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What are some of the pragmatic solutions for preventing mass shootings in the US that both liberals and conservatives find mutually agreeable?

This answer may contain sensitive images. Click on an image to unblur it.For the benefit of people who don’t have a lot of time to read, I’m going to list a short version of my proposals in bullet points after this paragraph. However, if you have the time, I strongly suggest reading this answer in its entirety because it explains the proposals in fairly granular detail. The proposals are nuanced because gun control is a complicated issue when looked at objectively.Standardize on a process which flags individuals in the FBI’s Terrorist Screening Database for a delay in the background check process when said individuals try to buy a gun. During the three day delay period, the FBI has the opportunity to investigate and take legal action against the individuals if necessary.Create a secure electronic background check system which is available to the public so individuals selling firearms to residents of the same state can know whether it is safe to proceed with a transaction.Require membership in the Civilian Marksmanship Program for the purchase of semiautomatic centerfire weapons and centerfire magazines with more than ten rounds of capacity.Create a national permitting process for carrying concealed handguns which overrides state laws.The Gun Control Act of 1968 mandated that manufacturers and commercial sellers of firearms had to obtain a Federal Firearms License (FFL). This was done under the guise of regulating interstate commerce, trade which crosses state lines. The federal government is generally not allowed to regulate intrastate commerce, trade which remains entirely within a state. In 1994, the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act mandated that FFL holders had to perform a background check on any firearm transferred through the FFL to a individual who does not hold an FFL. In 1998, this process was streamlined into the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS).With that in mind, we’re going to look at how firearms are legally purchased currently so we can have a perspective on potential improvements to the process.When buying a gun through an FFL, buyers must fill out BAFTE form 4473. I strongly recommend readers view the form. Buyers must submit valid photo identification (usually a driver’s license) to the FFL holder to verify their identity and some of the information on their form 4473. There are three categories of firearm which can be bought through a standard FFL dealer: handguns, long guns (rifles and shotguns), and “other firearms”. Buyers must be 18 years of age to buy long guns and 21 years of age to buy handguns from an FFL. “Other firearms” are a weird category which includes receivers for firearms (which is generally the serialized portion of a firearm) or firearms which do not fit the legal definition of a handgun or long gun but are also not regulated by the National Firearms Act. If the “other firearm” can be made into a pistol, the buyer must be 21 years of age. After a buyer has completed their form 4473, the FFL holder calls NICS and relays the completed information to the FBI.Source: (NICS Process in Motion for the Gun Buyer Video Transcript)The FBI runs the information through the NICS database. If the buyer’s provided information has matches within the NICS database, this will generate a “hit”. At the moment, hits include indictments and convictions for felonies, indictments and convictions for domestic violence, indictments and convictions for other crimes which are punishable by one or more years of imprisonment, known fugitives, dishonorable discharges, adjudications which determined an individual to be mentally defective, restraining orders for children or intimate partners, renouncements of citizenship, unlawful users of controlled substances, illegal aliens, and resident aliens who do not meet very specific criteria.If no hits in the NICS database are generated, the FFL is told to “proceed” and the FFL may complete transferring the firearm at the business’s discretion. If the buyer’s provided information generates a hit, the call will be transferred to an FBI employee who will review the information and determine whether the hit matches the rest of the buyer’s provided information. If the hit is valid and the buyer is a prohibited purchaser, the FFL will be told to “deny” the transfer. If the FBI employee determines the hit is invalid, the FFL will be told to “proceed”. If the FBI employee can not immediately determine the validity of a hit, the FFL will be told to “delay” the transfer and the FBI will do more research to determine the validity of a hit. At this point, the FBI is allotted three business days to tell the FFL to “proceed” or “deny”. If those three business days pass without a final judgement, the FFL may proceed with the transfer at their discretion. The system is set up this way so the FBI can not delay a buyer they can not prove is a prohibited possessor of firearms indefinitely, essentially amounting to a denial without due process of law. Nevertheless, some FFL holders maintain a policy of not proceeding with transfers which have do not receive a definite “proceed”; that is the business’s prerogative.If at any point in this process the FFL holder or its employees believes a buyer is purchasing a firearm on behalf of another person, then the FFL will deny the transfer independent of any judgement made by the FBI. Purchasing a firearm on behalf of another person is illegal.Now what about “internet gun sales”?Websites in the business of selling firearms are legally required to acquire an FFL. Since the website which holds an FFL can not visually verify a buyer’s identity, this means the firearms they sell are legally required to be transferred to an FFL near the buyer. At the FFL which facilitates the transfer, the buyer will be required to complete a form 4473 and go through a background check as described above.On auction sites which deal with firearms, buyers and sellers who do not hold FFLs will submit the information of an FFL near each party and arrange for the firearm to be transferred. The seller’s FFL will ship the firearm to the buyer’s FFL and once again the buyer will complete a form 4473 and go through a background check.The final category would be classified websites which allow firearms to be posted for sale. These are essentially the 21st century equivalent of posting a classified advertisement in a newspaper. In these cases, a buyer contacts the seller who posted the advertisement and the two parties enter negotiations. If the buyer and seller legally reside within the same state and are able to meet face to face to conduct a transfer, the firearm in question may be legally bought under federal law without a background check being conducted provided the seller does not have reason to believe the buyer is a prohibited possessor. If any of those conditions are not met, or if state law prohibits intrastate commerce in this fashion, then FFL holders must once again be involved. These conditions apply to all private person to person sales. One noteworthy quirk, under federal law, persons between the ages of 18 and 21 are not prohibited from purchasing a handgun through a private sale. This is in fact one of the very few ways citizens in this age group can exercise their constitutional right to possess handguns.What about gun shows?If a person buys a firearm from an FFL participating in a gun show (this constitutes the majority of firearm sales at gun shows) then a 4473 is filled out as normal. If a person is buying a firearm from a private party, laws regarding private sales apply. Think of gun shows simply as a way for people who might be interested in buying or selling firearms to all be in the same place at the same time. There’s nothing sneaky or tricky about them, they literally happen in convention centers and on fairgrounds. Local police and BATFE agents are always present at gun shows.Now that we have all that basic information out of the way, we can talk about actual changes to federal law.First let’s take a look at prohibiting suspected terrorists from purchasing firearms. We can all agree we hate terrorists, but they still have due process rights. Fortunately, the FBI is in charge of both the Terrorist Screening Database (TSDB) and the NICS database. Prospective gun buyers with records that produce a match in the TSDB could generate a hit in the NICS database. The FBI could then investigate the hit and, assuming the hit actually matched the buyer in question, determine whether or not to tell the FFL to delay the transfer. Within the current three day delay window, the FBI could bring the case before a judge. Should the judge find probable cause, the transfer could be legally halted. At this point the buyer should be notified and be interviewed as part of the investigation. If charges are appropriate, the FBI can file charges in a timely manner. Otherwise, the suspect should be allowed to go about their business without further interference. That puts a lot of burden on the FBI, but it isn’t supposed to be easy to legally strip citizens’ rights in the United States. Remember, the burden of proof always lies upon the accuser, not the defendant.One rather common gun control proposal in the United States is that of universal background checks on all firearm sales, including private intrastate sales. On a practical level, compliance and enforcement of a universal background check would be very difficult without some kind of national firearm registry linking specific firearms to their owners. No national firearm registry exists for regular rifles, shotguns, or pistols at the moment and it’s actually illegal to create one because of the Firearm Owners Protection Act passed in 1986. There remains a visceral fear of a firearms registry among many conservatives; the concerned parties believe that all firearm registries are nothing more than a precursor to the total confiscation of all firearms. This belief is objectively refuted because numerous firearm registries in multiple US states and democratic countries as well as a national registry on firearms regulated by the National Firearms Act exist and have not been precursors to a total confiscation of all firearms. However, many conservatives latch onto the words of a select handful of extremist politicians who espouse a desire for confiscation as proof that confiscation is the inevitable result of all registries.With all that being said, what might be feasible as an alternative to a universal background check is creating an online version of form 4473 so the public could voluntarily conduct background checks without going to an FFL. This is actually something most gun owners want because, at the moment, there’s no way of conducting a background check for a private intrastate sale in most states without involving an FFL. Involving an FFL introduces a financial disincentive because FFLs are businesses and usually charge for their services. I’ll propose the best system I’ve thought of so far which allows for minimal fraud and abuse.First, create a secure electronic variant of the 4473. It should include the buyer and seller information along with contact information for both parties. Once the form is completed, a unique confirmation number is sent out to both parties using the provided contact information. Both parties enter their confirmation numbers, then the form is submitted to the FBI and run through the NICS database. A single transaction number is generated for the NICS check and provided to the buyer and seller. The parties then call a phone number for a NICS automated line and enter the transaction number along with their unique confirmation numbers. This transfers the call to a live operator who examines the results of the NICS check performed for the transaction. The operator then tells the seller to “proceed”, “delay”, or “deny” just as they would with an FFL.The idea behind the whole system is that it allows for an effective background check to be done while offering a reasonable measure of privacy for the buyer. Sure, somebody could abuse the system if they wanted to put in enough effort, but they wouldn’t get very much information. It also removes a financial disincentive; it only costs individuals time to do a check like this and the check and be performed virtually anywhere, not just at FFL locations.Now, let’s discuss assault weapons and magazines which hold more than ten rounds. The problem with the Federal Assault Weapons Ban of 1994 was that it didn’t do anything except drive up prices on the magazines and weapons described by the ban. There was no measurable impact on crime during the ten years the Assault Weapons Ban was in effect.Here is how assault weapons were defined in 1994:Semi-automatic rifles able to accept detachable magazines and two or more of the following:Folding or telescoping stockPistol gripBayonet mountFlash suppressor, or threaded barrel designed to accommodate oneGrenade launcher mountSemi-automatic pistols with detachable magazines and two or more of the following:Magazine that attaches outside the pistol gripThreaded barrel to attach barrel extender, flash suppressor, handgrip, or suppressorBarrel shroud safety feature that prevents burns to the operatorUnloaded weight of 50 oz (1.4 kg) or moreA semi-automatic version of a fully automatic firearm.Semi-automatic shotguns with two or more of the following:Folding or telescoping stockPistol gripDetachable magazine.All of those things are cosmetic features that can be designed around. In fact, they frequently were and are designed around. Even today in states with more stringent feature based assault weapon bans, like California, there exist so called “featureless” firearms which are perfectly legal and not objectively worse for killing people than assault weapons. Now we could try an assault weapon ban again and again have no impact on crime… or we could recognize that semiautomatic centerfire weapons are undeniably the arms of choice in a militia. Police and military forces all over the world use semiautomatic (or fully automatic) centerfire weapons almost exclusively. As such, it makes more sense to more stringently regulate all semiautomatic centerfire weapons, not just a certain subset with specific cosmetic features. At the same time, we can breathe new life into the militia concept described by the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, even make the militia well regulated.In the United States, we currently have an organization called the Civilian Marksmanship Program, a federally chartered corporation whose purpose is:To instruct citizens of the United States in marksmanship;To promote practice and safety in the use of firearms;To conduct competitions in the use of firearms and to award trophies, prizes, badges, and other insignia to competitors.Among numerous other things, the CMP sells M1 Garand rifles. The Garand is a .30–06 semiautomatic battle rifle roughly twice as powerful as common AR-15 or Kalashnikov rifles. The Garand was the primary infantry rifle of the US military during the Second World War and the Korean War. The CMP literally sells them so people can practice target shooting with a weapon of war.Image by Curiosandrelics - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, File:M1-Garand-Rifle.jpg - Wikimedia CommonsLet’s take a look at eligibility requirements for the CMP:REQUIREMENTS FOR PURCHASEBy law, the CMP can sell surplus military firearms, ammunition, parts and other items only to members of CMP affiliated clubs who are also U.S. citizens, over 18 years of age and who are legally eligible to purchase a firearm.PROOF OF U.S. CITIZENSHIP:You must provide a copy of a U.S. birth certificate, passport, proof of naturalization, or any official government document (When using a military ID to prove citizenship, must be an E5 or above) that shows birth in the U.S. or states citizenship as U.S.PROOF OF AGE:You must provide proof of age. Usually proof of citizenship also provides proof of age. In those cases where it may not, a driver’s license is sufficient.MEMBERSHIP IN CMP AFFILIATED ORGANIZATION:You must provide a copy of your current membership card or other proof of membership. This requirement cannot be waived. The CMP currently has over 2,000 affiliated organizations located in many parts of the country. CMP Club Member Certification Form- If your CMP affiliated club does not issue individual membership cards, please have the club fill out the CMP Club Member Certification Form and return it with your order.Membership in many of these organizations costs $25.00 or less and can be accomplished online. A listing of affiliated organizations can be found by clicking on our Club Search web page at If you have any difficulty in locating a club, please contact the CMP at 256-835-8455 or by emailing CMP Customer Service. We will find one for you. In addition to shooting clubs, the CMP also has several special affiliates. Membership in these organizations satisfies our requirement for purchase. These special affiliates include: Congressionally chartered veterans' organizations such as the VFW, AL, DAV, MCL, etc. U.S. Military services (active or reserves), National Guard, to include retirees. Professional 501(c)3 law enforcement organizations and associations such as the FOP, NAPO, NSA, etc. The Garand Collector's Association is a CMP Affiliated Club. You can download a Garand Collector's Association Application Form.Note: Club membership IS required for purchase of rifles, parts, and ammunition.Club membership is NOT required for instructional publications or videos or CMP memorabilia.MARKSMANSHIP OR OTHER FIREARMS RELATED ACTIVITY:You must provide proof of participation in a marksmanship related activity or otherwise show familiarity with the safe handling of firearms and range procedures. Your marksmanship related activity does not have to be with highpower rifles; it can be with smallbore rifles, pistols, air guns or shotguns. Proof of marksmanship participation can be provided by documenting any of the following:Current or past military service.Current or past law enforcement serviceParticipation in a rifle, pistol, air gun or shotgun competition (provide copy of results bulletin).Completion of a marksmanship clinic that included live fire training (provide a copy of the certificate of completion or a statement from the instructor).Distinguished, Instructor, or Coach status.Concealed Carry License.Firearms Owner Identification Cards that included live fire training. - FFL or C&R license.Completion of a Hunter Safety Course that included live fire training.Certification from range or club official or law enforcement officer witnessing shooting activity. Complete the CMP Marksmanship Form to certify your range firing and the required marksmanship related activity for an individual to purchase from the CMP.No proof of marksmanship required if over age 60. Proof of club membership and citizenship required for all ages. NOTE: Proof of marksmanship activity is not required for purchase of ammunition, parts, publications or memorabilia.BE LEGALLY ELIGIBLE TO PURCHASE A FIREARM:The information you supply on your application will be submitted by the CMP to the FBI National Instant Criminal Check System (NICS) to verify you are not prohibited by Federal, State or Local law from acquiring or possessing a rifle. Your signature on the Purchaser Certification portion of the purchase application authorizes the CMP to initiate the NICS check and authorizes the FBI to inform CMP of the result. IMPORTANT: If your State or locality requires you to first obtain a license, permit, or Firearms Owner ID card in order to possess or receive a rifle, you must enclose a photocopy of your license, permit, or card with the application for purchase.As you can see, the CMP eligibility process is quite a bit more involved than the background check system we have now. It seems to have worked for keeping the powerful semiautomatic Garand rifles out of the hands of mass murderers. The last mass shooting on US soil that I know of which involved an M1 Garand was the Kent State massacre and that involved the Ohio National Guard shooting anti-war protesters, not civilians who were sold rifles through the CMP. I haven’t been able to find any records of crimes committed with guns sold through the CMP. I’m sure it has happened at one point in time or another, but the occurrence is so rare that there hasn’t been any documentation. My point is that the CMP has a really great track record in the United States for making sure guns don’t go to bad guys.Since the Assault Weapons Ban of 1994 didn’t have any measurable impacts on crime and the CMP has great results, I propose we extend the CMP eligibility requirements to all semiautomatic centerfire firearms and centerfire magazines with more than ten rounds of capacity. This means only people who meet the listed criteria will be able to buy the types of weapons most useful in a militia which are also the weapons we primarily see used in mass shootings from an FFL. The proposal also effectively introduces a mandatory training and basic competency requirement before individuals can purchase semiautomatic centerfire weapons from a gun store. The inclusion of CMP eligibility for the purchase of centerfire magazine over ten rounds creates a strong incentive for existing gun owners and individuals who purchase firearms through private intrastate sales to get training and join the CMP if they want easy access to centerfire magazines over ten rounds.The word centerfire is really important because there is another class of firearms which use rimfire cartridges.A collection of rimfire and centerfire cartridges, left to right: .22lr (rimfire), .22WMR (rimfire), .357 magnum (centerfire), .30–06 Springfield (centerfire), 12 gauge shotshell (centerfire)Rimfire cartridges aren’t very powerful; they’re mostly used for small game hunting and target shooting. Most countries allow ownership of semiautomatic rimfire rifles with only basic licensing; countries like Canada and the UK don’t even have restrictions on magazine capacity for rimfire rifles. Could they be used by a mass shooter? Sure, anything could, but semiautomatic rimfire firearms just aren’t a threat compared to semiautomatic centerfire firearms or even non-semiautomatic centerfire firearms. Wounds caused by bullets fired from rimfire cartridges are almost always less severe than wounds caused by bullets fired from centerfire cartridges. Very precise shot placement is required for rimfire weapons to instantly kill a person and mass shooters are unlikely to take the time to precisely place their shots.Seen above are four rimfire rifles made by Marlin.Regulating firearms in this way allows new gun owners to hunt, shoot targets, and defend themselves using semiautomatic rimfire or manually operated firearms. If new gun owners want easy access to semiautomatic centerfire firearms which are useful in a militia context, they can join the CMP, effectively becoming a member of a well regulated militia, after demonstrating themselves to be competent and well trained.I have some final thoughts on the CMP related proposal before moving on to the next topic. CMP eligibility introduces additional layers of human interaction between people and semiautomatic centerfire weapons and centerfire magazines over ten rounds. Barring major advances in mental healthcare and adjudication in the United States, layers of human interaction are the best way for red flags to be raised about somebody who might want to kill large numbers of people with a firearm. Additional layers of human interaction also introduce a larger hurdle for straw purchasers, people who buy firearms for people who can’t pass background checks because they’re ineligible to own firearms. Additional layers of human interaction make law enforcement investigations slightly easier as well.At the moment, laws, standards, and permits for carrying concealed handguns vary wildly. Some states have no requirements while other states functionally don’t allow anybody except police officers to carry handguns in any way. While the percentage of the US population which actually carries handguns regularly, concealed or openly, is relatively small, those who do carry handguns regularly can often face great legal peril for no particularly good reason when crossing state lines. At the same time, it would be good for the public to know that people carrying concealed handguns are actually competent and not a hazard to the public. In essence, a balance would be preferable to the extremes which currently exist.I propose creating an national permit for carrying concealed handguns in any state. Police officers already enjoy something similar to this. The permitting process should include a standardized class which can be taught by police officers or other qualified instructors. Before attending the class, applicants should undergo a background check. Among other things, the class should cover the legal use of deadly force, safe firearms handling practices, and conflict deescalation practices. Then applicants should be given a written test on the subjects. If the applicants pass, they should then undergo a practical handgun handling and shooting competency test. If applicants are able to both handle handguns safely and shoot accurately, they will then be issued a carry permit which is valid for a certain number of years; three to five years seems reasonable. If applicants fail either test then they go home without a permit and can retake the whole class the next time it is offered if they still wish to carry a concealed handgun.

Which is better for a content writing course, Henry Havin or IIM skills?

Every day we consume a lot of content in numerous forms like video, voice, text, pictures. Nowadays the demand for content writers is increasing. Writing is a skill that is necessary in all aspects of life. Writing, like all other skills, also requires practice to become a master. Therefore, to get a writing skill, right training is very important.If I talk about my experience, HENRY HARVIN EDUCATION is one of the best institutes offering content writing courses in India. The thing that makes it so productive is the curriculum and its key features.Content writing provides attractive career opportunities to students who have the ability, skills and writing talent. The demand for content writers is increasing in today's digital world as good content often turns into revenue.Why Henry Harvin is beneficial for a content writing course?Henry Harvin offers writing courses designed to help you acquire all the knowledge and skills needed to become an effective content writer. Their certification is aimed at creating proficient writers.The thing that makes it so productive is the curriculum and its key features are as follows:Learn to create multiple types of contentTeaches how to write proposalsMonthly Brushup SessionsContent Writing, Strategies, Study Material, Video100% Placement and Internship SupportPost Training Support24 x 7 access to Henry Harvin’s High tech LMS platformStudents or participants can connect with the trainer to resolve doubts or problems encountered during the course session.4 days/32 hours Classroom TrainingWriting Career for StudentsAs a student, content writing would be a good career if you want to earn extra. There are many part-time or full-time jobs available in the market i.e. web content writer, content developer, content editor etc. You can also earn a few bucks from your pocket while learning the technology of content writing at the same time.If you are both a content writer and a student, you will be more focused on capturing the concept than putting the entire content to heart.Are you planning to enroll for content writing course? And you are hesitating because you are not sure if this is the right step or wrong. Before signing up for a content writing course, you should see a list of some benefits:This will boost your vocabulary.This course gives you the opportunity to develop creative thinking and problem solving abilities.The beauty of content writing is not in creating anything but in expressing your thoughts.A great change would have taken place from the first day of your course and the last one.Being a content writer, you do not have to worry about the theoretical answers that you have to write in the exam.Watching your words become popular on the internet boosts your confidence. You will feel better about yourself, you will be ready to do more challenging work.You can work as a freelancer and earn some extra money.Here are the 6 reasons why content writing career is important for students:With their interest in reading novels, many students have begun to test their hand in writing. Although content writing is quite different from writing novels, the drive to write something comes from the habit of reading and using words.Content writing is considered one of the richest job profiles in modern days. Regardless of background and stream, people who have a temperament in their writing can be a content writer. Previously, content writers used to fall under the categories of freelance writer, article writer, etc. What makes you better as a content writer depends on how much you express almost anything creatively.Content writing is beneficial for students who not only want to be content writers, but also for those who want to be exceptionally good at academics compared to their fellow students.Here are the few reasons are as follows:Boosts your vocabulary:You do not want to be traditional all the time. You use good vocabulary for what you write. To express your thoughts well, you should be familiar with other types of expressions. In the process, you acquire the quality of grabbing some right words that can be put in the right places.Experiment with language:Well, Content Writing isn’t a fixed state. The elasticity of content writing allows us to experiment with language and also different ways of expressing it. The beauty of content writing is not in creating something new but to modify what already exists.Content Writing as a habit:As a student and as a professional, there are many examples where we should build content. For example, writing a diary. It is transforming your daily tasks into words.This is a habit that gradually improves. The day you wrote your diary and on the first day there must have been a lot of change in expressing yourself. So, quality increases over time.Quality of answer:The biggest benefit you can get from content writing is that the quality of your answer will be very good in your exam. Regardless of the section, there will be some principles that you need to put in to make the answers correct.Being a content writer, there is no need to bother about the theory that you have to write in the exam answer sheet.Saves time:Even while studying, most students who are content writers will focus more on capturing the concept rather than learning the whole material by heart. Students from different streams focused on equations and derivatives instead of its principle part.Earn & enjoy:Content writing has an immense market.As a web content writer, content developer, content editor, many internships and part-time jobs are available that allow students to learn the technology of content writing and earn a few bucks in their pocket.There are number of institutions in India. Before applying for the Digital Content Writing course I explored many good institutes but the one I liked was the Henry Harvin Education Course. If you want to become a digital content writer then I recommend you to go for Henry Harvin.Content writing covers detailed descriptions ranging from blogging to SEO to on-page description whereas students who write content can learn copy writing, public relations, blogger, middle platform, crisis management, content marketing, blogging, white paper writing, funnel, sales funnel and more.What is Digital Content Writing?Digital content writing is the process of planning, producing and promoting all forms of digital content. It is a multi-phased process that requires many different skills to produce engaging, relevant, SEO optimized and compatible digital content with the latest content.Digital content writing training is very important for those who want to pursue a career in this field as well as written content helps to create organic traffic to gain media coverage and build an audience to drive more sales.This is why digital content writing is so important and getting training from the right institute is very important. I received a training from HENRY HARVIN EDUCATION.Henry Harvin education helps develop, enhance and promote the skills that are necessary for changing times. Their programs are purely handcrafted and designed to take care of his students. There is also a crash course on professional content writing that helps you develop a new skill in digital content writing.The list of benefits of digital content writing course for unemployed is as follows:Sustainable Income:The Certified Digital Content Writing Course is one of its kind that provides an abundance of opportunities for the unemployed to earn a permanent income without receiving support from an outside institution.It helps you make a career as a content writer, marketer and strategist or become a freelancer. The course provides unique content skills that not only help you to have a sustainable income but also help you lead projects on your own which is helpful for future contexts.Competency Development:The course enables you to develop abilities that make you a dynamic and capable writer who gains monetary benefits using digital media.The course provides the necessary skill sets that help you develop a qualification as a certified content writer and is a marketer proficient in interpreting ideas into words.It upgrades your resume with certification and industry experience and sets your profile apart from the public.Confidence Booster:Confidence boosting is one of the advantages of a content writing course. Because the course provides you with employable skills that help you become a successful and dynamic writer and content marker.This course enables you to venture deeper into any discipline to develop skills related to building, evaluating, restructuring, re-arranging, strategizing and presenting content.Recognition:This course provides you with the right platform to gain recognition across digital media across national and international forums. The course encourages you to be a dynamic and progressive writer who is fond of writing on any kind of subject for any platform.This enables you to be consistent and persistent in producing reliable, unique and customer-centric ideas into words.Work from Anywhere:Working as a freelancer has its own perks. You can work from home or from a local coffee shop or while on vacation. 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Nowadays, most B2B organizations depend on well-crafted content to attract a large number of audiences and of course, potential customers.Content writing is not only playing a big role in the success of businesses; It has also become a great career option. People all over the world are earning very well by writing different types of content for different companies, brands and websites.Professional content writers are making a huge difference in the online business arena, and the demand for them is only skyrocketing with each passing year. If you are ready to make some efforts to improve your writing skills, then you can definitely think about making a very successful career in content writing.If you are really serious about making a good career in content writing, then there are some very important tips for you. These tips are very useful for you to move in the right direction. Have a look at them.Start Working on a specific niche:Although writing on various topics and subjects is always a big thing, you cannot jump straight to it. You have to take those baby steps. It is important to understand your skills and interests.First, get to know yourself properly, learn about your strengths and find out what can be a strong field for you.You can do what you love the most. It may be Journey? Healthcare? Fashion? Information technology? Marketing? Or motor vehicle? Or anything for that matter?It will be extremely helpful for you to know and know your area of interest to start successfully in the right direction. The other important thing is "some knowledge about your field."Develop Different Writing Styles:Competition is not the most appropriate term for the content writing field, but millions of authors around the world are constantly working to improve their writing skills and styles. You can easily find a bunch of some amazing writers with incredible talent and writing skills.If you want to be "just a content writer", that's fine. But if you want to stand among some of the best content writers, you want to think differently.Therefore, developing different types of writing styles is very important. You cannot do this overnight. Firstly, you have to start with the basics.You have to start with very simple things like sentence formation, appropriate word placement, the tone of your sentences, the message or information you want to convey to your computer etc.Once you encircle a topic, research about it- as much as you can:The Internet is full of content on similar topics. You cannot think of drafting incomplete, misleading or incomplete material. Your piece of writing should be completed from every aspect, from every angle.Before opening your writing software, open your internet, and do proper and thorough research on the subject you are going to work on.Discover everything about the subject in detail. Collect all the necessary information. If necessary, pay attention to some important points. Then start writing.In short, be fully prepared with all the information before starting your writing.Do not mess up your content with wayward points:If you want to keep your writers busy then it is very important to stick to your point.Disappointing your readers should be the last thing you want. Therefore, to avoid this, you need to pay a lot of attention to your point. Your content should revolve around the subject.You also cannot distract your audience by discussing unwanted or irrelevant points.Yes, it is good to throw some light on the subject. But you can't interrupt your content with too many different things.Hanging tough; keep your readers interested with the flow of your writing. Written flow of readers will not be accepted incorrectly.Develop your creative skills:As we have already discussed, the Internet is replete with a lot of content on similar topics. So how are you going to make your version of writing a little unique and different?When there is a lot of difference in creativity. You have to learn how to express the same thing very differently. You can develop and improve your ability to visualize.Different authors have their own ways of making their piece of writing different and unique. What you need to do depends entirely on you and your attitude.Everyone should decide the subject and idea of ​​your writing. If not, there is no way you should not even think about starting writing. Once the subject and the idea are decided, your own unique view of the same makes all the difference.Your objective will be to improve your creative skills as much as possible. And there is always room for improvement!Put some extra effort in the headline and the first paragraph:If you want to attract your audience and engage them, then you need to start with a catchy title and catchy first paragraph.Obviously, the title should be centered on your content, and there should be a brief idea of ​​what the first or subsequent parts of the content in the introductory paragraph should be.Having a good-looking headline will attract your audience very easily, and an informative, engaging first paragraph will inspire them to read your content properly.There is no doubt, your hard work should be demonstrated throughout your content, but even then the title and first paragraph should be the best part of your writing.Keep it simple:There may be different types of people in your audience. Everyone is unique in their own way. They cannot be very comfortable with some complex words or sentences. Use simple and clear synonyms of complex words.Write your content in short sentences. Use very simple three to four lined paragraphs. You do not appear in a language test! There is no need to show you that complicated side.Always try to make your writing as audience-focused as possible. Imagine yourself as a reader, and then assess your content if it is easy to read and understand.Don’t underestimate the importance of social media:Social media platforms are proving to be game-changing for both online marketing and content writing. If you want to be a successful content writer, and you don't have a strong presence on social media, then you're definitely missing a lot of things.Therefore, social media can be important for you to build your audience and find potential customers.You need to tell the world that you are a content writer. There is no better platform than social media. So, you have to use social media so that you can connect to the new audiences.In short, you can find a lot of skilled people with different specialties and talents. All these things are going to make you a better content writer. More importantly, you will become a better person. Your personality will improve a lot.Besides this, one needs time to master anything. Like other things, digital marketing content writing also takes a little time and dedication to complete your skillset, but if you go for Content Writing Training Guide and Toolkit, you get it all, writing what you need to master digital marketing content.Moreover, if I talk about my experience, I would suggest to everyone who wants to pursue a career in content writing, then Henry Harvin is the best place to start your career. Henry Harvin also offers crash courses and various types of training sessions about this.Remember one thing, making your content unique is a different thing, and being someone or something different is another. Stay as natural as possible and keep trying to do better every day.

Why does the US have a uniquely large population of climate change deniers? What are the primary driving factors in the US contributing to this, compared to the rest of the world?

The question was: Why does the US have a uniquely large population of climate change deniers? What are the primary driving factors in the US contributing to this, compared to the rest of the world?Five second summary, for Vines fans: Most previous answers focus on the role of the petroleum industry in promoting AGW denial, but there’s much more to the story than this. America has the most deniers because we have the largest population of people for whom AGW poses a personal threat to their ideology and values.I’m disappointed with the answers that have appeared here so far. Few of them touch on the underlying motivations of those who embrace what I will term AGW Denialism (for reasons discussed below). People are exposed to a range of information coming from many sources. They then make a choice what to believe, based on a variety of factors. What is their motivation? The answer to this question is the key to understanding the answer to the OP’s question.I recognize that certain individuals and organizations, motivated by self-interest, have set about to undermine the credibility of science in general and climate science specifically. I understand that they have promoted the belief that the question of human influence on climate change is “not yet settled”. I appreciate the power of propaganda to take advantage of flaws and shortcomings in human cognition to deceive people and shape their beliefs. I fully realize that citizens of the USA have fallen victim to propaganda regarding AGW, and that the population of the entire planet will eventually have to pay the price (whatever it might be). But this does not in my mind fully answer the question that was asked, which is why the US specifically has such a large population of climate change deniers. After all… If it comes down to a question of which “natrative" to believe, why reject the conclusions of the climate science experts.The answer to this question has at least as much to do with motivated bias as it does with who is “behind” the spreading of misinformation on AGW. The problem I see with the previous answers to the question, particularly Lee Thé's answer to Why does the US have a uniquely large population of climate change deniers?, is that they pin an unwarranted fraction of the blame on the evil, malicious petroleum companies and miss the bigger picture.I suspect that demonizing the oil companies may provide Mr. Lee and others with a blast of dopamine, very similar to the blast of dopamine “climate change deniers” feel when they recite some [baseless] argument that superficially seems to disprove AGW. It feels good to “lord over” your enemy and support your own “tribe”.But not to single out Mr. Lee…. blaming the petroleum companies for AGW denial has effectively become “settled science” on the internet… very nearly as settled as AGW itself. But is this conclusion factually based? Are the oil and coal companies really the main culprits? If not, we are spending a lot of effort “barking up the wrong tree”, while the “raccoon” is getting away.It would be foolish of me to claim that petroleum and coal companies have played no role in promoting the belief that the science underlying AGW is unsettled and uncertain at best, and more likely outright wrong . They surely have… or at least some of them have… or (based on actual evidence), at least ONE of them has (You know…Darth Vader Enterprises). The problem is that pinning the blame here neglects other major underwriters and supporters who, in my view, have likely had a larger impact. It also neglects the role played by those who actually subscribe to AGW denial; that is, the ~40% of Americans who either reject or say they “Don’t know” if human activity has played a role in recent climate change. By ignoring these other elements and focusing primarily on the fossil fuels industry, we are missing a key part of the picture. There’s something else going on, and we need to understand what it is.I have been struggling with the phenomenon of AGW Denialism since I was first forced to directly confront it. This happened in 2007, when I was asked to serve on a newly formed committee of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists that would provide a focus for reliable information and civil discourse relating to climate change. The creation of this committee was partly in response to AAPG’s dubious history on climate change. Prior to 2007, AAPG was (and remains to this day) the only significant science-based organization in the world to have adopted a formal position statement denying the validity of AGW. Internal and external pressures, however, led to this statement to be re-evaluated. So in 2007, a new statement was adopted, acknowledging that although human causation has been broadly accepted elsewhere, AAPG members remain divided on it, and that the topic merits further research, all of which are true. At the same time, they (we) formed the new “climate change committee”, with the hope that it would promote a better understanding of scientific issues among the AAPG membership and provide a venue where opinions and information could be readily shared.In an effort to reflect the full range of viewpoints of the AAPG membership, several members of the Committee were selected to represent the view that AGW was not merely scientifically incorrect, it was a hoax. Thus, while the goal of inclusiveness was well-intended, it unfortunately led eventually to the Committee’s downfall three years later, in 2010. The final blow came when the “hoax” faction attempted to organize a forum on solar influences on climate change populated solely by so-called “skeptics”. No attempt at ”balance” was even attempted. This was in “retaliation” for the first two forums sponsored by the Committee where we had invited world-class experts (no exaggeration) covering a number of important topics in climate science. Our goal was not to promote acceptance of AGW, but to provide AAPG members with a better understanding of what the scientific evidence and reasoning had been based on.But that’s not the way the “skeptics” on the Committee saw it. They were convinced that the answers to climate science questions cannot be found within the scientific mainstream, but only on its margins, where the truly “outside the box” thinkers lived… the “Galileos” of the modern era, who dared to question the norms. Why should they even care what the mainstream scientific community claimed, when the mainstream scientific community was obviously wrong?The “skeptics" were bound and determined to give “alternative science” a platform, irrespective of the strength or validity of their arguments. Conflict over the nature of the proposed forum on solar influence on climate change led eventually to the president of AAPG dissolving the committee.I had been asked to serve on this committee (eventually named the “Global Climate Change Committee”), despite having no professional background and very little technical knowledge about climate science. The person who appointed me, however, did so based on his impression that my background in science was very broad and interdisciplinary, and his trust in my commitment to sincere skepticism and critical thinking. I tried my best to justify his trust in me in this regard.Having been appointed to serve, I began to immerse myself in the “debate” taking place over AGW—-largely via the internet—disputing the conclusion that human activity was the dominant driver of present day climate change. The most immediately obvious aspects of this issue, even without knowing anything about the scientific issues were:The extreme emotionalism surrounding it. This occurred on both “sides”, but was especially vitriolic among those those rejecting AGW. The didn't merely disagree on the scientific evidence and conclusions, they were PISSED OFF about it, and their sheer hatred and loathing dripped off the page. The people expressing these feelings for the most part had nothing whatsoever to do with the petroleum industry.The extreme politicization of the issue. Whereas in reading about climate science, I came across essentially no references to politics, the people who rejected AGW claimed that AGW was entirely about politics. In their view, AGW was a “liberal” scheme. It was a Democratic (USA) plot. It was backed by the United Nations which according to their beliefs is a political organization aimed at promoting a unified “one-world” government. In contrast, their rejection of AGW was deemed not to be politically motivated. It was alleged to be rational, logical, and well-supported; and it was done in response to AGW politics having been shoved down their throats by the “liberals”. (Historical Note: As recently as 2016, the AAPG monthly newsletter, the Explorer, published an op/ed article decrying the “politicization of science”. Oddly, I had heard the lead author of this article deliver one of the most shockingly politicized rants against AGW that I had ever heard, back in 2005. And his co-author was a member of the Global Climate Change Committee who resigned because he claimed the committee had been “politicized”. Apparently, truth, as is so often the case, is in the eye of the beholder)The paranoia. Claims were rife on the internet that AGW is a hoax; that there has been a secret plan to promote it; that alternative ideas have been systematically suppressed by the “scientific powers that be”, particularly the intellectual, academic elite; that competent scientific voices doubting AGW have been systematically muzzled and marginalized. Moreover, they claimed that any scientist who would agree to support AGW would have access to their share of billions of dollars in research money, whereas but that those who doubted AGW would be condemned to having their careers ruined. There were claims the system that the system of “peer review” was corrupt, representing nothing more than “pal review”…. In other words, the “buddy system".The anti-science perspective. The arguments against AGW basically trashed the scientific community and the scientific method in general. Mind you, they didn’t feel they were trashing science itself, as they believed that AGW “skeptics” have been the only ones committed to doing science properly. (Historical Note: The AAPG Explorer ran no fewer than 3 Op/Ed articles in 2016 encouraging AAPG to sponsor an interdisciplinary forum to try to teach the broader science community how science should be conducted properly, on the premise that petroleum geology has developed our own special skills in this regard. Although it may not have been their specific intention to undermine the credibility and standing of science in general, this was effectively the message.I want to emphasize that not all petroleum geologists believed these things. Certainly I didn’t; and we don’t really know the full range or percentages of what the beliefs were among the AAPG membership. In fact, the petroleum industry actually have been leaders in the application of stochastic modeling to complex multivariate systems, as well as methods of circumventing bias. I recount these anecdotes primarily to emphasize the overwhelming power of cognitive bias. Most of the people denying AGW were otherwise very well educated, rational, and thoughtful, yet these capabilities were useless in contracting the influence of bias in their thinking.It is essential that we learn more about the debilitating impact of cognitive bias, and learn better ways to counteract its influence, if indeed that is even possible.At the beginning of my time on the Climate Change Committee, I had difficulty making sense of all this, yet it seemed clear that to the extent that science was intended to be a rational, objective process, the interjection of emotionalism, politics, paranoia, and indeed anti-science seemed a colossally bad approach, assuming there was to be any hope of having a rational dialog, as was the Committee’s directive. This realization sent me off in two directions. One was to investigate the specific scientific claims being made by those who rejected AGW, and the other was to try to understand what might underlie this disturbing descent into irrationality.It soon became evident to me that the truth or falseness of AGW was not a topic that was seriously up for debate by those rejecting AGW. They were already quite certain that it was wrong. In other words, there was no “skepticism” about AGW… only the certainty that AGW was false. People holding this position frequently cited their justifications, but it soon became clear (to me, at least) that their arguments were scientifically specious and indefensible.Lacking a sound body of evidence to support their position from a scientific perspective, logical fallacies became their bread and butter—straw man arguments, cherry picking, red herring, ad hominem, etc.I asked myself: If they were actually correct about AGW being false, why should they need to use logical fallacies to support their position. And why, when their arguments were refuted, did they continue to make the same claims again and again (a tactic I came to refer to as “zombie arguments”, because they would never die). These tendencies presented a huge “red flag” to me that something else was going on.With further research online, I discovered the psychological phenomenon of denial, and the issues of cognitive bias and the unconscious motivations that surround it. I soon came to recognize that the rejection of AGW was not a scientifically reasoned position at all… but a manifestation of denial.Paul Appelbaum, former head of the American Psychiatric Association has described denial as the “deliberate, often psychologically motivated, neglect of information that would be too upsetting or anxiety-provoking to allow into one’s belief system”. By “psychologically motivated”, Appelbaum is acknowledging that denial is rooted in what is termed “cognitive dissonance”, which describes the sensation of anxiety and unhappiness people feel when confronted with information that conflicts with their existing deeply held beliefs.To me, it was obvious that the phenomenon we were confronting was a manifestation of denial…. And yet, the scale at which this was occurring was stunning. This wasn’t just a single bereaved mother who refused to accept that her child had died, or a substance abuser denying they have a problem with substance abuse. This was a very large community comprising tens of millions of people, who shared their ideas via the internet, and through the right wing “entertainment” media, and who provoked one another into dopamine-inducing states of rage by arguing how patently false and stupid AGW was, asking one another how people could be so stupid as to believe it.I termed this form of shared, collective denial as “denialism”. This is a term that recently has come into common usage, but still lacks a formal definition.So returning to the question, but altering the wording to conform to my own terminology: Why is there such a large number of people in the United States who subscribe to AGW Denialism?The answer lies in understanding the roots and origins of their denial. I’ve identified four “populations” in the USA whose ideology or values are severely challenged if they would accept Anthropogenic Global Warming as true. These groups are: 1) social conservatives, 2) libertarians, 3) religious fundamentalists, and 4) people with ties to the fossil energy industry. The reason that AGW Denialism is so widespread in the USA is for the simple reason that, owing to our lifestyle and political history, we simply have more people populating these four groups than any other country in the world. Australia, Canada, and the UK are other countries where AGW Denialism is widespread and influential, always in association with the conservative political parties.I have expanded more on the motivations of each of these groups in previous Quora answers, and will not further discuss them here. Suffice to say that blaming this all on the fossil energy companies is a dangerous “red herring”. I encourage readers to look more broadly. I acknowledge again that some malicious entities have helped to spread the arguments used in AGW Denialism by funding biased “think tanks” and internet web sites…. but more than anything, they needed groups of people who would be receptive to these ideas.Appeal to readers: I’m late getting this posted, and of course, the “Facebook” aspects of Quora (with the world scrolling past on a time frame of hours or days), is working against me. There are already 20 previous answers. If you find my points to be worthy, please consider that Mr. Lee Thé’s answer already has 9,400 views, and 216 upvotes! I will need your help if my answer is to be widely seen and read. I feel it’s important, and I hope you will agree. Thx!!ADDENDUM: Hmmmm…. Thank you to 11 Upvoters. But it seems there’s only 4 “Upvotes”. I suppose this is the net result of 11 Upvotes and 7 Downvotes. Yet there are no

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