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Which places around the world are as mystical as 'Forbidden Kingdom', 'Narnia' or Hogwarts?

Lets start with World’s most Forbidden Destinations:-Area 51 remains, still, an off-limits mystery.NeuPaddyConsidering the staggering rates of global expansion and technology development, it’s impossible to imagine that there is even a sliver of this planet that remains undiscovered or unexplored. So there’s a certain comfort in knowing that, even today, there are mysteries that remain unexplored.From man-made, guarded structures to natural enigmas protected by environmental science, a slew of spots across the globe are entirely forbidden to outside travelers. Picture islands teeming with vipers, extraterrestrial secrets, locked mysteries of religion, virgin wildlife and entire societies that have never made contact with the outside world. Many of these locations are still shrouded in intrigue, with their goings-on staying behind closed doors. Other locations are better understood, though still off-limits due to a variety of safety, scientific or governmental regulations.While the allure of the taboo and forbidden is undeniable, you’d be hard-pressed to swindle your way into these forbidden places — and in many cases, you probably wouldn’t want to. Still, in a world full of places you can discover, it’s intriguing to consider the places you can’t.Snake Island, BrazilPoisonous snakes keep this aptly named island forbidden. Not that anyone is complaining.World Viewers StopAbout 93 miles off the coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil is Ilha da Queimada Granda, also known as Snake Island. To what does it owe this title? Researchers estimate there are between one and five snakes here per 10 square feet. The snakes, specifically golden lanceheads, are known for their poison, which literally disintegrates flesh around their bites.So maybe it’s not such a bad thing that you’re not allowed to visit Snake Island…Lascaux Caves, FranceThe prehistoric paintings at Lascaux Caves are incredible...and off limits. This image is a replica.Pline.In the quest to discover the history of the human race, there is one spectacular place that provides enormous insight. The Lascaux Caves in southwestern France are home to a series of stunning Paleolithic paintings, estimated to be up to 20,000 years old. The paintings, which plaster the walls of the cave, are hauntingly vivid, depicting stags, cattle, bison, cats and more. But the most incredible of all the paintings can be found in the Hall of the Bulls, which is known for its four bull murals, one of which is 17 feet long.Sadly, the caves have been banned to the public since the 1960s, as they have been invaded by fungi and black mold, both detrimental to human health. Plus, human presence is considered destructive to the works of art.Fortunately, though, you can experience the next best thing: Last year, a museum and cave replica right next to the real deal opened to the public.Area 51, United StatesSigns near Area 51 make it abundantly clear: No trespassers allowed.X51A conspiracy theorist's playground, Area 51 has stumped the public for decades. The hidden military base in the Nevada desert has kept its purpose a secret for quite some time, though many like to believe it's kept for alien testing.One thing is for sure — attempting to access the forbidden area would be highly irresponsible, as the grounds are protected by mines and other defenses.North Sentinel Island, IndiaNatives have successfully kept this island to themselves for 60,000 years.NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse AllenOn North Sentinel Island, a small island in the Andaman chain in the Bay of Bengal, natives have long been opposed to the influences of the modern world. In fact, the Sentinelese people who live on the island refuse communication with any outsiders, and are willing to get violent to protect their isolation. Following the 2004 tsunami, when the Indian Coast Guard flew a reconnaissance mission over the island, men reportedly emerged from the forests to shoot arrows at the helicopter, which did not land.The Sentinelese have lived on the island for some 60,000 years, and with the protection of the Indian government — which prohibits visitors of any kind — it has successfully resisted anthropologists, authorities and tourists.Bohemian Grove, United StatesNovelist Jack London captured this rare shot of Bohemian Grove.Public DomainTalk about a boys' club. This 2,700-acre campground in Monte Rio, Calif., is the ultimate playground for men. Each July, the Grove hosts a two-week bacchanalian blowout for VIPs around the world. Past and present members include U.S. presidents, government members, business leaders, artists and musicians. The event comes with a saying, "Weaving Spiders Come Not Here," which means there is to be no business wheeling-and-dealing while on the grounds. Most infamously, there are rumors that Bohemian Grove hosted a Manhattan Project planning meeting in 1942 which resulted in the atomic bomb, though this cannot be proven.Membership is highly exclusive. Translation: You won't be accepted. (Assuming you’d even want to be.) And the goings-on are highly top secret.Ise Grand Shrine, JapanThis ancient shrine is a cultural wonder...that only the Japanese imperial family can access.N yotarouJapan has shrine culture down pat. There is estimated to be upwards of 80,000 shrines in the island nation. But none is more important than the Ise Grand Shrine, an intricate temple that happens to be one of the most expensive in the country due to the detail of its architecture.The shrine is rebuilt every 20 years (at a million-dollar price tag), in order to symbolize the Shinto tradition of death and renewal of nature. The current iteration was build in 2013. And unless you're a member of the Japanese imperial family, there's no chance you'll be entering the hallowed halls of this ancient, significant representation of Japanese culture.Heard Island, AustraliaSatellites capture volcanic activity on remote Heard Island.NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterThere's the ends of the earth, and then there's Heard Island. One of the most remote islands in the world, Heard Island technically belongs to Australia but can be found somewhere between Madagascar and Antarctica.The island is known for its two active volcanoes, but for the most part it's thoroughly blanketed in ice. Inhabitants include seals, birds and four types of penguins. Humans, however, are not permitted to visit, though landings to the nearby McDonald Islands are allowed solely for "compelling scientific reasons."Poveglia, ItalyA haunting history defines this small Italian island.Twisted doesn't begin to describe the history of Poveglia Island, a small island between Venice and Lido in Northern Italy. For centuries the small island has been prime real estate for, well, dumping of the dead. The island became a quarantine colony in the 14th century for victims of the Bubonic Plague. In the 19th century, Poveglia became an asylum for the area's mentally ill, where it was rumored that a cruel doctor performed experiments on the patients.Today the island is abandoned, save for the ghosts of the tortured souls that once lived there. Tourists and locals are banned from visiting, unless you want to undergo a lengthy paperwork process. But as this is considered the most haunted place in Italy, that’s likely for the best.Vatican Secret Archives, Vatican CityWhat church secrets like in these archives? Only a select few can ever know.EskifyThe secrets of religion are some of the most heavily guarded in the world...and none more so than the Vatican Archives. Centuries of secrets remain a mystery within the vaults of the Vatican, from state papers to accounting to letters. Speculation on what lies beneath include evidence of demons, extraterrestrials and even the Church's alleged contribution to the fascism of the mid-20th century.Today only the highest qualified scholars and educators are allowed in the vault, and only after stringent review. Those looking to simply take a peek will sadly never know what sits between these storied pages.Tomb of Qin Shi Huang, ChinaSome Terra-Cotta warriors are visible to the public — but the vast majority remain off limits.Kevin PohThe Terra-Cotta Warriors at Xi'an is one of the most important discoveries of all time. Thousands of unique, one-of-a-kind lifelike statues depicting ancient Chinese warriors filled underground caverns of the burial complex of China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang. But while the site is one of China's most prominent tourist attractions, the tomb itself still remains a guarded mystery.The tomb will likely remain sealed for the foreseeable future, as it is rumored that there are booby traps protecting it from invaders. There is also a high concentration of mercury within the tomb that would be deadly to anyone who entered without the proper precautions. The only glimpse we have into this treasure are the 2,000 warriors that are exposed to the public. Still, it is said another 6,000 remain within the tomb, along with a myriad of other treasures.Surtsey Island, IcelandSurtsey Island is a natural wonder (mostly) untouched by human activity.CanonS2When ticking UNESCO World Heritage Sites off your bucket list, Surtsey Island is one that might have to go unchecked. This volcanic island lies about 20 miles off the coast of Iceland, and has existed as a natural laboratory since its inception in the 1960s. Scientists have explored the island as a microcosm of natural development, gathering information on plant and animal life, tracking the arrival of seeds, and monitoring the appearance of molds, bacteria and fungi.Today the island is home to a variety of species of lichen, fungi and birds, as well as 335 species of invertebrates. But in order to minimize human disruption, only a select few vetted scientists are allowed on the island to behold its natural wonder.North Brother Island, United StatesRiverside Hospital sits abandoned on North Brother Island.reivaxTragically beautiful North Brother Island is one of the many mysteries of New York City. Located on the East River between the Bronx and Riker's Island, this abandoned island used to be the home of Riverside Hospital in the 19th century, where patients suffering from diseases like tuberculosis, yellow fever and small pox were quarantined. Later the hospital was used after World War II to house veterans, and then as a treatment facility for heroin addicts. In the early 1960s the hospital closed its doors, and it has since been left to crumble by the forces of nature.Today, the island is closed to the public, as it serves as a nesting colony for black-crowned night herons.Mezhgorye, RussiaThis sign in Mezhgorye translates, ironically, to "Welcome."PesotskyExclusive communities are one thing; in Russia there exists an entire town that is closed to the public.Mezhgorye sits in the Ural Mountains, about 120 miles from Ufa, the capital of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Founded in 1979, this small town is said to be home to a nuclear missile site. Though unconfirmed, it is believed that the site contains automatic missiles that can be activated remotely. The town is guarded by two battalions that prevent any outsider from visiting. The only information we have on Mezhgorye is taken from satellite images, and The Kremlin claims that the site is used for mining, an emergency bunker for Russian leaders and a vault for the nation's treasures.The world may never know, and if it is a nuclear site, let's hope we don't have the opportunity to find out.The Dome of the Rock, JerusalemThe Dome of the Rock is not completely off-limits; Muslims are allowed into the holy site.Andrew ShivaOne of the holiest sites in the world is, without a doubt, the Temple Mount. The holiest site for Jewish believers, this temple dates back to the first century BC. It is also the third holiest site for Sunni Muslims after Mecca and Medina. But within the Temple Mount is an even more holy and exclusive site — The Dome of the Rock.This gold-topped Islamic shrine is iconic in the city of Jerusalem. There are already stringent rules in place for visits to the Temple Mount, but the Dome of the Rock's entry is reserved strictly for those who practice Islam. Non-Muslims are not permitted within the holy walls.Niihau, United StatesThis stunning Hawaiian island is enjoyed exclusively by residents.PolihaleHawaiian island-hopping is a beloved pastime for travelers. But if you think you’ve hit all of the islands, think again.One mysterious island, Niihau, is nicknamed “The Forbidden Island,” and that is not an exaggeration. Even its visibility remains elusive, as the only way to catch a glimpse of it is as the sun sets over Kauai’s Kekaha Beach, when its silhouette emerges. The island has been owned by a single family for more than 150 years, and has been kept off limits to the outside world.The only people who can enjoy the island's splendor are its residents, all of whom are descendants of those who lived there before the island was purchased in the 1860s.The Queen’s Bedroom, U.K.Only one civilian has managed to sneak into the Queen's Bedroom..and it involved a massive security breach.Buckingham Palace is one of the top attractions in not only the U.K., but the world. The palace is the Queen's official London residence, and has been the home of Britain's monarchy since 1837. But while there are public tours available of many of the rooms and grounds of the palace, one room remains strictly forbidden: The Queen's Bedroom, where her Majesty often stays.That is, of course, unless your name is Michael Fagan, who was able to break into the Queen's Bedroom in the 1980s in one of the greatest security breaches of all time. The act involved him scaling a 20-foot wall and hoisting himself up a drainpipe — all so he could win a bet with some friends.Coca-Cola Recipe Vault, United StatesWant to find out the recipe for Coke? Good -&nbspThis website is for sale! -&nbspluck Resources and Information.. GrangerJimmy Hoffa or who killed JFK. The real great American secret can be found in a can of Coca-Cola. The legendary mystery formula is secured under lock and key in a purpose-built vault in Atlanta. The map to the world-famous elixir is kept in a metal box inside a 6.6-foot-high step vault, which is in turn protected by a barrier. The area has surveillance with armed guards, and the door can only be opened via keypad with hand scanner.Getting your hands on the Declaration of Independence might be easier than finding out what makes Coke taste so good.U.N. Buffer Zone, CyprusAn old Toyota advertisement is one of many decaying relics at this demilitarized zone in Cyprus.DickelbersIn 1974, Turkish troops invaded Cyprus, escalating a civil war between the split Greek and Turkish residents. The U.N. took control of a "Buffer Zone" in the capital, Nicosia, after the fighting ended in a ceasefire.This historic no-man's land is surrounded by walls separating the Turkish community from the Greek community. Inside the walls are abandoned homes, businesses and a small airport that, as The Atlantic put it, have remained “frozen in time” for decades.Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion, EthiopiaThis building supposedly contains the legendary Ark of the Covenant.JensiS65Though some scholars are dubious, this church is allegedly the final resting place of the Ark of the Covenant, also known as the ornate chest that houses the Ten Commandments. And there is only one person allowed to view the Ark: a special guardian monk anointed by a predecessor.The church dates back to the 4th century AD, and the grounds also include the remains of Tekle Giyorgis I, former Emperor of Ethiopia.Svalbard Global Seed Vault, NorwayThis off-limits vault is ready to save civilization should catastrophe strike.MiksuLocated on the remote island of Spitsbergen, this subterranean seed storagefacility was carefully built 400 feet into a mountainside. The complex houses approximately 840,000 samples of 4,000 different species of seeds from all over the world. The bank operates like a safety deposit box, allowing governments to leave seed samples for safekeeping in the event of a major global or regional event that would wipe out major food supplies.Only official “depositers” are allowed inside what is ominously described as “the final back up.”Robins Island, United StatesOnly one lucky man has access to this turtle-filled island.The Moore Charitable FoundationThis privately owned, 435-acre island off the coast of New Suffolk, New York has been the subject of controversy throughout its history. Transfers of ownership over the years led to it becoming a nature preserve and sanctuary, created by current owner Louis Bacon. It is also home to one of the largest populations of turtles in the state.Other than Mr. Bacon and the turtles, however, it is off limits to the public. He has spent quite a bit of money rebuilding the ecosystem and believes that commercialization will lead to the destruction of what he has been trying to build.Moscow Metro-2, RussiaU.S. military intelligence supposedly drafted this map of Moscow world of secret tunnels and phantom trains sounds like something out of Harry Potter — unless, of course, you've heard of the Moscow Metro-2.In preparation for a nuclear catastrophe, the KGB built a secret metro system that mirrored the public Moscow metro, except that it’s larger and buried about 600 feet underground. Four lines connect government buildings like the Kremlin with the Federal Security Service headquarters, the government airport and several other important locations.Next time you see a manhole in Moscow, you might want to give it a second thought.Mount Weather Emergency Operations Center, United StatesThanks to this center, government officials will be protected in the case of an apocalypse. Civilians, you're on your own.Karen NutiniNot to be alarmists, but what do you have planned in the event of an apocalypse? Washington, D.C. is certainly prepared. Mount Weather Emergency Operations Center in Virginia — designed to be the safest place in the world in the event of global destruction — is the escape plan for U.S. government officials. Built during the Cold War and now operated by FEMA, the center is designed to protect not only American government members but treasures of the nation, like the art in the National Gallery.Without the shiny seal of approval from the United States government, this souped-up bomb shelter is strictly off limits.Fort Knox, United StatesThe sign for Fort Knox says "Welcome," but in reality you're not."Harder to get into than Fort Knox" is a saying for a reason. Impossible to get into, this Kentucky military base has served many purposes throughout history, but today it is known as the safeguard for America's gold.The fort has been opened once for news media and Congress in 1974, and never again since. Obstacles you'd have to overcome to get your hands on America's gold include minefields, barbed wire, electric fences, armed guards and cameras. Oh, and all of the army units based there have Apache helicopters ready for the “Go” signal.Chernobyl’s Exclusion Zone, UkraineA blocked road makes it clear visitors are not welcome inside the accurately named Exclusion Zone.Nick Rush-CooperThirty years ago, disaster struck nuclear reactor number 4 in Chernobyl, sending radioactive clouds billowing into the air. Evacuations began immediately, but as the extent of the damage became clear, Soviet military officials declared an Exclusion Zone within a roughly 18-mile radius of the plant, turning the city into a veritable ghost town. Today much of the Zone still remains completely off limits.Tourists can get special permission to go, but it's near impossible to do so. With a radiation level that is still highly dangerous, it might be a better use of time to scratch other destinations off your bucket list anyways.Pine Gap, AustraliaThis Cold War-era base makes its top-secret nature known.SchutzHidden somewhere in the Australian Outback is a top-secret military base operated by the U.S. government. Known as the Joint Defense Facility Pine Gap, it is used to control satellites that collect intel on airstrikes around the world.The facility was opened during the Cold War in 1966 under the guise of a space research facility, but was actually operated by the CIA. There is no way to access Pine Gap without clearance — unless, of course, you are flying over it or hiking the MacDonnell Ranges that surround it.Mormon Church Secret Vault, United StatesThis formidable fortress conceals mysterious church secrets.Very few things are as mysterious as a vault inside of a granite mountain. But that’s exactly what the Mormon Church’s Secret Vault is — mysterious, and inside Granite Mountain.In Little Cottonwood Canyon outside of Salt Lake City sits this sprawling, ironclad vault. Built in 1965, the vault was created to preserve records of importance to the church. Today it holds more than 3.5 billion images on microfilm and digital media. For security reasons, there is no public access to the vault.Disney Club 33, United StatesIf you want access to this private club, you'll need a special VIP invite.Josh HallettIt might be the happiest place on earth for the masses, but Disney also has a secret that is reserved for only the elite.Disney Club 33 is by far the most exclusive place in the Disney empire. Walt Disney himself created the club as a lounge to entertain business associates but never actually got to enjoy it, as he passed away before it could open. But open it did (with a liquor license, to boot — the only place in the parks that serves alcohol).Access is invitation only, but an invite doesn't necessarily guarantee entry. You also need to fork over about $100,000 to solidify your membership, and then annual dues are about $30,000 per year. Or you could just stick to the It's A Small World ride and learn to find joy in that.Menwith Hill Royal Air Force Station, UKThis secretive compound is ripe for conspiracy-theorizing.Matt CryptoIts ultimate modern day purpose still remains a mystery to the public, but thissecretive piece of land was originally used for espionage and intelligence gathering during the Cold War. It sits on 550 acres and as far as we know, is only used by ECHELON spies and NSA.The site was opened in 1954 and over the years conspiracy theorists have gone crazy trying to figure out what goes on behind the barbed wire inside the Epcot-esque spheres that make up the base.Diego Garcia, Indian OceanMilitary personnel only are allowed onto this island.NASAThis island in the Indian Ocean, which used to be part of the United Kingdom, was used as a pawn to settle a $14 million debt owed to the United States. Today it is used as a U.S. military base, but no one is allowed to visit.According to reports, there are 654 buildings on the island and about 4,000 military personnel, but their activity is strictly top secret. There are theories, of course, as there always are with all things secret. Some people believe that there is a secret military prison.The only thing that is known for sure is that Diego Garcia was the launch place for military flights into Afghanistan and Iraq.Woomera Test Range, AustraliaOnly those okay with extreme danger would be comfortable visiting this forbidden site http://anyways.Kr.afolImagine if the entire country of Portugal was a test-firing range. Well, that's the size of the Woomera Test Range in Australia. The massive (47,100-square-mile) range site is used for testing weapons, like bombs and missiles.Because of this, visitors are understandably not permitted on the site. It wouldn't exactly make for a stress-free vacation.Mariana Trench, Pacific OceanThe deepest spot on Earth is, as you'd guess, not easy to access.wallaceNear Japan, just east of the 14 Mariana Islands archipelago, lies a sea canyonconsidered to be the deepest site in the entire world. The trench is more than seven miles deep and has vents that bubble up liquid sulfur and carbon dioxide; the pressure on the floor is more than eight tons per square inch, which is equivalent to having 50 jumbo jets sitting on top of you.So it's probably a good thing that you can't actually go there. (There have, however, been four successful submarine descents into its depths, including one led by director James Cameron.)White’s Gentlemens Club, UKThis club takes exclusivity to (obnoxious?) new levels.Paul FarmerTechnically this club isn’t forbidden, but getting in will cost you more than you probably make in a year. The exclusive society was founded in the 17th century as a hot chocolate shop, but its sweet side quickly deteriorated into seedy as patrons preferred it become a gambling gentleman's club.Today it boasts the reputation as the most private and expensive club in the world — and it has to be to guard the secrets of what goes on behind closed doors. Membership costs $112,000 per year. Not only do you have to have deep pockets, you also have to have gone to school at Eton followed by Cambridge or Oxford. And even then applications still might take years to be approved.Most Remarkable Train Journeys in EuropeBy Andrew Thompson on April 9, 2018There was a brief moment on the train journey between Lucerne and Lake Geneva in Switzerland when I found myself peering at my reflection in the spotless window wondering if this experience was real.Just beyond my reflection, a lush green valley, dotted with Swiss chalets, the odd one puffing little plumes of smoke into the cool spring air, washed silently past. A narrow river fueled by melting snow flowed rapidly between the chalets, filtering into a pristine turquoise lake further up the valley. And towering up all around this living tourism brochure were the giant Swiss Alps. The highest peaks, visible through windows in the ceiling of the carriage, escaped the warming sun and still had light dustings of snow.For many inside the train, this was little more than their daily commute — but for at least one wide-eyed tourist lucky enough to spontaneously stumble into a seat on the GoldenPass Express, it was nothing short of spectacular.Scenic train rides like the one I lucked into abound in Europe, and though it’s true that many of the continent’s most remarkable journeys are confined to the Alps, there are also dozens further afield well worth seeking out. Here, we’ve rounded up the most awe-inspiring.Jacobite Train, ScotlandThe Jacobite Train served as inspiration for the Hogwarts Express.miroslav_1Jacobite Train is commonly described as “the world’s greatest railway journey”— and that's not an over-exaggeration.This incredible Scottish rail route and steam train served as inspiration for the Hogwarts Express, and though this has caused a flurry of excitement from Harry Potter fans around the world, it’s an unmissable excursion even for those not au fait with the novels. That’s because the journey takes you close to some of Great Britain’s most breathtaking extremes — from the country’s highest mountain, to its deepest sea and freshwater lochs, to its shortest river.Beautiful nature aside, you’ll also chug through a handful of quaint Scottish villages before arriving in the coastal town of Mallaig — a busy fishing port in the Highlands dating back to the mid-1800s.The train runs according to a seasonal service, so it’s important to double check departure times ahead of time and book well in advance. But given the views, the history and the fantastical undertones, there are few rail journeys worthier of your advanced planning than this.Bergen Line, NorwayIn winter, a journey with Bergen Railway is particularly stunning.MariusLtuIf you’re looking to tick off the most iconic train ride in Norway, and ride one of Europe’s most celebrated scenic routes, then book your ticket for the Bergen Railway between Oslo and Bergen.It’s a 310-mile, seven-hour extravaganza past some of Norway’s most varied scenery and dramatic mountaintops. Much of the journey wends through beautifully stark and desolate terrain. But it’s also an important means of transport for residents and visitors alike — during winter months it fills with skiers heading to the famous slopes along the way.This is the highest mainline railway in Scandinavia, and its completion in the early 1900s was an impressive achievement. Though it’s celebrating its 110th year since the first train left Bergen, the modern trains that now service this line are anything but dated.Rauma Line, NorwayFor a quick trip packed with beauty, Rauma is a must-book.johnny_ratroIf you’re looking for a Scandinavian journey with diversity and action, then head for Norway’s Rauma Railway line between the town of Åndalsnes and the mountain village of Dombås. The journey between the two takes less than two hours, but the train carries you past Trollveggen wall and Kylling Bridge, and right through Reinheimen National Park, famous for the reindeer who call it home.Given the relatively short journey time, this train ride makes for an incredible return day trip from Åndalsnes.Rhine Valley Line, GermanyGermany's vineyards are the key attraction on the Rhine Valley Line.Matthias LindnerGermany’s Rhine Valley Line is the stuff of fairytale and legend. Unlike many thrilling scenic train journeys in Europe, this one is somewhat more sedate — which is exactly what makes it so appealing.The Rhine Railway runs through the heart of German wine country between the towns of Mainz and Koblenz, at times just a few feet from the famous river after which it’s named. The route is not short on scenic beauty, thanks to views of the river and Rhine Valley's towering peaks, but it's the numerous castles and quaint small towns along the way that give this route an intriguing edge.The journey isn’t a long one — if you choose one of the numerous high-speed trains you can complete it in under an hour. But most travelers choose the slower regional trains and stop off along the way to sample world-famous Rhine Valley wine as close to the source as possible.'Over the Top' Line, Germany and AustriaThe striking peak of Zugspietz is often visible on the little-known 'Over the Top' line.DieterMeyrlThe somewhat inconspicuous rail route between Innsbruck and Munich, via Garmisch-Partenkirchen and Mittenwald, delivers a range of scenic surprises. It’s operated by Deutsche Bahn and Austrian Federal Railways, and includes a stint on the Mittenwald Railway, but because it’s not the quickest route between the two cities, many overlook it.Online maps and automatic route finders will tend to push you towards the faster but less interesting InterCity line between the two cities. But the most memorable journey traverses via Seefeld, and is dubbed "Over the Top." On a clear day it delivers views of Zugspitz, the highest mountain in Germany, and the remainder of the route serves up remarkable Alpine views. The arrival into the Innsbruck Valley is truly something — particularly during winter months when thick layers of snow line the trackside and mountains.And because the route is not a branded scenic line, it costs a fraction of the other better-marketed attractions, and you’ll alight with a sense of in-the-know satisfaction.Semmering Bahn, AustriaAgainst such a staggering backdrop, the Semmering Bahn line looks miniscule.hajesAustria’s 41-kilometer Semmering Bahn line may be relatively short, but it passes through Alpine terrain so dramatic, it has earned the entire route UNESCO World Heritage Status (not to mention the UNESCO label of “one of the greatest feats of civil engineering”).Though it dates back to the 1850s, this line passing between Gloggnitz and Murzzuschlag is still in impeccable condition, and it offers plenty of thrills via the striking stone bridges and 15 tunnels it encompasses.Of course, true to the Austrian way, trains run efficiently here, and the scenery is everything you’d expect for a route that cuts its way through the incredible Alps.Cinque Terre Train, ItalyThis train ride is all about taking in coastal beauty.LatsalomaoThe steep slopes and colorful seaside villages of Cinque Terre are among Italy’s most popular tourist attractions. Many flock there simply to bask on one of the iconic beaches or hike the rugged cliffs — but the area also features an incredible train journey to include in your itinerary.The Cinque Terre train, operated by TrenItalia, runs between La Spezia and Levanto, stopping at various points along the way. It’s not a long journey; if you ride the train start to finish it will take you just 30 minutes. But most choose to stop off at iconic towns along the way and meander along the cliffs. And thanks to panoramic sea views and a coastal atmosphere, this is a truly unique European rail experience.GoldenPass Express, SwitzerlandThe GoldenPass Express train passes bucolic landscapes to remember.Courtesy of authorSwitzerland’s GoldenPass train connects Lucerne to Montreux, on the shores of Lake Geneva. In just five hours it serves up a condensed Swiss highlights package, complete with jaw-dropping views of picturesque villages, vast mountains, fertile valleys, and pristine rivers and lakes.The trains are slick and ultra-modern, but if you switch to the GoldenPass Classic carriages at the halfway mark, you’ll be able to experience what it was like to journey during the golden age of rail travel. These retro trains that run between Zweisimmen to Montreux have gold-trimmed luggage racks, wood finishes, carpeted aisles, plush armchair-like seating, and waiters who’ll take your food or drink order at your seat.Many take the journey from start to finish simply to explore the scenic beauty along the way. But most break their journey en-route to Lake Geneva with a stop in the popular tourist city of Interlaken, which boasts dramatic alpine and lake views and all the amenities of a premier resort town. Or they hop aboard another train and venture up the valley to the painfully quaint town of Lauterbrunnen, just 20 minutes from Interlaken.Bernina Express, SwitzerlandThe Bernina line is an engineering marvel recognized by UNESCO.sculpies\While you’re in St. Moritz, you may as well hop aboard the Glacier Express’ biggest rival, the Bernina Express. Technically beginning in Chur, the oldest city in Switzerland, but connecting at several small towns along the way, the route runs over the Alps — at times improbably — and into Italy.Though shorter than its glacial competitor, this line is no less dramatic. At its highest point you’ll traverse the Bernina Mountain Pass and rattle past three pristine lakes and a large glacier, before dipping down toward Tirano on a scintillating set of tracks.UNESCO recognizes this railway line for bringing together two historic railways and several isolated mountain villages, once separated by the massive Alps. In order to achieve this, engineers built dozens of tunnels and viaducts on precarious mountain passes, and as such, for many passengers the journey isn’t actually about the scenery. Two structures in particular get the engineering fans out of their seats — the 213-foot high Landwasser Viaduct and the circular Brusio loop viaduct.The Bernina Express terminates in Tirano, but if you’re eager to return to Swiss soil there are official Bernina busses that skirt Lake Como and deliver you back to another Swiss lakeside haven in Lugano.Glacier Express, SwitzerlandThe Glacier Express is slow...but with views like this, who cares?Courtesy of authorThe Glacier Express is perhaps the most iconic scenic train ride in Switzerland, if not the world. Over the course of eight hours it carves a line through the Alps between two of the country’s most exclusive destinations — the car-free ski resort town of Zermatt, famous for its jagged Matterhorn, and the exquisite ritzy lakeside village of St. Moritz.In spite of its name, the journey is anything but rapid. Instead, the Glacier Express chugs along at a sedate pace that allows you to take it all in. That many hours on a train might sound like too much, but considering the remarkable scenery you’ll glimpse via over-sized windows along the way, you’ll hardly be complaining.In winter the train ride lives up to its name and delivers views of a frozen Swiss wonderland dotted with cross-country skiers, frozen rivers and thick white snow several feet deep. In summer the snow thaws to reveal lush green fields, waving hikers and rapidly flowing rivers, with the highest peaks still sporting a dusting of white.The Glacier Express trains are the epitome of modern; they feature at-seat service, real plates and silverware in first class, careful climate control and the requisite panoramic windows that allow you to crane your neck up to see the very top of the Alps. All of this comes at a price, particularly if you’re shelling out for first class, but for many this journey occupies a spot atop ultimate travel bucket lists.Gotthard Panorama Express, SwitzerlandThe Gotthard Panorama Express showcases a diverse array of landscapes.Courtesy of authorThere are several efficient ways to travel between Zurich and Lugano, and the recently rebranded Gotthard Panorama Express isn’t one of them. That’s because this train, previously called the Wilhelm Tell Express, does everything in its power to showcase the best of Swiss scenery between these two cities, even if that comes at the expense of speed.Not only does the route take you over 205 bridges, through seven loop tunnels and deep into the Alps via the 15-kilometer long Gotthard Tunnel — at the time of construction, the longest in the world — but it also gives you the opportunity to depart the train and complete part of your journey via historic steamboat.The scenery changes constantly, and if you travel from north to south you’ll go from beautiful alpine surroundings to almost balmy lakeside cities boasting palm trees and stone houses in the south of the country.Though there are easy rail connections throughout the year that deliver elements of these attractions, this seasonal line’s unique combination of boat, Gotthard Tunnel and scenery make it a must-book.Montenegro Express, Montenegro and SerbiaBrilliant fall foliage leaves an impression on the Montenegro Express.Courtesy of authorUnlike the famous, carefully branded train journeys of Western and Central Europe, the line that connects Montenegro’s Bar and Serbia’s Belgrade doesn’t have a carefully considered name, a flashy website or a slew of catchy hashtags following it around. In the absence of these, or any real official online presence for that matter, most travelers have dubbed it either the Montenegro Express or the Balkan Express.These trains also lack climate control, dining carts, first-class compartments and any real commitment to a schedule. But what Montenegro Express lacks in branding it more than makes up for in charm.The line dates back to the days of Josip Tito, the first president of Yugoslavia. He opened it in 1976 to run his Blue Train, which ferried him and several famous guests across the Balkans in style. Though the luxurious train now languishes in a shed outside the Serbian capital, a ramshackle collection of carriages continue on the path it set, winding through hundreds of tunnels and across thrilling bridges — including Mala Rijeka Viaduct, the highest in Europe.In spite of the lack of creature comforts, this no-frills all-day adventure costs just a handful of coins, and far surpasses anything you’ll find in a slick panoramic carriage out west. That’s because you’ll struggle to find any rail journey on the continent that offers a tale like that of Josip Tito’s, combined with engineering marvels in the form of 254 tunnels and 435 bridges that you whip through and over as you ascend and descend at times frankly terrifying aerial mountain terrain.World’s most mystical, Imaginary places :-CamelotCamelot is the castle and court of Arthurian legend. It first appeared in a 12th-century romance by French writer Chretien de Troyes. Countless writers and artists have found a muse in the stories that take place in the realm of Camelot, such as Lord Alfred Tennyson in "Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevere," and Mark Twain in A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court. Though Camelotis in ruins now if it ever existed, Arthurian legend is still told and retold today.XanaduThe most popular depiction of Xanadu was dreamed up by Samuel Taylor Coleridge in his 1797 poem "Kubla Khan" under the influence of opiates, where he describes Xanadu as "a stately pleasure-dome." This famous poem was inspired by Marco Polo's reported visit to Xanadu, the summer residence of Mongol ruler Kublai Khan. Xanadu has surfaced in 20th-century film, making an appearance as the grand estate in Orson Welles' 1941 film Citizen Kane, as well as being featured as the title of a cult fantasy musical in 1980.El DoradoEl Dorado (which literally means "the golden one") is the name of a mythical lost city thought to be located in South America on the Amazon. This term first appeared in English in the late 16th century; as legends of the city of gold spread, explorers including Sir Walter Raleigh made expeditions in hopes of returning to their home countries with riches beyond imagination. All expeditions failed to locate the gilded city. The term El Dorado can be used metaphorically today to refer to any place promising great wealth.OzL. Frank Baum's beloved children's book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz gained so much immediate popularity that within two years of its publication in 1900, it was adapted into a Broadway musical. In 1939 the musical was made into the classic film, which not only solidified the career of the then-teenaged Judy Garland, but also brought the term Oz into widespread usage. From that point on, Oz took on the more general sense of a fantastical place. Ironically, in 1903 Baum wrote that the name Oz came to him while looking at an "O-Z" label on a file cabinet.Vanity FairVanity Fair first appeared in John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress in 1678. In this Christian allegory, Vanity Fair is an ongoing fair in the town of Vanity where worldly ostentation and frivolity are valued above all else. William Makepeace Thackeray titled his 1848 novel Vanity Fair in a nod to Bunyan, highlighting the selfishness of Victorian society. He even used the construction Vanity-Fairian to describe characters in his novel. Today the concept endures on newsstands all over the world with Vanity Fair magazine.AtlantisFirst written about by Plato around 360 BCE, Atlantis is the mythical island that is believed to have existed in the Atlantic Ocean west of Gibraltar before it sank deep into the sea. The name Atlantis comes from the Greek literally meaning "daughter of Atlas." Atlas was the Greek Titan condemned by Zeus to hold the celestial spheres on his shoulders. While many locations have been proposed as the historical site of Atlantis, to this day the legendary lost city remains lost.UtopiaSir Thomas More coined the term utopia in his 1516 book of the same title. Utopia is a New Latin construction meaning "nowhere," which ultimately comes from the Greek roots meaning "not" and "place." More's Utopia depicts an invented island society that enjoys perfection in law, politics, and all social interactions. Within 100 years of its publication, Utopia, in addition to referring to More's vision of the perfect society, became metaphorically applied to any perfect place. Three centuries after utopia entered English, dystopia entered the language as a word describing the opposing concept.Shangri-LaShangri-La is a fictional Tibetan land of eternal youth in James Hilton's 1933 novel Lost Horizon. The term la means "mountain pass" in Tibetan, and the imaginary land of Shangri-La was inspired by National Geographic articles describing isolated Tibetan mountain communities. One county in the Yunnan Province even officially renamed itself to Shangri-La County in 2001 in an effort to promote tourism, claiming that the imaginary paradise that Hilton wrote of is in fact real.

What are some examples of basic research in education?

Academic Basic Research and EducationThe U.S. government has important missions that require technical innovation and scientific expertise that are applicable to national and global security, energy security, environmental stewardship, and human health (as discussed in several chapters of this report). Those missions are typically focused and applied, yet they are accomplished on a foundation of basic research and human development, principally executed in the academic community and related basic research institutions. The academic environment is typically well-suited for long-term research investigations, and is capable of focusing on the longer-term time horizons that are difficult—if not impossible—to accomplish in applied programs. This perspective is especially important for developing graduate research efforts that educate new staff to a depth of expertise unattainable in other venues, and a significant fraction of the basic research funding that goes into academia goes to support these students.Basic research in the nuclear and radiochemistry field supports the numerous and varied applications of the discipline. For example, a list of 14 grand challenges identified by a committee of the National Academy of Engineering in 2008 (NAE 2008) included at least four challenges that directly involve nuclear chemistry:• Provide Energy from Fusion;• Reverse Engineer the Brain;• Prevent Nuclear Terror (forensics, aftermath, and cleanup); and• Engineer the Tools of Scientific Discovery (particularly space-based systems).RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIESAn illustrative list of the types of applied needs that would benefit from basic research in the academic environment by major programs is given below.Page 32Suggested Citation:"3 Academic Basic Research and Education." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.×SaveCancelNuclear Medicine and Radiotracer Applications• New diagnostic tools are needed that include both novel radiopharmaceuticals and new applications of nuclear monitoring techniques. Examples that have recently expanded medical frontiers include Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in vivo imaging (example shown in Figure 3-1) and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) that can bring attomole sensitivity to pharmacokinetic measurements within a patient.• New radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic applications in cancer research are needed that will allow more specific targeting of individual cancer cells when combined with next-generation drug delivery systems.• Alternative methods for producing and separating radioisotopes that have potential medical applications are needed, such as those produced with new accelerator systems, or from harvesting reactor produced elements.FIGURE 3-1 A typical FDG-MR/PET image in coronal view. Magnetic resonance/Positron Emission Tomography (MR/PET) imaging of a 53-year-old female patient with suspicion for tumor recurrence of cervix cancer. (A) coronal T2 weighted inversion recovery sequence (STIR). (B) corresponding superimposition. (C) F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET acquired with the whole-body MR/PET system (three bed positions, 6 min per bed, 120 min post injection of 361 MBq (9.8 mCi) FDG).SOURCE: Schwenzer et al. 2012.Page 33Suggested Citation:"3 Academic Basic Research and Education." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.×SaveCancel• Nuclear imaging provides critical information about the potential viability of new pharmaceuticals early in the course of drug development. Preclinical information about the pharmacokinetics and early pharmacodynamic behavior of the pharmaceutical is used to determine the advancement of the new drug into human clinical trials. Likewise imaging studies conducted in parallel with the clinical phases of drug development may assist in making the important go/no-go decisions that will save time, cost, and effort.• New nanoparticles and nanomaterials are being explored as carriers for medical imaging contrast agents and the targeted delivery of therapeutics. The pharmacokinetics and potential toxicity of these materials is largely unknown. Nuclear imaging techniques may be employed to evaluate the distribution and fate of these new materials in preclinical and clinical research studies on the microdose scale.• Energy production from biomass, biofuels, is a rapidly emerging area of alternative energy research. Radiotracers are being used to map the enzymatic pathways involved with synthetic fuel production.Homeland Security• Additional nuclear forensics techniques are needed that will allow for rapid and more precise post-detonation detection and source attribution with microscopic samples that are often widely dispersed geographically.• Novel methods to detect illicit transport of radioactive materials on a global scale need to be developed as well as sophisticated remote detection of nuclear activities.Weapons• There is a need to develop and to interpret radiochemical signatures to accurately analyze performance and maintain reliability when direct experiments are no longer possible.• New initiatives are needed to obtain the basic nuclear data necessary to reduce uncertainty in extremely complex models of what occurs on very short timescales in high-energy environments, for example as the weapon is exploding, or the impact of the explosion on the atmosphere, planet surface, etc.Page 34Suggested Citation:"3 Academic Basic Research and Education." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.×SaveCancelNon-proliferation and Arms Control• An expanded collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency is needed to design and conduct global environmental sampling for compliance verification and treaty-monitoring activities.• Additional nuclear forensics signatures need to be developed for non-proliferation efforts worldwide.Nuclear Power• Next generation actinide-based fuels will need new chemical separations methods to provide the future fuels for society’s energy demands.• Significant nuclear and radiochemistry and materials science issues with nuclear fuel under extreme conditions need to be resolved as a function of fuel burn-up. This includes both experimental methods development as well as significant theoretical development in f-shell element modeling.• Fuel recycling and reprocessing will require new and improved advanced separations technologies in complex environments, especially with respect to actinide elements (example shown in Figure 3-2).FIGURE 3-2 Thermal stability and sintering behavior of the uranium oxide (UO2) nanoparticles studied utilizing transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with an in situ heating stage. These UO2nanoparticles exhibit sintering temperatures in the range of 500°C–600°C, which is between 700–1000°C lower than reported bulk UO2sintering temperatures.SOURCE: Nenoff et al. 2011.Page 35Suggested Citation:"3 Academic Basic Research and Education." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.×SaveCancel• The national need for waste processing and long-term disposal needs to be addressed, especially with respect to radioisotope fate and transport in the environment.Environmental Remediation and Management• There is a mostly untapped potential for novel isotopic methods for environmental monitoring that needs to be developed. This is strongly connected to both theoretical and experimental studies of radioisotope sequestration and fate and transport within the environment and can include topics as diverse as the modality of energy dissipation in materials or the improvement of detection limits for large-area sampling methods.• Novel separation technologies need to be developed as part of long-term remediation strategies, especially for long-lived radionuclide fission products and actinides (example shown in Figure 3-3).Clearly much of the research in nuclear and radiochemistry is of national importance, but for the most part it is not funded significantly by the private sector. Although public-private partnerships are certainly possible in areas of nuclear power and medicine, the bulk of the nuclear and radiochemical research and development must be supported by the federal government if these applications of nuclear and radiochemistry are to continue—or in the case of environmental management, because they have already occurred extensively in this country and elsewhere. Nuclear and radiochemistry has also become a mature research field over the past 50 years or so, and while this short list of current and future research needs clearly indicates that there is significant fundamental research left to be conducted in this field, a good number of the exciting new developments lie at the interface of traditional nuclear and radiochemistry with other areas such as medicine, materials science, environmental science, and forensic science. Broadening the definitions of nuclear and radiochemistry to encompass and engage academic interests beyond traditional boundaries would in general infuse the discipline with new scientists that can help address personnel shortfalls. An example of networking interdisciplinary academic scientists in actinide research has occurred in Europe with the formation of ACTINET-I3, the Integrated Infrastructure Initiative for Actinide Science (ACTINET 2012).1This_______________1The objective of the present European Commission Seventh Framework Program (FP7) Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) ACTINET-I3 is to reinforce the networking of existing European infrastructures in actinide sciences, and to facilitate their efficient use by the European scientific community in order to keep a leading position in the field of nuclear energy. For more information see ACTINET 2012.Page 36Suggested Citation:"3 Academic Basic Research and Education." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.×SaveCancelFIGURE 3-3 A new strategy for the reduction of99TcO4–and the chemical incorporation of the reduced99Tc into a metal oxide material. Color changes obtained during the photolytic reduction of99TcO4–using α2-[P2W17O61]10–. Upon exposure to sunlight in the presence of 2-propanol, the clear colorless α2-[P2W17O61]10–(A, yellow trace) becomes reduced and exhibits the characteristic blue solution (B, blue trace). Upon addition of a clear colorless solution of99TcO4–(C, orange trace), the solution changes color from blue to dark orange (D; red trace).SOURCE: Burton-Pye et al. 2011.Suggested Citation:"3 Academic Basic Research and Education." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.×organization encompasses classical nuclear and radiochemistry disciplines, but also includes research scientists working in closely related fields that are impacted by nuclear and radiochemistry.NUCLEAR AND RADIOCHEMISTRY ACADEMIC PROGRAMSAcademic research programs in nuclear and radiochemistry have traditionally been found within chemistry departments in the university setting. They are typically at the program level (individual faculty research groups); these programs are not distinct efforts from their home departments. There are exceptions, for example, the nuclear chemistry efforts at the University of Texas, Austin are located within the Nuclear Engineering Program in the Department of Mechanical Engineering (University of Texas 2011). There are other engineering programs such as the biomedical engineering program at the University of California, Davis that offers courses that teach radiochemistry as applied to nuclear medicine imaging (UC Davis 2011). These niches have often been established to locally optimize around funding streams or critical research facilities. These academic research programs provide a critical role in graduate-level education for those who will become future faculty members in academia and staff at national laboratories, as well as undergraduate education for the bulk of the nuclear and radiochemistry scientific workforce, which is especially important for industries such as nuclear energy, nuclear medicine, and environmental monitoring.At the start of this study, there was no comprehensive up-to-date listing of nuclear and radiochemistry academic research programs. Thus, the committee had to collect information on the current status of the academic research and education components of nuclear and radiochemistry in the United States.Faculty MembersThe committee once again looked to a list of faculty compiled by the American Chemical Society (ACS) Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (DNCT) as a starting point (ACS 2008). The DNCT list of nuclear and radiochemistry graduate programs can be found on its website, and is based on the ACS Directory of Graduate Research (DGR) listing of graduate chemistry programs (mainly in the United States) and DNCT membership. The committee then used the online version of DGR (DGRWeb; ACS 2009) to determine year of birth and age of faculty, and to verify faculty appointments for those on the 2008 DNCT list. Faculty appointments were also verified by checking department websites. Additional nuclear andPage 38Suggested Citation:"3 Academic Basic Research and Education." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.×radiochemistry faculty (not on the 2008 DNCT list) were identified using DGRWeb by searching the research area field, as well as by conducting a survey of chemistry department chairs (see Appendix H). From the compiled information (shown in Figure 3-4), the committee observed that the number of faculty dropped from 72 in 1999 to 60 in 2005. There was also a decrease of 24 faculty from 2005 to 2011, but due to the addition of 26 new nuclear and radiochemistry faculty members at 22 universities, the number of faculty increased from 60 professors in 2005 to 62 in 2011.Figure 3-5 shows faculty by year according to age for 1999-2009, and indicates that about half of faculty over this time range is at or is approaching retirement age (61 or older). However, the proportion of those who are 71 or older grew significantly.FIGURE 3-4 Total reported number of existing and new nuclear and radiochemistry faculty at U.S. graduate institutions.SOURCE: DNCT listing (ACS 2008), ACS Directory of Graduate Research (ACS 2009), faculty websites, and survey of chemistry department chairs (see Appendix D and H).Page 39Suggested Citation:"3 Academic Basic Research and Education." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.×FIGURE 3-5 Total reported number of nuclear and radiochemistry faculty at U.S. institutions, by year and faculty age.NOTE: Year of birth not available for all faculty, so yearly totals are slightly less than those shown in Figure 3-4.SOURCE: Data from ACS 2008, 2009.Doctoral EducationAs noted in Chapter 2 of this report, a decline in nuclear and radiochemistry Ph.D. recipients had been observed for decades (1970-2000). However, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (PQDT) data (Figure 2-1) suggests the decline may have reached a plateau or even a rise recently. There has also been a stabilization in the number of academic faculty—as indicated in the data above (Figures 3-4 and 3-5).The committee gathered further information about faculty advisors identified on the 2008 DNCT list. According to that list, there are 20 U.S. graduate programs with at least one faculty member conducting research in theSuggested Citation:"3 Academic Basic Research and Education." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.×area of nuclear and radiochemistry (Table 3-1). Half of the universities in the list are members of the American Association of Universities (AAU), which are considered to be the leading research-intensive U.S. universities. The AAU members also account for about half of the total faculty members listed in the table. Out of the 20 graduate programs listed in Table 3-1, 13 have two or more faculty and are advising the majority of Ph.D. theses (91/114 or 79 percent). Again, half of those are from AAU member institutions. However, only three of the departments listed are ranked among the top 25 chemis-TABLE 3-1 Number of Faculty Advisors and Ph.D. Theses They Advised for U.S. Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry Graduate Programs Identified by ACS DNCT in 2008UniversityHome DepartmentNumber of Nuclear Chemistry Faculty in 2008**Number of Nuclear Chemistry advisee Ph.D. theses completed 2000-2010Auburn UniversityDepartment of Chemistry211Clemson UniversityDepartment of EnvironmentalEngineering and Earth Sciences36Indiana University*Department of Chemistry13Michigan State*Department of Chemistry313Oregon State UniversityDepartment of Chemistry21Pittsburgh State UniversityDepartment of Physics11Stony Brook University—State University of New York*Department of Chemistry22Tennessee Technological UniversityDepartment of Chemistry22Texas A&M University*Department of Chemistry37University of AlabamaDepartment of Chemistry14University of California, Berkeley*Department of Chemistry413University of IdahoDepartment of Chemistry110University of KentuckyDepartment of Chemistry11University of Maryland, College Park*Department of Chemistry17University of Missouri-Columbia*Department of Chemistry36University of Nevada-Las VegasDepartment of Chemistry–Radiochemistry36University of Rochester*Department of Chemistry10University of Washington*Department of Chemistry; Department of Radiology21Washington State UniversityDepartment of Chemistry611Washington University in St. Louis*Department of Molecular Biologyand Pharmacology; Department of Radiological Sciences49TOTAL46114*Member AAU (American Association of Universities)**Only includes faculty who advised Ph.D. theses for 2000-2010.SOURCE: Data from ACS 2008, 2009, and ProQuest 2011.Page 41Suggested Citation:"3 Academic Basic Research and Education." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.×FIGURE 3-6 Count of nuclear and radiochemistry Ph.D. thesis advisors and corresponding advisee theses completed at U.S. institutions, by year, for faculty listed in Table 3-1.SOURCE: Based on faculty data from ACS 2008 and thesis advisor search (ProQuest 2011).try departments (for determination of rankings, see NRC 2011). Figure 3-6shows the number of nuclear and radiochemistry faculty advisors from the 2008 DNCT list and the number of advisee Ph.D. theses completed for those same advisors, which has clearly grown over the past decade.Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry CourseworkAnother measure of nuclear and radiochemistry education in the United States as evidence for estimating the supply of expertise, is the number of institutions that offer specific coursework for undergraduates and graduates. In order to assess this number, the chairs of approximately 138 chemistry departments of graduate institutions (including the approximate top 100 according to National Research Council 2011 assessment of research-graduate programs [NRC 2011]; for a list of chairs and departments, see Appendix H) across the United States were contacted by e-mail and asked “Does your department offer courses which are devoted entirely or in part to nuclear and/or radiation chemistry?” Forty-four chairs responded to the survey andPage 42Suggested Citation:"3 Academic Basic Research and Education." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.×twelve replied yes.2This roughly corresponds with the departments listed in Table 3-1, with two or more nuclear and radiochemistry faculty. Eight respondents indicated their departments offer two courses, and only two respondents (Washington State University and Washington University at St. Louis) offer three or more courses. Course enrollment numbers ranged from 5 to 30. Only five courses offered included a laboratory component. Examples of course titles offered include:• Nuclear and Radiochemistry Laboratory• Radioactivity and its Applications• Modern Nuclear Chemistry• Nuclear Chemistry• Nuclear and Radiochemistry• Radiochemistry: Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry• Radioactivity and Radiation Safety• Selected Topics in Physical Chemistry II (Radiation Detectors)An important aspect of offering focused courses in nuclear and radiochemistry is to provide students with content on actinide chemistry. The chemical behavior of elements with 5f orbitals and electrons (actinides) is an appropriate part of advanced inorganic chemistry. Because all isotopes of the actinides are radioactive, actinide chemistry is also an appropriate component of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry courses and textbooks.The committee also performed a web search to identify nuclear and radiochemistry programs and course offerings at the 25 top ranked chemistry departments (for determination of rankings, see NRC 2011). The results of the search are presented in Table 3-2. Six chemistry departments in the top 25 were found that offer courses in nuclear and radiochemistry, and only two also have faculty members conducting nuclear or radiochemistry research. This raises concerns, because if the maturation of the field means less involvement in nuclear and radiochemistry research from the top research schools, it will grow increasingly difficult to attract top students into the field.Supply of Bachelor’s and Master’s DegreesGiven that there is no specific nuclear chemistry or radiochemistry undergraduate degree granted, it is difficult to determine the number of B.S._______________2This estimate (12/44 or 27.3% of programs) must be viewed with caution, given that only about 31.9% of departments responded and respondents were inconsistent with providing identifying information.Page 43Suggested Citation:"3 Academic Basic Research and Education." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.×SaveCancelTABLE 3-2 Nuclear Chemistry Program Information Identified at Top 25 U.S. Chemistry DepartmentsSchoolNuclear and Radiochemistry Program InformationCourse TitleCalifornia Institute of TechnologyOne undergraduate courseCHEM127 Nuclear ChemistryPennsylvania State UniversityOne graduate courseCHEM 406 (NUC E 405) Nuclear and RadiochemistryTexas A&M UniversityMultiple active research faculty, three undergraduate coursesCHEM 102 Fundamentals of Chemistry II (first year program); CHEM 464 Nuclear Chemistry; CHEM 474 Experimental Nuclear and RadiochemistryUniversity of California, BerkeleyMultiple research faculty, two undergraduate courses, and one graduate courseCHEM 143 Nuclear ChemistryCHEM 146 Chemical Methods in Nuclear TechnologyCHEM 243 Advanced Nuclear Structure and ReactionsUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel HillOne undergraduate course073 First-Year Seminar: From Atomic Bombs to Cancer Treatments: The Broad Scope of Nuclear ChemistryUniversity of Washington, SeattleTwo undergraduate coursesCHEM 410 Radiochemistry LaboratoryCHEM 418 Nuclear ChemistrySOURCE: Program information and course titles were identified by searching available department websites and university course listings. For determination of rankings, see NRC 2011.level nuclear and radiochemists that might be available to supply expertise. However, it is possible to make a rough estimate based on those departments that are known to have nuclear and radiochemistry faculty and coursework (Table 3-1), and numbers for chemistry as a whole obtained from available survey data. Table 3-3 shows the number of chemistry bachelor’s degrees awarded (NSF 2012) at 11 universities the committee identified as having two or more nuclear and radiochemistry faculty and course offerings. The data show that there was an average of 494 bachelor’s degrees awarded per year for the past 5 years (2006-2010) for these universities. With a conservative estimate that 10 percent of the students would take an upper level course in nuclear and radiochemistry, there would be a supply of 49 B.S. level chemists with some background in nuclear and radiochemistry. That number of B.S.-level chemists roughly corresponds with the information about course enrollments from chemistry department chairs discussed earlier, which had a range of 5-50 students per course focused on nuclear and radiochemistry.Degree data is also available for master’s degrees (NSF 2012) at the same 11 universities listed in Table 3-3. It was determined that an average of 98 M.S. degrees were awarded per year at these universities over theSuggested Citation:"3 Academic Basic Research and Education." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.×SaveCancelTABLE 3-3 Bachelor’s Degrees in Chemistry Conferred for Universities with Nuclear and Radiochemistry Faculty and Coursework in Chemistry Departments, 2001-2010University*2001200220032004200520062007200820092010Auburn University89747111617912Michigan State University50433644636062505350Oregon State University10101921273434302632Stony Brook University192**2618243128313542Tennessee Technological University16272417252433251621Texas A&M University44343742434747516849University of California Berkeley7464716089100147147147106University of Missouri Columbia23192020192827232821University of Nevada Las Vegas13897849**8987University of Washington Seattle Campus395666638689101112112103Washington State University13814613121291013Subtotal309280329302404485515504512456TOTAL CHEMISTRY9,8229,4489,3329,3059,93710,89111,25511,82512,13112,321*Universities from Table 3-1 with two or more nuclear and radiochemistry faculty in chemistry departments.**All values are given as reported, but these two seemed inconsistent with values for the series. They may be the result of institutional changes in reporting.SOURCE: Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) completion survey for National Science Foundation population survey specific academic institutions, by level of degree and detailed standardized academic discipline (NSF 2012).Page 45Suggested Citation:"3 Academic Basic Research and Education." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.×past 5 years (2006-2010). Again, with a rough estimate that 10 percent of the students at these universities would take coursework or be involved in nuclear and radiochemistry research, there would roughly be a supply of 10 M.S level chemists per year.Current Educational InitiativesEarlier reports have recommended efforts be undertaken to sustain academic programs in nuclear and radiochemistry.3One of the first initiatives to attract new undergraduate student interest in the field of nuclear and radiochemistry was the Summer School in Nuclear and Radiochemistry, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. This program began in 1984, hosted in the Nuclear Science Facility at San José State University, and subsequently expanded to two concurrent offerings at San José State University and Brookhaven National Laboratory (Clark 2005; Kinard and Silber 2005; Peterson 1997). Data collected about the graduates of the summer schools indicate many of them go on to nuclear and radiochemistry related careers (See Box 9-1). Other early-stage academic pipeline initiatives in related areas have been established more recently, including a Nuclear Forensics Undergraduate Summer School; and are listed in Tables 9-2 and 9-3. All of the initiatives target students or young faculty with a goal of providing an introduction to nuclear or radiochemistry.Constraining Factors and BarriersAcademic nuclear and radiochemistry programs—especially academic experimental research programs—face a number of factors that create costs, complexity, or other organizational challenges that affect decisions to enter or remain in this field. These factors hinder the ability to establish new programs and are often considered when university leaders are deciding whether to replace retiring nuclear and radiochemistry staff. Absent a clear perceived benefit to the university (specifically, for example, extramural research funds), the likelihood of starting a new program or sustaining an existing program is diminished.Examples of factors that serve as constraints or barriers include:• Cost of experimental facilities for handling dispersible radionuclides. This includes both initial capital costs and ongoing operations, regulatory, and maintenance costs._______________3Suggested Citation:"3 Academic Basic Research and Education." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.ו Regulatory complexity. Associated issues including licensing, inspections, waste disposal, and liability language in research contracts. Particular trans-uranic elements such as plutonium may be very difficult to use in research outside of the national laboratory setting which argues strongly for close academic ties to the national labs.• The lack of long-term stability in funding opportunities. In particular, this issue can have a dramatic effect on the attractiveness of an academic field to young students and faculty alike. If there is a perception that jobs and funding opportunities will not be available over the long term, then it is very difficult to convince students to enter the field. Without students entering the field and without competitive access to extramural research funds, nuclear and radiochemists are unlikely to compete favorably in the academic setting with other disciplines.• Lack of presence or mention in university curriculum. Once the number of people trained in nuclear and radiochemistry drops below a critical mass, there is far less awareness of it as a potential field of interest for young students to pursue. Even more than the uncertainty of jobs in the field in the future, ignorance that the field even exists will drastically reduce the number of students entering the field. Since so few educational institutions even offer coursework in nuclear and radiochemistry, it is unlikely that a significant fraction of the academic population has even heard of the discipline in the context of current research opportunities and needs.FINDINGSThe number of Ph.D.s and faculty members in nuclear and radiochemistry appears to have stabilized, but is still fragile. While, there had been a continuing decline in the number of nuclear and radiochemists in the United States since the 1970s, there is evidence that it has leveled off over the past 5 years:• The number of theses with nuclear chemistry as a subject keyword grew from 5 in 2005 to 15 in 2010 (Figure 2-1).• The total number of nuclear and radiochemistry faculty remained at around 60 from 2005 to 2011 (Figure 3-1).Page 47Suggested Citation:"3 Academic Basic Research and Education." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.×As will be discussed in Chapter 9, this stabilization may be due to recent increases in funding opportunities aimed at academic pipeline issues.Data sources for tracking nuclear and radiochemistry expertise are limited and sporadic. Many of the data sources typically used to assess workforce, such as the Survey of Earned Doctorates or Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Outlook do not specifically track the nuclear and radiochemistry field. For years, the ACS DNCT has attempted to keep track of and make available information on educational opportunities in nuclear and radiochemistry, largely through the efforts of one person. Thus, there is no comprehensive and complete data source regarding nuclear and radiochemistry workforce from which to draw data on a routine basis. The lack of a consistent basis set of data makes it difficult to assess the effectiveness of various programs attempting to address academic pipeline issues, since it is harder to quantify, make comparisons, and interpret trends. Tracking the supply and demand of nuclear and radiochemists is a relatively low-cost endeavor that will be important for prudent investment of public funds and to assure that future significant gaps between the human resource supply and the job market are identified with sufficient advance notice to effect any needed changes.There are currently few active graduate programs that have more than one nuclear chemist in the department. Out of over 100 chemistry graduate programs across the United States, only 13 have two or more active nuclear and radiochemistry faculty members (Table 3-1). At the same time, these institutions produced the majority of Ph.D.s in the field over the past 10 years (91/114 or 79 percent). This strongly suggests that programs that are centered upon a single nuclear or radiochemistry faculty member are unsustainable. Critical facility needs for nuclear and radiochemistry research and education are lost when university programs are lost through attrition. The costs to re-initiate a research facility at a new institution are much higher than maintaining or upgrading existing facilities, but neither will take place without sufficient critical mass of faculty to support the facility.There is little or no nuclear and radiochemistry coursework being offered at U.S. universities. The committee identified only 12 chemistry departments that offer one or more courses developed entirely or in part to nuclear and radiochemistry. Only two offer three or more courses. In addition, the committee found that only five out of the top 25 ranked U.S. chemistry departments have nuclear and radiochemistry research and/or coursework.Page 48Suggested Citation:"3 Academic Basic Research and Education." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.×REFERENCESACS (American Chemical Society). 2008. Universities Offering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Nuclear and Radiochemistry. American Chemical Society, Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology [online]. Available: [accessed September 7, 2011].ACS. 2009. DGRweb 2009 [online]. Available: [accessed September 7, 2011].ACTINET (Integrated Infrastructure Initiative). 2012. ACTINET-I3 [online]. Available: [accessed February 27, 2012].Burton-Pye, B. P., I. Radivojevic, D. McGregor, I. M. Mbomekalle, W. W. Lukens, Jr., and L. C. Francesconi. 2011. Photoreduction of99Tc pertechnetate by nanometer-sized metal oxides: New strategies for formation and sequestration of low-valent technetium. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(46):18802-18815.Clark, S. B. 2005. The American Chemical Society. Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry. J. Radioan. Nucl. Chem. 263(1):107-110.Kinard, W. F., and H. B. Silber. 2005. The Department of Energy/American Chemical Society Summer School in Nuclear and Radiochemistry at San José State University. J. Radioan. Nucl. Chem. 263(1):155-158.NAE (National Academy of Engineering). 2008. Grand Challenges for Engineering. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences [online]. Available:[accessed December 20, 2011].Nenoff, T. M., B. W. Jacobs, D. B. Robinson, P. P. Provencio, J. Huang, S. Ferreira, and D. J. Hanson. 2011. Synthesis and Low Temperature In Situ Sintering of Uranium Oxide Nanoparticles. Chem. Mater. 23 (23):5185-5190.NRC (National Research Council). 2011. A. Data-Based Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States, J. P. Ostriker, C. V. Kuh, and J. A. Voytuk, eds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.NSF (National Science Foundation). 2012. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) completion survey for National Science Foundation population institutions. WebCASPAR [online]. Available: [accessed February 24, 2012].Peterson, J. R. 1997. The American Chemical Society’s Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology’s Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry. J. Radioan. Nucl. Chem. 219(2):231-236.ProQuest. 2011. ProQuest Dissertations &Theses Database [online]. Available: [accessed November 14, 2011].Schwenzer, N. F., H. Schmidt, and C. D. Claussen. 2012. Whole-body MR/PET: Applications in abdominal imaging. Abdom Imaging 37:20-28.UC Davis (University of California, Davis). 2011. Biomedical Engineering [online]. Available: [accessed November 14, 2011].University of Texas. 2011. Nuclear and Radiation Engineering Program. University of Texas at Austin [online]. Available: [accessed September 9, 2011].

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