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What is the IES syllabus? Which branch students are eligible for the exam, and what is the process of the examination?
What is ESE/ IES ?Indian Engineering Services comprise of engineers who work under the government of India and designated as Class – 1 officer. They administer a large segment of the public sector economy, which constitutes of Indian Railways, Power, Telecommunications, Central Water engineering, Defence service of Engineers, Central Engineering Service, etc. The nature of work performed by these bureaucrats largely depends on their engineering branch and the service or cadre they are recruited in. The career progression goes smoothly attaining high esteem. The first position offered is that of Asst. Executive engineer and the hierarchy ends at the position of Chairman/ Managing Director.A combined competitive examination is conducted by the Union Public Services Commission (UPSC) for recruitment to the Indian Engineering Services. The Examination constitutes of a written examination followed by an interview for the personality test. The recruitment of qualified candidates is made under the following categories:Electronics & Telecommunication EngineeringElectrical EngineeringMechanical EngineeringCivil EngineeringESE eligibility:(I) Nationality:A candidate must be either:(a) A citizen of India or(b) A subject of Nepal or A subject of Bhutan or(c) A Tibetan refugee who came over to Indian before the 1st January, 1962 with the intention of permanentlysettling in India or(d) A person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka or East African countries ofKenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire and Ethiopia or from Vietnam withthe intention of permanently settling in India.Provided that a candidate belonging to categories (b), (c) and (d) above shall be a person in whose favor acertificate of eligibility has been issued by the Government of India.(II) Age Limits:A candidate for this examination must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained the age of 30 years on the 1st January, of the exam year.The upper age-limit of 30 years will be relaxable up to 35 years in the case of Government servants of the following categories, if they are employed in a Department/Office under the control of any of the authorities mentioned in column 1 below and apply for admission to the examination for all or any of the Service(s)/Posts mentioned in column 2, for which they are otherwise eligible.The upper age-limit prescribed above will be further relaxable:(i) Upto a maximum of five years if a candidate belongs to a scheduled caste or a scheduled tribe.(ii) Upto a maximum of three years in the case of candidates belonging to OBC category.(iii) Upto a maximum of five years if a candidate had ordinarily been domiciled in the state of Jammu & Kashmir during the period from 1st January, 1980 to the 31st day of December, 1989.(iv) Upto a maximum of three years in the case of defence service personnel disabled in operations during hostilities with any foreign country or in a disturbed area, and released as a consequence thereof.(v) Upto a maximum of five years in the case of ex-servicemen including Commissioned Officers and ECOs/SSCOs who have rendered at least five years Military Service as on 1st August, and have been released (i) on completion of assignment (including those whose assignment is due to be completed within one year from 1st August) otherwise than by way of dismissal or discharge on account of misconduct or inefficiency, or (ii) on account of physical disability attributable to Military Service or (iii) on invalidment; (vi) Upto a maximum of five years in the case of ECOs/SSCOs who have completed an initial period of assignment of five years of Military Services as on 1st August, and whose assignment has been extended beyond five years and in whose case the Ministry of Defence issues a certificate that they can apply for civil employment and they will be released on three months notice on selection from the date of receipt of offer of appointment.(vii) Upto a maximum of 10 years in the case of blind, deaf-mute and Orthopaedically handicapped persons.(III) Minimum Educational Qualifications:Obtained a degree in Engineering from a university incorporated by an act of the central or state legislature in India or other educational institutions established by an act of Parliament or declared to be deemed as universities under section-3 of the university grants commission act, 1956 orPassed Section A and B of the Institution Examinations of the Institution of Engineers (India) orObtained a degree/diploma in Engineering from such foreign University/College/Institution and under such conditions as may be recognised by the Government for the purpose from time to time orPassed Graduate Membership Examination of the Institute of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers (India) orPassed Associate Membership Examination Parts II and III/Sections A and B of the Aeronautical Society of India orPassed Graduate Membership Examination of the Institution of Electronics and Radio Engineers, London held after November 1959Provided that a candidate for the post of Indian Naval Armament Service (Electronics Engineering Posts and Engineer Group 'A' in Wireless Planning and Coordination Wing/Monitoring Organization) may possess any of the above qualifications or the qualification mentioned below namely: M.Sc degree or its equivalent with Wireless Communication, Electronics, Radio Physics or Radio Engineering as a special subject.ESE 2018 SyllabusBROAD CONTENTS OF THE GENERAL STUDIES AND ENGINEERING APTITUDE PAPER( Stage-I, Paper-I).General Studies and Engineering Aptitude(Stage I - Paper I, Objective type, Common to all Candidates, 2 hours duration, 200 Marks maximum)The questions from the following Topics will be set in Paper-I of Stage-ICurrent issues of national and international importance relating to social, economic and industrial developmentEngineering Aptitude covering Logical reasoning and Analytical abilityEngineering Mathematics and Numerical AnalysisGeneral Principles of Design, Drawing, Importance of SafetyStandards and Quality practices in production, construction, maintenance and servicesBasics of Energy and Environment : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, Climate Change, Environmental impact assessmentBasics of Project ManagementBasics of Material Science and EngineeringInformation and Communication Technologies (ICT) based tools and their applications in Engineering such as networking, e-governance and technology based education.Ethics and values in Engineering professionNote:The paper in General Studies and Engineering Aptitude will include Knowledge of relevant topics as may be expected from an engineering graduate, without special study.Questions from all the 10 topics mentioned above shall be set. Marks for each Topic may range from 5% to 15% of the total marks in the paper.REVISED SYLLABI OF FOUR ENGINEERING DISCIPLINESUNION PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION, NEW DELHIENGINEERING SERVICES EXAMINATION (ESE) SYLLABIBranch/Discipline: Civil Engineering(Contents for syllabi of both the Papers together for Stage-I objective type Paper–II and separately for Stage-II Conventional type Paper-I and Paper – II)PAPER – I1. Building Materials:Stone, Lime, Glass, Plastics, Steel, FRP, Ceramics, Aluminum, Fly Ash, Basic Admixtures, Timber, Bricks and Aggregates: Classification, properties and selection criteria;Cement: Types, Composition, Properties, Uses, Specifications and various Tests; Lime & Cement Mortars and Concrete: Properties and various Tests; Design of Concrete Mixes: Proportioning of aggregates and methods of mix design.2. Solid Mechanics:Elastic constants, Stress, plane stress, Strains, plane strain, Mohr’s circle of stress and strain, Elastic theories of failure, Principal Stresses, Bending, Shear and Torsion.3. Structural Analysis:Basics of strength of materials, Types of stresses and strains, Bending moments and shear force, concept of bending and shear stresses; Analysis of determinate and indeterminate structures; Trusses, beams, plane frames; Rolling loads, Influence Lines, Unit load method & other methods; Free and Forced vibrations of single degree and multi degree freedom system; Suspended Cables; Concepts and use of Computer Aided Design.4. Design of Steel Structures:Principles of Working Stress methods, Design of tension and compression members, Design of beams and beam column connections, built-up sections, Girders, Industrial roofs, Principles of Ultimate load design.5. Design of Concrete and Masonry structures:Limit state design for bending, shear, axial compression and combined forces; Design of beams, Slabs, Lintels, Foundations, Retaining walls, Tanks, Staircases; Principles of pre-stressed concrete design including materials and methods; Earthquake resistant design of structures; Design of Masonry Structure.6. Construction Practice, Planning and Management:Construction - Planning, Equipment, Site investigation and Management including Estimation with latest project management tools and network analysis for different Types of works; Analysis of Rates of various types of works; Tendering Process and Contract Management, Quality Control, Productivity, Operation Cost; Land acquisition; Labour safety and welfare.PAPER – II1. Flow of Fluids, Hydraulic Machines and Hydro Power:(a) Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow, Pipe Flow:Fluid properties; Dimensional Analysis and Modeling; Fluid dynamics including flow kinematics and measurements; Flow net; Viscosity, Boundary layer and control, Drag, Lift, Principles in open channel flow, Flow controls. Hydraulic jump; Surges; Pipe networks.(b) Hydraulic Machines and Hydro power -Various pumps, Air vessels, Hydraulic turbines – types, classifications & performance parameters; Power house – classification and layout, storage, pondage, control of supply.2. Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering:Hydrological cycle, Ground water hydrology, Well hydrology and related data analysis; Streams and their gauging; River morphology; Flood, drought and their management; Capacity of Reservoirs.Water Resources Engineering : Multipurpose uses of Water, River basins and their potential; Irrigation systems, water demand assessment; Resources - storages and their yields; Water logging, canal and drainage design, Gravity dams, falls, weirs, Energy dissipaters, barrage Distribution works, Cross drainage works and head-works and their design; Concepts in canal design, construction & maintenance; River training, measurement and analysis of rainfall.3. Environmental Engineering:(a) Water Supply Engineering:Sources, Estimation, quality standards and testing of water and their treatment; Rural, Institutional and industrial water supply; Physical, chemical and biological characteristics and sources of water, Pollutants in water and its effects, Estimation of water demand; Drinking water Standards, Water Treatment Plants, Water distribution networks.(b) Waste Water Engineering:Planning & design of domestic waste water, sewage collection and disposal; Plumbing Systems. Components and layout of sewerage system; Planning & design of Domestic Waste-water disposal system; Sludge management including treatment, disposal and re-use of treated effluents; Industrial waste waters and Effluent Treatment Plants including institutional and industrial sewage management.(c) Solid Waste Management:Sources & classification of solid wastes along with planning & design of its management system; Disposal system, Beneficial aspects of wastes and Utilization by Civil Engineers.(d) Air, Noise pollution and Ecology:Concepts & general methodology.4. Geo-technical Engineering and Foundation Engineering :(a) Geo-technical Engineering : Soil exploration - planning & methods, Properties of soil, classification, various tests and inter-relationships; Permeability & Seepage, Compressibility, consolidation and Shearing resistance, Earth pressure theories and stress distribution in soil; Properties and uses of geo-synthetics.(b) Foundation Engineering: Types of foundations & selection criteria, bearing capacity, settlement analysis, design and testing of shallow & deep foundations; Slope stability analysis, Earthen embankments, Dams and Earth retaining structures: types, analysis and design, Principles of ground modifications.5. Surveying and Geology:(a) Surveying: Classification of surveys, various methodologies, instruments & analysis of measurement of distances, elevation and directions; Field astronomy, Global Positioning System; Map preparation; Photogrammetry; Remote sensing concepts; Survey Layout for culverts, canals, bridges, road/railway alignment and buildings, Setting out of Curves.(b) Geology : Basic knowledge of Engineering geology & its application in projects.6. Transportation Engineering:Highways - Planning & construction methodology, Alignment and geometric design; Traffic Surveys and Controls; Principles of Flexible and Rigid pavements design.Tunneling - Alignment, methods of construction, disposal of muck, drainage, lighting and ventilation.Railways Systems – Terminology, Planning, designs and maintenance practices; track modernization.Harbours – Terminology, layouts and planning. Airports – Layout, planning & design.UNION PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION, NEW DELHIENGINEERING SERVICES EXAMINATION (ESE) SYLLABIBranch/Discipline: Mechanical Engineering(Contents for syllabi of both the Papers together for Stage-I objective type Paper–II and separately for Stage-II Conventional type Paper-I and Paper – II)PAPER – I1. Fluid Mechanics:Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids, Manometry, Fluid Statics, Buoyancy, Equations of Motion, Bernoulli’s equation and applications, Viscous flow of incompressible fluids, Laminar and Turbulent flows, Flow through pipes and head losses in pipes.2. Thermodynamics and Heat transfer:Thermodynamic systems and processes; properties of pure substance; Zeroth, First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics; Entropy, Irreversibility and availability; analysis of thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion: Rankine, Otto, Diesel and Dual Cycles; ideal and real gases; compressibility factor; Gas mixtures.Modes of heat transfer, Steady and unsteady heat conduction, Thermal resistance, Fins, Free and forced convection, Correlations for convective heat transfer, Radiative heat transfer – Radiation heat transfer co-efficient; boiling and condensation, Heat exchanger performance analysis3. IC Engines, Refrigeration and Air conditioning:SI and CI Engines, Engine Systems and Components, Performance characteristics and testing of IC Engines; Fuels; Emissions and Emission Control. Vapour compression refrigeration, Refrigerants and Working cycles, Compressors, Condensers, Evaporators and Expansion devices, Other types of refrigeration systems like Vapour Absorption, Vapour jet, thermo electric and Vortex tube refrigeration. Psychometric properties and processes, Comfort chart, Comfort and industrial air conditioning, Load calculations and Heat pumps.4. Turbo Machinery:Reciprocating and Rotary pumps, Pelton wheel, Kaplan and Francis Turbines, velocity diagrams, Impulse and Reaction principles, Steam and Gas Turbines, Theory of Jet Propulsion – Pulse jet and Ram Jet Engines, Reciprocating and Rotary Compressors – Theory and Applications5. Power Plant Engineering:Rankine and Brayton cycles with regeneration and reheat, Fuels and their properties, Flue gas analysis, Boilers, steam turbines and other power plant components like condensers, air ejectors, electrostatic precipitators and cooling towers – their theory and design, types and applications;6. Renewable Sources of Energy:Solar Radiation, Solar Thermal Energy collection - Flat Plate and focusing collectors their materials and performance. Solar Thermal Energy Storage, Applications – heating, cooling and Power Generation; Solar Photovoltaic Conversion; Harnessing of Wind Energy, Bio-mass and Tidal Energy – Methods and Applications, Working principles of Fuel Cells.PAPER – II7. Engineering Mechanics:Analysis of System of Forces, Friction, Centroid and Centre of Gravity, Dynamics; Stresses and Strains-Compound Stresses and Strains, Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagrams, Theory of Bending Stresses- Slope and deflection-Torsion, Thin and thick Cylinders, Spheres.8. Engineering Materials:Basic Crystallography, Alloys and Phase diagrams, Heat Treatment, Ferrous and Non Ferrous Metals, Non metallic materials, Basics of Nano-materials, Mechanical Properties and Testing, Corrosion prevention and control9. Mechanisms and Machines:Types of Kinematics Pair, Mobility, Inversions, Kinematic Analysis, Velocity and Acceleration Analysis of Planar Mechanisms, CAMs with uniform acceleration and retardation, cycloidal motion, oscillating followers; Vibrations –Free and forced vibration of undamped and damped SDOF systems, Transmissibility Ratio, Vibration Isolation, Critical Speed of Shafts. Gears – Geometry of tooth profiles, Law of gearing, Involute profile, Interference, Helical, Spiral and Worm Gears, Gear Trains- Simple, compound and Epicyclic; Dynamic Analysis – Slider – crank mechanisms, turning moment computations, balancing of Revolving & Reciprocating masses, Gyroscopes –Effect of Gyroscopic couple on automobiles, ships and aircrafts, Governors.10. Design of Machine Elements:Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the S-N diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as riveted, welded and bolted joints. Shafts, Spur gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, Brakes and clutches, flywheels.11. Manufacturing ,Industrial and Maintenance Engineering:Metal casting-Metal forming, Metal Joining, Machining and machine tool operations, Limits, fits and tolerances, Metrology and inspection, computer Integrated manufacturing, FMS, Production planning and Control, Inventory control and operations research - CPM-PERT. Failure concepts and characteristics-Reliability, Failure analysis, Machine Vibration, Data acquisition, Fault Detection, Vibration Monitoring, Field Balancing of Rotors, Noise Monitoring, Wear and Debris Analysis, Signature Analysis, NDT Techniques in Condition Monitoring.12. Mechatronics and Robotics:Microprocessors and Microcontrollers: Architecture, programming, I/O, Computer interfacing, Programmable logic controller. Sensors and actuators, Piezoelectric accelerometer, Hall effect sensor, Optical Encoder, Resolver, Inductosyn, Pneumatic and Hydraulic actuators, stepper motor, Control Systems- Mathematical modeling of Physical systems, control signals, controllability and observability. Robotics, Robot Classification, Robot Specification, notation; Direct and Inverse Kinematics; Homogeneous Coordinates and Arm Equation of four Axis SCARA RobotUNION PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION, NEW DELHIENGINEERING SERVICES EXAMINATION (ESE) SYLLABIBranch/Discipline: Electrical Engineering(Contents for syllabi of both the Papers together for Stage-I objective type Paper–II and separately for Stage-II Conventional type Paper-I and Paper – II)PAPER – I1. Engineering MathematicsMatrix theory, Eigen values & Eigen vectors, system of linear equations, Numerical methods for solution of non-linear algebraic equations and differential equations, integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, Line, Surface and Volume Integrals. Fourier series, linear, non-linear and partial differential equations, initial and boundary value problems, complex variables, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem, probability and statistics fundamentals, Sampling theorem, random variables, Normal and Poisson distributions, correlation and regression analysis.2. Electrical MaterialsElectrical Engineering Materials, crystal structures and defects, ceramic materials, insulating materials, magnetic materials – basics, properties and applications; ferrities, ferro-magnetic materials and components; basics of solid state physics, conductors; Photo-conductivity; Basics of Nano materials and Superconductors.3. Electric Circuits and FieldsCircuit elements, network graph, KCL, KVL, Node and Mesh analysis, ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin’s, Norton’s, Superposition and Maximum Power Transfer theorems, transient response of DC and AC networks, Sinusoidal steady state analysis, basic filter concepts, two-port networks, three phase circuits, Magnetically coupled circuits, Gauss Theorem, electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Ampere’s and Biot-Savart’s laws; inductance, dielectrics, capacitance; Maxwell’s equations.4. Electrical and Electronic Measurements:Principles of measurement, accuracy, precision and standards; Bridges and potentiometers; moving coil, moving iron, dynamometer and induction type instruments, measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor, instrument transformers, digital voltmeters and multi-meters, phase, time and frequency measurement, Q-meters, oscilloscopes, potentiometric recorders, error analysis, Basics of sensors, Transducers, basics of data acquisition systems5. Computer Fundamentals:Number systems, Boolean algebra, arithmetic functions, Basic Architecture, Central Processing Unit, I/O and Memory Organisation; peripheral devices, data represenation and programming, basics of Operating system and networking, virtual memory, file systems; Elements of programming languages, typical examples.6. Basic Electronics Engineering:Basics of Semiconductor diodes and transistors and characteristics, Junction and field effect transistors (BJT, FET and MOSFETS), different types of transistor amplifiers, equivalent circuits and frequency response; oscillators and other circuits, feedback amplifiers.PAPER – II1. Analog and Digital Electronics:Operational amplifiers – characteristics and applications, combinational and sequential logic circuits, multiplexers, multi-vibrators, sample and hold circuits, A/D and D/A converters, basics of filter circuits and applications, simple active filters; Microprocessor basics- interfaces and applications, basics of linear integrated circuits; Analog communication basics, Modulation and de-modulation, noise and bandwidth, transmitters and receivers, signal to noise ratio, digital communication basics, sampling, quantizing, coding, frequency and time domain multiplexing, power line carrier communication systems.2. Systems and Signal Processing :Representation of continuous and discrete-time signals, shifting and scaling operations, linear, time-invariant and causal systems, Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals, sampling theorem, Fourier and Laplace transforms, Z transforms, Discrete Fourier transform, FFT, linear convolution, discrete cosine transform, FIR filter, IIR filter, bilinear transformation.3. Control Systems:Principles of feedback, transfer function, block diagrams and signal flow graphs, steady-state errors, transforms and their applications; Routh-hurwitz criterion, Nyquist techniques, Bode plots, root loci, lag, lead and lead-lag compensation, stability analysis, transient and frequency response analysis, state space model, state transition matrix, controllability and observability, linear state variable feedback, PID and industrial controllers.4. Electrical Machines :Single phase transformers, three phase transformers - connections, parallel operation, auto-transformer, energy conversion principles, DC machines - types, windings, generator characteristics, armature reaction and commutation, starting and speed control of motors, Induction motors - principles, types, performance characteristics, starting and speed control, Synchronous machines - performance, regulation, parallel operation of generators, motor starting, characteristics and applications, servo and stepper motors.5. Power Systems :Basic power generation concepts, steam, gas and water turbines, transmission line models and performance, cable performance, insulation, corona and radio interference, power factor correction, symmetrical components, fault analysis, principles of protection systems, basics of solid state relays and digital protection; Circuit breakers, Radial and ring-main distribution systems, Matrix representation of power systems, load flow analysis, voltage control and economic operation, System stability concepts, Swing curves and equal area criterion. HVDC transmission and FACTS concepts, Concepts of power system dynamics, distributed generation, solar and wind power, smart grid concepts, environmental implications, fundamentals of power economics.6. Power Electronics and Drives :Semiconductor power diodes, transistors, thyristors, triacs, GTOs, MOSFETs and IGBTs - static characteristics and principles of operation, triggering circuits, phase control rectifiers, bridge converters - fully controlled and half controlled, principles of choppers and inverters, basis concepts of adjustable speed dc and ac drives, DC-DC switched mode converters, DC-AC switched mode converters, resonant converters, high frequency inductors and transformers, power supplies.UNION PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION, NEW DELHIENGINEERING SERVICES EXAMINATION (ESE) SYLLABIBranch/Discipline: Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering(Contents for syllabi of both the Papers together for Stage-I objective type Paper–II and separately for Stage-II Conventional type Paper-I and Paper – II)PAPER – I1. Basic Electronics Engineering:Basics of semiconductors; Diode/Transistor basics and characteristics; Diodes for different uses; Junction & Field Effect Transistors (BJTs, JFETs, MOSFETs); Transistor amplifiers of different types, oscillators and other circuits; Basics of Integrated Circuits (ICs); Bipolar, MOS and CMOS ICs; Basics of linear ICs, operational amplifiers and their applications-linear/non-linear; Optical sources/detectors; Basics of Opto electronics and its applications.2. Basic Electrical Engineering:DC circuits-Ohm’s & Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal analysis, circuit theorems; Electro-magnetism, Faraday’s & Lenz’s laws, induced EMF and its uses; Single-phase AC circuits; Transformers, efficiency; Basics-DC machines, induction machines, and synchronous machines; Electrical power sources- basics: hydroelectric, thermal, nuclear, wind, solar; Basics of batteries and their uses.3. Materials Science:Electrical Engineering materials; Crystal structure & defects; Ceramic materials-structures, composites, processing and uses; Insulating laminates for electronics, structures, properties and uses; Magnetic materials, basics, classification, ferrites, ferro/para-magnetic materials and components; Nano materials-basics, preparation, purification, sintering, nano particles and uses; Nano-optical/magnetic/electronic materials and uses; Superconductivity, uses.4. Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation:Principles of measurement, accuracy, precision and standards; Analog and Digital systems for measurement, measuring instruments for different applications; Static/dynamic characteristics of measurement systems, errors, statistical analysis and curve fitting; Measurement systems for non-electrical quantities; Basics of telemetry; Different types of transducers and displays; Data acquisition system basics.5. Network Theory:Network graphs & matrices; Wye-Delta transformation; Linear constant coefficient differential equations- time domain analysis of RLC circuits; Solution of network equations using Laplace transforms- frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits; 2-port network parameters-driving point & transfer functions; State equations for networks; Steady state sinusoidal analysis.6. Analog and Digital Circuits:Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTS and FETs; Diode circuits for different uses; Biasing & stability of BJT & JFET amplifier circuits; Analysis/design of amplifier- single/multi-stage; Feedback& uses; Active filters, timers, multipliers, wave shaping, A/D-D/A converters; Boolean Algebra& uses; Logic gates, Digital IC families, Combinatorial/sequential circuits; Basics of multiplexers, counters/registers/ memories /microprocessors, design& applications.PAPER – II1. Analog and Digital Communication Systems:Random signals, noise, probability theory, information theory; Analog versus digital communication & applications: Systems- AM, FM, transmitters/receivers, theory/practice/ standards, SNR comparison; Digital communication basics: Sampling, quantizing, coding, PCM, DPCM, multiplexing-audio/video; Digital modulation: ASK, FSK, PSK; Multiple access: TDMA, FDMA, CDMA; Optical communication: fibre optics, theory, practice/standards.2. Control Systems:Classification of signals and systems; Application of signal and system theory; System realization; Transforms& their applications; Signal flow graphs, Routh-Hurwitz criteria, root loci, Nyquist/Bode plots; Feedback systems-open &close loop types, stability analysis, steady state, transient and frequency response analysis; Design of control systems, compensators, elements of lead/lag compensation, PID and industrial controllers.3. Computer Organization and Architecture:Basic architecture, CPU, I/O organisation, memory organisation, peripheral devices, trends; Hardware /software issues; Data representation& Programming; Operating systems-basics, processes, characteristics, applications; Memory management, virtual memory, file systems, protection & security; Data bases, different types, characteristics and design; Transactions and concurrency control; Elements of programming languages, typical examples.4. Electro Magnetics:Elements of vector calculus, Maxwell’s equations-basic concepts; Gauss’, Stokes’ theorems; Wave propagation through different media; Transmission Lines-different types, basics, Smith’s chart, impedance matching/transformation, S-parameters, pulse excitation, uses; Waveguides-basics, rectangular types, modes, cut-off frequency, dispersion, dielectric types; Antennas-radiation pattern, monopoles/dipoles, gain, arrays-active/passive, theory, uses.5. Advanced Electronics Topics:VLSI technology: Processing, lithography, interconnects, packaging, testing; VLSI design: Principles, MUX/ROM/PLA-based design, Moore & Mealy circuit design; Pipeline concepts & functions; Design for testability, examples; DSP: Discrete time signals/systems, uses; Digital filters: FIR/IIR types, design, speech/audio/radar signal processing uses; Microprocessors & microcontrollers, basics, interrupts, DMA, instruction sets, interfacing; Controllers & uses; Embedded systems.6. Advanced Communication Topics:Communication networks: Principles /practices /technologies /uses /OSI model/security; Basic packet multiplexed streams/scheduling; Cellular networks, types, analysis, protocols (TCP/TCPIP); Microwave & satellite communication: Terrestrial/space type LOS systems, block schematics link calculations, system design; Communication satellites, orbits, characteristics, systems, uses; Fibre-optic communication systems, block schematics, link calculations, system design.Sourse UPSC websitehttp://www.upsc.gov.in/
Is there any practical work being done toward development of real psychohistory?
I hold what may be the only PhD specifically in psychohistory: Psychohistory: Emergence, Theory and Applications, granted by the University of Liverpool in 2004, so I hope you may consider me sufficiently qualified to answer your question. Psychohistory is alive and kicking all right, although it hasn’t really learnt yet to walk properly. To answer your question in full, I’ll begin by asking your and the general reader’s indulgence and telling you something about how I came to the field.I’ve written on Quora here before on psychohistory - about its ‘mythic’ side (Asimov’s Foundation Trilogy), and its ‘real’ side - the International Psychohistorical Association (IPA) based in Manhattan, the ‘real life’ analogue to Asimov’s Trantor - fictional capital of the Foundation’s First Galactic Empire. The IPA however, remains focussed on psychoanalytic approaches to psychohistory rather than statistical. I could say that I began working in the mythic realm and gradually moved in the direction of more rigorous, scientific (but not ’Seldonian’) methodologies. Psychohistory is a judicious blend of thermodynamically-based metahistory (what is often called today ‘Big History’), complexity science, future studies, group process theory, neuroscience and yes, psychoanalysis, and yes, there certainly is some advanced mathematics - but math is not the Holy Grail of knowledge it’s so often set up to be these days. It has its limits. Let’s remember Gödel’s Second Theorem...In a way, I became a ‘psychohistorian’ well before the age of seven through being a pupil of the Jesuits, who were chaplains and confessors to the Carmelite Convent of Lanherne in St. Mawgan-in-Pydar, Cornwall, where I went to school as a child. That school at that time and place was, believe it or not, not at all bad. The teachers concentrated on Celtic myth and language (Cornish as well as English), but there was math and science too, since the school was so near RAF St. Mawgan and so many of the parents were pilots, engineers, aircraft technicians or (like my father) meteorologists. The Jesuits at the Convent were very kind, at least to me and my little group of Catholic kids. I learnt four things: 1) that we were ’aliens’ in this world, 2) that a Grand Master (Hari Seldon?) had a great, overarching ’Plan’ for the world we found ourselves in, 3) that as the Grand Master’s ‘special agents’, our duty in life was to discover the nature of this Plan and assist the Grand Master to the best of our abilities in bringing it to fulfilment, after which 4) upon passing from this world, we would return to our home planet - the ’Kingdom’ - for debriefing. I bought all this. The scenario - alienation and exile, agency in the service of a higher power, fulfilment of a transhuman Plan, future return to one’s home planet - i.e. exile, agency, return - was the Ursatz that lay deep beneath the surface of my life, my personal Ignatian legacy. But the words of the Creed “et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum” - also installed in me a lifelong terror of a zombie apocalypse should our civilisation collapse. I’m not quite sure if all this was the intended result of a Catholic education.Later, like others of my generation who resolutely refused to ‘turn on, tune in and drop out’ and who clung desperately to their hang-ups so as to avoid being sucked into the Woodstockian mass, I became ‘hooked’, not on cannabis or LSD but, after reading the Foundation Trilogy, on psychohistory. As a teenager, bunking off school whenever possible (‘high’ school was utter hell) and hiding out in the (then) dark recesses of the Picton Library in Liverpool, I came across Arnold Toynbee’s A Study of History and read all 12 volumes. This not only made me an expert in the history of the Central Asian Khanates at age 13, but also confirmed me in my ‘life’s mission’ - since I was so often told that I was ‘out of it’ (I was an Aspergers or ‘high-functioning autistic’) I had to find out everything I could about the ‘it’ I was out of. Toynbee’s terrifying vision of the millions upon millions of unknown, unseen casualties who perish during a civilisation’s ‘fall’ moved me beyond words. I also read the works of the other metahistorians: Spengler, Sorokin, Dawson, Durant, Danilewsky, Turchin and the other Russians plus the philosophers Dilthey and Giambattista Vico, but as far as I could see, they each contributed further perspectives on what I felt was Toynbee’s key thesis - the affiliation between our contemporary civilisation and that of ancient Rome. I was shocked to discover the degree to which our own 21st century recapitulates, at a deeper, morphic level, the (terminal) fifth century of the Roman Dominate.I seemed to have no direct way, however, of pursuing my ‘life’s mission’. Psychohistory was not taught anywhere in the UK - if anything, the educational ‘establishment’ regarded psychohistory with fierce hostility (the ‘black art’, as it were, of the social sciences, a ‘vicious cancer’ spreading through academia etc.) and the IPA (International Psychohistorical Association) in Manhattan had not yet begun to develop basic university-level courses. Others who wished to study psychohistory after reading Asimov’s Foundation - like the economist Paul Kruger for example - turned to economics, but I had no talent for that ‘dismal science’ (Kruger later went on to gain a Nobel prize for the very thing which (IMHO) he made a pig’s ear of - New Trade Theory). Being something of a musical prodigy at the time, I went to the Royal College of Music in London (violin, conducting & composition), the University of Glasgow (B.Mus (Hons) in music and math), the Polish State Conservatories of Music in Warsaw and Kraków, the Universities of Warsaw (philosophy/math) and Toronto (12-tone theory, computer science) and MIT (computer music).In Warsaw I had two more ‘epiphanies’ regarding psychohistory. The first was at the Banach Institute of Mathematical Research, where I discovered a paper by the French semanticist Jean Petitot on the ‘historical chreod’ model created by the French topologist René Thom (whose brilliant work on catastrophe theory I had come across while at the University of Glasgow) and the Polish philosopher Krzysztof Pomian. In this paper, Thom had interpreted Europe’s transition from medieval feudalism to modern capitalism as a series of converging ‘catastrophe cascades’. It was a powerful and moving paper and provided me with the first specifically psychohistorical theorem - that of a historical ‘morph’ dealing with ‘cascading bifurcations and transition to chaos’ , i.e. World Wars I and II, which by the way are not two separate wars but a single thirty- one year war - in fact, Europe’s second ‘Thirty- Year War’, which this time marked the point of collapse of Euroamerican civilisation.The second ‘epiphany’ was the civil war in Sierra Leone (1991 - 2002) and the horrific torture and mutilation of little children, perpetrated deliberately as a strategy of war (a way of ‘destroying the future’). At this time I was working for the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw, participating in excavations at the Treblinka extermination camp and translating survivor testimonies, written in Polish, Yiddish, Hebrew, German and Russian. I had also come across the life and work of Janusz Korczak (aka Henryk Goldszmit), a Polish-Jewish paediatrician, educator and founder/guardian of two orphanages in Warsaw during WW II who, on August 5th 1942, was taken to the aforementioned Treblinka extermination camp (Vernichtungslager) along with 192 of his beloved children from the Ghetto orphanage. I was living at that time in the former Ghetto district, and decided that I had to do something more with psychohistory than just pick up the odd paper, write notes or give the odd talk. I joined the IPA in New York, attended conferences at Fordham (a Jesuit university) and wrote papers for the Journal of Psychohistory. I was eventually forced to cease working with the IPA due to their psychoanalytic dogmatism, the ‘cult of personality’ surrounding their founder, their tendency towards American exclusivity (especially after 9/11), their political bias, their rivalry with and contempt for, the Asimov estate (with whom I had good relations at the time) and their general lack of rigour in their approach to psychohistorical analysis. I felt I had to formalise the discipline based on more scientifically cogent theories of mind, of society and of human evolutionary history. I entered the University of Liverpool’s Department of Psychology in 1999 as a PhD candidate and assistant lecturer, and on obtaining my PhD in 2004 became Senior Lecturer in the History and Philosophy of Psychology for a further 12 years (the post was an excellent ‘cover’ for teaching psychohistory, which was still frowned upon in general by academia, though secretly approved by the then Head of Department and my PhD supervisor, both of whom were driven by intense curiosity concerning the possibilities of the field). During this time I refined my general research methodology, built experimental versions of the Prime Radiant and developed major training programmes in psychohistory.My courses were popular with students, but the faculty were, on the whole, hostile - a hostility which increased after the passing of the Head of Dept. and the retirement of my supervisor. Apparently they felt threatened by the subject-matter of my courses which tended to reveal the degree to which most supposedly ‘scientific’ research programmes, especially in the social sciences, were purposefully structured, and driven by the need to contain and repress sources of anxiety as well as to propagate a liberal capitalist democratic ideology.After I retired from teaching,, I continued in my capacity as Senior Research Fellow to do research, attend conferences and present papers for various space research organisations such as 100YSS, Icarus Interstellar, Centauri Dreams, Space Renaissance Initiative and others. By helping to catalyse the exploration and colonisation of deep space, I hoped to turn psychohistory into a powerful instrument for navigating the future, rather than just another academic discipline, eventually to be sidelined and forgotten in the turbulence and chaos of 21st century political, economic, commercial, cultural and social collapse.So this is the situation at present. There are many organisations involved with planning the future, with some of them pursuing variants of Asimovian psychohistory as an end in itself, without any specific goal, while others invoke ‘something akin to’ psychohistory in support of and advocacy for, various political or economic ends, the avoidance of catabolic systems collapse, the study of climate change and general ecology or the exploration and settlement of deep space. None of these projects however, engage directly with the psychoanalytic or evolutionary-psychological dimensions of psychohistory.The International Psychohistorical Association still holds annual conferences and continues to publish the Journal of Psychohistory while its companion organisation, the Psychohistory Forum, also holds meetings (under the auspices of the IPA) and publishes its own journal - Clio’s Psyche. Both organisations are based in Manhattan and would seem to cater for a limited readership.The Psychohistory Project: is a discussion group based on Isaac Asimov's predictive science of psychohistory, founded in 1998, the organisation’s activity seemed to peak at the turn of the millennium, but seems of late to have become more sporadic and tenuous, though still active as of 2018. There are also various independent academically-based programs: such as the Generational Dynamics, of John J. Xenakis, the Cliodynamics of Peter Turchin, Immanuel Wallerstein’s World Systems Analysis, Eagle & Pentland’s 2009 paper .Eigenbehaviors: Identifying Structure in Routine, proponents of the new Big History and thermodynamically- based history such as Eric Chaisson and David Layzer as well as numerous applications of chaos theory and AI models. Most of these (apart from the thermodynamic studies of Chaisson and Layzer) pay lip service to Asimovian psychohistory in some form or another, but none appear to be going anywhere in terms of real-life applicationsIn addition, various large-scale world systems models are continually emerging, all appearing to simulate Asimov’s Prime Radiant. These include a) the prodigiously expensive European Future and Emerging Technologies (FET) Flagship Programmes, including Graphene, the Human Brain Project and the Living Earth Simulator, b) Integrated Global Models of Sustainable Development by Akira Onishi, and c) The World3 systems dynamics model described in Beyond the Limits by Meadows et al. (1972, 1992). There is even a corporate Global Models Group (Inc.) whose corporate mission statement is to “digitalise the model industry and help advertisers to find the right model through conversion data analyses and custom made algorithms”.Of all these however, it is worth noting that only the World3 model has remained in continual use since its creation in 1956 by Jay W. Forrester at MIT’s Sloane School of Management under the title: World Dynamics. The reasons for its comparative success can be attributed to its basic simplicity of design and a judicious choice of parameters that allow possibilities for growth and development through modification whenever necessary. Nevertheless, both Limits to Growth (1972) and Beyond the Limits (1992) continue to arouse controversy, and none of the other initiatives seem capable of engaging with the chief problem facing us today: that the very traits that once conferred adaptive strength during the time of human emergence on the Environment of Evolutionary Adaptiveness (EEA) now threaten to become the evolutionary Nemesis of the species.Despite this proliferation of world system analysis and prediction models, global society continues to muddle along in ‘business as usual’ mode while instabilities continue to multiply and self-amplify. The main issues with mathematically-based predictive modelling were outlined by Alastair McIntyre in After Virtue (1981). These issues include a) the unpredictability of radical innovation in the domains of science and technology, b) the game-theoretic character of human behaviour, c) non-linearity: the unpredictable consequences of unforeseen decisions, d) historical contingency: the consequences of living in a non-ergodic world and finally e) the fact that ‘addiction to prediction’ skews, biases and constrains the search space of future possibilities. In addition, there is the problem of naïvety and the fact that in the creation of a model the sources of human motivation are often ignored,‘scotomised’ or purposefully concealed by being bound within webs of needless or inappropriate complexity. This gives readers a sense of comfort and relief from anxiety in the false assurance that ‘something is being done’ - even if no one knows exactly what. More importantly, it tells us to keep our heads down, get on with our assigned work and trust the élites. This is partly the legacy of John Locke who, in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689/90), insisted that the age of ‘grand schemes’ and ‘system-building’ was over and that henceforth every researcher should confine him/herself to chipping away at the tiny section of the mighty rock of scientific knowledge allotted to him/her. The ‘big picture’ would somehow ‘emerge by itself’ in time. While there is certainly something to be said for this, we find ourselves now in an era dominated by William Bechtel’s ‘centrifugal logic of differentiation’ - at a time when an understanding of the ‘big picture’ is absolutely necessary for survival in the face of environmental degradation, climate change and other deep-level consequences of that massively-interactive complex dynamic system that is a planetary ecology.Living as we do in the terminal phase of ‘liberal capitalist democracy’, conferences organised by space research institutes or advocacy groups are less concerned with space exploration than with containment of anxieties. At such conferences the ‘hard’ sciences are still emphasised at the expense of the supposedly ‘soft’ biological and social sciences. Quantifiable models and attempts at mathematical prediction of the future still rule the agendas, no matter how absurd or futile these models may be, so long as they appeal to our fantasies or desires. ‘Dangerous’ topics, discoveries or lines of research that challenge the sociopolitical status quo (e.g. artificial reproductive strategies, transcendence of sexuality, radical life extension, genetic engineering, religious engineering, physical or mental enhancement technologies etc.) still tend to be poorly understood or deliberately scotomised for political or ‘ethical’ reasons - as are any social science perspectives that threaten liberal capitalist ‘democratic’ ideology. Such ‘conferences’ therefore usually devolve into tech fairs - the more significant advances that are presented do not involve deep space exploration, but rather communications, space-based weaponry and future war strategies, which is why so many of them attract CIA surveillance and/or DARPA support. Governments, the military-industrial complexes and corporations are, in reality, opposed to independent space exploration (see The End of the Space Age - The Economist, 30/06/2011) since it threatens the global balance of power with the possibility of diaspora and loss of control. Nevertheless they are prepared to tolerate and even seem to support approved space research and exploration as long as there is the possibility of strategic advantage or profit.Despite the fact that a wide range of basic technologies for interstellar exploration currently exists in virtual, nascent or experimental stages there is little effort to integrate these domains by means of transversal or generic research technologies into a single, overarching strategy. Attempts to do so such as the Integrated Space Plan (ISP 1989) are objects of admiration tinged with amusement but fail to attract serious commitment at a planetary level. Despite their often epiphanic beginnings, space advocacy organisations and research institutes eventually succumb to primate dominance dynamics, allowing group fantasies to contaminate their original visions, whereupon it becomes a matter, no longer of ‘what you know’ but of ‘who you know’.In the end therefore we find ourselves confined within a ‘human jam-jar’ created by the physical sciences and designed to keep us within the boundaries of corpocracy-sponsored ‘mainstream’ thought, while the social sciences, finding themselves at the mercy of large, grant-awarding institutions, are forced to act collectively as the ideological mouthpiece of that corpocracy. Modern (pseudo-) ‘scientific’ psychology ends up having little or no ecological validity since, as Asimov himself stated in Second Foundation, “those brought up exclusively on the axioms and thinking habits of the physical sciences can have no conception of psychology”. Domination by scientistic constructs leads us to fall under the spell of a wide range of naturalistic vs. poetic fallacies, all of which contribute to the formation of the ‘Great Filter’, which astrobiologists suggest may act as a barrier to most advanced technological civilisations in the Universe, preventing them from completing the transition from a planet-bound to an interplanetary civilisation (the K0 → K2 Transition), then later emerging as an interstellar (K3-level) civilisation.While I cannot deny that I learned much during my active membership and participation in the IPA, especially about childrearing and psychoclass formation, the trouble with the IPA as an institution is that it refuses to question the world in which it finds itself, remaining locked within its ‘comfort zone’ of psychoanalytic solipsism and cannot of will not advance, happy to dwell within the constraints imposed upon it from above and to become a repository for a ‘respectable’ but effectively neutralised psychohistory.So what might psychohistory’s future look like?If we survey the past to see which organisations were most successful in catalysing major social transitions and advances we find that it was monasticism, both male and female, Christian and Buddhist, that fulfilled this role to the fullest. This may not be a popular thesis in today’s oversexualised age where academia strives to equate scientific respectability with atheism, but deeper historical studied show it to be the correct one. In fact, it was the very ambiguities and contradictions inherent in the Judaeo-Christian construct that, in forcing a creative response to ‘living in the world’, effectively catalysed the emergence and evolution of a recursively self-enhancing scientific and technological culture. The Benedictines, Cistercians, Franciscans and Jesuits were the main Orders supporting the development of such a culture - the rise of which, I will not hesitate to say, was unique in the history of the world. Whereas the Benedictines engineered the ‘transition’ between the Roman Empire and the European Middle Ages (there never was any real ‘Dark Age’ - that is a modern atheistic fallacy), the Cistercians pioneered most major technological advances of the 12th century Renaissance, while the Cistercian abbot Joachim of Fiore (1135 - 1202) created the prophetic illuminations that, through the agency of the wandering Franciscan friars, were disseminated throughout Western Europe and formed the basis for a specifically European philosophy of history. Finally it was the Jesuits, founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1640, that avidly defended this tradition against the forces of secularism. Had these latter forces triumphed following the Reformation, we may well still have had ‘science’ and ‘technology’- but no ‘reaching for the stars’..If we wish therefore to make psychohistory a real and active force rather than simply a fossilised academic discipline, one possibility would be for a network or group to combine the Asimovian dual-Foundation paradigm with the Joachimite Novis Ordo Saeculorum and Toynbee’s affiliation model to establish a transgenerational, task-oriented group as a modern extension of the medieval monastic modus operandi. This ‘chrysalis’ would seek to catalyse a transition between terrestrial civilisation’s current state of K0 (Kardashev level zero - essentially a planet-bound, pre-interplanetary state) and K2 - an interplanetary, ‘Solar-level’ civilisation. This would be an ‘order’ possessing an inner discipline analogous to the orders of the past, while dedicated to the promotion and integration of the technological and ecological advances necessary to seed an interstellar civilisation - the imago, as it were, of the chrysalis.There do exist certain organisations seeking to fulfil this role, but as we have already stated above, in an era that we must acknowledge as leading towards catabolic collapse, dominated by a desperate and hungry capitalism, these organisations are unable to integrate lines of research to the degree necessary for achieving such a major step in human evolution as the K0 → K2 Transition. This transition will involve an evolutionary ‘long jump’ - a step far greater than that taken by our distant ancestors from sea to land. It will be a step involving radical speciation - pioneers of that transition will choose willingly to resign from ‘all that makes then truly human’ in order to approach closer to, and form a bond with, the Infinite. They will choose willingly to resign from their unique human identities in order to transcend the collective limits of that identity. Whether they will weep or exult in that transcendence will be their own affair.This step towards the exploration and colonisation of deep space must be taken as soon as possible though. If the K0 → K2 Transition is ever to be realised, it would appear essential to establish a permanent foothold in deep space (i.e. beyond Earth’s orbit) before the constraint and error catastrophes currently affecting global civilisation precipitate a catabolic systems collapse to the point where recovery to our present level will be severely compromised by key resource depletion. Failure to complete this transition does not necessarily imply immediate human extinction although eventual extinction is unavoidable for a planet-bound species. Failure to complete the transition may simply close off a vast number of historical options for the future. A general ‘critical path analysis ’ or ‘goal structure’ flow chart for a future chrysalis might look as follows:The kind of psychohistory I have been teaching and researching, while probably despised by the IPA as ‘defensive’ (ironically, given the IPA’s own position), is certainly not ‘Asimovian’. I have described it above as a ‘judicious blend’ of thermodynamically-based metahistory (‘Big History’), complexity science, evolutionary psychology, future studies, neuroscience and psychoanalysis, with ‘future studies’ including a vast array of technologies and navigational mechanisms.. Statistics do indeed play a key role in thinking about the future, but, in consideration of human agency, these are not the inferential statistics favoured by the academic social sciences (which, as a tool of ideology rather than of science, permit a wide range of falsification and interpretation). Rather, I favour the variational Bayesian statistics that conform more closely to Karl Friston’s ecologically-valid, free energy models of mind. Unlike the stated principle in Asimovian psychohistory that only human culture can be the subject matter of psychohistory, I include the study of astrobiology and deep cognitive theorems that can be extended to embrace a xenomorphic intelligence. The real-world equivalent of Asimov’s Prime Radiant would be a vast network of variational Bayesian domains extending far into the future. Today for example, the Drake Equation appears to be evolving as exactly this species of network.I have already stated that I concur with McIntyre’c reservations concerning mathematically-based deterministic predictive analysis. Nevertheless, we could recommend the eventual construction of an advanced form of post Singularity-level AGI - not as a predictive tool, but as a) a navigational instrument that would enable us to chart a path through the instabilities and chaos of the 21st century, b) as an educational instrument, or aid, to human neural and cognitive enhancement and finally c) as a species of ’vessel archive’. We might consider naming such a computational instrument the Prime Radiant in honour of Asimov’s visionary legacy. It would consist of an array of semi-autonomous, goal-seeking metagenetic programs operating on a universal quantum substrate which might eventually reach into the Schrödinger domain itself.In time, the social structure of an advanced chrysalis would merge with the Prime Radiant to form the first space-based arcology - either a) in the form of a permanent base on the Moon, Mars, one of the asteroids or on one of the major moons of the gas giants such as Titan, or b) as a free-standing, recursively self-enhancing structure situated at a major stable Lagrangian point in the Solar System and capable of self replication by means of the Von Neumann algorithm. The Machine will not dominate the Human - Human and Machine will become One.An alternative path of future ’chrysalitic’ evolution might be for a growing chrysalis to favour organically-based development over the mechanical. This is because the main threats to human survival in deep space - such as heavy radiation and microgravity - are more likely to have organic rather than mechanical solutions, i.e. through applications of advanced nanomedicine. Contrary to today’s mecha-biased ’intuition’, organic structures are far more intrinsically robust than mechanical ones and are likely to have far greater capabilities for self-repair in hostile environments. One likely result of this would be that space-based ’organic’ arcologies would eventually develop as fully autonomous, super-intelligent entities in which humans would function, no longer as the ’dominant’ species, but as some form of future ’mitochondria’.The reason why we should seek to bypass a K1 convergence and pursue manned space exploration and colonisation is that there is no way a planetary government could be effective unless it were a one-party dominated tyranny - one in which only near-Earth robotic exploration would be permitted, and then only in the interests of communication, containment and control, (as in the novel series Chung Kuo by David Wingrove (1988-99, republished as a 20-book series beginning in 2017 - and referenced here only by analogy or example of a historical morph, not as a predictive thesis).Like its intellectual sister psychoanalysis, it is not the question of its ’scientific status’ which renders psychohistory open to scrutiny by the ’mainstream’ and subject to continuing controversy, but rather its potentially subversive power. If ’culture’, as Freud maintains in ’Civilisation and its Discontents’ (1939) is an institutionalised set of defences against primordial anxieties, any attempt to deconstruct those defences clearly cannot be tolerated or even countenanced. To look at the world through the eyes of psychohistory is like looking at it through a radio telescope. Whereas an optical telescope reveals what you can already see - only magnified according to the power of the eyepiece - when looking through a radio telescope (by means of a computer display) ‘big’ things appear small, ‘small’ things appear big, and the true energies of the Universe are revealed for the first time.The ‘mythic’ power of psychohistory continues to inspire a great deal of SF literature - which still somehow refuses to transgress the boundaries of ’all that makes us truly human’ by entering the dark domain of radical human speciation or of future deep space cultures far more unimaginably bizarre than any we could ascribe to any Star-Trek style aliens. I’ve had trouble publishing my own arcology-based SF stories since, as publishers told me, that mysterious entity called ’people’ just won’t ’get’ what I’m writing about. I’m actually relieved, really. I now know I’m much closer to the ’it’ I was always out of. Here is a (slightly adapted) vision of another writer who is also ’out of it’ as regards both the IPA and the Asimov estate. The vision is that of our own time, seen from the point of view of a psychohistorian of the far future:“During those decades of profligacy, armies of superstitious 'scientists' continued in defiance of Boltzmann’s entropy to hunt desperately for new havens of information gone missing - under rocks, on the surfaces of black holes, behind the locked doors of alternate worlds - all havens (or heavens) where they felt sure they would find their home after they died. The debates were only be resolved by the Crash, when the 'scientists', together with everyone else, hit the finite time singularity and fell off the top of the exponential curve to their silence, or, if they survived, abandoned their fields of ‘cutting-edge’ research and turned to more pressing problems relating to personal survival - such as how to grow potatoes or light a fire with two sticks, how to skin, prepare and roast the corpses of humans, rats & lampreys or boil cockroaches etc...Documentation preserved from the centuries preceding the Crash revealed the excitement of the scientific revolution driving the population expansion plus plenty of evidence for the cavalier optimism of the richer nations, which were getting richer in their high-rise penthouse apartments through the labours of the Atlas of an increasingly impoverished and ignorant breeding population - and after the Crash, just sufficient material to gain some understanding of the strange, exotic cultures which produced the first generation of sublight starships.Every single one of the cultures that had fed the exponential 'ramp-up with its dynamism and energy simply vanished with the free-fall of infrastructural collapse as the world's population dropped by c. 10 billion to approximately 0.1% of pre-Crash levels. The people who emerged from this almost extinction-level catastrophe and who much later founded the first interstellar colonies bore absolutely no relation to the pre-Crash cultures - either in language, institutions, religions or ethnic origin. It was by no means easy to trace the threads that wove God’s 'living mantle' during this remote period in Earth's history, even with the refined tools of psychohistory."(adapted from Psychohistorical Crisis by Donald Kingsley)The fact is, human beings are built and designed for life on Earth, not life in deep space. To explore and colonise deep space we must first look to ourselves, to our physical, psychological and moral constitution, and be prepared to undergo radical steps in self-transformation before life in the wider Cosmos will become possible. In fact, we would need to undergo some form of psychological transformation if we are to continue to survive on this Earth. If humanity is indeed ‘one family’ it is a very dysfunctional one, and if some of us migrate to deep space, we will no longer be a ‘single family’ but a ‘speciation crucible’ - if we are not that already.To end with, here is a note on the course I have designed:At the present time, especially in the fields of astrobiology and interstellar studies, there is a strong movement towards convergence in the physical and social sciences with the aim of giving a fuller account of human emergence, evolution and possible destiny. We now find, in studying history, that the era of ‘kings and battles’ are over as we seek a deeper, thermodynamically-based account of biological life and its seemingly limitless capacities for growth and complexification. Although ‘Big History’ has come some way towards achieving this disciplinary convergence, it is only psychohistory that, while serving as a consilient basis or substrate for disciplinary convergence, also probes the psychodynamic depths of individual and collective motivation in human affairs. To look at our historical development over the ages through the ‘eyes of psychohistory’ is like looking at the stars with the aid of a radio telescope. With an optical telescope, we see the same stars that we see with our natural, unaided vision - only magnified. With a radio telescope however, small things become large, large things become small, and the true sources of energy in the Universe are revealed for the first time. As we take our first step towards the permanent colonisation of deep space, it is psychohistorical knowledge above all that will help us to attain deeper levels of self-understanding, to overcome the immense social challenges facing us at present, to comprehend and master the vast dimensions of space and time that will challenge deep space pioneers, and which will finally enable us to enter, in the fullness of self-knowledge, into that vectored domain of emergent process in which we are embedded, and in which we are destined to play such a crucial role. This foundational course will introduce you to the basic principles of a social science which takes a far more radical perspective on human life and destiny than any other so far. Such a course, in combining for the first time detailed technical knowledge with rigorous self-analysis, is not without its challenges - but then as Einstein is supposed to have said: “let’s keep everything as simple as possible - but for God’s sake, no simpler”.“Whomsoever is offered, and refuses, will later seek and not be given.”(Desert proverb of Arrakis: from Frank Herbert’s Dune)So have I achieved what Hari Seldon was supposed to have achieved, and turned psychohistory from a ‘set of vague axioms’ into a ‘profound statistical science’? No. I have simply refined and strengthened the main body of axioms, formulated some key theorems and indicated directions which research might take in the future. My contributions to the field may yet be revised or overwritten by Foundations of the Future. The age of Hari (or Harriet) Seldon is yet to come.And a final warning, worth 10,000 pages of models, charts and diagrams: