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How safe is the Purdue University West Lafayette campus for an Indian student amidst the increasing racial attacks in US?

The campus is quite safe for every student, including Indian students. Even though Purdue University is a public, land-grant university, it has a long tradition of welcoming scholars from all around the world as both students and faculty. It currently has the largest enrollment students from India of any university in the US — 1770 students (out of over 40,000).The West Lafayette campus is located in a medium-sized town, where many of the residents have ties to the university and (to varying extents) embrace the diversity present. We also have some employers in the Greater Lafayette area that have foreign ties — Suburu of Indiana Automotive and Nanshan America, are two notable examples. Thus, the community and its economy are more international than many areas in the US (and elsewhere). The same with social life: there are at least 4 very good Indian restaurants in town, and they are frequented by residents of the area who aren’t part of the university community. (We also have a few dozen other good ethnic restaurants: Chinese, Japanese, Thai, Lebanese, Korean, Greek, Mexican, Egyptian, etc.)That is not to say there aren’t some people in the area who have some shade of darkness in their hearts. As with any area of the world, we have people who are criminally inclined and/or psychologically unsound. Crimes occur here (at a rate below that of both Indiana and the rest of the US averages), but they don’t appear directed at people because of country of origin, and they are usually away from Purdue. In general, the crime rate is low on and near the university, especially considering the university has more than 50,000 people on campus!When bigotry does come out in a public incident, it usually seems to be based on skin color, and it is shocking — not routine at all; racial bigotry is a sad legacy problem in the US that is (too) slowly improving, and thankfully, the majority of people here condemn perpetuating bigotry. (NB. As a white male of US origin, I have a status that is largely immune to these issues. However, I do hear from students there are minor harassments and problems, but not as many as they have experienced some other places. That is anecdotal, and I don’t have recent statistics to cite.)We are in a state that voted for the current President, although the local county was evenly split — probably more because of dislike for Secretary Clinton than admiration of Mr. Trump, and because the VP candidate was our governor. There are undoubtedly bigots in the area and the region who are opposed to anyone who does not look like themselves. Some may be emboldened by the election, but I haven’t seen any evidence of that to date. Given the prominence of the university culture (and the other universities in the state) in local life, the history of diversity in the area, and the general friendly nature of Hoosiers (Indiana residents), it seems unlikely to me that national origin is going to be an issue rising to any level of threat to safety around here, if it is noticed at all.Consider that Purdue and the Greater Lafayette area have low traffic, excellent water and air quality, modern infrastructure (i.e.: plumbing, roads, electricity), and ready access to excellent medical care. We’ve got a first rate set of law enforcement agencies here (university and community), and well-equipped fire and rescue departments both on campus and off. Local leaders and planners are heavily committed to improving the quality of life in the area. That combination means Purdue is far safer than Delhi, Mumbai, Bengaluru, or most other places in India, and most (if not all) big cities elsewhere — your life expectancy and chance of being a victim of crime or accident are all favorably affected by being here rather than those places.No place is 100% safe. Your own choices and behavior can lessen risk no matter where you are. Picking Purdue as a place to study is one such choice that can reduce your risk as well as help you get a world-class education.

What if science and religion are both right?

Compatibility of the Definitions of Science and ReligionThere is an almost unanimous agreement between the respondents that there is no genuine conflict between the two conceptsIt seems rather obvious that scientists can do a good deal of scientific work irrespective of religious considerations. Our contemporary scene is a good witness to this fact. But a large percentage of the respondents expressed the view that for one or more of the following reasons scientists cannot or should not dispense with religion:• Science has a metaphysical basis (e.g. intelligibility and lawfulness of nature). Religion can provide science with precisely such a metaphysical basis (Albright, Bell, Hodgson, Katasonov and Trigg).• Science cannot dispense with religion, as extra-scientific presuppositions are essential for choosing research projects, selecting theories and interpreting the results (Byl).• Science is not self-interpreting. In order to understand its own results, it is inevitably constrained to draw on broader philosophical resources. Some of these metaphysical questions are religious questions: what preceded the Big Bang?, etc. (Clayton).• Science can dispense with religion, but scientists cannot, or at least not, without something in the room of religion to make their lives, and their careers in sciences, worthwhile. Scientists too must choose between good and evil (Rolston).• There is no ultimate escape through sciences from human emotions, passions and needs (Brooke).• Science can neglect religion, but scientists as human beings cannot, because human life encompasses much more than is adequately described by science (Acikgenc, Bube, Guiderdoni, H. Smith and Stenmark).• For some scientists, regular religion has been replaced by a different form of religion based on science (Davis and Wintermans).• The negligence of religion by scientists has made the science a tool of the lust for power or a mere divertissement (Del Re).• Passing science to its limits necessarily raises metaphysical or philosophical issues that science cannot answer (Ellis, Giberson, Kennedy, Koenig and Stoeger).• Applied science necessarily involves value choices that are based on ethical viewpoints that cannot themselves be based on science (Ellis, Hubert, Kirmani, Kamal Hassan, Koenig, Plendl, Qurashi, Reich and Stannard).• It is religion that gives meaning to our scientific activities (Acikgenc).• The worldview generated by modern science has obviously failed to succeed even after three hundred years (Iqbal).• Science can dispense with a particular religion, but it cannot claim to be operating within a framework of “no presuppositions” (Kalin).• Science does not need to appeal to religion to find answers to its own restricted set questions. The search for understanding will soon take the scientist outside the bounds of science, to the so-called “limit questions”. Religion provides the most illuminating and intellectually satisfying responses to such questions (Polkinghorne).• Modern science has dispensed with religion. The question is whether or not the world can survive if this trend continues (Bakar).8. Separation of Domains of Activity of Science and ReligionAt first sight, it appears that one can separate the domains of activity of science and religion completely. The indifference of some successful scientists towards religious matters seems to support this view. One may say that these two are separate affairs because their subject matter and methodology is different, or that they try to answer different types of questions (e.g. science answers “how” questions and religion tries to answer “why” questions).Careful inspection, however, does not confirm this inference. In fact, most of the respondents denied that this separation is really possible or advisable, though for different reasons. They gave illuminative reasons for denying this separation. Here, I mention a few of them:• Religion supplies metaphysical assumptions underlying science (Albright, Bell, Byl, Hodgson, Katasonov, Poole and C. A. Russell). The ideal situation should be to have authentic metaphysical knowledge as the framework for both science and religion so that the two share common principles (Nasr). Science and religion are both human activities with a shared cultural field undergirded by certain assumptions about basic reality (Gregersen).• Choices of scientific problems will be influenced by scientists’ theological convictions, and so are scientific descriptions (Bube and C. A. Russell).• Separating the domains of science and religion results in intellectual anarchy and moral confusion (Butt).• In the end, the study of science leads invariably back to religious questions (Clayton).• The moral aspects of religion can affect decisions about the applications of science (Poole and C. A. Russell).• The separation leads to the shallowing of science, the overestimation of scientific power and the isolation of religion from the rest of culture (Katasonov).• Religion is innate to man and to do science is his basic need (Kirmani).• The parts of nature that science attempts to isolate and explain are parts of a greater truth that only religion can understand, describe and convey to humans (Koenig).• With the development of science, our worldview develops, and it is necessary to restate the truth of all religions in a new language (Bell).• Science provides the proper setting within which religious faith must be placed (Ellis).• They should complement each other in providing us with a comprehensive view of reality (H. Smith, Fornæss and A. Grib).• Both domains are superimposed and are separable only for analysis, but in practice we ought to have a holistic view of everything (Jacob).• They should not be confused, but they cannot be completely separated, because man has to be one as God is One (Guiderdoni).• Any understanding of science or of religion by humans must use whatever human resources we have, and in this use they cannot be separated completely (Townes).• The domains of religion and science cannot easily be separated. If we mean by science a way of understanding the physical nature of the universe, and by religion not rituals but a worldview by which we look at the world, then there are more points of convergence than divergence between religion and science (Kalin).• In terms of methodology, the separation is desirable. Yet, the education of the aspiring scientists should be conceived so that they get a healthy dose of ethical education so as not to make out of them Faustian characters (Mimouni).• In our search for both mechanism and meaning, science and religion are complementary approaches to the phenomenon of life (Hurlbut).• As human activities, the two enterprises share a common ground, they are both grounded in a philosophical system that is, at some level, an attempt to understand the fundamental nature of reality (Hewlett).• The two domains overlap in a number of areas (Bakar).• Human activities, including scientific ones, cannot be divorced from ethical questions (Bakar).• If religion is entitled to shape the direction and application of scientific research, then non-separation is not merely possible, but also a desirable state of affairs (Stenmark).• For theistic confessions of faith in a God who created the physical universe, any complete or absolute separation of science from religion would amount to a tacit denial of the most basic claims of theism (Worthing).• Religion must hold the key for understanding why human reason derived from God, can grasp the nature of a world created by Him (Trigg).• Religion shapes our outlook and our paradigm, and it is impossible to be totally immune against religious influence when we approach scientific research (Al-Alwani).• Scientists with religious, or anti-religious, convictions have found it difficult in practice to completely insulate the dominant interests in their lives, one from the other (Brooke).• “Limit questions” and the need for the moral wisdom link the two domains (Polkinghorne).• There is no scientific guidance of life; despite the evident progress in the sciences in today’s world, the value questions remain as acute and painful as ever (Rolston).• To accomplish this feat, it is essential that there be many scientific specialists who are well-informed in religious matters and substantial number of religious leaders who are well-educated in contemporary science (Earley).ConclusionEven though the respondents were from different disciplines, different religious affiliations and different nationalities, there seems to be a lot of agreement between them as far as the responses to these questions are concerned, and even in those cases where the responses seem different, they are complementary, rather than conflicting.This shows that dialogue between scholars of different religious affiliations and different disciplines can be very illuminative and fruitful and can lead to a good understanding among the parties involved.Notes on Scholars Mentioned in the Article1. Acikgenc, Alparsalan, Professor of the History of Philosophy, Fatih University, Istanbul, Turkey.2. Albright, John R., Emeritus Professor of Physics, Purdue University, Calumet, Hammond, Indiana, USA.3. Al-Alwani, Taha Jabir, Founding President and Imam Shafi Professor, The Graduate School of Islamic and Social Sciences, Virginia, USA.4. Bakar, Osman, B., Visiting Professor and Malaysia Chair of Islam in Southeast Asia, Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA.5. Bell, Richard H., Senior Lecturer in Theology, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.6. Brooke, John H., The Andreas Idreos Professor of Science and Religion and Director of The Ian Ramsey Centre, The University of Oxford, UK.7. Bube, Richard H., Professor Emeritus, Dept. of Material Science and Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, USA.8. Nasim, Butt, Principal at Brondesbury College, London, UK.9. Byl, John, Professor of Mathematics, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Trinity Western University, Langley, B.C., Canada.10. Clayton, Philip, Ingraham Professor of Philosophy, Claremont School of Theology, CA, USA.11. Davari Ardakani, R., Professor of Philosophy, Tehran University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.12. Davis, Edward B., Professor of the History of Science, Messiah College, Grantham, PA, USA.13. Del Re, Giuseppe, Professor of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Naples, Naples, Italy.14. Earley, Joseph E., Sr., Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington, DC,USA.15. Ellis, George F.R., Professor of Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, South Africa.16. Fornaess, John E., Professor of Mathematics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA.17. Fulljames, Peter, Honorary Lecturer, University of Birmingham, UK.18. Giberson, Karl W., Professor of Physics, Eastern Nazarene College, Quincy, MA, USA.19. Gregersen, Niels H., Professor of Science and Theology, Department of Systematic Theology, University of Aarhus, Denmark.20. Grib, Andrei, Chief of A.A. Friedman Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Head of Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg University EF, St. Petersburg, Russia.21. Guiderdoni, Bruno, Director of Research at CNRS, Paris, France.22. Hassan, M. Kamal, Rector, International Islamic University of Malaysia, Kula Lumpur, Malaysia.23. Haught, John F., Distinguished Professor of Theology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC,USA.24. Hewlett, Martin J., Professor Emeritus, Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona, Tuscon, Arizona, USA.25. Hodgson, Peter E., Head of the Nuclear Physics Theoretical Group at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Oxford, UK.26. Hubert, J. Z., Associate professor of Physics, Department of Structural Research, The Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Crakow, Poland.27. Hurlbut, William B., MD Consulting Professor in Human Biology, Stanford University, CA, USA.28. Iqbal, Muzaffar, President, Center for Islam and Science, Sherwood Park, AB, Canada.29. Jacob, Teuku, Emeritus Professor of Paleoanthropology, Gajah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.30. Kalin, Ibrahim, Assistant Professor of Islamic Studies, College of the Holy Cross, Mass., USA.31. Katasonov, Vladimir, Dean of Philosophical Faculty of the University of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.32. Kennedy, Terence G., Professor at the Alphonsian Academy, Rome, Italy.33. Kirmani, Mahmoud Zaki, Honarary Secretary of the Muslim Association for the Advancement of Science, Aligarh, India.34. Koenig, Harold G., Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Associate Professor of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.35. McIntyre, John A., Professor of Physics, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas, USA.36. Mimouni, Jamal, Professor of Physics, Constantine University, Constantine, Algeria.37. Murphy, George L., An Adjunct Faculty Member at Trinity Lutheran Seminary,Columbus, OH, USA.38. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, Professor of Islamic Studies, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.39. Plendl, Hans S., Emeritus Professor of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, USA.40. Polkinghorne, J., Former Professor of Mathematical Physics at Cambridge, A Fellow of the Royal Society and a Fellow (and former President ) of Queen’s College, Cambridge University, UK.41. Poole, Michael W., Visiting Research Fellow in Science and Religion, Dept. of Education and Professional Studies, King’s College, London, UK.42. Qurashi, Mazhar M., Professor of Physics, Emeritus, Quid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.43. Reich, Karl H., Senior Research Fellow at the School of education, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.44. Richardson, Mark, Professor of Theology, the General Theological Seminary, New York, USA.45. Rolston, Holmes, III, University Distinguished Professor, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Co, USA .46. Russell, C.A., Emeritus Professor of History of Science and Technology at the Open University & Affiliated Research Scholar at the University of Cambridge, UK.47. Schütz, Gunter M., Senior Scientists at Research Center Jülich, Jülich, Germany.48. Sermonti, Giuseppe, Professor of Genetics, University of Palermo and Perugia, Italy.49. Shami, Misbah-Ud-Din, Professor of Chemistry, Islamabad, Pakistan & Vice-President of the Islamic Academy of Sciences.50. Smith, Houston, Thomas J. Watson Professor of Religion and Distinguished Adjunct Professor of Philosophy, Emeritus, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY,USA.51. Smith, Wolfgang, Professor of Mathematics, Emeritus, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA .52. Stannard, Russell, Professor of Physics, Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.53. Stenmark, Mikael, Prof. of Philosophy of Religion, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.54. Stoeger, William R., Adjunct Associate Professor of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ, USA.55. Townes, Charles, Emeritus Professor of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, USA.56. Trigg, R., Professor of Philosophy, University of Warrick, Coventry, UK.57. Wintermans, J. F.G. M., Emeritus Professor of Botany, Catholic University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands.58. Worthing, Mark Wm., Lecturer in Theology and Ethics, Luther Seminary, Adelaide, Australia.Some Important Questions Concerning Science-Religion Relationship

Who’s is the most celebrated; physician, engineer and astronaut?

Let’s start with my favourite ones : Engineers1. Leonardo da Vincida Vinci, by all accounts, was good at a few things - painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, invention, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography. The usual. His engineering concepts were unfathomable at the time and still carry about an air of magic with them today - flying machines, a type of armoured fighting vehicle, concentrated solar power, an adding machine, and the double hull. Few of which were feasible then, but which are central to how we live today.2. Isambard Kingdom Brunel"One of the most ingenious and prolific figures in engineering history"; "one of the 19th century engineering giants"; and "one of the greatest figures of the Industrial Revolution" - it's hard to overestimate the impact Brunel had on the infrastructure of modern Britain. It's appropriate he's on a list on this site too, having given his name to a modern day university. His greatest achievement is the Great Western Railway, which operates to this day.3. ArchimedesThe greatest of all the classical engineers, Archimedes has influenced for all time the fields of maths, physics, engineering and astronomy. Though little is known about the precise details of his life, what he invented and discovered is not in doubt - the screw pump and compound pulleys can be attributed to him. The island of Syracuse, where he lived all his life, were also protected by various defense mechanisms of his design.4. George StephensonBorn in Wylam, Northumberland, we could easily have included his son Robert on this list, who was called the greatest engineer of the 19th Century and rests at Westminister Abbey. Stephenson senior gets the nod, however, for doing it all first - he built the first public inter city railway line between Liverpool and Manchester in 1830. His rail gauge is also still used the world over as the standard measurement for rail tracks, which will no doubt be of interest to some of you.5. Gustave EiffelCan you guess what landmark world structure this chap is famous for? Aside from the eponymous Parisian tower, Eiffel built various bridges for the French railway network before being commissioned to built the centrepiece for the 1889 Universal Exposition. After this, Eiffel didn't just let his good name carry him through life - he helped design the Statue of Liberty, and contributed greatly to the fields of meteorology and aerodynamics.6. Henry FordNot the inventor of the modern car, but one of the most astute engineers and industrialists of all time who founded the Ford Motor Company and the assembly line method of mass production. This meant that Ford was, to all intents and purposes, the founder of the first motor car that the average person could afford, turning automobiles from a curiosity into a necessity. It's a shame that he was also a publisher of anti-semitic material, otherwise he would be hugely admirable.7. Elon MuskEngineer, businessman, inventor, genius - four of the many labels oft attached to South African-born Canadian Musk. Founder of SpaceX - which will almost certainly be taking the average joe on holiday to space sooner rather than later - Tesla Motors - electric cars that actually, you know, work - and SolarCity, which provide solar panels for businesses all over the world. Remember the name, but then again, how could you forget one as unusual as that?8. Burt RutanAerospace engineering now, and one of the most original modern engineers. Rutan's aircraft were often peculiar looking, but have always proven light, strong, and energy efficient. His greatest achievements number Voyager - the first plane to fly non-stop around the world - and SpaceShipOne - the first privately funded spacecraft to make regular and succesful trips into sub-orbit. Honoured in the National Air and Space Museum, he is also honoured on our list.9. Steve WozniakFrom structural to electronic engineering, from the biggest buildings on earth to some of the smallest but most revolutionary technology of the past few decades. Wozniak, along with Steve Jobs, pioneered the 1970s personal computer revolution. He single handedly developed the Apple I, and was arguably the main component in the development of the truly revolutionary Apple II - he did the programming, Jobs did the case it came in.10. Fazlur Rahman KhanBorn in Dhaka - then of the British Raj, today capital of Bangladesh - can claim the title of father of the modern skyscraper. This structural engineer and architect came up with tubular designs that allowed for the easier constructions of the high rise structures we know today. Also one of the first to utilise computer aided design techniques, his gifts to the US include their second tallest building, the Willis Tower, and the John Hancock Centre (pictured) - sorry, Center. It is American after all.The most celebrated astronauts :1. Yuri GagarinAs the first man to space, no list of famous astronauts would be complete without the Soviet/ Russian born cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. In 1955, he was drafted into the Soviet Air Force and then landed to the Soviet Space Program due to his excellent flying record. He was soon selected for a special group known as the Sochi Six, from which the country would choose its first cosmonaut.2. Alan ShepardEdgar D. Mitchell, Alan B. Shepard Jr. (center), and Stuart A. RoosaIn the midst of the Cold War, Russia’s Sputnik 1 launch in 1957, shook the America’s confidence in its space and tech superiority over the Soviets. This was the first major move from either side during the Space Race. In response, the then U.S President Eisenhower formed NASA and gave them the go ahead to recruit their first astronauts from military ranks.Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. was one of the first naval aviators who were recruited by NASA under the name of the Mercury Seven in 1959. In May 1961 he made the first manned Project Mercury flight, in flight Freedom 7. He became only the second person in the world, and the first American, to travel in space.3. Valentina TereshkovaValentina Tereshkova with Nikita Khrushchev, Pavel Popovich and Yury Gagarin at Lenin’s MausoleumAt the age of 80, the Russian born Valentina Tereshkova is the oldest astronaut alive on the Earth. She was also the first women into space, two years after Yuri Gagarin. Before becoming a cosmonaut, Tereshkova worked as an assembly worker in a local textile factory.She left the Soviet Space agency and became one of the well known faces of the Communist Party in the Soviet regime. From 1966 to 1991 she held various important legal offices. She remained politically active years after the collapse of the USSR and is regarded as a hero in Russia.4. Neil ArmstrongNeil Armstrong stands alongside X-15 -1Does this person need any formal introduction? I guess not. He is arguably the most famous astronauts, especially to kids who someday wants to become an astronaut. Born in 1930, in Wapakoneta, Ohio, Armstrong graduated from Purdue University and became a member of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics before becoming an astronaut.After the Mercury 7 program, NASA wanted to recruit a fresh line of astronauts, and that’s when Armstrong joined and became part of the Gemini program. On July 16th, 1969, Armstrong alongside “Buzz” Aldrin and Michael Collins, became the first astronauts to walk on the moon’s surface (except Michael Collins).5. Buzz AldrinBuzz Aldrin made a history in the field of human space exploration after becoming a part of the first crew to land on the Moon in 1969. As the Module Pilot on Apollo 11, he was the second person to walk on it after the commander Neil Armstrong.Before joining NASA, he was enlisted as a second lieutenant in the U.S Air Force and was deployed in the Korean peninsula during the Korean War. Three years before, the Lunar mission Aldrin went into orbit for the first time during the Gemini 12 mission, and achieved the first successful EVA without mishap.6. Sally Kristen RideSally Ride communicates with controllers from the Challenger’s flight deckSally Kristen Ride was born in Los Angeles, Southern California in 1951. She joined the National Aeronautics and Space Administration at the age of 27 and soon became the first women from the United States in space. Internationally, Sally Ride was only the third female astronaut in space after two Russian (USSR) cosmonauts Valentina Tereshkova and Svetlana Savitskaya.7. John Herschel Glenn Jr.John Herschel Glenn was an engineer, U.S Marine Corps pilot, astronaut, and later Senator from the state of Ohio. In 1962, he became the first U.S national to orbit the Earth following his Mercury-Atlas 6 mission. Before being selected by NASA, Glenn was a prolific fighter pilot who served in various wars, including the World War II, China and Korean War.As a fighter pilot, he received various medals and honors, including the Distinguished Flying Cross and more than a dozen AIr medals. In 1957, he became the first person to perform a supersonic transcontinental flight across the country, while his on-board camera took the first ever panoramic photograph of the entire United States.8. Chris HadfieldChris Hadfield is one of the prominent Canadian astronauts, who became the first national to perform a space walk. Born and raised on a farm in southern Ontario, Hatfield’s biggest inspiration while growing up was watching the Apollo 11 landing on his T.V set. After graduation, he joined national Armed Forces, and was eventually accepted into the Canadian astronaut program in 1992.In 2013, during his third and last expedition to ISS, as a commander of the mission, Hadfield was responsible for various important tasks. During this mission, he captured various space images and posted on different social media platforms which earned him a great deal of popularity from around the world.9. Pete ConradCharles “Pete” Conrad Jr., was one of the highly respected American astronauts in the world. He was an American NASA astronaut, naval officer and aviator, test pilot, and during the Apollo 12 mission, he became the third man to walk on the Moon. He joined NASA as a part of a special group called New Nine in 1962.For his first mission, he was assigned to Gemini 5, where along with his mission commander Gordon Cooper, broke the previous space endurance record of five days. After Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, Conrad and Alan L. Bean became the second NASA pair to perform Moon expedition in 1969.10. Alexey LeonovAlexey Leonov (on the right) with Anton ShkaplerovThe Soviet born Alexey Leonov was the first person to perform a spacewalk or more formally an Extravehicular activity (EVA) during the Voskhod 2 mission. Actually, his spacewalk was scheduled to be taken place during the Voskhod 1 mission, but was cancelled and was scheduled a year later.During this historic event, a severe malfunction in Leonov’s spacesuit almost caused his life. Due to a minor defect, his pressurized suit began to inflate during his space walk. The inflation quickly escalated to the levels that he couldn’t even re-enter the spacecraft. To gain flexibility, he released a valve of his suit to release the pressure to bleed off, but this resulted in a quick loss of oxygen, which nearly killed him.11. Scott KellyScott Kelly with Former U.S President Barack ObamaThe retired American astronaut, engineer and a former Navy captain Scott Kelly is perhaps one of the popular modern personality among the space lovers. The veteran NASA astronaut commanded a total of three International Space Station expeditions and been in space for four different occasions.Scott Kelly made it to orbit very quickly after becoming an astronaut. Only three years later, he was the pilot for STS-103, a shuttle mission that upgraded the Hubble Space Telescope. His crew spent eight days in December 1999 in space (including celebrating Christmas there), where their main duties were to install instruments and upgrade systems on Hubble.In 2015, Kelly achieved a milestone after he spent a record 520 days in space. The record was later broken by astronaut Jeff Williams in 2016 and astronaut Peggy Whitson year after.12. Guion BlufordOn August 30, 1983, for the first time in human space exploration history, astronaut Guion Bluford of African-American heritage went to the outer space. Before starting a career with NASA, Bluford was a ranked officer in the U.S Air Force, where he continued to serve even after his initial recruitment in the space agency.At NASA, he became part of a total of four different space missions from 1983 to 1992. For his services, Bluford was inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame in 1997, and the U.S Astronaut Hall of Fame in 2010.13. Marc GarneauImage Courtesy: NASAMarc Garneau became the first Canadian astronaut to the outer space, while he was assigned as one of the crew members to the STS-41-G in 1984. Like most of the early astronauts, Garneau also started in the military, as an engineer in the Royal Canadian Navy in 1974, before being promoted to Captain. He left Navy ranks in 1989 to become the deputy Director of the newly formed CAP (now Canadian Astronaut Corps).Here, he gained further experience and became a mission specialist. After working as a ground flight controller for couple of space missions, he himself went to outer space two times in 1984 and 1966. During his entire career, Garneau registered more than 670 space hours under his belt.14. Mae Carol JemisonJemison aboard the Spacelab JapanNot many in their life can achieve everything they crave for, but she sure did. Working with NASA, Mae Jemison became the first African American female into the outer space on-board the Endeavour space shuttle in 1992. Before NASA, she was selected in the Peace Corps in 1985 following her medical degree and a brief period of medical practice.At NASA, she administered various tasks in the Kennedy Space Center, Florida before going to space. She, however left NASA to form her own research firm. She is also famous among sci-fi fans for appearing in an episode of Star Trek. And that’s not all, Jemison currently holds nine honorary doctorates in engineering, science and humanities.And finally Physicians:1- Hippocrates( father of Western medicine)Hippocrates, about 460 BC – 377 BC, is a famous doctor and the father of Western medicine. As a physician practicing and teaching in Classical Greece, he made medicine a discipline separate from theology and philosophy. Hippocrates founded a school for medicine on the island of Cos, Greece, where he taught that thoughts, ideas and feelings come from the brain, rather than the heart. He described the symptoms of many diseases like pneumonia and epilepsy. The Hippocratic Corpus is a collection of early medical works from ancient Greece, a summary of the medical knowledge of the time, attributed to him and his students. Hippocrates introduced the Hippocratic Oath, a promise physicians make to practice medicine ethically, that is still used today in revised form.2- Edward JennerEdward Anthony Jenner, 1749 – 1823, was a famous English doctor and scientist who worked in immunology and developed the smallpox vaccine. His discovery has eradicated the dreaded disease of smallpox and saved more lives than the work of any other doctor. To this day, smallpox is the only human infectious disease to have been eradicated.Smallpox was an infectious disease since prehistoric time, killing, blinding and disfiguring its victims. The concept of variolation, using the smallpox virus itself for a risky inoculation, was introduced in England from Turkey by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. A few individuals had already used the cowpox vaccine to try to vaccinate against smallpox. Jenner knew that milkmaids who worked with cows got the milder cowpox disease from cows, but did not contract smallpox. Jenner hypothesized that the pus from cowpox would provide immunity from smallpox. He successfully tested his hypothesis and published papers on vaccination. He opened the field of immunology, with the possibility of curing many more diseases. Jenner died at the age of 73 after several strokes.3-Rene LaennecRene Laennec, 1781 – 1826 was a famous French doctor and physician who invented the stethoscope, used for auscultation, that is, listening to the sounds in the lungs and heart. It became the primary medical diagnostic tool. Doctors of today still rely on his invention.The idea for the stethoscope came while he watched children playing with hollow sticks, which translated and amplified sounds. His skill as a flautist may have contributed to his invention. He authored many articles in the field of auscultation. Laennec was known for his charity to the poor during the French Revolution.4-Henry GrayHenry Gray, 1827-1861, was a famous English doctor and surgeon and author of the book Anatomy, also known as Gray's Anatomy, an authoritative textbook for medical students that is still published today. In 1858 Doctor Gray published the first edition of Anatomy, with 750 pages and and 363 drawings. The success of the book is partly due to the skilled illustrations made by his friend Henry Vandyke Carter.Learning anatomy from surgery on cadavers, he submitted outstanding student work. Henry Gray was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society at the age of 25. He became a Lecturer of Anatomy at St. George's Hospital, and published the book he is known for at the age of 31. His promising career was interrupted by his untimely death from smallpox at the age of 34.5- Ignaz SemmelweisIgnaz Semmelweis, 1818-1865, was a famous Hungarian doctor. He dramatically reduced the death rate of new mothers from childbed fever. At this time the germ theory of infection was unknown in medicine. From 10% to 35% of all women died after childbirth from puerperal fever. Doctor Semmelweis worked at one of two Obstetrical Clinics of the Vienna General Hospital.These were charitable maternity clinics where illegitimate babies were delivered. Here surgeons staffed the first maternity clinic, and midwives staffed the second maternity clinic. The clinic staffed by surgeons had a death rate 3 times higher than the midwives' clinic. Semmelweis's careful study found that the only difference between the clinics was that midwives regularly washed their hands. He required doctors to wash their hands in a disinfectant solution of chlorinated lime and thus greatly improved the survival rate of women in childbirth.His published conclusions were widely ridiculed by his peers. Suffering from a nervous breakdown, possibly Alzheimer's or syphilis, Semmelweis was confined to an asylum, beaten by guards and died from his wounds two weeks after admission. His work gained acceptance only after his death.6-Louis pasteurLouis Pasteur. 1822 - 1895, was a French chemist and one of the founders of microbiology. He was not a licensed doctor, but he improved the health of everyone. His work proved the theory that germs cause disease. He was a professor of physics and then a professor of chemistry at the University of Strasbourg.The death of two of his five children from typhoid fever motivated him to study disease and medicine. In his breakthrough work Pasteur demonstrated that fermentation is caused by the growth of microorganisms. He discovered the pasteurization process to kill the bacteria and molds that spoil milk and wine. He created a rabies vaccine and a vaccine for chicken cholera. He also disproved the theory of spontaneous generation of life forms by showing the "life comes from other life," which is called the Law of Biogenesis. This law means that maggots come from maggots and bacteria from bacteria, rather than via spontaneous generation out of nothingness.Pasteur received many honors, including a Grand Croix of the Legion of Honor from France. His death came in 1895 after a series of strokes. His remains have been placed in a crypt in the Institut Pasteur, Paris.7-Joseph ListerJoseph Lister, 1827 - 1912 was a famous English doctor, surgeon and the father of antiseptic, that is, sterile surgery. He introduced carbolic acid to sterilize surgical instruments, to clean wounds, and to clean the hands of the surgeon. His work reduced gangrene and other infections and made surgery safer for patients.At this time wounds often became infected after surgery, which led to death. French chemist Louis Pasteur had proved that rotting and fermentation were caused by microorganisms. While professor of surgery at the University of Glasgow, Scotland, Doctor Lister showed that gangrene, the rotting of human flesh, could be prevented by cleaning wounds with carbolic acid. This was the first antiseptic treatment for wounds. Like Ignaz Semmelweis, Doctor Lister noticed that babies delivered by midwives had a better survival rate than babies delivered by surgeons, because midwives washed their hands often. He also had surgeons wash their hands before and after a surgery using a solution of carbolic acid, and wear clean gloves. He used carbolic acid to sterilize medical instruments and the surgery. Lister made surgery safer and improved the infant survival rate. His work finally convinced the worldwide medical community of the germ theory of infection, discovered by Ignaz Semmelweis.Doctor Lister showed that aseptic surgery made many types of operations successful. He operated on a brain tumor, repaired kneecaps with metal wire and improved mastectomies. He was a popular lecturer and president of the Royal Society. After the death of his wife Agnes, who was his lifetime partner in his laboratory, Lister retired from medicine. In 1879 Listerine mouthwash was named after him for his work in antisepsis. Also named in his honour is the bacterial genus Listeria. He received fame and honor during his lifetime, and was made a baron. He died in his home at the age of 84.8-Elizabeth BlackwellElizabeth Blackwell, 1821 – 1910, was the first female doctor in the United States. She founded medical schools and supported women in medicine, the anti-slavery movement and the women's rights movement. Blackwell was born in England, one of nine children in a Quaker family where the daughters received a good education at home. After the family emigrated to the United States, she taught school in Kentucky to pay for medical training. She studied medicine privately under several physicians, and was admitted, by mistake, to Geneva College in New York. In spite of much prejudice, in 1849 she became the first woman to earn a medical degree in the United States, and graduated first in her class.In 1857, Doctor Blackwell along with her sister Emily and Dr. Marie Zakrzewska, founded the New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children. During the American Civil War, Blackwell trained many women to be nurses for the Union Army. In 1868 she established a Women's Medical College for women, physicians, and doctors. She opened the first training school for nurses in the United States in 1873. She also was the first woman to be registered in England as a doctor. Returning to England, she founded the Women's Medical College with Florence Nightingale. Doctor Blackwell remained an active teacher, lecturer and author until she died in 1910 at her home in England after a stroke.9-Frederick BantingFrederick Banting, 1891-1941, was a Canadian doctor and scientist. Working with Dr. John Macleod, he discovered insulin, which is used to treat diabetes.At college, he transferred from divinity studies to medicine. After graduation he served with the Canadian Army Medical Corps in France in WWI. He was wounded and received the Military Cross for heroism under fire. Back in Toronto, Doctor Banting set up a general practice, and also taught medicine.It was generally known that diabetes was the buildup of sugar in the blood caused by the lack of insulin, a protein secreted by the pancreas. Banting devised a successful procedure to extract insulin from the pancreas. In 1923, he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for this work, which he shared with Dr. Macleod.In Toronto, he founded the Banting and Best Institute, where he studied silicosis, cancer, drowning and blackout of high-altitude airplane pilots. He has received many awards and honors, including knighthood. The Banting crater on the moon was named for him. Banting was portrayed by Jason Priestley in the film Above and Beyond.Twice married, father of one child and an enthusiastic painter, Doctor Banting died in a plane crash. A CBC public survey in 2004 named him one of the top 10 "Greatest Canadians."10-Charles DrewCharles R. Drew, 1904 - 1950, was a prominent African American doctor during the period of segregation in the United States. He is recognized for his work in the field of blood transfusions.The death of his sister Elsie during a flu pandemic influenced his decision to study medicine. Doctor Drew received his MD degree in 1933 and became instructor in pathology, then an instructor in surgery and an assistant surgeon. He studied blood preservation techniques, and received his Doctor of Science in Surgery from Columbia University, New York.During World War II, Doctor Drew organized the Blood for Britain project, a prototype blood bank to collect, test, store and send U.S. blood plasma to aid Britain. The successful program continued for five months and recruited 15,000 donors. Drew opposed the practice of segregating blood by the race of the donor, on the basis of scientific search. As a result, he lost his job. However, in 1943, he was appointed to serve as an examiner on the American Board of Surgery, the first black surgeon to do so.Doctor Drew worked in research and teaching at Freedman's Hospital, Morgan State University, Montreal General and Howard University. He died in 1946 from injuries sustained in an automobile accident, leaving behind his wife and four children.11- Alexander FlemingAlexander Fleming, 1881 – 1955, was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. He is famous for his discovery of the antibiotic penicillin. Penicillin changed the course of medicine. It was the life-saving drug that conquered syphilis, gangrene and tuberculosis.By chance, Fleming discovered the anti-bacterial lysozyme, a natural substance found in tears and the nose that helps the body fight germs. He noticed that his own nasal mucus dripped onto a petri dish and killed the bacteria. Penicillin, the most effective life-saving drug in the world, was also discovered accidentally. While Fleming was on vacation, a mold had grown and destroyed the bacteria on a Petri dish in his lab. Fleming's discoveries are substances that can kill bacteria but not adversely affect the human body. Fleming was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945.12-Virginia ApgarVirginia Apgar, 1909 – 1974, was a famous American doctor who founded the field of neonatology for the care of newborn infants, especially the ill or premature newborn. She was a leader in the fields of anesthesiology and teratology, the study of developmental defects. She developed the Apgar test to assess the health of babies immediately at birth and to study the effects of obstetric anesthesia on babies. Her work reduced worldwide infant mortality.Doctor Apgar graduated from Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons. After her residency in surgery, she trained in anesthesia and became director of the division of anesthesia at Columbia. At a time when she and women in general were discouraged from a career as a physician, she was the first woman in the positions she held. She published more than 60 scientific papers and articles and books for the general public.The Apgar test she invented was the first test made for newborn health. The test scores the health of the newborn baby on the basis of 5 observable criteria, Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration. Her name Apgar also became a mnemonic word based on these five criteria. The Apgar score indicates if a newborn needs immediate medical care. It is easily administered by trained observation.

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