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Is food technology a good career option?
Food science & technology is the branch of applied sciences that combines the fundamentals of biochemistry, physical sciences and chemical engineering to study the physical, chemical and biological nature of food items. In simple words, food science (or food technology) deals with the manufacturing, processing, treatment, preservation, and distribution of food.The ultimate objective of food science is to understand the principles of food processing and to improve the food quality for the general public. Whatever food item (especially packaged ones) you come across in the supermarket (or retail store), has had some contributions from a food scientist, food technologist or food engineer. Careers in food science and technology require significant formal education. Food scientists and food technologists conduct tests and experiments to try to optimize food production. They typically hold at least a bachelor's degree.Food science & technology is the study of how to optimize agricultural output, while food technology is the implementation of those improvements. The majority of food scientists and technologists work in research capacities for labs, companies or universities, but a considerable number of positions are also available in manufacturing industries. Careers in food science and technology afford researchers the opportunity to make a tangible impact on the healthfulness of people's diets around the world. Strong academic backgrounds in chemistry, biology, engineering, genetics and other relevant sciences can be parlayed into food science and technology positions in a variety of settings. Food scientists and technologists are employed by the government and food-processing industries, as well as by universities, where they occupy research positions.Food ScientistsFood scientists research how to improve existing methods of food packaging and processing. This can include studying a food's nutritional content and investigating alternative sources of food and ways to purify foods containing additives. Many focus on the manufacturing aspect of food and determine how best to process and store food products. All food scientists must be conscious of government regulations on food processing, but specific positions exist for those who want to make a career of food processing inspection.Food TechnologistsAlthough the functions of food scientists and food technologists often overlap, the latter is more immediately concerned with product development. Those specializing in biotechnology have opportunities to work on genetic engineering of plants and crops or explore how agricultural products can be transformed into fuel sources (biofuels). Nanotechnology is being used successfully to test the content of food, targeting especially the presence of harmful contaminants. Like food scientists, food technologists must be capable of working independently, as well as with a team. Workers often begin as part of a research group, with the possibility of promotions to managerial positions.Growing Demand of Food Science & Technology ProfessionalsRelatively Food Science is still a very new discipline, and it is growing due to rapid urbanization and lifestyle changes worldwide. Being a branch of applied sciences, Food Science is very multi-disciplinary in nature, just like Biomedical Science, Pharmacy or Translational Science.Food Science involves chemistry (organic, inorganic and physical), biochemistry, microbiology, nutrition, chemical and process engineering. The holy grail of food science lies within the understanding of the chemistry and biochemistry of food components like proteins, carbohydrate, fats, minerals, vitamins and water. So, the field needs highly qualified and trained Food Scientists. Apart from quality, factors like safety and nutrition value also need to be kept in mind. Therefore, there is a growing market demand for more advancements and sophistication in the field of food science and technology globally.Educational RequirementsUndergraduates can expect to take an assortment of rigorous courses covering chemistry, biology, calculus, statistics, nutrition and health. Students are also frequently required to take classes on writing and oral expression, since food scientists often perform advisory functions for the government or food processing companies.Food scientists and technologists seeking positions with private companies are considered qualified with a bachelor's degree, but those who hope to work at universities will need a master's or doctorate (Ph.D.). Food scientists and technologists don't need a license to practice.Ideally you need to have Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (PCB) combination in your 10+2, and may be Mathematics as well. At Bachelors level, ideal courses are 3-year or 4-year degree courses in Food Science, Food Technology, Food Science and Technology, or Food Science and Agriculture.To have a career in R&D, QC and QA, you will require a higher degree (Masters or PhD). You can gain more advantage by pursuing a higher degree from abroad. If you are more inclined towards the sales and marketing (product/brand management) roles then an MBA will be very helpful.In case you want to pursue a career as a Nutritionist or Dietician, a formal degree after Bachelors is not always necessary. You can do a Certificate or PG Diploma course in Nutrition or Dietetics.Why Pursue a Career in Food Science & TechnologyThe food industry is one of the largest in the world. People will never stop to eat (essential for survival). Hence, it will be in demand always, and recession-proof.You can choose any role within the food industry – behind the desk or in the lab. You can choose any function – R&D, Manufacturing, Quality Control, Sales & Marketing, Teaching and Consulting within the Government, Industry or Academia.Growth of food industry in India is 10 to 15 percent per annum. Presently, more than 350 colleges are teaching food technology, still the requirement of Food Technologists is not fulfilled. Presently, supply is less than demand. Food Technology is a vast subject. Popular avenues for employment in food industry are:Biscuits & BakeryCereals & pulses productsFish & meat productsPoultry & egg productsFruit & vegetable productsAlcoholic beveragesNon-alcoholic beveragesPickles/papadsJams, jelliesSauces & ketchupPasta & noodlesReady meals/instant mixesSpices & spice mixesConfectionary & chocolatesSnack foodsFrozen & chilled foodsDehydrated foodsIrradiated foodsTea/coffeeFermented foodsOils & fatsDairy productsIndian sweets & namkeen-In a SSE, a Food Technologist can become Technical Head.-In a MSE, a Food Technologist can become Divisional head i.e. Production Head, QA Head or R&D head.-In a LSE, a Food Technologist can become Manager from Executive level of joining.Degree courses in advanced food technology, legal aspects, management etc, will give opportunity to grow even up to CEO level.Popular Sectors for Employment• Food Manufacturing & Processing (Grains, fruits, vegetables, fish, meat etc.)• FMCG• Pharma-Biotech• Agro-Biotech• Dairy Firms• Poultry Firms• Bakeries & Confectionaries• Breweries• Retailers• Healthcare• Academia & Research Institutes• Food PackagingPopular Career Paths & Job Profiles in the Food Industry• Research & Development (Food Scientist, Food Technologist, Food Chemist, Product Development Specialist)• Quality Control & Assurance (Food Chemist, Food Inspector, Toxicologist)• Food Processing (Food Processor, Process Development Specialist, Manufacturing Specialist, Food Production Manager)• Sales, Marketing & Brand Management (various roles like other industries)• Others (Dietician, Nutritionist, Animal Nutritionist, Diet & Fitness Counselor)Top Academic & Research Institutes in IndiaCentral Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI)National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management (NIFTEM)Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology (IICPT)National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI)Food and Drug Toxicology Research Centre (FDTRC)Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL)National Institute of Nutrition (NIN)Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (IITR)Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI)Department of Food Science and Technology, Pondicherry UniversityInternational Life Sciences Institute – India (ILSI)IISER – PuneBhaba Atomic Research CentreIISc BangaloreNational Dairy Research Institute (NDRI)Department of Food Science and Nutrition, SNDT Women’s UniversityAmrita University (Research Projects)Centre for Food Science & Technology, Sambalpur UniversitySchool of Life Sciences, JNUAgricultural & Food Engineering Department, IIT KharagpurNational Research Centre on Meat / Indian Council of Agricultural ResearchFaculty of Food Safety and QualityCentral Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering & Technology (CIPHET)Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI)National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases (NIHSAD)Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI)Indian Institute of Vegetable Research (IIVR)Department of Zoology, University of DelhiNational Institute of Abiotic Stress Management (NIAM)Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE)I.K. Gujral Punjab Technical UniversityKarpagam UniversityCCS Haryana Agriculture UniversityB. Pant University of Agriculture and TechnologySchool of Health Sciences, University of CalicutDept. of Food Process Engineering, SRM UniversityTop Universities in AbroadUniversities in USA• Cornell University• University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign• Texas A&M University• UC Davis• University of Florida• University of Missouri• Michigan State University• Iowa State University• Purdue University• University of Wisconsin-Madison• Oklahoma State University• University of Massachusetts Amherst• Pennsylvania State University• Ohio State University• Clemson University• University of Minnesota• Southern Illinois University Carbondale• Mississippi State University• North Carolina State University• Illinois Institute of Technology• Colorado State University• Virginia Tech• California State University long Beach• California State University Los Angeles• University of Arkansas• New York University• Tufts University• Drexel University• University of Connecticut• Kansas State University• University of Idaho• Oregon State University• Washington State University• Texas Tech University• University of Delaware• University of Georgia• University of Tennessee• Rutgers, State University of New Jersey• Utah State University• Brigham Young University• Bowling Green State University• Florida State UniversityUniversities in UK• University of Leeds• University of Reading• University of Surrey• Heriot Watt University• University of Central Lancashire• Glasgow Caledonian University• University of Nottingham• Teesside University• University of Exeter• University of Chester• University of Greenwich• London South Bank University• Sheffield Hallam University• Cardiff Metropolitan University• London Metropolitan UniversityOther countries• University College Dublin• University College Cork• Dublin Institute of Technology• University of Copenhagen• Denmark Technical University• Aarhus University• Norwegian University of Science and Technology• Wageningen University• KU Leuven• Ghent University• ETH Zurich• Bern University of Applied Sciences• Swiss German University• Lund University• University of Gothenburg• University of Auckland• Massey University• Auckland University of Technology• University of Otago• University of Queensland• Curtin University• RMIT University• Victoria University• University of Melbourne• University of New South Wales• University of British Columbia• Dalhousie University• University of Guelph• McGill University• University of Manitoba• Carleton University• Saskatchewan University• National University of SingaporeSalary Structures in the Food Industry in IndiaAs a fresher, a Food Technologist can earn INR Rs 2 to 3 lakh per annum (average) in India.Within 5 years, you can reach INR 500,000 – 640,000 per annum. With an experience of 10 years on your CV, you can expect annual package of INR 900,000 – 1,180,000.The salary structure for professionals within the Manufacturing function could be 20% (approximately) less than those in the R&D or QC/QA function. If you enjoy lot of frequent traveling, then go for the roles of Food Inspector.Academic roles will pay as per the University pay scales. Then there will be more extra incentives as well for Sales & Marketing professionals. For nutritionist and dieticians, median annual wage is INR 210,000 for fresher; and Nutrition Managers can earn INR 750,000 per annum (average). As a nutritionist or diet counselor, you can also do freelancing.If you end up in the Sales & Marketing (including Brand Management) role, the salary levels will be 20 – 25% higher than the R&D and QC/QA professionals.Scope of Food Industry in IndiaThe Indian Food Industry is currently valued at USD $39.71 billion, and the value is likely to reach USD $65.4 billion by 2018 (Govt. of India and IBEF).According to DIPP, the Indian Food Processing sector has received around USD $6.7 billion as FDI between April 2000 and December 2015. The investments are poised to reach the value of USD $33 million in the next 10 years.Besides the investment factor, the opportunity factor is also there – as per the data from the Ministry of Food Processing Industries, 42% of the Indian Food Processing Industry is still unorganized (D&B) – so opportunities are also there for prospective entrepreneurs. Overall, signs are very promising for the future within the food industry. Here is an infographic from IBEF to give you another overview.Here are few key points as quoted on the IBEF and MakeInIndia website:• India ranked 6th in the World in exports of agricultural products in 2013• India has got 2nd largest arable land in the world, and possesses 20 agri-climatic regions with all 15 possible major climates, and 46 of 60 possible soil types in the world• The contribution of the food processing sector to the GDP in 2012-13 was INR 845.22 Billion• Food Processing Industry is one of the major employment intensive sectors in India, contributing 13.04% of employment generated in all Registered Factory sector in 2012-13• Food is the biggest expense for an urban and rural Indian household constituting share of 38.5% and 48.6% of the total consumption expenditure of households in 2011-12 respectively• Rising income levels, affluence and a growing middle-class, along with a population size of 1.22 billion of which 604 million were under the age of 24 in 2011, is likely to increase India’s overall food consumption• One-third of the population will be living in urban areas by 2020 and there will be increasing desire for branded, packaged and ready-to-eat food items• Food Processing has been recognized as a priority sector, and Government had announced setting up of special fund of INR 2,000 Crore (2014-15) in NABARD to designated food parks and the individual processing units in the designated food parks at concessional rates• Services of pre-conditioning, pre-cooling, ripening, waxing, retail packing, labeling of fruits and vegetables have been exempted from Service Tax• Lot of exemptions and rebates are available on Transportation Costs, Income Tax, Profit Tax, Service Tax, Custom Duty and Central Excise Duty for the Food Processing sector• Various investment opportunities are available, including Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in addition to infrastructure such as cold storage, abattoirs and food parks• 100% FDI is permitted in the automatic route for most food products, and RBI has classified loan to food & agro-based processing units for Priority Sector Lending (PSL) subject to aggregate sanctioned limit of INR 100 Crore per borrower• Many foreign players from all around the globe are showing huge interest to invest in the Indian Food Processing sector; notable ones are Kraft (USA), Mars (USA), Nestle (Switzerland), McCain (Canada), Danone (France), Ferrero (Italy), Kelloggs (USA), Pepsi (USA), Coca Cola (USA), Hindustan Unilever (Anglo-Dutch), Heinz (USA), Hershey (USA)• Last but not the least – there is enough room, and in fact, demand for Food Tech Startups. There have been many players in the Food Tech domain. But, all of them have been working on the verticals like Discovery, E-Commerce (Ordering/Booking) and Delivery (logistics). I haven’t come across a major player who is actually working on “Food”. There is enough room for innovation and value creation in this segment.There is great scope for Food Technologists. Study well, read and be clear about fundamental principles. Be sincere. You are dealing with food, so do not compromise on quality. Food safety is most important.Welcome Aboard……Waiting to receive you in the food fraternity…..All the best!Thanks Ms. Shweta Gautam for A2A.EDIT 1: JUST FOR LAUGHS……FOOD SERVICES……..JUST FOR LAUGHS……..FOOD ENTERPRISE START-UP IDEA……..
How many Chickasaw died on the Trail of Tears?
This answer may contain sensitive images. Click on an image to unblur it.From a 21st century perspective, one of the most miserable, shameful, and disgraceful acts Americans have ever supported upon a group of people.To start, there were FIVE trails, not one:WRITTEN BY: Elizabeth Prine PaulsThe “Trail of Tears”, in U.S. history, was the forced relocation of Eastern Woodlands Indians of the Southeast region of the United States (including Cherokee, Creek, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole, among other nations) to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River, during the 1830s.Estimates based on tribal and military records suggest that approximately 100,000 indigenous people were forced from their homes during that period, which is sometimes known as the removal era, and that some 15,000 died during the journey west. The term “Trail of Tears” invokes the collective suffering those people experienced, although it is most commonly used in reference to the removal experiences of the Southeast Indians generally and the Cherokee nation specifically. The physical trail consisted of several overland routes and one main water route and stretched some 5,045 miles across portions of nine states (Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Tennessee).The roots of forced relocation lay in greed. . The British Proclamation of 1763 designated the region between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River as Indian Territory. Although that region was to be protected for the exclusive use of indigenous peoples, large numbers of Euro-American land speculators and settlers soon entered. For the most part, the British and, later, U.S. governments ignored these acts of trespass.In 1829 a gold rush occurred on Cherokee land in Georgia. Vast amounts of wealth were at stake: at their peak, Georgia mines produced approximately 300 ounces of gold a day. Incidentally the expression “There’s gold in them thar hills” originated in Georgia, NOT California, to remind people that they could get rich by staying in Georgia, without having to migrate west. Land speculators soon demanded that the U.S. Congress devolve to the states the control of all real property owned by tribes and their members. That position was supported by Pres. Andrew Jackson, who was himself an avid speculator. Congress complied by passing the Indian Removal Act (1830). The act entitled the president to negotiate with the eastern nations to effect their removal to tracts of land west of the Mississippi and provided some $500,000 for transportation and for compensation to native landowners. Jackson reiterated his support for the act in various messages to Congress, notably “On Indian Removal” (1830) and “A Permanent Habitation for the American Indians” (1835), which illuminated his political justifications for removal and described some of the outcomes he expected would derive from the relocation process.Indigenous reactions to the Indian Removal Act varied. The Southeast Indians were for the most part tightly organized and heavily invested in agriculture. The farms of the most populous tribes—the Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, Seminole, and Cherokee—were particularly coveted by outsiders because they were located in prime agricultural areas and were very well developed. This meant that speculators who purchased such properties could immediately turn a profit: fields had already been cleared, pastures fenced, barns and houses built, and the like. Thus, the Southeast tribes approached federal negotiations with the goal of either reimbursement for or protection of their members’ investments.The Choctaw were the first polity to finalize negotiations: in 1830 they agreed to cede their real property for western land, transportation for themselves and their goods, and logistical support during and after the journey. However, the federal government had no experience in transporting large numbers of civilians, let alone their household effects, farming equipment, and livestock. Bureaucratic ineptitude and corruption caused many Choctaw to die from exposure, malnutrition, exhaustion, and disease while traveling.The Chickasaw signed an initial removal agreement as early as 1830, but negotiations were not finalized until 1832. Skeptical of federal assurances regarding reimbursement for their property, members of the Chickasaw nation sold their landholdings at a profit and financed their own transportation. As a result, their journey, which took place in 1837, had fewer problems than did those of the other Southeast tribes.The Creek also finalized a removal agreement in 1832. However, Euro-American settlers and speculators moved into the planned Creek cessions prematurely, causing conflicts, delays, and fraudulent land sales that delayed the Creek journey until 1836. Federal authorities once again proved incompetent and corrupt, and many Creek people died, often from the same preventable causes that had killed Choctaw travelers.A small group of Seminole leaders negotiated a removal agreement in 1832, but a majority of the tribe protested that the signatories had no authority to represent them. The United States insisted that the agreement should hold, instigating such fierce resistance to removal that the ensuing conflict became known as the Second Seminole War (1835–42). Although many were eventually captured and removed to the west, a substantial number of Seminole people managed to elude the authorities and remain in Florida.The Cherokee chose to use legal action to resist removal. Their lawsuits, notably Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) and Worcester v. Georgia (1832), reached the U.S. Supreme Court but ultimately provided no relief. As with the Seminole, a few Cherokee leaders negotiated a removal agreement that was subsequently rejected by the people as a whole. Although several families moved west in the mid-1830s, most believed that their property rights would ultimately be respected. This was not to be the case, and in 1838 the U.S. military began to force Cherokee people from their homes, often at gunpoint. Held in miserable internment camps for days or weeks before their journeys began, many became ill, and most were very poorly equipped for the arduous trip. Those who took the river route were loaded onto boats in which they traveled parts of the Tennessee, Ohio, Mississippi, and Arkansas rivers, eventually arriving at Fort Gibson in Indian Territory. Not until then did the survivors receive much-needed food and supplies. Perhaps 4,000 of the estimated 15,000 Cherokee died on the journey, while some 1,000 avoided internment and built communities in North Carolina.
Before slavery was abolished, was the southern economy dependent on slavery?
The South was dependent on agriculture. Slavery was seen as a means to that end. In the decade before the Civil War, the Southern states that formed the Confederacy (taken as group) would have had the fourth best economy in the Western world, but most of its output was in produce and most of its capital was invested in land and slaves.The success of the plantation economy was vital to the continuation of the genteel Southern lifestyle, a mode of living enjoyed only by the planter elite, and maintained at the expense of African and poor white labor. However, the plantation system was failing at the beginning of the 19th century.Southern agriculture in the tidewater regions revolved around the largely autonomous plantation economy, which began with a harsh system of indentured servitude and came to depend on a harsher system of race-based slavery. Plantations practiced commercial farming from the outset. Tobacco and rice were the most important export crops in early colonial America. Very little of the valuable variety of long staple cotton was grown in the early period except in the Sea Islands region of South Carolina, and the more common short staple variety was used domestically.The largest crop grown in the south in terms of its volume was corn, which was food for both man and beast and used locally.By 1750, the output of American grown indigo, a valuable blue dye, had exploded making it also a viable commercial export crop. The cultivation and processing of indigo dye accounted for one-third the value of all colonial exports before the American Revolution.There had been a growing recognition throughout the 19th century that slavery was a great moral and social evil that must be ended. But it was also true that slavery had become uneconomical for the smaller planters leaving it largely the realm of politically influential and wealthy planters. As early as 1816, several Southern states, Virginia, Georgia, Maryland, and Tennessee included, had asked that a site for colonization by freed blacks be procured, and they had jointly petitioned the federal government for financial aid to offset the monetary loss involved in emancipating their slaves. The British government had successfully indemnified its slaveowners for their loss when the slave trade was ended in 1808 (and slavery outlawed in 1832), but a similar arrangement was not possible in antebellum America, either financially or politically.It was cotton that saved the faltering plantation economy, and it unfortunately also breathed new life into slavery. The significance of cotton in the money-conscious 19th century resulted primarily from the fact that it was a cash crop. By 1850 more than five million bales were being shipped to mills in Europe annually, causing cotton to be termed the king of agricultural exports. Standard histories recount that the widespread adoption of the cotton gin, which economically removed the seeds from cotton, resurrected the plantations. A single slave could produce 1,000 pounds of fiber every day with the cotton gin.Although invented seven decades before the crisis, the cotton gin has often been listed among the top ten causes of the war along with States Rights, the Fugitive Slave Law, the Dred Scott Decision, Bleeding Kansas, John Brown’s raid, and other antebellum notables including the novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Such hyperbole has often become the stuff of schoolroom recitation, but clearly no other practical, useful, and nonmilitary invention resides in such infamy as the Cotton Gin. Ironically, the same historians ignore the fact that the cotton boll, or protective capsule of the cotton plant, resisted any form of mechanical harvesting (hence the need for more slaves overall). Large gangs of hand-pickers were still being deployed to gather the cotton crop into the 1950s—many of them poor free blacks whose own ancestors had been slaves.