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What is the full form of an ICU?
Not knowing the context, here are a few choices. 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UK)ICU International Clean UpICU Investment Company UnitsICU Intermediate Care UnitICU International Club UnionICU Internet Caribbean UnlimitedICU IBM Classes for UnicodeICU Intermediate Confining UnitICU Information and Communication UniversityICU Internationalist Communist UnionICU International Community UniversityICU International Congress on UltrasonicsICU immigration canada usaICU Inventory Control UnitICU Intermediate Care UnitsICU Information for CardiovascularICU International Centre for the UplandsICU International Christian UnionICU International Cheer UnionICU Information Communication UnitICU Instruction Control UnitICU Investment Climate UnitICU Integrated Control UnitICU Irish Canoe UnionICU International Cyber UniversityICU In Creative UnityICU Industrial Control UnitICU International Code UsedICU Interactive Configuration UtilityICU Is Committed to UnderICU Infection in the UnitedICU Indian Country UnitICU Industrial Credit UnionICU Internet Communication UtilityICU Instructions Control UnitICU Iris Control UnitICU Industrial and Commercial UnitICU Institute of CardiovascularICU Innovative Community UnterschleissheimICU izquierda canaria unidaICU International Classes for UnicodeICU Intesive Care UnitsICU Intercom Control UnitICU Introductie Commissie UtrechtICU Inclusion Criteria UseICU Illawarra Credit UnionICU Interim Credit UnitICU Interrupt Control UnitICU International Component for UnicodeICU Infant Care UnitICU Input Capture UnitICU Incident Communications UnitICU idiopathic calcareous urolithiasisICU idiopathic calcium urolithiasisICU idiopathic chronic urticariaICU inconsistent condom useICU inconsistent contraceptive useICU Intensive Car UnitICU intensive cardiac unitICU intensive care uniteICU intensive coronary unitICU Neuro-intensive care unitICU non-intensive care unitICU peri-intensive care unitICU pre-intensive care unitICU SETTING--Intensive care unitICU Indiana Christian UniversityICU Industrial Covert UnlimitedICU Interrupt Controller UnitICU Internal Control UnitICU Interface and Control UnitICU Immunologic Contact UrticariaICU critical care unitICU idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasisICU Independent Consumers UnionICU intensive care unit admissionICU intensive care unit environmentICU intensive care unit patientsICU intensive care unit stayICU internal, controllable, unstable factorsICU Individual Cooling UnitsICU Internet Communication UtilitiesICU I Care UniversityICU Indigenous Consumers UnitICU Italian CIMIC UnitICU International Cadence UsergroupICU Internal Camera UnitICU Internal Cargo UnitICU International Contesters UnionICU Iteso Cultural UnionICU International Center of the UpstateICU International Cultural UnionICU Inensive Care UnitICU Information Compliance UnitICU Idaho Cheer UniversityICU Initial Consideration UnitICU International Clearing UnionICU Internet Creation UtilityICU Istanbul Commerce UniversityICU Imperial College UniversityICU Infinite Campus UniversityICU International Communication UnionICU Intranet the CommunicationICU Ill Crew UniversityICU Information Communications UnivICU Intelligence Center UnitICU Indeed Com UNITICU Integrity Concerns UncoveredICU International Cat UnionICU Information Consultants UnitICU Institute of Communication for UnderstandingICU Institute of ContinuedICU Integrity Crimes UnitICU Intelligent Cash UnitICU Irate Cinema UndergroundICU Internet Computer UnitICU Instructor Course UnitICU Immunological Contact UrticariaICU Inductive Control UnitICU intelligent controller unitICU Inter Continental UnitICU Interface Communication UnitICU Internal Combustion UnitsICU Improv Comedy UndergroundICU intenive care unitICU Interactive Citizens UnitedICU Invisible Coders UnitedICU Incident Control UnitICU Instrument Control UnitsICU International Carbon UnitICU In Christ UnitedICU Instrument Comparator UnitICU International Catholic UniversityICU Irish Cricket UnionICU Isolation Control UnitICU Intelligent Controller UnitsICU Intensified Camera UnitICU International Chick UnitsICU Ional Christian UniversityICU Illinois Chicago UniversityICU Indirect CHATS UserICU Initial CERP UpdateICU Internet Credit UnionICU In the Inductive Control UnitICU Instrumentation and CommunicationsICU Inventory of Callous UnemotionalICU Isolation Containment UnitICU Information and Coordination UnitICU Idaho Coalition UnitedICU Index Canadian UniversitiesICU Intakes for Current Users
What are some examples of systemic racism?
credit: u/SUBTOPEWDSNOWWCriminal Justice SystemRacism in stops, searches, and arrestsThe Problem of Infra-marginality in Outcome Tests for Discrimination- Examination of about 4.5 million traffic stops in North Carolina shows blacks (and latinos) were more likely to be searched than whites (5.4 percent black, 4.1 percent latino and 3.1 percent white).- Although black and hispanic individuals are disproportionately stopped, they are both less likely to be found with illegal possessions compared to whites. (32% white, 29% black, 19% hispanic)The racial bias in drug imprisonment and incarceration- Although White & Black Americans confess to using and selling illicit drugs at similar rates, Black Americans are HIGHLY more likely to go to prison for a drug offense.- Blacks are about 3.7x more likely to go to prison for marijuana consumption and marijuana offenses, in spite of similar usage.- In 2002, studies indicate that black Americans were incarcerated for drug offenses TEN TIMES the rate of white Americans.- 97% of “large-population counties” have racial biases in their drug offense incarceration.The Excessive Militarization of American Policing- “‘Dynamic entry’ and paramilitary police tactics are disproportionately used against Black and Latino people. Most of these raids were on people suspected of low-level drug crimes.”Militarization fails to enhance police safety or reduce crime but may harm police reputation- “Police militarization does not lead to a decrease in crimes committed or officer injuries, may actually increase both.”- Militarized police are disproportionately deployed in black neighborhoods and districts, even while accounting for the rate of crime.-This excessive deployment of militarized police causes higher reported crime and a snowball effect.- Militarized police and SWAT teams result in general public distrust in law enforcement and police which can cause higher crime rates.Racial Disparities in stops by the D.C. Metropolitan Police Department- Five months of data proved that in the DC metropolitan area, despite only having a demographic 25% higher than whites, blacks were stopped over 410% more than whites.- The incongruity soars to 1465% for stops that led to no warning, ticket, or arrest, and 3695% for searches that led to no warning, ticket, or arrest.- As can be seen, there is disproportionate stopping of black individuals that far outweigh any discrepancy in rates of criminality.A large-scale analysis of racial disparities in police stops across the United States- Massive study of 100,000,000 traffic stops in the United States- Study reveals that the requirement for searching black and Hispanic cars is much lower than that of whites.- Black drivers are less likely to be pulled over after sunset when it is more difficult to determine one’s race.Poor Socioeconomic Conditions Cause Crime- Disproportionate rates of crime is because of social constructs, and not “genes” that cause them to be more truculent- There are massive socioeconomic disparities between whites and blacks, and black individuals are subject to being less wealthy due to generational wealth divides, caused by things such asor segregation- See “Socioeconomic Factors” for further informationAnalytical Rigor in Studies of Disparities in Criminal Case Processing- Minorities such as blacks and Latinos were incarcerated more often than similarly situated whites.- Very well-sourced Reddit thread by u/Albamc - great read.Black Americans killed by police twice as likely to be unarmed as white peopleMichigan State University - O'Brien & Grosso- “Found that between 1990 and 2010, state prosecutors struck about 53 percent of black people eligible for juries in criminal cases, vs. about 26 percent of white people. The study’s authors concludedthat the chance of this occurring in a race-neutral process was less than 1 in 10 trillion”Police-Related Deaths and Neighborhood Economic and Racial/Ethnic Polarization, United States, 2015–2016- Yet another study that documents the disproportionate distribution of police in black neighborhoods and low-income areas- Remember that inordinate deployment of law enforcement will pick up more crime in area a compared to area b, even if the real crime count is an invariable. This results in a positive feedbacksystem owing to police reports citing high crime rates in the area a.Bias is Juries and PersecutorsDemographic Differences in Sentencing: An Update to the 2012 Booker Report- Immense multivariate regression analysis indicates that black male offenders receive 19.1% longer federal sentences compared to similarly situated whites. The “similarly situated” component takes into account: Past offenses, Socioeconomic status, and more.- Multivariate regression analysis can be helpful when considering demographic differences in sentencing outcomes because results from more simplistic data analyses that examine onlyselected demographic factors and sentencing outcomes can be misleading- Black male drug offenders received sentences that were 17.7 percent longer than White male drug offenders- Hispanic male offenders received sentences that were 5.3 percent longer than those of White male offenders- “Black males who do receive non government-sponsored departures and variations still serve 16.8% longer sentences than white males on average.”- In essence, much of the sentencing discrepancies in similarly situated black and white people stems from the bias of the judge in a jury (judicial discretion), to transgress from the default sentencing regulations.- Violence in a criminal’s history is, statistically speaking, irrelevant to the extreme disparities in sentencing, as shown in multivariate analysisDemographic Differences in Sentencing - 2012 Booker Report- Predecessor to previously linked document- Also notes that, via multivariate analysis, racial differences were associated with sentencing length to a “statistically significant extent”, even in a controlled environment with similarly situated w ewhites and blacks.University of Michigan Law School - Rehavi & Starr- With all possible confounding variables controlled, black offenders are 75% more likely to face mandatory minimum sentences, compared to whites committing the same offense.- In federal courts, the average sentence during 2008/2009 was 55 months for whites and 90 months for blacks- With the use of quantile regression, it was determined that black arrestees are also disproportionately concentrated in federal districts that have higher sentences in general.- Even after controlling for these and other prior variables, an unexplained black to white sentence disparity of approximately 9 percent remains in our main sample- “The disparity is nearly 13 percent in a broader sample that includes drug cases”A Meta-Analysis of Race and Sentencing Research- A meta-analysis of 71 studies- “Analyses indicate that African-Americans generally are sentenced more harshly than whites; the magnitude of this race effect is statistically significant but small and highly variable”- Note that high variability is due to procedural contrast between studies.Hochschild et al. 07- 67,000 first-time felons in Georgia from 1995 to 2002- Average sentence for white men - 2,689 days- Average sentence for black men - 3,067 days- The average for black men was 378 days longer, but light-skinned blacks acquired sentences of approximately three and a half months longer than whites- Mid-skinned blacks people obtained a sentence of about a year longer- Dark-skinned blacks acquired sentences of a year and a half longer.UCLA - Implicit Bias in the Courtroom- Federal Black defendants were sentenced to 12 percent longer sentences under the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984.- Eliminated indeterminate sentencing at the federal level. The act created the United States Sentencing Commission, an independent body within the judicial branch of thefederal government and charged it with promulgating guidelines for federal sentencing.- In a controlled setting, the higher the Afrocentricity of the facial features in a defendant, the harsher their sentencing was.- Under Greenwald’s simulation, black defendants would receive 2.44 years of sentencing, whereas whites would receive 1.40.- “It supposes that the probability of arrest having committed the offense is 0.50, that the probability of conviction at trial is 0.75, and that the effect size of implicit bias is r=0.1 at each stage”- As to be expected, the conclusive evidence points to the fact that implicit bias results in harsher sentencing for defendants with afrocentric characteristics.Race, Ethnicity, and Habitual-Offender Sentencing- Black defendants with several former convictions are 28% more likely to be charged as a “habitual offender” than other similarly-situated whites.- As most studies on the matter, the “similarly situated” data is controlled by looking at the crime committed, past offenses, socioeconomic background, etc.- “Assessments of dangerousness and culpability are linked to race and ethnicity, even after offense seriousness and prior record are controlled.”Racism In the Death PenaltyThe Death Penalty in Black and White: Who Lives, Who Dies, Who Decides- “Law professor David Baldus and statistician George Woodworth, along with colleagues in Philadelphia, have conducted a careful analysis of race and the death penalty in Philadelphiawhich reveals that the odds of receiving a death sentence are nearly four times (3.9) higher if the defendant is black.”- According to the data in Philadelphia between 1983 and 1993, the rate at which eligible black defendants were sentenced to death was almost 40% higher than other eligible defendants.- Being black can be considered an aggravating factor. Murders by blacks are considered more deserving of the death penalty, and ~40% more so than an average defenent causing great harm, fear, or pain.- “The race of the defendant is a much stronger predictor that a case will result in a death sentence than the fact that the crime was committed along with another felony (0.8) or that thedefendant killed with multiple stab wounds (0.9)”“Racial disparities can result through prosecutorial selectionof which cases “deserve” the death penalty, or from the action of juriesin determining the final sentences, or from both. But before a disparitydue to race can be established, a researcher must measure the raceeffects for crimes of similar severity committed by defendants with similarcriminal histories.”The Delaware Death Penalty: An Empirical Study- “Black defendants who kill white victims are seven times as likely to receive the death penalty as are black defendants who kill black victims. … Moreover, black defendants who kill white victims aremore than three times as likely to be sentenced to death as are white defendants who kill white victims.”Race and the Death Penalty- People of color disproportionately have accounted for 43% of total executions since 1976- “ While white victims account for approximately one-half of all murder victims, 80% of all Capital cases involve white victims.”- In early 2003, the University of Maryland in a study commissioned by the Maryland governor, concluded that defendants are more likely to be sentenced to death if they have killed a white person.The Death Penalty is Tainted by Racial BiasSources from this article: https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2010/crime-in-the-u.s.-2010/offenses-known-to-law-enforcement/expanded/expandhomicidemain.pdfhttp://www.naacpldf.org/files/publications/DRUSA_Fall_2011.pdfSummary for the criminal Justice SystemThere are a wide variety of factors that contribute to the fundamental oppression of people of color. The criminal justice system, evidently, is no exception. Virtually every study conducted on the matter of implicit bias in all manners of law enforcement and the judicial system attest to this. The corrupt system requires indispensable reforms for axiological and ethical reasons. Acknowledgement of discrimination is one of the first steps in adressing this integral problem.Socioeconomic FactorsRacism and Bias in the Education systemDiscipline Disparities for Black Students, Boys, and Students with DisabilitiesEaton et al. 19- Physics and Biology professors from eight, large, public U.S. universities were asked to read one out of eight CV’s (Curriculum Vitae), suppositional doctorals graduate applying for a postdoctoralposition in their field, and assess them upon proficiency, likeability, and hireability.- The candidate’s name on the CV was used to manipulate race as an independent variable (Asian, Black, Latinx, and White) and gender (male or female), while all other parts of the CV heldconstant- The Physics faculty rated White and Asian candidates much more competent and hirable opposed to Black and Latinx candidates, while those in Biology rated Asian candidates as more competentand hirable than Black candidates and Latinx candidatesBrinksworth 2016- “A multitude of studies show how groups of diverse individuals with differing viewpoints outperform homogenous groups to find solutions that are more innovative, creative, and responsive to complexproblems, and promote higher-order thinking amongst the group.”- The study finds that, via looking at publications, diverse author groups receive high citation rates due to overall better journalism-”Despite this enormous growing potential, and the proven power of diversity, the demographics of our field are not keeping pace with the changing demographics of the nation, and astronomers ofcolour, women, LGBT individuals, people with disabilities, and those with more than one of these identities still face "chilly" or "hostile" work environments in the sciences.”Ginther 12- The researchers used the 2000-2006 data from the NIH IMPAC II grants database- The applications from blacks and Asians were less likely than those from whites to be awarded fundingACT and UNCF 2015- Due to a primarily white teacher force and lack of diversity (despite it’s verified potency), black students feel like an outcast and will be less likely to meet benchmarks in math and science.- African American students are more likely to be in schools that offer less rigorous courses which can hamper the college admissions process.- Colleges and Universities obviously consider high school course-taking patterns a key factor in many decisions, such as admission.- There is not enough academic intervention to assist at-risk students (whom are disproportionately black)Racial Microaggressions- Scrupulously conducted study regarding racial microaggressions at the University of UC Berkeley- There is no rationale to give credence to this university being dissimilar to different colleges, universities- “In any form or context, microaggressions add to students' feelings of overall racial tension”- Countless interviews point to the fact that the amount of students who feel racial microaggressions were existent in their academic experience is staggering.- "Students of Color and their perspectives are often excluded and undervalued in their departments and classroom discourse.”- Black and Asian students are less likely to consult faculty for assistance in difficult assignments, likely on account of these reasons- “Student academic performance is negatively affected by the cumulative experiences with racial microaggressions. As a result, Students of Color appear to be burdened by more stress than White students. While all students must focus on their studies, and some also work to pay for their education, Students of Color have an additional full-time job of dealing with racial and gender microaggressions. This is an extra burden that most White students do not face”.- “ The lowered academic performance of Students of Color is partly a product of macroforms and microforms of racism and a negative campus racial climate. In its macroforms, we are \speaking of institutional racism. In its microforms, we are speaking of racial microaggressions that are the part of everyday discourse in and out of UC-Berkeley”.- This information and excerpts are directly from the findings portion of the study.Fabelo 11- While isolating for 83 confounding variables, it was conclusive and irrefutable that blacks were 31% more likely to be suspended than a white student.11 Million Days Lost - Losen & Whitaker- Controlling for conflating variables, suspension results in an estimated 7 point lower graduation rate.Racial disparities in school-based disciplinary actions are associated with county-level rates of racial bias- Black students are more likely to be stereotyped as problematic- Black students are more likely to be punished than whites for the same offense- Black students often receive stiffer sentences than whitesCIVIL RIGHTS DATA COLLECTION Data Snapshot: School Discipline- Black pupils are consistently being suspended and expelled disproportionately to white kids, even as early as in preschool- “Black students represent 16% of student enrollment, they represent 27% of students referred to law enforcement and 31% of students subjected to a school-related arrest”Effects of racial diversity on complex thinking in college students- Diversity WORKS and is highly effective.- “Generally positive effects on integrative complexity were found when the groups had racial- and opinion-minority members”.The challenges associated with presenting while black- Even in professional settings, presenting while black subjects black individuals to being ridiculed and experience uneven scrutiny compared than their white counterparts.- Due to this, there are racialized psychodynamics that heavily influence the way black scholars conduct themselves.- Also note that things such as being openly homosexual will influence a presentation to include more humor, as that is what the culutural expectation is. It’s just that these societalpresuppositions do not ostracize black scholars, and, as evident in this study, the magnitude to which this affects them is exceedingly high.Sedlacek 12- Blacks may find it especially difficult to get close enough to faculty, staff, and other students to become a central part of the informal communication system that is critical in making self assessments- Black students are significantly more likely to feel as if faculty are prejudiced or outright discriminatory against them on a racial basis.- This prejudice can take such forms as lower expectations of Black students than are warranted, overly positive reactions to work quality, reducing the quality of communications, and reducingthe probability that faculty know students well enough to write reference lettersNONWHITE SCHOOL DISTRICTS GET $23 BILLION LESS THAN WHITE DISTRICTS DESPITE SERVING THE SAME NUMBER OF STUDENTShttps://sites.ed.gov/whieeaa/files/2016/10/Disrupting-Implicit-Bias-FINAL.pdf- “The learning and development of Black/Latino students is impaired by explicit and implicit biases, as well as overt racism.”- “The stress of racial discrimination may partly explain the gaps in academic performance between Black/Latino youth and their White counterparts.”Experts and researchers who study the challenges that face Researchers on discrimination of Black, Indigenous, and people of color in STEM- VERY well sourced Reddit post by researchers, sociologists, and professors, with supplemental replies that are also well-written and sourced.Racism and Bias in the Healthcare Systemhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31730566/- A retrospective analysis was performed on 25,732 EMS encounters from 2015 to 2017 recorded in the Oregon Emergency Medical Services Information System using multivariate logisticregression models to examine the role of patient race/ethnicity in pain assessment and pain medication administration among patients with a traumatic injury.- Hispanic and Asian patients were less likely to receive a pain assessment procedure and all racial/ethnic patients were less likely to receive pain medications compared with white patients.- In particular, regarding the adjusted likelihood of receiving a pain assessment procedure, Hispanic patients were 21% less likely [95% confidence interval (CI), 10%-30%; P<0.001], Asian patientswere 31% less likely (95% CI, 16%-43%; P<0.001) when compared with white patients.- Regarding the adjusted likelihood of receiving any pain medications, black patients were 32% less likely (95% CI, 21%-42%; P<0.001), Hispanic patients were 21% less likely (95% CI, 7%-32%;P<0.01), and Asian patients were 24% less likely (95% CI, 1%-41%; P<0.05) when compared with white patients.Hall 15- Data obtained by looking at 10 computerized bibliographic databases and using a reference harvesting technique.- Subconscious and implicit bias plague our healthcare system- In both access and quality of healthcare, black people are discriminated against.- Results also showed that implicit bias was significantly related to patient-provider interactions, treatment decisions, treatment adherence, and patient health outcomes.- 9/10 studies show that implicit bias is not exclusionary to healthcareA decade of studying implicit racial/ethnic bias in healthcare providers using the implicit association test- An in depth study of numerous databases between May 2015 and September 2016 identified 37 qualifying studies.- 31/37 studies found evidence of pro-White or light-skin/anti-Black, Hispanic, American Indian or dark-skin bias among a variety of HCPs across multiple levels of training and disciplines.- All 7 studies that investigated the impact of patient-provider bias found that those with higher levels of implicit bias provide poorer patient-provider connections.Implicit bias in healthcare professionals: a systematic review- Racial and ethnic implicit bias is abundant in the American healthcare system - and yes it does lower quality of care.Does Diversity Matter for Mental Health?- “Our findings suggest black doctors could reduce the black-white male gap in cardiovascular mortality by 19%”https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27848187/- Despite being at the highest risk of type 2 diabetesAsian Americans were the least likely racial and ethnic group to receive recommended diabetes screening. Overall, Asian Americans had 34% loweradjusted odds of receiving recommended diabetes screening compared to non-Hispanic whites (95 % CI: 0.60, 0.73).Schnierle 19- Yes - the IAT is reliable. And yes, that is why it shows how copious it is in our institutions.- Most studies and academic reviews agree that some level of pro-white/anti-black bias exists in physicians and healthcare providers.- “...healthcare system leadership must prioritize implicit bias trainings for students and medical staff and make greater tangible efforts to improve workforce diversity as a debiasing strategy.”Generational Wealth InequalityBrookings Institute sums this up perfectly - check annotations- The dark history of economic racism is very relevant to contemporary racial disparities.- Due to class and economic trends, if you’re born poor, you’re much more likely to die poor . Given the prominence of such things like redlining, Jim Crow Laws, and economic segregationwere much stronger than they are today, it is undisputed that blacks were set behind economically. Since these atrocities were very common just three generations ago, there are stillwithstanding generational effects that black children face today. Is this to say class fluidity is non-existent? No. It’s acknowledging trends and the fact that those who grow up in povertyface substantial difficulty in becoming wealthy in contrast to middle class/upper class kids.- For every $50 a white family has, a black family has $5. ($171,000 - $17,150)Tulsa Greenwood District- The Tulsa Greenwood District was known as the “Black Wall Street” in 1921, being the epicenter of black culture and business. But it was still subject greatly to Jim Crow Laws and black codes.- On account of widespread segregation, blacks essentially had no choice as to where to locate their businesses.- WIth a resurgence of even greater racial tensions such as the Ku Klux Klan, many blacks had prodigious fear.- In 1919, anti-Black riots broke out around the country - including Tulsa.- Other racially motivated violence included white lynch mobsHow the GI Bill Left Out African Americans- This bill significantly contributed to the black-white wealth gap- The New Deal’s Fair Labor Standards Act’s had exemption of black domestic agricultural and service occupations.- “If your great-grandparents bought a home, chances are that your grandparents inherited wealth. Which maybe means that your parents didn't have to take out loans to go to college and got a helpinghand with a down payment for a house early in life in a neighborhood with top schools. Which means that you got a great public education instead of a lousy one, allowing you to get into a good collegeand set yourself up to confer advantages on your own kids. And so on.” This isn’t abstract. This is why rich families stay rich.- Black people couldn’t even own land for a significant time in American history. During reconstruction and after the Civil War, many freedmen were forced to work as sharecroppers and had mass exploitation of black labor, only further harming their family wealth for generations to come.- “Whites were able to use the government guaranteed housing loans that were a pillar of the bill to buy homes in the fast growing suburbs. Those homes subsequently rose greatly in value in comingdecades, creating vast new household wealth for whites during the postwar era.”- “But black veterans weren't able to make use of the housing provisions of the GI Bill for the most part. Banks generally wouldn't make loans for mortgages in black neighborhoods, andAfrican-Americans were excluded from the suburbs by a combination of deed covenants and informal racism.”- We still feel the effects of that exclusion todayBoris & Honey- Even prior to the establishment of the Department of Labor in 1913, Black Americans remained in the south where they worked as sharecroppers, harsh agricultural laborers, or (if female)domestic servants- Keep in mind, 1913 is only two generations after the 13th amendment- During WWI, when the government required mobilization of its labor power, all while increasing productivity. To do this, women and minority male workers were essentially forced to work undervery little workplace regulation and in poor conditions. This was long before the conception of minimum wage.- Few wartime wage orders actually mandated equal pay for equal work.- During demobilization and around the start of the Cold War, minorities still struggled to find work, housing, and equal pay. Segregation and Jim Crow Laws/black codes were still in effect- During the 1950’s, anti-discrimination labor and job laws were effectively non-existent in the annual reports of the Secretary of Labor- Common reactionary rhetoric includes mentioning that minority men were looked at for labor under effect of the Korean War, but the government actually ended up looking for “morequalified” workers. (Workers who aren’t disadvantaged)Historical housing racism that still has effects- Relevant repeat from generational wealth divides- The Homestead Act in 1862 provided whites with massive quantities of land. At this time, slavery had yet to be abolished, so black men obviously couldn’t own land. This created millions ofWhite Americans to set up districts before blacks even had rights. In the end, 270 million acres, which is equal to 10% of the land of the United States of America, were converted to private hands- General Sherman’s civil war plan was never met. As an alternative, the south provided freedmen with 40 acres and a mule as reparations.- “Only once was monetary compensation made for slavery, in Washington, D.C. There, government officials paid up to $300 per slave upon emancipation - not to the slaves, but to localslaveholders as compensation for loss of property.”- “The landmark Social Security Act of 1935 provided a safety net for millions of workers, guaranteeing them an income after retirement. But the act specifically excluded two occupations: agricultural workers and domestic servants, who were predominantly African American, Mexican, and Asian. As low-income workers, they also had the least opportunity to save for their retirement. They couldn't pass wealth on to their children. Just the opposite. Their children had to support them.”The Historical Role of Race and Policy for Regional Inequality- Economic hardship extended far beyond 1865 during the 13th amendment. Regional inequality made it so that freedmen would have to work has sharecroppers with, almost always, no pay andcrippling debt. Carpetbaggers who moved south to profit from this blatant exploitation of labor during reconstruction only worsened this economic disparity with contemporary effects.- “Given the severe constraints on economic opportunity in the South and large gaps in average incomes between the North and South, a natural response was migration from the South to thecities of the North. The Great Migration led to a substantial redistribution of the black population from the South to the urban areas of the Northeast and Midwest.”- So naturally this should align with significant increased economic opportunity for African Americans, yet economic disparities remained owing to individual and institutional racism,particularly in residential housing. (Increased segregation)- White houses began to move away from city centers in favor of suburban living during white flight. Suburbanization made is so that jobs moved to the suburbs with the whites,and therefore greatly crunched black employment opportunities, especially the ones that they gained during roaring 20’s and Harlem Renaissance- Brown v Board may have put an end to the “separate but equal” notion, but the effects of segregation do not end there. Considering that there are still black people alive today who were crippliedby segregation in their youth, and their kids, as well as their kid’s kids will face these modern consequences.- The Fair Housing Act of 1968 (albeit substantial steps forward) did not entirely end housing discrimination Black Americans face.- “Black and minority residents are overrepresented in the very communities where many place-based policies are being proposed, and a substantial share have therefore been subjected tosome or all of the government policies we described here, as well as others we do not touch on.”Redlining contemporary effects- Although not a study like the vast majority of sources listed in this mega-document, it is still well written and sourced- White families have 10x the wealth of black families, and the gap is growing- If you question why it isn’t shrinking due to lack of discriminatory economic laws like Jim Crow. But the effects of these not only last, but since blacks generally are of lower socioeconomicstatus’, so they are less financially competent. That, in addition with educational and criminal justice discrimination, make it considerably more difficult to obtain wealth while black.- Basic redlining information: “In the 1930s, government surveyors graded neighborhoods in 239 cities, color-coding them green for “best,” blue for “still desirable,” yellow for “definitely declining” andred for “hazardous.” The “redlined” areas were the ones local lenders discounted as credit risks, in large part because of the residents’ racial and ethnic demographics.” This lasted until 1968. That istwo generations ago.- 91% of areas classified as “best” in the 1930’s remain middle-to-upper income today. 85% are still predominantly white. Researchers found that redlined neighborhoods in the South and thewest are more likely today to be home to a largely minority population.The Persistent Structure Of Segregation And Economic Inequality- This study views how neighborhoods were evaluated for a lending risk by the HOLC, and subsequently compares their modern social and economic conditions with city-level measures of segregationeconomic inequality.- Redlining buttressed the segregated structure of American cities. Most of the neighborhoods (74%) that the HOLC graded as high-risk or “Hazardous” eight decades ago are low-to-moderate income (LMI) today.- Additionally, most of the HOLC graded “Hazardous” areas (nearly 64%) are minority neighborhoods now.New Federal Reserve Report Supports NCRC Redlining Study- Neighborhoods that were low-graded in the 1930’s as “declining” and “hazardous” saw significant increases in their share of African American population over the next 40 years. This peaked in1970’s, and declined thereafter.- Housing segregation has been proven to lead to less wealth, poor school quality and a lower quality of life- Intractable poverty still exists in over 200 cities the HOLC redlined - DATA COLLECTED FROM THE FED SAYS THIS IS DIRECTLY LINKED TO THE EFFORTS OF REDLINGVoting and Voter ID DiscriminationVoter ID is commonly used to disenfranchise and target minoritiesKuk 19 (non-paywall no longer works)- A number of strict voter-ID laws have been implemented across multiple states in the last several years, and they generally hurt minority turnout- “Our primary analysis uses aggregate county turnout data from 2012 to 2016 and finds that the racial gap in turnout between more diverse and less diverse counties grew more in states enacting new strict photo ID laws than it did elsewhere – even after controlling for other factors that could impact turnout. Strict voter ID laws appear to discriminate.”ACLU FACT SHEET ON VOTER ID LAWS- Stricter Voter ID laws stand in the way of getting as many people in our country involved in the democratic process as possible.- “Even if ID is offered for free, voters must incur numerous costs (such as paying for birth certificates) to apply for a government-issued ID.”- Minorities typically have a heavier financial burden, so paying for these masked-costs may seem unnecessary.- Means of transportation also have costs and minorities are also affected disproportionately in that respect.- Distances to the nearest ID office can approach 170 miles- Minorities, particularly blacks, have less education and other means of knowing the necessities mandated by voter-ID- “Nationally, up to 25% of African-American citizens of voting age lack government-issued photo ID, compared to only 8% of whites.”- In person fraud is already incredibly rare. A recent study found that, since 2000, there were only 31 credible allegations of voter impersonation- So-called cases of in-person impersonation voter “fraud” are almost always the product of an elections worker or a voter making an honest mistake, and that even these mistakes are extremelyinfrequentBaxter and Galloway 2005- Strict Voter-ID laws are nonessential and hurt minority turnoutVoter Suppression During the 2018 Midterm Elections- There is widespread voter suppression (predominantly against historically marginalized groups)- Many Americans lack the ability to vote due to the voter registration process, restrictions on casting ballots, and discriminatory and partisan-rigged district maps.- Racist voter suppression is existent- During the 2018 midterms, eligible voters across the country were dissuaded or actively prevented from casting ballots that would have counted.Cantoni 20- Effects of travel times discriminate against minorities 3x that of whites.Discriminatory Bias in Housing and LoansHOUSING DISCRIMINATION AGAINST RACIAL AND ETHNIC MINORITIES- A panel of expert advisors made valuable contributions to our understanding of changes in rental and sales housing markets, analysis of tester racial and ethnic identifiability, and otherprotocol design and data analysis challenges.- “More than 8,000 tests were conducted in a nationally representative sample of 28 metropolitan areas. In each test, two trained individuals—one white and the other black, Hispanic, orAsian—contacted a housing provider to inquire about a housing unit randomly selected from recently advertised homes and apartments. The two testers in each pair were matched on gender and age,and both presented themselves as equally and unambiguously well-qualified to rent or buy the advertised unit. Each tester independently recorded the treatment he or she experienced, includinginformation about all the homes or apartments recommended and shown”- White homeseekers are much more likely to be favored over minorities. Crucially, minority homeseekers are told about and shown fewer homes and apartments than whites are.- Black renters are slightly more likely than equally qualified whites to be told that no homes or apartments are available (9 percentage points).- Asian renters are slightly more likely than equally qualified whites to be told that no homes or apartments are available (8.8 percentage points).- Hispanic renters are slightly more likely than equally qualified whites to be told that no homes or apartments are available (12 percentage points).- This isn’t a failure to control for constants within the study because when minorities call to inquire about recently advertised homes, there is nowhere near the level of discrimination seen here.Historical housing racism that still has effects- Relevant repeat from generational wealth divides- The Homestead Act in 1862 provided whites with massive quantities of land. At this time, slavery had yet to be abolished, so black men obviously couldn’t own land. This created millions ofWhite Americans to set up districts before blacks even had rights. In the end, 270 million acres, which is equal to 10% of the land of the United States of America, were converted to private hands- General Sherman’s civil war plan was never met. As an alternative, the south provided freedmen with 40 acres and a mule as reparations.- “Only once was monetary compensation made for slavery, in Washington, D.C. There, government officials paid up to $300 per slave upon emancipation - not to the slaves, but to localslaveholders as compensation for loss of property.”- “The landmark Social Security Act of 1935 provided a safety net for millions of workers, guaranteeing them an income after retirement. But the act specifically excluded two occupations: agricultural workers and domestic servants, who were predominantly African American, Mexican, and Asian. As low-income workers, they also had the least opportunity to save for their retirement. They couldn't pass wealth on to their children. Just the opposite. Their children had to support them.”The Effect of Race and Ethnicity on the Price of Subprime Mortgages- When controlling for valid risk factors, blacks were much more likely to receive higher-rate purchases on homes and refinance loans than similarly situated white buyers.- The effect of being an African-American borrower on the cost of credit was greatest for loans containing penalties for early payoff, which comprised over 60 percent of the loans we examined.- “African-American borrowers with prepayment penalties on their subprime home loans were 6 to 34 percent more likely to receive a higher-rate loan than if they had been white borrowers withsimilar qualifications”- Latino borrowers purchasing homes were 29 to 142 percent more likely to receive a higher-rate loan than if they had been non-Latino and white, depending on the type of interest rate andwhether the loan contained a prepayment penalty.Bayer 16 - The National Bureau of Economic Research- Even after controlling for credit score and other key risk factors, African-American and Hispanic home buyers are 105 and 78 percent more likely to have high cost mortgages for homepurchases.Racial and Ethnic Biases in Rental Housing: An Audit Study of Online Apartment Listings- The study sends 5,620 fictitious email inquiries to landlords offering apartments on Craigslist, a popular Internet classifieds service. Each landlord received one inquiry each from five racializedgroups—Caucasian, Black, E/SE Asian, Muslim/Arabic, and Jewish.- Muslim/Arabic‐racialized men face the greatest resistance, with discrimination occurring in 12 percent of experiments. The level of discrimination is modest but significant for Asian men (7percent), Blacks (5 percent), and Muslim/Arabic women (5 percent). Discrimination was evenly spread throughout the city.Use of Black English and Racial Discrimination in Urban Housing Markets: New Methods and Findings- Study conducted regarding if AAVE (African American Vernacular English) affects a renter’s attitude towards their buyers.- The authors found significant racial discrimination that was often exacerbated by class and gender.The Urban Institute- Housing vouchers are too heavily dependent on this implicit/explicit bias of landlords, reducing their effectiveness.The HCV isn't an efficient housing program program- The Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) program is the federal government’s largest rental housing assistance program. Participants are responsible for finding housing in the private market to rent,but landlords can decide whether to accept or refuse voucher tenants.- Vouchers are largely minorities because of the socioeconomic factors that discriminate against them.- Housing with a voucher is incredibly difficult when it comes to finding legitimate and eligible housing.- For example, the field team sifted through more than 341,000 rental ads for the five study sites to identify 8,735 units that were available and met both the testing parameters and localvoucher program rent limits. On average, we screened 39 ads to identify one potentially eligible unit.Racial Preferences in Job ApplicationsThe Job Applications of minorities are much more likely to be turned down on account of Ethnic discrimination - whether it be implicit or explicitAre Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination- As an independent variable, employers were provided white and black sounding names (Such as Emily Walsh, Greg Baker compared to Lakisha Washington, Jamal Jones)- White sounding names got about 50% more callbacks than black sounding names.- Having a higher quality resume has a smaller effect on African-Americans.- Little to no evidence suggesting that social class was the exacerbating factor over raceMeta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time- “We perform a meta-analysis of every available field experiment of hiring discrimination against African Americans or Latinos (n = 28). Together, these studies represent 55,842 applications submittedfor 26,326 positions.”- No - racism against blacks isn’t improving in this field. Since 1989, there has been no documentable improvements in racial bias for black AmericansDiscrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment- Blacks with identical qualifications and essentially indistinguishable interviews were significantly less likely to get called back for a job opening.- A series of studies relying on surveys and in-depth interviews finds that firms are reluctant to hire young minority men—especially blacks—because they are seen as unreliable, dishonest, or lacking in social or cognitive skills- The findings suggest that a black applicant has to search twice as long as an equally qualified white applicant before receiving a callback or job offer from an employer.Minorities Who 'Whiten' Resumes Get More Job Interviews (Referenced)- Highly reputable article that references comprehensive studies.- In one study, the researchers created resumes for black and Asian applicants and sent them out for 1,600 entry-level jobs posted on job search websites in 16 metropolitan sections of the UnitedStates. Some of the resumes included information that clearly pointed out the applicants’ minority status, while others were whitened, or scrubbed of racial clues. The researchers then created emailaccounts and phone numbers for the applicants and observed how many were invited for interviews. (See figure below)- Employer callbacks for resumes that were whitened fared much better in the application pile than those that included ethnic information, even though the qualifications listed were identical.
Who is an unknown person who has changed the world in the most significant way?
As stated in Nagarajan Srinivasan’s answer:in the evolution of the human race from the stone age to the present sophisticated civilization, most of the biggest changes have been brought about only by the unknown persons. Some such unknown persons go on to achieve fame and a celebrity status, many just remain in the background and fadeout and a vast majority still remain what they always were - unknown and unsung.This answer discusses some similarly relatively less known and unknown people.VaccinationVaccination has saved millions of human lives ever since its invention. There are actually many less known and unknown people behind the development of vaccines.Eradication of SmallpoxBefore vaccination, there was inoculation. The information has been taken from Spencer McDaniel’s answer on Who invented vaccination?Inoculation is a set of methods of artificially inducing immunity against various infectious diseases. The form of inoculation practised was mostly variolation i.e. inoculation against smallpox.Instances of inoculation practices are known from China, India, Ethiopia, Sudan and West Africa — mostly reported by European colonialists, and in case of China, from Chinese medicinal texts. Smallpox inoculation also independently developed at some point in ~17th century CE among impoverished members of various Christian ethnic communities living under Ottoman empire.Smallpox used to kill millions of people globally:It was a leading cause of death in the 18th century CE. Every seventh child born in Russia died from smallpox. It killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans each year in 18th century CE, including five reigning European monarchs. Most people became infected during their lifetimes, and about 30% of people infected with smallpox died from the disease. Franco-Prussian War triggered a smallpox pandemic of 1870–1875 that claimed 500,000 lives.In 1849 nearly 13% of all Kolkata’s deaths were due to smallpox. Between 1868 and 1907, there were approximately 4.7 million deaths from smallpox in India. Between 1926 and 1930, there were 979,738 cases of smallpox with a mortality of 42.3%.Smallpox in Angola was likely introduced shortly after Portuguese settlement of the area in 1484. The 1864 epidemic killed 25,000 inhabitants, one third of the total population in that same area.After first contacts with Europeans and Africans, some believe that the death of 90–95% of the native population of the New World was caused by Old World diseases. It is suspected that smallpox was the chief culprit and responsible for killing nearly all of the native inhabitants of the Americas. For more than 200 years, this disease affected all new world populations, mostly without intentional European transmission, from contact in the early 16th century CE until possibly as late as the French and Indian Wars (1754–1767).The successful vaccination drive against smallpox resulted in its complete eradication, with the last known case being in 1977.→ A person with smallpox in the United States, 1912 [Source: File:SmallpoxvictimIllinois1912.jpg - Wikimedia Commons]→ This young girl in Bangladesh was infected with smallpox in 1973. Freedom from smallpox was declared in Bangladesh in December, 1977 when a WHO International Commission officially certified that smallpox had been eradicated from that country. [Source: File:Child with Smallpox Bangladesh.jpg - Wikimedia Commons]→ A man with severe hemorrhagic-type smallpox (Bangladesh, 1975) [Source: File:Hemorrhagic smallpox.jpg - Wikimedia Commons]Onesimus:A West African Akan ethnic slave with unknown original name, renamed to Onesimus in the mitigation of the impact of a smallpox outbreak in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He was enslaved and, in 1706, was given to the New England Puritan minister Cotton Mather, who renamed him. Onesimus introduced Cotton Mather to inoculation, who then used this knowledge to advocate for inoculation in the Boston’s population (during 1721 smallpox outbreak), a practice that eventually spread to other colonies. Boston and London in 1726 and 1722, respectively, performed trials on citizens and, on average, inoculation decreased the mortality rate from 17% to 2% of the infected population.Mary Wortley Montagu (15 May 1689 – 21 August 1762), Charles Maitland (1668–1748):Mary Montagu was the wife of then British ambassador to Ottoman empire, and documented the the practices of inoculation there, which she subsequently introduced and advocated for in Britain. Mary was well aware of the horrors of smallpox, since her brother died of it in 1713. She herself caught the disease in 1715 and, although she survived, it left her severely scarred.In March 1718, Mary had an elderly Greek practitioner in Constantinople inoculate her eldest son Edward under the supervision of British embassy surgeon Charles Maitland. Thus, Edward Wortley Montagu became the first western European ever to undergo a recorded inoculation for smallpox. In April 1721, Mary had her daughter Mary Stuart inoculated by Charles Maitland, with three physicians from the Royal College of Physicians as witnesses. One of the witnesses, James Keith, was so pleased by the success that he had Maitland inoculate his 6-year-old son; Keith's other children had all died of smallpox.On 9 August 1721, Maitland received a Royal Licence that allowed him to test variolation on six prisoners from Newgate Prison. The experiment took place in August 1722, under the direction of Sir Hans Sloane. All prisoners survived, and they were pardoned later that year. One prisoner who was exposed to the disease proved to be immune.In late 1722, Caroline of Ansbach ordered the inoculation of five orphans of St. James's Parish in London. Following their success, Caroline had Maitland inoculate her eldest son, Frederick and one other child.John Fewster (1738–1824):John Fewster was a surgeon and apothecary in Thornbury, Gloucestershire, England, UKGBNI. Fewster, a friend and professional colleague of Edward Jenner, played an important role in the discovery of the smallpox vaccine. In 1768 Fewster realized that prior infection with cowpox rendered a person immune to smallpox.In 1768, Fewster noted that two brothers (named Creed) had both been variolated (purposefully infected with smallpox) but that one did not react at all to variolation. On questioning, this subject had never had smallpox, but had previously contracted cowpox. This prompted Fewster to wonder whether cowpox might protect against smallpox, a notion of which he was previously unaware. He is reported to have discussed this possibility over a Convivio-Medical Society dinner at the Ship Inn in Alveston. He also encouraged others to take up the inquiry. Amongst those at the meeting was Edward Jenner, a young medical apprentice at the time.This was a highly significant discovery, since inoculation, despite being effective had its risks: inoculates could develope a real case of smallpox and could infect others.Edward Jenner (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who pioneered the concept of vaccines including creating the smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine. The terms vaccine and vaccination are derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 in the long title of his Inquiry into the Variolae vaccinae known as the Cow Pox, in which he described the protective effect of cowpox against smallpox.In 1796, the inoculation methodology Onesimus introduced was replaced by Edward Jenner's development of vaccination for smallpox and cowpox. Thereafter, vaccination became compulsory in Wales and England and variolation became banned for its side effects. In 1980, the World Health Organization declared that smallpox had been completely eradicated due to global immunization efforts, making the disease the first and only infectious disease to have been entirely wiped out.In Spencer McDaniel’s words:Jenner is rightly praised for having invented and promoted the smallpox vaccine. It is important to remember, however, that Jenner’s vaccine was merely an improvement on the already-existing treatment of inoculation, which had originated outside of Europe centuries earlier. If inoculation hadn’t already existed, Jenner almost certainly would never have invented the vaccine.Thus, while Jenner definitely deserves some credit for his own work, we need to remember all the other people who contributed to the development of the smallpox vaccine, including the anonymous Chinese Daoist alchemists, West African folk doctors, and poor ethnic minorities in the Ottoman Empire who first experimented with inoculation, the woman who introduced it to Britain, the enslaved Black man who introduced it to Boston, and the prisoners from Newgate Prison who were experimented on to prove that it worked.Viktor Mikhailovich Zhdanov (14 February 1914 – 14 July 1987) , William Herbert Foege (born March 12, 1936):Viktor Zhdanov was a Soviet virologist. He was instrumental in the effort to eradicate smallpox globally. In 1958, Zhdanov, as Deputy Minister of Health for the Soviet Union, called on the World Health Assembly to undertake a global initiative to eradicate smallpox. The proposal (Resolution WHA11.54) was accepted in 1959.→ Viktor Zhdanov [Source: By Victor Zhdanov - Victor Zhdanov, CC BY-SA 4.0, File:Viktor Zhdanov.jpg - Wikimedia Commons]William Foege is an American physician and epidemiologist who is credited with "devising the global strategy that led to the eradication of smallpox in the late 1970s" While working for the Centers for Disease Control in Africa as Chief of the Smallpox Eradication Program, Bill Foege developed the highly successful surveillance and “ring vaccination” strategy to contain smallpox spread. This greatly reduced the number of vaccinations needed, ensuring that the limited resources available sufficed to make smallpox the first infectious disease to be eradicated in human history.→ William Foege [Source: By CDC - Public Health Image Library(PHIL), Public Domain, File:William H. Foege.jpg - Wikimedia Commons]→ Decade in which smallpox ceased to spread in each country [Source: By Our World in Data - Global Health, CC BY 4.0, File:Decade-in-which-smallpox-ceased-to-be-endemic-by-country.svg - Wikimedia Commons]Eradication of RinderpestRinderpest is the only other infectious disease to be successfully eradicated, with the last known case in 2011. It was an infectious viral disease of cattle, domestic buffalo, and many other species of even-toed ungulates, including gaurs, buffaloes, large antelope, deer, giraffes, wildebeests, and warthogs. Death rates during outbreaks were usually extremely high, approaching 100% in immunologically naïve populations. Inoculation was found to be largely ineffective, and infact sometimes more harmful in case of Rinderpest.The African outbreak in the 1890s killed an estimated 80-90% of all cattle in eastern and southern Africa, as well as in Horn of Africa. The loss of animals caused famine which depopulated sub-Saharan Africa, allowing thornbush to colonise. This formed ideal habitat for tsetse fly, which carries sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis), and is unsuitable for livestock.The eradication efforts for Rinderpest were actually tied to immunization efforts against smallpox and polio, as would be seen later in the answer.Arnold Theiler (26 March 1867 – 24 July 1936):Arnold Theiler’s success at producing a vaccine to combat an outbreak of smallpox among the miners of the Witwatersrand brought him an appointment as state veterinarian for the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, in which capacity he served during Second Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902). During this period his research team developed a vaccine against rinderpest. This vaccine was instrumental in curbing the disease in sub-Saharan Africa.Walter Plowright (20 July 1923–19 February 2010):Walter Plowright was an English veterinary scientist who devoted his career to the eradication of the cattle plague rinderpest. Plowright received the 1999 World Food Prize for his development of tissue culture rinderpest vaccine (TCRV), the key element in the quest to eliminate rinderpest.As a young veterinary pathologist, Plowright carried out research in Kenya and Nigeria. East African Veterinary Research Organization at Muguga in Kenya provided the base for Plowright and his colleagues to adopt the cell-culture techniques used to develop the polio vaccine to produce a live attenuated (non-pathogenic) virus for use as a rinderpest vaccine. Plowright used a mono-layer of kidney cells to culture the virus until it became non-virulent and could be transmitted from one cattle to another, producing lifelong immunity against rinderpest. Unlike its predecessors, tissue culture rinderpest vaccine (TCRV) could be used safely in all types of cattle, it could be produced very economically and conferred lifelong immunity.The research and application techniques that brought Plowright success in fighting rinderpest were later replicated by his colleagues to vaccinate against sheeppox and lumpy skin disease.In addition to rinderpest, Plowright also contributed to the study of such viral animal diseases as African swine fever, malignant catarrhal fever, poxviruses, and herpesviruses.Of course there is the ongoing battle against polio. The stalwarts reponsible for developing vaccine againts it: Jonas Edward Salk and Albert Bruce Sabin have already been mentioned in Angel Santiago’s answer.Ambulance servicesTransporting patients to hospitals/treatment facilities holds utmost importance, especially in emergencies. Efficient and rapid transportation can prevent many deaths, otherwise causable due to lack of medical attention.The first record of ambulances being used for emergency purposes relates to the troops of Isabella I of Castile in 1487. The Spanish army of the time was well treated and attracted volunteers from across the continent; and among their benefits were the first military hospitals (ambulancias), although injured soldiers were not picked up for treatment until after the cessation of the battle, resulting in many dying on the field.A major change in usage of ambulances in battle came about with the ambulances volantes designed by Dominique Jean Larrey (8 July 1766 – 25 July 1842), who later became Napoleon Bonaparte’s chief physician. Larrey was present at the battle of Spires, between the French and Prussians, and was distressed that wounded soldiers were not picked up by the numerous ambulances (which regulations required to be stationed two and half miles back from the scene of battle) until after hostilities had ceased, so he set about developing a new ambulance system. Having decided against using the Norman system of horse litters, he settled on two- or four-wheeled horse-drawn wagons to transport fallen soldiers from the active battlefield after they had received early treatment in the field. Larrey adapted the axle assembly from the French army's horse-drawn artillery ("flying artillery" – artillerie volante [French]) that made their gun carriages especially maneuverable on uneven terrain, and so christened his ambulances "flying ambulances" (ambulances volantes). The flying ambulances were first used by Army of the Rhine in 1793. Larrey subsequently developed similar services for Napoleon's armies, and adapted his ambulances to the conditions; including developing a litter which could be carried by a camel for the 1798-1801 French campaign in Egypt.→ Dominique Jean Larrey, portrait by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson [Source: Dominique Jean Larrey - Wikipedia]→ Ambulance volante du modèle Larrey [Source: Dominique Jean Larrey - Wikipedia]More advances in medical care for the military were made during the United States’ Civil War. Union military physicians Joseph Barnes and Jonathan Letterman built upon Larrey’s work and designed a prehospital care system for soldiers, which used new techniques and methods of transport. They ensured that every regiment possessed at least one ambulance cart, with a two-wheeled design that accommodated two or three patients.Edward Barry Dalton (September 21, 1834 – May 13, 1872) was an American physician who served in American Civil War and created New York City's first ambulance service. He started an ambulance service to bring the patients to the hospital faster and in more comfort; the service started in 1869. These ambulances carried medical equipment, such as splints, a stomach pump, morphine, and brandy, reflecting contemporary medicine. Dalton believed that speed was of the essence, and at first the horses were kept in harness while awaiting a call: within a few months this practice had been replaced with a 'drop,' or 'snap,' harness arrangement, whereby the tack was lowered by pulley from the ceiling straight onto the horse: under either scheme, ambulances were ready to go within 30 seconds of being called. The service was very popular and grew rapidly, with the year 1870 seeing the ambulances attend 1401 emergency calls, but 21 years later, this had more than tripled to 4392.→ A horse-drawn ambulance outside Bellevue Hospital in New York City, 1895 [Source: File:Bellevue Hospital Ambulance, New York Times, 1895.JPG - Wikimedia Commons]In 1880, the President of the Liverpool Medical Institution, Reginald Harrison, suggested a horse-drawn ambulance for the city. In 1884, this ambulance service was created based at the Liverpool Northern Hospital: it was the first in Britain.In Queensland, Australia, military medic Seymour Warrian called a public meeting in Brisbane and established an ambulance service after witnessing an event at the Brisbane showgrounds during Show Week in 1892 — a fallen rider, suffering a broken leg was walked off the field by well-meaning but misguided bystanders, worsening his injury. As a result of the meeting, the Queensland Ambulance Transport Brigade was formed on 12 September. The first ambulance station in Queensland operated out of Brisbane Newspaper Company and officers on night duty slept on rolls of newspaper on the floor. They had a stretcher, but no vehicle and transported patients on foot, although in time, they gained horse-drawn stretchers and eventually vehicles. A year after the establishment of the Brisbane centre, another was established in Charters Towers in north Queensland, growing to over 90 community controlled ambulance centres. In 1991 the independent QATB centres amalgamated to form Queensland Ambulance Service which is now the fourth largest ambulance service in the world.The first motor-powered ambulance was brought into service in 1899, with Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, USA taking delivery of the first automobile ambulance, donated in February 1899 by 500 prominent local businessmen.In 1917, Lieutenant Clifford Peel, a medical student, outlined a system of fixed-wing aircraft and ground facilities designed to provide medical services to the Australian Outback; the first custom-built air ambulances did not come into existence until the late 1920s. These ideas became reality under the guidance of the Very Reverend John Flynn in 1928 when Australian Inland Mission service established Aerial Medical Service, a one-year experimental program. Physicians in this program had several responsibilities, one of which was to fly out to a patient, treat the patient, and fly the patient to a hospital if the physician could not deliver adequate care on scene. Eventually, this experiment became the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia.→ [Source: John Flynn (minister) - Wikipedia]→ Australian Flying Doctor Service vehicles in 1954 [Source: Public Domain, File:Flying doctor Alice Springs 1954.jpg - Wikimedia Commons]After Harrow and Wealdstone rail crash in 1952, ambulances in Britain were restructured to be a "mobile hospital", rather than just transporting patients, thus leading to modern ambulances. Part of the result was the creation of standards in ambulance construction concerning the internal height of the patient care area (to allow for an attendant to continue to care for the patient during transport), and in the equipment (and thus weight) that an ambulance had to carry.→ A 1964 police cruiser, which is also fitted to transport patients [Source: File:StratfordPd64.jpg - Wikimedia Commons]→ A 1973 Cadillac Miller-Meteor ambulance. Note the higher roof, with more room for the attendants and patient, and the increased number of warning lights. [Source: CC BY-SA 3.0, File:DFVAC 1970s Cadillac Miller Meteor color.jpg - Wikimedia Commons]Battle against Leaded fuelInfectious Diseases are not the only thing that takes countless lives, and vaccination is not the only thing saves lives. In some cases, legal battles have to be fought to save people’s lives. Details taken from Susanna Viljanen’s answer on What technology do you wish was never invented?Engine knocking in spark ignition internal combustion engines occurs when combustion of some of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder does not result from propagation of the flame front ignited by the spark plug, but one or more pockets of air/fuel mixture explode outside the envelope of the normal combustion front. The fuel-air charge is meant to be ignited by the spark plug only, and at a precise point in the piston's stroke. Knock occurs when the peak of the combustion process no longer occurs at the optimum moment for the four-stroke cycle. The shock wave creates the characteristic metallic "pinging" sound, and cylinder pressure increases dramatically. Effects of engine knocking range from inconsequential to completely destructive.To prevent this phenomenon, anti-knocking agents were being researched upon. A young chemist Thomas Midgley Jr. experimented with various concoctions, and finally encountered dimethyl magnesium and tetraethyl lead - which were found to be effective antiknock agents. The good thing with tetraethyl lead was that it also lubricated the valves.The problem? Of course, Lead. Tetraethyllead is highly toxic, with as little as 6-15mL being enough to induce severe lead poisoning. The hazards of TEL's lead content are heightened due to the compound's volatility and high lipophilicity, enabling it to easily cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the limbic system, frontal cortex, and hippocampus, making chelation therapy ineffective. Early symptoms of acute exposure to tetraethyllead can manifest as irritation of the eyes and skin, sneezing, fever, vomiting, and a metallic taste in the mouth. Later symptoms of acute TEL poisoning include pulmonary edema, anemia, ataxia, convulsions, severe weight loss, delirium, irritability, hallucinations, nightmares, fever, muscle and joint pain, swelling of the brain, coma, and damage to cardiovascular and renal organs. Chronic exposure to TEL can cause long-term negative effects such as memory loss, delayed reflexes, neurological problems, insomnia, tremors, psychosis, loss of attention, and an overall decrease in IQ and cognitive function.Lead poisoning in children has been linked to changes in brain function that can result in low IQ, and increased impulsivity and aggression. These traits of childhood lead exposure are associated with crimes of passion, such as aggravated assault in young adults. An increase in lead exposure in children was linked to an increase in aggravated assault rates 22 year later. For instance, the peak in leaded gasoline use in the late 1970s corresponds to a peak in aggravated assault rates in the late 1990s in urban areas across USA.Toxic effects of TEL were either less known or ignored. Infact, General Motors, Du Pont and Standard Oil founded Ethyl Corporation to produce tetraethyl lead and sell it to fuel manufacturers.Clair Cameron Patterson (June 2, 1922 – December 5, 1995):→ [Source: File:Portrait of Clair Cameron Patterson.jpg - Wikipedia">Link</a>]Enter geochemist Clair Patterson. His work had initially nothing to do with TEL. He was trying to measure Earth’s age. He found that the samples he was using to do so had much more lead than expected.He determined, through ice-core samples from Greenland taken in 1964 and from Antarctica in 1965, that atmospheric lead levels had begun to increase steadily and dangerously soon after tetraethyl lead began to see widespread use in fuel. In his effort to ensure that lead was removed from gasoline (petrol), Patterson fought against the lobbying power of Ethyl Corporation (which employed toxicologist Robert A. Kehoe), against the legacy of Thomas Midgley, Jr. (which included tetraethyllead and chlorofluorocarbons), and against the lead additive industry as a whole. Following Patterson's criticism of the lead industry, he was refused contracts with many research organizations, including the supposedly-neutral United States Public Health Service. In 1971, he was excluded from a National Research Council (NRC) panel on atmospheric lead contamination, even though he was then the foremost expert on the subject.He continued his efforts nonethless. Finally, USA mandated the use of unleaded gasoline to protect catalytic converters in all new cars starting with the 1975 model year, but Patterson's efforts accelerated the phaseout of lead from all standard, consumer automotive gasoline in USA by 1986. Lead levels within the blood of Americans are reported to have dropped by up to 80% by the late 1990s.Clair’s efforts did not just save lives immediately but also contributed to increased average intelligence (having decreased due to Lead exposure) and decrease in crime rate (again, which had increased due to violent behaviour due to lead exposure).Chennai Snake Park→ Romulus “Rom” Earl Whittaker [Source: By Dr. Raju Kasambe - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, File:Mr. Romulus Whitaker.JPG - Wikimedia Commons]Romulus Whittaker is an Indian herpetologist, wildlife conservationist, and founder of Chennai Snake Park, Andaman and Nicobar Environment Trust (ANET), and Madras Crocodile Bank Trust. Regular viewers of National Geographic may know about him. His efforts have been instrumental in driving India’s wildlife conservation efforts. Chennai Snake Park especially has a twofold importance: saving lives and livelihoods, as explained here.Venomous snakebites are estimated to cause 20,000 to 125,000 deaths worldwide. Therefore, any site that produces anti-venom (Chennai Snake Park) included holds high importance. South Asia and South-East Asia seem to be the most affected by snakebites. According to the most conservative estimates, at least 81,000 snake envenomings and 11,000 fatalities occur in India each year, making it the most heavily affected country in the world.→ [Source: By Eightofnine - Own work, Public Domain, File:Number of snake envenomings.svg - Wikimedia Commons]As part of its conservation efforts, India had banned snake trading. While this was a great news for snakes, it created a livelood loss for Irula tribals many of whom had depended on snake catching as traditional occupation. Enter Chennai Snake Park. After the snake trading ban, it started to employ Irulas, in the form of Irulas Co-operative Society utilising their traditional knowledge to give them livelihood, drive snake conservation efforts and anti-venom production.This also had a possibly unintended effect for Irulas. In January 2017, Masi Sadaiyan and Vadivel Gopal from Irula tribe of Tamil Nadu, India were brought in, along with two translators, to work with detection dogs to track down and capture invasive Burmese pythons in Key Largo, Florida. The Irula men and their translators were paid $70,000 by Florida state, and captured 14 pythons in less than two weeks.Footnotes Smallpox - Wikipedia Inoculation - Wikipedia Variolation - Wikipedia Onesimus (Bostonian) - Wikipedia Lady Mary Wortley Montagu - Wikipedia Charles Maitland (physician) - Wikipedia Edward Wortley Montagu (traveller) - Wikipedia Mary Stuart, Countess of Bute - Wikipedia Caroline of Ansbach - Wikipedia John Fewster - Wikipedia Edward Jenner - Wikipedia Viktor Zhdanov - Wikipedia William Foege - Wikipedia Rinderpest - Wikipedia 1890s African rinderpest epizootic - Wikipedia Tsetse fly - Wikipedia African trypanosomiasis - Wikipedia Arnold Theiler - Wikipedia South African Republic - Wikipedia Second Boer War - Wikipedia Walter Plowright - Wikipedia Jonas Salk - Wikipedia Albert Sabin - Wikipedia Isabella I of Castile - Wikipedia Dominique Jean Larrey - Wikipedia Edward Dalton - Wikipedia John Flynn (minister) - Wikipedia Australian Inland Mission - Wikipedia Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia - Wikipedia Harrow and Wealdstone rail crash - Wikipedia Engine knocking - Wikipedia Tetraethyllead - Wikipedia Lead poisoning - Wikipedia Clair Cameron Patterson - Wikipedia Chennai Snake Park - Wikipedia Chennai Snake Park - Wikipedia Madras Crocodile Bank Trust - Wikipedia Irula people - Wikipedia https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/animalia/wp/2017/01/26/florida-is-deploying-snake-hunters-from-india-to-catch-invasive-pythons/