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What is the sign of the electron affinity of F?

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.[1]X + e− → X− + energyIn solid state physics, the electron affinity for a surface is defined somewhat differently (see below).Measurement and use of electron affinityEditThis property is measured for atoms and molecules in the gaseous state only, since in a solid or liquid state their energy levels would be changed by contact with other atoms or molecules. A list of the electron affinities was used by Robert S. Mulliken to develop an electronegativity scale for atoms, equal to the average of the electron affinity and ionization potential.[2][3]Other theoretical concepts that use electron affinity include electronic chemical potential and chemical hardness. Another example, a molecule or atom that has a more positive value of electron affinity than another is often called an electron acceptorand the less positive an electron donor. Together they may undergo charge-transferreactions.Sign conventionEditTo use electron affinities properly, it is essential to keep track of sign. For any reaction that releases energy, the change ΔEin total energy has a negative value and the reaction is called an exothermic process. Electron capture for almost all non-noble gasatoms involves the release of energy[4]and thus are exothermic. The positive values that are listed in tables of Eeaare amounts or magnitudes. It is the word, released within the definition energy released that supplies the negative sign to ΔE. Confusion arises in mistaking Eeafor a change in energy, ΔE, in which case the positive values listed in tables would be for an endo- not exo-thermic process. The relation between the two is Eea= −ΔE(attach).However, if the value assigned to Eeais negative, the negative sign implies a reversal of direction, and energy is required to attach an electron. In this case, the electron capture is an endothermic process and the relationship, Eea= −ΔE(attach) is still valid. Negative values typically arise for the capture of a second electron, but also for the nitrogen atom.The usual expression for calculating Eeawhen an electron is attached isEea = (Einitial − Efinal)attach = −ΔE(attach)This expression does follow the convention ΔX = X(final) − X(initial) since −ΔE = −(E(final) − E(initial)) = E(initial) − E(final).Equivalently, electron affinity can also be defined as the amount of energy required to detach an electron from a singly chargednegative ion,[1]i.e. the energy change for the processX− → X + e−If the same table is employed for the forward and reverse reactions, without switching signs, care must be taken to apply the correct definition to the corresponding direction, attachment (release) or detachment (require). Since almost all detachments (require +) an amount of energy listed on the table, those detachment reactions are endothermic, or ΔE(detach) > 0.Electron affinities of the elementsEditEA vs Atomic NumberMain article: Electron affinity (data page)Although Eeavaries greatly across the periodic table, some patterns emerge. Generally, nonmetals have more positive Eeathan metals. Atoms whose anions are more stable than neutral atoms have a greater Eea. Chlorine most strongly attracts extra electrons; mercury most weakly attracts an extra electron. The electron affinities of the noble gases have not been conclusively measured, so they may or may not have slightly negative values.Eeagenerally increases across a period (row) in the periodic table prior to reaching group 18. This is caused by the filling of the valence shell of the atom; a group 17 atom releases more energy than a group 1 atom on gaining an electron because it obtains a filled valence shell and therefore is more stable. In group 18, the valence shell is full, meaning that added electrons are unstable, tending to be ejected very quickly.Counterintuitively, Eeadoes not decrease when progressing down the rows of the periodic table, as can be clearly seen in the group 2 data. Thus, electron affinity follows the same "left-right" trend as electronegativity, but not the "up-down" trend.The following data are quoted in kJ/mol.vteElectron affinities in the periodic tableGroup →123456789101112131415161718↓ Period1H73He(−50)2Li60Be(−50)B27C122N−0.07O141F328Ne(−120)3Na53Mg(−40)Al42Si134P72S200Cl349Ar(−96)4K48Ca2Sc18Ti8V51Cr65Mn(−50)Fe15Co64Ni112Cu119Zn(−60)Ga41Ge119As78Se195Br325Kr(−60)5Rb47Sr5Y30Zr41Nb89Mo72Tc(53)Ru(101)Rh110Pd54Ag126Cd(−70)In29Sn107Sb101Te190I295Xe(−80)6Cs46Ba14Hf(2)Ta31W79Re(14)Os(106)Ir151Pt205Au223Hg(−50)Tl36Pb34Bi91Po(183)At(222)Rn(−70)7Fr(47)Ra(10)RfDbSgBhHsMtDsRgCnNhFlMcLvTs(212)Og(5)La45Ce635Pr93Nd(>185)Pm(12)Sm(16)Eu83Gd(13)Tb(>112)Dy(>34)Ho(33)Er(30)Tm99Yb(−2)Lu33Ac(34)Th(113)Pa(53)U(51)Np(46)Pu(−48)Am(10)Cm(27)Bk(−165)Cf(−97)Es(−29)Fm(34)Md(94)No(−223)Lr(−30)Legend

What are your top 5 Chinese movies?

In 2019, to Hollywood’s chagrin, Chinese moviegoers largely forwent American blockbusters for local productions. On the world stage, Chinese films also got a boost from broader global distribution both in theaters and via streaming platforms like Netflix. Given the success of Chinese movies in 2019, you’re probably wondering—what were the top Chinese movies this year?As we wrap up 2019, let’s take a look the 10 Best Chinese Movies of 2019.Ranging from comedies to animations, and action movies to deep dramas, these best Chinese movies have not only won the hearts and minds of the Chinese people, but also many viewers around the world.• • •10. Crazy AlienChinese title: ‎疯狂的外星人 | Director: Ning Hao | Starring: Huang Bo, Shen Teng, Tom Pelphrey, Matthew Morrison | Genre: Comedy, Sci-FiChina and the US haven’t exactly been on the best of terms in 2019. Chinese sci-fi comedy Crazy Alien reflected that in a humorous way. The film has America make first contact with an alien, only to let the alien fall into Chinese hands. A Chinese monkey trainer then takes in the alien (thinking it’s an exotic monkey species) to humorous results. Meanwhile, American forces try to capture the alien asset.While Crazy Alien never ventures beyond slapstick humor, the film is still fairly entertaining. As long as you don’t mind humor at the expense of American pride, Crazy Alien delivers laughter by poking fun at American cultural tropes—ranging from a belief in American superiority on the world stage, to clandestine violations of other nations’ sovereignty.Check out our review of the film if you want to learn more!9. PegasusChinese title: ‎飞驰人生 | Director: Han Han | Starring: Shen Teng, Huang Jingyu, Zheng Yin | Genre: Comedy, Drama, MotorsportFans of Chinese movies and petrolheads will delight at Pegasus, popular author Han Han‘s latest cinematic effort. At the center of Pegasus’ redemption narrative is Zhang Chi (Shen Teng of Goodbye Mr. Loser), a former rally car racing champion who just emerged from a five year driving ban for illegal street racing. His life in shambles, Zhang hopes to redeem himself in one last rally competition.However, Zhang Chi has to surpass numerous hurdles ranging from getting his driver’s license back, to building a rally racing car for his competition. While none of these challenges are particularly burdensome, they do provide a good amount of body to the plot of the film. Ultimately though, Pegasus is more about motoring entertainment than dramatic value.Want to learn more about Pegasus? Read our review here!8. Ne ZhaChinese title: ‎哪吒 | Director: Yu Yang | Voices: Lü Yanting, Cao Yalong, Wang Zheng, Chen Hao, Zeng Hongru, Yang Wei, Zhang Jiaming | Genre: Comedy, Animation, Action, DramaWhen most moviegoers think of animated films, they usually think of Disney, or the Japanese anime industry. This year, Chinese hit animated movie Ne Zha showed audiences that China’s animation industry packs a punch as well. The story of Ne Zha is based on an eponymous deity from Chinese folk religion. However, while the movie draws heavily from the Chinese legend of Ne Zha, it ends up being a much more light-hearted and family-friendly story that omits the gory details of Chinese folklore.At its core, Ne Zha tells the story of an unruly child (named Ne Zha) who is possessed by a demon spirit. His upright parents attempt to keep Ne Zha from causing too much chaos, but largely fail in keeping Ne Zha from terrorizing local villagers. Ne Zha ultimately tries to redeem himself by battling against a truly evil force alongside his fellow villagers.Perhaps owing to a mix of patriotism among Chinese movie-goers, and the relative lack of competition this summer, Ne Zha smashed box office records. It’s now not only the highest-grossing animated film in Chinese history, but also one of the top movies across all genres. A Communist Party mouthpiece even published a piece asking party cadres to “channel [their] inner Ne Zha.”Want to learn more about Ne Zha? Read our review of the film!7. Send Me to the CloudsChinese title: ‎送我上青云 | Director: Teng Congcong | Starring: Yao Chen | Genre: DramaChina was one of the first nations to proudly proclaim that “women hold up half the sky.” While the People’s Republic of China still lags behind in some aspects of women’s rights, the 2019 film Send Me to the Clouds was an apt movie for a nation keen on improving its feminist credentials. Send Me to the Clouds tells the story of Sheng Nan’s quest to have a “mind-blowing” sexual experience before she undergoes surgery to cure ovarian cancer.Send Me To The Clouds contains ample commentary about the social pressures Chinese women face. While the pursuit of “mind-blowing” sex is the basis of the film’s plot, the majority of the film concerns itself with gendered social expectations—male and female alike. The men in Sheng Nan’s life pursue materialism to gain the respect of their family members, while Sheng Nan herself struggles to carve out her own meaning of life independent of her mother’s expectations.Interested in reading more about Send Me to the Clouds? Read our full review here!6. The Last SunriseChinese title: 最后的日出 | Director: Wen Ren | Starring: Zhang Jue, Zhang Ran | Genre: Sci-Fi, DramaIf you watched The Last Sunrise, you wouldn’t have guessed that it was shot in 14 days on a budget of US$250,000. In his first feature film, director Wen Ren deftly utilizes every ounce of resource to deliver an extremely thoughtful and touching narrative about two people trying to survive the end of the world.The Last Sunrise is set in a future China that is entirely powered by solar energy. One day, the sun mysteriously disappears, throwing China (and presumably the rest of the world) into complete disarray. Amateur scientist Sun Yang teams up with his neighbor Chen Mu to try to survive in a post-apocalyptic world. The Last Sunrise also grapples with some tough moral decisions for the pair, artfully depicting the cruel reality of survival without passing judgement on the duo.Science-fiction is generally known for its big, fantastic visuals—think Blade Runner 2049, Interstellar, Arrival, and even The Wandering Earth, to name a few. The Last Sunrise defines its own sub-category, one that capitalizes on gentle, subtler moments to highlight the dynamics between its two protagonists. Science fiction rests mainly in the background, a sky full of stars that envelops our protagonists along their route.Interested in learning more about why we thought The Last Sunrise was one of the best Chinese movies of 2019? Check out our full review!5. The Wild Goose LakeChinese title: ‎南方车站的聚会 | Director: Diao Yinan | Starring: Hu Ge, Liao Fan, Gwei Lun-mei, Wan Qian | Genre: DramaDiao Yinan’s follow up to his breakthrough feature Black Coal, Thin Ice is set in the Chinese city of Wuhan. The Wild Goose Lake features an all-star cast and blends complex interpersonal relationships to deliver a gripping melodrama. The neo-noir film competed for the prestigious Palm d’Or Award at Cannes in 2019, and received critical accolades.Like Diao’s prior work, Wild Goose Lake tracks the story of people who are on the periphery of China’s economic boom. Largely shot in the local dialect, the film tracks the story of a gangster pursued by police, who meets a prostitute seeking a new life. Wild Goose Lake is set in the darker, grittier part of China that Beijing is not exactly keen on highlighting to global audiences. Diao once again artfully showcases that even the bleak and cruel parts of China have gripping stories to tell.To learn more about The Wild Goose Lake, read our full-length review!4. So Long, My SonChinese title: 地久天长 | Director: Wang Xiaoshuai | Starring: Wang Jingchun, Yong Mei, Wang Yuan, Xu Cheng| Genre: Drama, FamilyWinner of two Silver Bears at the Berlinale, So Long, My Son is one of 2019’s most critically acclaimed Chinese art house movies. Tracing the lives of two families from the 1980’s to the present day, the film offers a humanistic perspective on China’s “Reform and Opening.”Across its decades-long storyline, So Long, My Son broaches topics like wealth inequality and the One-child Policy. Yet, it’s not an overtly political film; it simply aspires to show everyday life for its characters. The film has parallels with Hirokazu Kore-eda and Jia Zhangke‘s works—one one hand it’s a slow-moving take on family life, on the other it looks upon contemporary China. Viewers who enjoy artistic movies or studying China will find value from So Long, My Son.To learn more about So Long, My Son, read our full review.3. Dwelling in the Fuchun MountainsChinese title: ‎春江水暖 | Director: Gu Xiaogang | Starring: Youfa Qian, Fengjuan Wang, Zhangjian Sun, Renliang Zhang, Guoying Zhang, Zhangwei Sun, Hongjun Du, Luqi Peng, Yi Zhuang, Zikang Sun, Zhenyang Dong | Genre: Drama, FamilyGu Xiaogang’s debut as a director couldn’t really have gone much better: the former fashion industry worker’s first feature film Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains was screened at Cannes and critics raved about it. Slow-paced and undramatic, Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains tells the story of three generations of the Yu family, who live in the city of Fuyang.There’s not much tension or drama to the plot. Instead of letting the story drive the film, Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains more resembles a Chinese landscape painting. Life events happen to the characters of the movie, rather than the movie’s protagonists acting in progression of the plot. Beyond an exceptional cinematic experience featuring stunning landscapes of rural China, Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains highlights a number of social issues in contemporary China ranging from parental marital pressure to materialism.Interested in learning more about Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains? Read our review here!2. The Wandering EarthChinese title: ‎流浪地球 | Director: Frant Gwo | Starring: Wu Jing, Qu Chuxiao, Li Guangjie, Ng Man-tat, Zhao Jinmai, Mike Sui | Genre: Sci-Fi, Drama, ActionOur second best Chinese movie of 2019 is the sci-fi movie The Wandering Earth. Wolf Warrior star Wu Jing headlined the cast, leading to concerns from some Chinese netizens that The Wandering Earth might turn into a jingoistic propaganda movie. Those fears were easily allayed. Not only was The Wandering Earth visually breathtaking, but also the screenwriting and acting were superb.The Wandering Earth is set in a not-so-distant future where the sun begins to expand, threatening to swallow up planet Earth. In response, world governments unite to enact a plan that will move the planet to a new solar system (hence the title of the movie). Apparently, this plan wasn’t very good, because Earth falls into the gravity well of Jupiter on its way out, and a group of (predominantly Chinese) technicians and scientists band together to save the day.There are indeed subtle hints of Beijing’s propaganda efforts in The Wandering Earth, but director Frant Gwo artfully weaves them into the narrative thread of the film so that they don’t feel jarring or blatantly obvious. The film champions Chinese heroes no more than Hollywood movies champion American might—making the film one of China’s best forays into building soft power to date. By focusing on making a great movie first and foremost, while only hinting at Chinese greatness, Frant Gwo can ensure that international audiences will actually appreciate the film and might leave with a more positive view of China afterwards.Interested in learning more about The Wandering Earth? Check out our review of the movie!1. Better DaysChinese title: ‎少年的你 | Director: Derek Tsang | Starring: Zhou Dongyu, Jackson Yee | Genre: DramaWe round off our list of 2019’s best Chinese movies with a film that almost didn’t make it to the big screen this year—Better Days. The film features Zhou Dongyu and TFBoys member Jackson Yee play a bullied schoolgirl (Chen Nian) and high school dropout (Xiao Bei) respectively. After a chance encounter, the two form an unlikely bond as Xiao Bei helps protect Chen Nian from her bullies, and Chen Nian begins to give Xiao Bei a reason to live.Chinese authorities delayed Better Days‘ release multiple times in 2019. Authorities yanked Better Days from the Berlinale in Febuary, and the film’s producers cancelled a planned summer wide theatrical debut. Better Days was worth the wait though. Zhou’s rendition of Chen Nian shows the breadth of her acting abilities, while the brutally honest portrayal of teenage bullying on-screen helped bring the social issue to light.Interested in learning more? Check out our full review of Better Days here!

What are the recent trends in concrete technology?

The need for innovation in the construction industry has long been stressed from both within and outside the industry. Changes in global markets, increased customer expectations, and government pressure have all led to innovation becoming a key focus for the construction sector. There is increasing pressure on the construction industry to become more environ-mentally sustainable. As the construction industry is a major energy user as well as contributer to the greenhouse gas emissions and waste levels, the government is pushing hard to the construction sector to come up with more and more innovative technologies in concrete since concrete is the mother constituent of any construction.Developing and maintaining world’s infrastructure to meet the future demands of industrialized and developing countries has become necessary to economically grow and improve the quality of life. The quality and performance of concrete plays a key role for most of the infrastructure including commercial, industrial, residential and military structures, dams, power plants and transportation systems. Concrete is the single largest manufactured material in the world and accounts for more than 6 billion metric tons of materials annually. In United States, federal, state, and local governments have nearly $1.5 trillion dollars in investment in the U.S. civil infrastructure. The worldwide use of concrete materials accounts for nearly $780 billion in annual spending. The industrialized and developing world is facing the issues related to new construction as well as repair and rehabilitation of existing facilities. Rapid construction and long term durability are requirements on most projects. Initial and life-cycle costs play a major role in today’s infrastructure development. There have been number of notable advancements made in concrete technology in the last fifty years. Some of these advances have been incorporated in routine practices. But, in general, the state-of-practice has lagged far behind the state-of-art. This is particularly true for public sector projects. There is an increasing concern in most parts of the world that it takes unduly long time for successful concrete research products to be utilized in practice. Even though some advances have been made in quick implementation of new concrete technology, significant barriers to innovation and implementation remain. Continued coordination of ongoing inter- national research and educational pro-grams is needed.Numerous advances have been made in all areas of concrete technology including materials, mixture proportioning, recycling, structural design, durability requirements, testing and specifications. Throughout the world some progress has been achieved in utilizing these innovations but largely these re-main outside routine practice. The high performance concrete (HPC) for transportation structures, e.g., bridges and pavements, are gaining wider acceptability in routine practice. HPC provides enhanced strength and durability properties and contributes towards long lasting structures and pavements. The constructability can also be enhanced by proper mixture proportioning and testing. Most HPC mixture include re-cycled materials e.g. fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), Metakaolin (MK) or silica fume. The use of recycled materials in construction is an issue of great importance in this century. Utilization of fly ash and GGBFS in concrete addresses this issue. The replacement of Portland cement by fly ash or GGBFS reduces the volumes of Portland cement used is a major benefit. The reduction of Portland cement production will reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, reduce energy consumption and reduce the rate of global warming. Utilization of fly ash and GGBFS usually provides cost savings as well as improved concrete properties. The case histories discussed demonstrate the practical uses of supplementary cementitious materials. fly ash, GGBFS and silica fume for various types of bridges and pavements in wide ranging environ- mental conditions. The successful utilization of supplementary cementitious materials requires proper mixture pro-portioning, testing, placement and curing. Lack of widespread transfer of developed and available new concrete technology is a major problem in most countries. The practicing engineer’s (user) involvement through re-search, development and technology transfer stages is a key to successful application of new concrete technology in routine design and practice. The past experience has shown that successful technology transfer occurs when there is a pressing national need, champions of technology are created, champion and organizations involved persist, practical demonstrations of technology are conducted to demonstrate benefits, and regulatory requirements are implemented. The new concrete technology must fulfill a need to be successful. The user’s (owner/designer/construction engineer) involvement is vital to success. The user starts and ends the techno-logy process. Examples of successful concrete technology transfer efforts are discussed.Some Emerging Trends and Innovations in Concrete1. Green Cements2. Blended Cements3. High Performance Concrete (HPC)4. Smart Concrete5. Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC)6. Use of Recycled Tire Rubber in Concrete7. Smog Eating Concrete8. Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC)9. Translucent Concrete10. Pervious Concrete11. Low Temp. Concrete Admixture12. Prepacked Shotcrete Admixture13. Steel-Free Concrete Bridge Deck14. Pavemend – Rapid Repair Products15. Suntreat – Concrete Restoration & Protection System16. Precast Inverted T Beam17. Conductive Concrete18. Corrosion Inhibitors for Reinforced Concrete19. Shrinkage Reducing Admixture for Concrete20. Mellose non-dispersible Under-water Concrete AdmixtureGreen CementsResearch has been carried out to develop non-clinker “green” cement using two industry wastes: cement kiln dust (CKD) and fly ash (FA). CKD contains partially calcined materials with some hydraulic and cementitious properties. It also has high alkali, chloride, and sulfate content, which may cause problems in cement performance.Blended CementsAn important concept of concrete technology innovation is blended cements. It makes use of industry by pro-ducts like fly ash and blast furnace slag, which otherwise would have required land for its disposal. The concept also gives lesser natural lime stone and lesser emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Common ternary blends includes, 50% Portland cement + 30% slag cement + 20% fly ash, to improve concrete performance, qualify for tax credits with re-cycled content.High Performance Concrete (HPC)Normal Strength Concrete (NSC) is heavy and lacks the required work-ability in some large concrete structures, such as high-rise buildings, bridges, and structures under severe exposure conditions. By increasing concrete strength and performance, the required thickness of concrete members and the cost of concrete structures can both be reduced. In the U.S., a major move to-ward HPC is underway, especially in the manufacturing environment of precast concrete. A major demonstration precast concrete bridge is under construction in Texas. High Performance Concrete (HPC) is the latest development in concrete. It is not just High-Strength Concrete (HSC) and has replaced HSC developed in the early 1980’s. HPC can be defined as a concrete made with appropriate materials (superplasticizer, retarder, fly ash, blast furnace slag and silica fume) combined according to a selected mix design and properly mixed, transported, placed, consolidated, and cured to give excellent performance in some properties of concrete, such as high compressive strength, high density, low permeability and good resistance to certain forms of attack.Smart ConcreteConcrete has been widely used for many years as a composite material for various types of structures. One of the weaknesses of concrete is that it cannot withstand tension which can cause cracks easily. There has been a huge demand to monitor concrete structures cracking and preventing them from propagating further. These efforts are important for timely repair, safety and long-term durability of critical structures. Non-destructive evaluations, such as attaching or embedding sensors into structures, have been used in many ways to accommodate the demand, yet the tests are considered expensive. Smart concrete was developed by Dr. Deborah D.L. Chung from State University of New York at Buffalo. Smart concrete is reinforced by carbon fiber as much as 0.2% to 0.5% of volume to increase its sense ability to strain or stress while still has good mechanical properties. By adding small amount of short carbon fiber into concrete with a conventional concrete mixer, the electrical resistance of concrete increases in response to strain or stress. As the concrete is deformed or stressed, the contact between the fiber and cement matrix is affected, thereby affecting the volume electrical resistivity of the concrete. Strain is detected through measurement of the electrical resistance. So, the smart concrete has the ability to sense tiny structural flaws before they become significant, which could be used in monitoring the internal condition of structures and following an earthquake.Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC)It has brought about “Revolution” in the precast industry. No compaction required in SCC still it results in no segregation and shows excellent flow-ability. It eliminates vibration and yields smooth surface finish with no voids.Use of Recycled Tire Rubber in ConcreteMore than 250 million scrap tires weighing more than 3 million tons are generated each year in the United States (Naik and Siddique 2002). This is considered as one of the major environ-mental challenges facing municipalities around the world because waste rubber is not easily biodegradable even after a long period of landfill treatment. One of the solutions suggested is the use of tire rubber particles as additives in cement-based materials.Smog Eating ConcreteCement treated with titanium oxide. Photocatalytic reaction with UV light takes place, it accelerates natural oxidation process and decomposes pollutants to clear air. The reaction prevents bacteria and dirt from accumulating on a surface. It is easily removed with water or rain and keep concrete clean and white.Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC)Reactive Powder Concrete is an ultra high-strength and high ductility composite material with advanced mechanical properties. Developed in the 1990s by Bouygues’ Laboratory in France. It consists of a special concrete where its micro structure is optimized by precise gradation of all particles in the mix to yield maximum density. It uses extensively the pozzolanic properties of highly refined silica fume and optimization of the Portland cement chemistry to produce the highest strength hydrates. RPC represents a new class of Portland cement-based material with compressive strengths in excess of 200 MPa range. By introducing fine steel fibers, RPC can achieve remarkable flexural strength up to 50 MPa. The material exhibits high ductility with typical values for energy absorption approaching those reserved for metals.Translucent ConcreteIt changes the perception of concrete’s opaque mass, it is prepared with optical glass fibers.Previous ConcreteIt possesses little or no sands and has open pore structure. It Reduces storm water run-off.Low Temperature Concrete AdmixturePerforming construction processes under the cold weather condition requires construction engineers to plan operations considering low temperature condition. Especially, since the quality of concrete is sensitive to temperature, costly cold weather protection has been required to prevent damage due to in-appropriate weather environment. Concrete admixtures, mostly chemically, interact with the constituents of concrete and affect the properties and characteristics of the fresh and hardened concrete and its durability. The purposes of the admixtures include water reduction, high strength, corrosion protection, crack control, finish enhancement, flowability, etc. One of the interesting and useful purposes is protection against freeze. Accelerating admixture is to increase the rate of early strengthdevelopment or to shorten the time of setting, or both. Some of these accelerating materials have properties effective to avoid free-zing. Pozzutec® 20+ developed by Master Builders, Inc. is a multicomponent, non-chloride, water reducing and accelerating admixture formulated to accelerate concrete setting time and increase early and ultimate strengths across a wide range of ambient temperatures.Prepacked Shotcrete AdmixtureOver the past 10 years, the wet shotcrete method has become increasingly used in the repair of vertical and over-head concrete surfaces. This is due, in part, to advances inmaterials such as the introduction of silica fume (microsilica), fibers and super-plasticizers, which not only make shotcrete easier to place, but also improve its durability. Batching all these materials in the right proportions with sand and cement can be difficult, so many manufacturers have developed pre-packed shotcrete repair mortars to which con-tractors add only water. The prepacked materials simplify batching and provide more consistent quality. But packaging all the dry materials increases their cost. Gemite Products Inc. Amherst, NY developed prepacked products (called “concentrates”), which include all the admixtures but require contractors to provide their own sand and cement. The material costs of concentrates mixed with sand and cement are considerably lower when compared with complete packaged systems, while maintaining the same quality.Steel-Free Concrete Bridge DeckSteel-free concrete replaces rein-forced concrete in bridge decks and similar structures in marine environments and in northern climates having snow and ice. It is to eliminate the source of deterioration, the steel reinforcing bars in slabs exposed to deicing salts. Eliminating corrosion makes concrete deck slabs virtually maintenance free, which makes life cycle costs of steel-free concrete decks much lower than reinforced concrete decks. Shear connectors make the steelfree concrete deck composite with the steel girders that support it. Top flanges of girders attempt to displace outward when a truck drives across the deck. External transverse steel straps below the bridge deck and between the bridge girders prevent this outward displacement by providing a lateral restraining force to the girder and concrete deck. In res-ponse, compressive membrane forces develop in the concrete deck. Ultimate load can be greater than the load at which the same deck would fail if it were reinforced conventionally. In fact, the tension capacity of the steel straps in the steel-free deck replaces conventional reinforcing steel. The external steel straps can be inspected and maintained in a similar fashion to steel girders.Status:Two versions are available:1. The cast-in-place version2. The pre-cast Arch Panel version.The cast-in-place deck slab is now in the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC), currently in the press. Japan is reviewing the technology. Meet- ing with American Association State High- way Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Code Committee is in progress.Pavement – Rapid Repair ProductsRepair of concrete continues to be a major maintenance item in the budget of many agencies. There are many circumstances in which a rapid repair is highly desirable. Ceracrete Technologies, Inc. (CTI) is a Richmond, Virginia-based small business. CTI focuses on the manufacture of commercial products for construction applications using non- hazardous inorganic recovered raw materials to replace conventional virgin raw materials. Ceracrete technology is a chemical bonding process that uses very high percentages of coal ash, municipal solid waste ash, foundry sand residue, dredge material, flue gas desulferization by-products, etc. to create rapid concrete repair products. The initial Ceracrete rapid concrete repair product, PaveMend, reaches 3670 psi at one hour and 4400 psi at three hours, easily qualifying it as a very rapid pavement repair material. The twenty eight day comprehensive strength levels operate at around 6,000psi. This ge-nerally means that field users can mix, pour/place and open the area to traffic quickly without special curing or protection measures.Suntreat – Concrete Restoration & Protection SystemReinforcing steel corrosion is the most common cause of failure of concrete structures. Once started, rebar corrosion cannot be stopped by simply waterproofing the surface of the concrete. The corrosion process is influenced and promoted by penetration of air, water, chloride and an acid environment. Surtreat can be used to prevent contamination and decomposition of concrete surfaces in hostile, chloride and acid containing environments. Surtreat is a proprietary concrete restoration and protection system. The system includes sequential application of chemical treatments to improve the properties of the deteriorating concrete and protect new structures. Surtreat proprietary chemical formulations penetrate into the concrete microstructure in liquid and vapor state to combine with the cement phase of concrete and deposit on steel components. Surtreat increases the ability of concrete to resist deterioration by in-creasing compressive strength, reducing permeability, inhibiting corrosion of the reinforcing steel components and improving concrete’s resistance to acid attack. Surtreat is used in the widest variety of applications and every owner /manager/operator of structures that include concrete components can benefit from the installation of Surtreat. All tests were conducted at the NASA Kennedy Space Center laboratories and in compliance with applicable ASTM Standard Test Methods. The evaluation methods employed by NASA specialists included measurement of halfcell potential, corrosion current and polarization resistance. The most direct measure of the corrosion rate, polarization resistance was increased by 300% after application of Surtreat. Halfcell potential and corrosion current measurements also reflect a significant decline in corrosion rates after application of surtreat corrosion inhibitors.Precast Inverted T Beam:Current systems are either costly or time consuming to erect and have limitations. Cast-in-place slabs have become too expensive and time-consuming due to extensive field formwork. Precast solid slabs aren’t economical for spans longer than 9 meters. I-girders with concrete deck slab topping can span longer than other systems, but require field formwork and significantly higher clearance. The new precast concrete product for short to medium span bridges was developed by the University of Nebraska. The Nebraska Inverted Tee (IT) can span up to 26 meters with a total structural depth of 725 mm. Most U.S. highway bridges have short to medium span lengths. And most bridges needing rehabilitation or replacement are short-span. A recently developed type of pre-stressed concrete beam is helping slash 20% off the weight of a bridge being built in Florida between the cities of Boynton Beach and Ocean Ridge.Conductive Concrete:Concrete has been used for many years as a composite material that has excellent mechanical properties and durability for construction. However, concrete is a poor electrical conductor, especially under dry conditions. Concrete that is excellent in both mechanical and electrical conductivity properties may have important applications in the electrical, electronic, military and construction industry (e.g. for deicing road from snow). Traditional methods can warm roads, but installation cost is high and the procedure is complicated. The principle behind it is the use of cement to bind together electrically conductive materials such as carbon fiber, graphite and ‘coke breeze’ – a cheap by-product of steel production – to make a continuous network of conducting path- way. The design formulation is based on the ‘electrical percolation’ principle by which the composite conductivity increases dramatically by several orders of magnitude when the content of the conductive phase reaches a critical ‘threshold’ value. Further increases in the conductive phase content boost composite conductivity only slightly. The design specifies an amount just over the threshold content, assuring high conductivity and mechanical strength as well as good mixing conditions.Corrosion Inhibitors for Reinforced ConcreteSteel corrosion in reinforced concrete structures has been a major problem across World today. Steel-rein-forced concrete structures are continually subject to attack by corrosion brought on by naturally occurring environmental conditions such as carbonation and the introduction of chlorides from sources such as salt water, deicing salts, and accelerating admixtures. Corrosion inhibitors available in the market can be mixed with ready mixed concrete or applied over the old concrete greatly reduces the overall corrosion activity (up to 65% reduction). Such products normally do not affect the properties of hardened concrete, such as compressive strengths, permeability, etc. One demerit of such pro-ducts are that it reduces corrosion but cannot stop it. A combination of this product with other protective systems is required if the level of durability of the concrete structure needs to more than double.Shrinkage Reducing Admixture for ConcreteConcrete shrinkage cracking is a common problem in all types of concrete structures, especially for structures and environments where the cracks are prevalent and the repercussions are most severe. Examples of these are bridge decks, parking garages, marine structures, containment structures, and high performance floors. A liquid shrinkage reducing admixture for concrete, developed by Grace Construction Products and Arco Chemical Company, that reduces significantly the shrinkage during concrete drying and potentially reduces overall cracking over time. The product can be easily dissolved in concrete mix water or dispersed in concrete during mixing. The admixture works by reducing the surface tension of the water, decreasing the force pulling in on the walls of the pores, resulting in a reduction of the shrinkage strain.Mellose Non-dispersible Underwater Concrete AdmixtureMany under-water civil engineering structures are affected not only by the presence of water or salt but also by water pressure; flow of water, and by the different material’s density. These factors could cause cracks, corrosion, and dispersion of concrete particles. Mellose is a viscose agent based on under water Cellulose (Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose). It is commonly referred to as a self-leveling agent that increases viscosity when is dissolved in water. It can be also described as an anti-wash-out concrete or non-dispersible concrete mixture. When Mellose is added, it prevents the loss of cement in the mortar and the separation of the concrete particles due to its increased viscosity. It combines first with the water than with the cement and the other concrete particles.Benefits include: Mellose increases the viscosity of suspended concrete but decreases the viscosity of flowing con-crete. Therefore, it increases the work-ability of the concrete, while there is no separation of its aggregates. It prevents the segregation of aggregates as well as the bleeding when used for under water construction. The product comes in the form of a powder that is added as a concrete admixture.Barriers are: Mellosecan not be used with Naphtalene Sulphonate because of chemical reactions.ConclusionThe cement and concrete industry has some inherent problems that re-strict the rate of adoption of new technologies to meet these challenges. These include:– Expensive manufacturing infra-structure– Low margin product– Proliferation of formula based technical standards– Industry culture tied to the orthodox belief that “it has always been done this way”These excuses will not impress an institutional investor that has a myriad of investing opportunities to choose from and is ready to move millions of dollars of capital to anywhere in the world at the press of a button. Neither is a user trying to overcome a problem such as cement shrinkage or corrosion or a politician who is being pressured by community concern over environ-mental degradation going to be Interested in the problems of the industry. Cement manufacturers need to ask themselves the same questions.Cements and concretes are changing to better meet the needs of customers ahead of the competition. The construction industry is conservative and the changes have been slow, such as the increase in thealite/belite ratio over the last twenty years and the incorporation of supplementary cementitious materials and various fibres. Cements and concretes probably need to change much more quickly to meet the challenges of the future. Challenging the traditional construction paradigm is robotics. In the USA and elsewhere in the world researchers are looking at using robots to literally print buildings. It is all quite simple from a software, computer hardware and mechanical engineering point of view. The difficulty is in developing new construction materials with the right Bingham plastic rheology so they can be squeezed out like tooth-paste; yet retain their shape until hardened. The main inhibiters to evolution in the industry are the formula-based app-roach to standards which grew out of the industrial environment of the early twentieth century. Standards are important for society’s protection, but to allow creativity and innovation, standards would be a much better servant to society if they were performance-based rather than formula-based.Source - Masterbuilder

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