Government, incidentally, does not have an overall grasp of the costs or any transparency in this respect.”“The scope of the legislation is also striking,” Scheller stated: “At national level alone, 26 laws and 33 regulations regulate the generation, storage, transmission, distribution and consumption of energy. There is, however, “no place where everything comes together, no place that assumes overall responsibility”, Scheller criticized.“For example, there are “no quantified targets, no measurable indicators” for the energy policy goals of affordability and security of supply, Scheller criticised: “Here we are poking around in the dark.” For five years now, the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology has been responsible for the green energy transition, but the ministry is “in no position to determine what it must do to ensure that the goals of the Energiewende are demonstrably and economically achieved”.“Overall, the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology is trying “to give the impression that the current coordination and control of the energy transition is essentially designed at optimal level,” the auditors conclude. “Failing that, the German and international public could get the impression that Germany is simply incapable of successfully shaping and implementing the Energiewende that is planned society-wide and for the long term.”Germany’s electricity rate have skyrocketed to the highest levels in the EU largely driven by the Energiewende debacle.As is always the case the climate alarmist renewable energy advocacy main stream media in both the U.S. and Europe will do everything possible to conceal this disastrous policy debacle from public view.Watts Up with That?Germany Risks Permanent Loss of Control of Energiewende, Federal, Federal Audit Office WarnsThe Global Warming Policy ForumDaniel Wetzel and Die Welt29 September 2018Germany’s Federal Audit Office has accused the federal government of having largely failed to manage the transformation of Germany’s energy systems.The expenditure for the ecological restructuring of the energy supply is in a “blatant disproportion to the hitherto poor yield”, said President of the Court of Audit Kay Scheller in Berlin: “The Federal Government is at risk to fail with its once in a generation project of the Energiewende”.A little more than a year before Germany’s climate-policy “milestone 2020”, the auditing body has concluded a catastrophic assessment of the government’s energy policy. Germany would miss its targets for both reducing greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy consumption as well as for increasing energy productivity and the share of renewable energy in transport. At the same time, policy makers had burdened the nation with enormous costs.“Over the past five years alone, at least 160 billion euros have been spent on the transformation of the energy system,” the report states: “If the costs of energy system transformation continue to rise and its targets continue to be missed, there is a risk of a loss of confidence in the ability of government action.”As early as 2016, the Federal Audit Office had certified that the federal government had no overview of the costs of the energy system transformation. In the current report, the criticism is even harder because it suggests a general loss of control.“Unprecedented” wastage of resourcesAccording to Federal Audit Office data, the Energiewende has cost around 34 billion euros in 2017 alone. In addition to the federal government’s expenditure of almost 8 billion euros, this also includes the burdens on end consumers, in particular due to the renewable energy levy (EEG). “The Federal Government, incidentally, does not have an overall grasp of the costs or any transparency in this respect.”The wastage of resources to implement the Energiewende was “unprecedented”. Last year, the federal ministries and subordinate authorities employed around 675 full-time staff, 300 of them in the Federal Ministry of Economics alone, divided into 34 departments and four divisions. In addition, there are at least 45 committees at federal-state level dealing with the green energy transition. The effort being expended here is in itself almost contradictory to one of the main objectives of the energy system transformation: the economical and efficient use of scarce resources.“The scope of the legislation is also striking,” Scheller stated: “At national level alone, 26 laws and 33 regulations regulate the generation, storage, transmission, distribution and consumption of energy. There is, however, “no place where everything comes together, no place that assumes overall responsibility”, Scheller criticised.In short: “A lot of effort does not necessarily mean a lot”. For despite a great frenzy of data collection there is no overall view. “The Federal Ministry of Economics uses 48 different data sources to check the status of the Energiewende on the basis of 72 indicators, and yet “there is a lack of meaningful data that could be relevant for assessment and control”. Many data would have little control value or would be available too late, but often they would “simply draw the wrong conclusions”.Funding mechanisms “hardly transparent” anymoreFor example, there are “no quantified targets, no measurable indicators” for the energy policy goals of affordability and security of supply, Scheller criticised: “Here we are poking around in the dark.” For five years now, the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology has been responsible for the green energy transition, but the ministry is “in no position to determine what it must do to ensure that the goals of the Energiewende are demonstrably and economically achieved”.The undergrowth of unnecessary and complicated support mechanisms is “hardly transparent any more”, Scheller criticised. For example, the German government had set itself the goal of approving 1000 applications per year under the “StepUp! programme” to improve the electricity efficiency of companies. Exactly ten applications were actually approved in the end. Thus only 1.2 percent of the available funds flowed out in 2017,” Scheller noted. “The BMWi is continuing the programme.”The same applies to the promotion of electric mobility, which the public hardly accepts. “600 million euros have been largely misdirected,” the Court of Auditors states. There are many examples where “applications are waiting forever or the funds are not being used up: With eight out of 16 funding programmes, the outflow of funds in 2017 was less than 50 percent.”Instead of the impenetrable jungle of subsidies and rampant laws, CO2 pricing would be a simple and transparent alternative that has long been demanded by expert commissions of the Federal Government. For better coordination of the Energiewende, a staff unit at the level of state secretary, an interministerial committee and a federal-state committee would be conceivable.Government sees “no need for action”The federal government rejected the assessment. The Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy, headed by Peter Altmaier (CDU), responded in a rather surprising way: “The government considers the Energiewende to be “effectively and efficiently coordinated” and sees “no need for action”. However, the ministry did not address the fact that the Energiewende has largely missed its targets.Astonishingly, the Federal Ministry of Economics also stated that the multi-billion levy under the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) should not be counted as a costs of the green energy transition. Until now the EEG levy for subsidising renewable energy was always considered as the actual pillar of the Energiewende. According to the government, even the billions of euros in relief payments for the German industry to compensate for higher energy costs are “measures of industrial policy and not Energiewende measures, which thus cannot be attributed to the Energiewende”.The Federal Government explained its refusal to conduct a transparent cost-benefit analysis of the Energiewende by saying that these costs could only be compared with a “counterfactual scenario”. Because electricity grids and power plants would have had to be renewed even without the Energiewende, only a comparison of a world with and a world without the Energiewende would be meaningful. However, such a comparison could not be made because of the large number of uncertain basic assumptions.The Federal Audit Office, however, does not consider these replies to be tenable. “It is conspicuous that the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology has not commented on the missed targets some of which are quite considerable,” the Federal Audit Office states.International pioneering role lostIt is also “incomprehensible that the ministry does not include the renewable energy levy (EEG) among the costs of the Energiewende”. A “counterfactual scenario” is also unnecessary in order to evaluate the overall costs. After all, it is “not important what expenses and costs would hypothetically have arisen even without a green energy transition in order to offset these against the actual costs incurred”, the Audit Office says: “The possibility of ‘renouncing the Energiewende’ associated with a counterfactual scenario no longer exists in reality”.Scheller said it was “regrettable” that Germany had lost its self-propagated international pioneering role: “Germany had made a strong start and is now doing comparatively poorly internationally.” The President of the Court of Audit referred to the ranking of the World Economic Forum: According to the ranking, Germany is no longer represented on the list of the ten most successful energy transition countries in Europe. Internationally, Germany occupies only the 16th place.Overall, the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology is trying “to give the impression that the current coordination and control of the energy transition is essentially designed at optimal level,” the auditors conclude. “Failing that, the German and international public could get the impression that Germany is simply incapable of successfully shaping and implementing the Energiewende that is planned society-wide and for the long term.”Global Warming Policy ForumDeutschland’s Delusion: Renewable Energy ‘Transition’ in Tatters – CO2 Targets Missed as Power Prices Spiral Out of ControlFirst Clean Coal-Fired Power Plant in Middle East Goes into OperationUpdated: 2020-05-26The No.1 generator unit of the Hassyan 4×600MW clean coal-fired power plant in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE), started work on May 18, with all devices operating stably and with high quality.A major engineering project of the Belt and Road Initiative, the plant is the first clean coal-fired power plant in the Middle East.The project is the world's first of its kind to use a dual-fuel generator to supply power at full load, and the first Chinese enterprise-invested, built and operated power project under the framework of the initiative, which is a significant achievement.It is also a milestone in China's overseas power projects.Harbin Electric Corporation (HE) is responsible for the generator unit construction. It kept pushing forward the project amid the COVID-19 pandemic while taking effective measures to prevent and control the pandemic.Construction site of the Hassyan coal-fired power plant project [Photo/]Bilateral cooperation between the UAE and China has increased in recent years and has borne substantial fruits.China is building a new coal power plant in Dubai because it is cheap, efficient and clean and the Paris targets are just suggestions not binding on China.Dubai has also set the lofty goal of having the world's lowest carbon footprint in the world by 2050 - something that would be impacted by burning coal.Read more at:In Dubai, oil-rich UAE sees a new wonder: A coal power plantIn Dubai, oil-rich UAE sees a new wonder: A coal power plantDubai, oil-rich UAE sees a new wonder: A coal power plantLast Updated: Oct 22, 2020, 11:59 AM ISTRead more at:In Dubai, oil-rich UAE sees a new wonder: A coal power plant

What more changes will the Modi government bring to the country, if BJP wins the upcoming Lok Sabha elections?

In December of 2018, Modi govt's policy think tank - Niti Ayog has prepared strategy of Modi govt for next 5 years which is called Strategy for New [email protected] to this, if Modi wins again following could be his plans for the term 2019 to 2024 :Economy PolicySteadily accelerate GDP growth rate to achieve a target of 8%.Raise investment rates to 36% of GDP.Increase tax-GDP ratio to 22% of GDP.Work with states to improve ease of business and rationalize land & labour regulations.Employment & Labour ReformsFully codify central labour laws; Enhance Female Labour Force Participation to 30%.Enhance skills & significantly increase number of apprenticeships.Improve data collection on employment.Ease industrial relations to encourage formalization.Technology & InnovationAchieve a position among top 50 countries in Global Innovation Index.Establish an empowered body to holistically steer the management of science.Take steps for enhancing technology commercialization by public funded institutions.Create a non-lapsable "District Innovation Fund”.IndustryDouble the current growth rate of the manufacturing sector.Develop self-sufficient clusters of manufacturing competence, with plug & play parks for MSMEs.Launch a major initiative to push industry to adopt Industry 4.0.Introduce a “single window” in states providing a single point of contact between investor & government.Doubling Farmers IncomeModernize technology, increase productivity & agro-processing; diversify cropsIncrease area under drip irrigation, adoption of hybrid seeds.Reorient ATMA to include bottom-up planning for developing Strategic Research Extension Plans.Encourage diversification to High Value Crops.Promote policies that enable farmers to capture a higher share of value additionAbolish APMC; Adopt Model APLM Act, Model Contract Farming Act & Model Land Leasing Act.Formulate a coherent & stable agricultural export policy. Eliminate ban on agro-exports.Focus on precision agriculture; raise research spending.Create modern rural infrastructure & an integrated value chain systemAccord infrastructure status for agriculture value chains.Link production to processing, set up village-level procurement centres.Develop export-oriented clusters.Financial InclusionEnsure universal access to bank accounts, insurance & pensionIntegrate an Arthik Shiksha Abhiyan in the regular school curriculum.Use technology to improve assessment of credit-worthiness of small borrowers & households etc.Facilitate growth of online digital & paperless banking.Housing for AllProvide every family with a pucca house, water connection, toilet & 24x7 electricity supplyShift focus of projects to life cycle cost approach instead of cost per square foot approach.Use land lying idle with sick/loss making PSUs of central/state governments.Consider a sub-category under priority sector lending for affordable houses.Travel/TourismIncrease India’s share in global international tourist arrivals from 1.2% to 3%Develop 100 “Smart Tourist Destination Sites”.Launch e-visa awareness campaign; enhance number of annual visits allowed under e-medical visa.Notify tourism infrastructure projects more than Rs 1 crore as "infrastructure".MiningTarget average growth of 8.5%; double area explored from current 10% of OGPLaunch a mission “Explore in India” by revamping minerals exploration & licensing policy.Provide single window & time-bound environment & forest clearances.Create a National Mineral Regulatory Authority with subordinate state authorities.EnergyMake available 24x7 power to all; achieve 175 GW renewable energy generation capacity.Bring oil, natural gas, electricity & coal under GST to enable input tax credit.Promote smart grid & smart meters.Provide mechanism for cost-effective power grid balancing.Surface TransportDouble length of national highways; reduce number of road accidents & fatalities by 50%.Complete key projects e.g. Bharatmala Pariyojna Phase-1.Maintain NH assets by adopting a maintenance management system.Earmark 10% of annual budget for road & highways maintenance.RailwaysEnsure an efficient, safe, cost-effective & accessible rail network; achieve zero fatalities.Rationalize fare structures & subsidies, & monetize assets to generate revenues.Implement the 22 recommendations of the High-Level Safety Review Committee chaired by Dr. Kakodkar.Set up an independent regulator for the Indian Railways.Civil AviationIncrease domestic ticket sales from 103 to 300 million; double air cargo handled.Ensure time-bound completion of airports under UDAN. Privatize Tier 1 city airports.Reduce taxes on MRO services & consider granting infrastructure status for MRO.Promote “Fly-from-India” through the creation of transshipment hubs.Ports, Shipping & Inland WaterwaysDouble the share of freight transported by coastal shipping & inland waterways.Complete SagarMala project. Open up India?s dredging market.Enact new Merchant Shipping Bill.Facilitate access to capital for inland vessels under priority sector lending.LogisticsReduce the logistics cost to less than 10% of GDP from the current level of 14%.Develop an IT-enabled platform for integrating different modes of transport.Rationalize tariffs & determine prices in an efficient manner across different modes.Create an overarching body that maintains a repository of all transport data.Digital ConnectivityAchieve digital connectivity across states, districts; deliver government services digitally.Explore efficient spectrum allocation in large contiguous blocks.Consider putting in place a credible system to track call drops, weak signals etc.Focus on digital literacy at primary school level through the National Digital Literacy Mission.Smart CitiesDrive job creation & economic growth; improve efficiencies in service delivery.Establish a dedicated Metropolitan Urban Transport Authority in 1 million plus population cities.Launch single-window facility for urban poor to access basic services.Mainstream the resilient cities approach & integrate it with service levels.Swachh Bharat MissionMake India open defecation free; change attitudes towards sanitation & promoting hygiene.Plan behavior change through communication & inter-personal communication campaigns.Consider expenditure on bio-toilets/bio-digesters for concession from GST.Nudge ULBs to charge adequate user charges for disposal of waste & toilet maintenance.School EducationUniversal access & retention; improvement in learning outcomes.Formulate mechanisms to enforce regulations on teacher qualifications, absenteeism etc.Rationalize public school structure, undertake individualized tracking.Give children the option of branching into vocational courses.Higher EducationIncrease gross enrolment ratio from 25% in 2016-17 to 35%.Ensure effective coordination of higher education regulators.Compulsorily accredit all higher education institutions.Link funding to outcomes through MHRD & Higher Education Funding Agency.Teacher Education & TrainingEnforce minimum standards; improve in-service training; resolve teacher absenteeism.Establish a committee to develop objective criteria to recognize institutions.Redesign in-service teacher professional development programmes.Set up a national electronic teacher registry; develop teacher-demand forecast models for all levels.SkillingIncrease proportion of formally skilled labour from 5.4% of workforce to 15%; ensure inclusivity.Establish single regulatory body to lay down minimum standards for players.Initiate vocational education from class VIII.Streamline claim process for reimbursement under National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme.Public Health ActionTo revamp radically the public & preventive health system.Co-locate AYUSH services in 50% of PHCs, 70% of CHCs & 100% of district hospitals.Institute a public health & management cadre in states.Create a focal point for public health at the central level with state counterparts.Primary Health CareScale-up a new vision for comprehensive primary health, on the platform of Health & Wellness Centres.Accelerate the establishment of a network of 150,000 HWCs; Enable mechanisms for rapid scale up.Coordinate action to address social determinants of health.Catalyse people?s participation for a healthy India: Swasth Bharat Jan Andolan.Human Resources for HealthAchieve doctor-population ratio of 1:1400 & nurse-population ratio of 1:500Reform governance of medical, nursing, dentistry, pharmacy councils.Promote integrative medicine curriculum.Develop comprehensive HRH policy in states; generate data on HRH.Universal Health CoverageOn platform of PM-JAY, cover 75% of population with publicly financed health insurance.Strengthen public sector health facilities e.g. institutionalise district hospital rankings.Trigger private investments in supply deficit areas through incentives for hospital empanelment.Establish research consortia for high priority diseases.GenderEnhance FLFP rate to at least 30%; create a work environment without barriers.Strengthen legal frameworks to eliminate discrimination against women.Generate gender-disaggregated data & rank states on key indicators.Provide gender friendly facilities in upcoming towns & big cities.Social InclusionEnable senior citizens, PwDs & transgender persons to participate in economic development.Revise National Policy for Older Persons; emphasize concept of „ageing in own home?.Generate disaggregated data on PwDs.Provide for identification of transgender persons in government & non-government records.Accelerate development of SCs, STs, OBCs, DNTs, NTs, SNTs & minorities through focused affirmative action.Design schemes narrowly focused on the needs of specific communities.Establish residential schools in uncovered blocks with facilities for vocational training.Vest primary responsibility for schemes implemented by Ministry of Minority Affairs with line ministries.Aspirational DistrictsUplift 115 districts currently lagging behind in development parameters.Create a positive narrative of development by making it a mass movement.Use data to inform decision-making & spur competition among districts.Establish institutional mechanisms for teamwork between centre, states & districts.North-East RegionDevelop physical connectivity for enhanced trade; focus on waterways, financial inclusion.Encourage each NER state to draw up a development blueprint.Address connectivity issues e.g. transit treaties for NER & its neighbours.Promote eco-tourism & adventure tourism; ensure early completion of irrigation projects.Legal, Judicial, Police ReformsEnsure safety & security of citizens & access to effective legal systems.Create a repository of all existing central & state laws, rules & regulations.Address backlog of pending cases e.g. shift part of workload out of regular court system.Create task force under MHA to skill personnel & identify non-core functions for outsourcing.Civil Services ReformsEstablish a reformed system of recruitment, training & performance evaluation of civil services.Promote an officer-oriented culture & focus on expanding the number of officers.Alter current system of training to meet job-outcome oriented goals e.g. managing urban areas.Consider replacing annual confidential reports with multi-stakeholder feedback.City GovernanceTransform cities into economically vibrant & environmentally sustainable habitats.Recognise each city as a distinct unit of the economy; develop a quarterly city dashboard.Articulate a framework for city governance that includes development authorities, other parastatals etc.Establish a modern national framework for spatial planning of cities.Water ResourcesProvide adequate & safe piped drinking water & water for sanitation.Increase the water storage capacity from 253 bcm to 304 bcm.Launch a pilot scheme to irrigate 10 lakh ha with treated waste water.Develop recharging zones to make groundwater resources sustainable.Sustainable EnvironmentReduce PM2.5 to 50; effective implementation of solid waste management rules.Upscale technologies for crop harvesting & utilization of farm residue.Encourage nationwide implementation of bio-digester toilets.Convert urban vacant areas to urban green areas.Land ResourcesStrengthen land markets by efficient allocation, secure property rights etc.States may consider the Model Land Leasing Act, 2016.Implement effectively the Forest Rights Act in all states.Update & digitize land records in a user-friendly manner.Data-Led Policy-makingEnsure timely generation & dissemination of data for evidence-based policy-making.Create state data repositories based on guidelines drawn up by central government.Use tertiary big data collected by private third parties.Update government statistical organizations on new technologies.Other Revolutionary Decisions (as mentioned in their manifesto) -Enactment of Citizenship Amendment Bill for protecting the religious minorities from neighboring countries escaping persecution.Annulling of article 35A and article 270 which separated Jammu and Kashmir from rest of India.Drafting of Uniform Civil Code to bring equality in citizens.Construction of Ram Temple either by bringing ordinance after achieving majority in Rajya Sabha or by other methods.Thanks for A2A Gopalkrishna Vishwanath Sir.

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