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PDF Editor FAQ

What are some of the latest technologies in the field of acoustical engineering?

Research into graphene and graphene like materials is very interesting and as cutting edge as it gets, although practical applications are a few years away for most research, then again, when isn’t it?Acoustic analogue to graphene announcedAcoustic analogue to graphene announcedAcoustic graphene could act as a sonic cloakAcoustic graphene could act as a sonic cloakLoudspeaker design (PDF)Page on berkeley.eduAcoustical interface with smartphonesCarnegie Mellon University. "Acoustically driven controls created for smartphones." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 20 April 2015. <Page on sciencedaily.comHaptic Holography (not new but really cool)Page on youtube.comBio-acoustic data transfer (not new but really cool)Bio-Acoustics, Haptic Steering Wheels, RFID Everywhere: This is the Future According to AT&T

What are the technologies being developed to be incorporated in a 6th generation fighter aircraft?

I have a pretty good idea on the 6th gen requirements and that is by watching the progress of other countries. Answer might or might not be favorable by the end of this post.6th Gen Requirements: Photonic Radars?Information that I have read from Mig-41 and BAE Tempest says they track missiles and aircrafts from all directions. antennas for NGAD will be like smartskin so from this point I am assuming that a 360 degree radar view is a requirement. But the kind of radar it will be is on my list. 4th gen: GaAS AESA, 5th gen: GaN AESA, 6th gen: photonic radar, 7th gen quantum radar.U.S. Company Raytheon 2019 PDF"With all the advances occurring inemerging PIC technologies, Raytheonresearchers and engineers are activelypursuing both internal research andcustomer-funded development programsto investigate applications of PICtechnology in next generation products,as well as to develop lower cost, higheryield PIC packaging and manufacturingprocesses"DARPAIndustry asked to develop microwave photonics components for RF and microwave applications like radarDARPA wants lithium-niobate field-configurable modulator arrays (FCMAs) for RF links, RF signal processing, radar, and RF spectrum management.Although microwave photonics represents an important technology for military applications, the military microwave photonic systems deployed to date repurpose commercial components for military functions.The most recent developments in industrial telecommunications have been in specialized application-specific photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Today's military applications cannot use these devices, however, because application-specific PICs cannot be repurposed.The FCMA must be able to operate from 1 MHz to 18 GHz, and use the nonlinear response of a Mach-Zehnder modulator to suppress a continuous-wave interference signal by 60 decibels to suppress an interference signal with 10 MHz instantaneous bandwidth by 40 decibels -- both while reducing the largest intermodulation distortion by 30 decibels.The signals-intelligence configuration will improve the intrinsic third-order-limited spurious-free dynamic range of a Mach-Zehnder modulator by 10 decibels.The radar-beamforming application will provide 360 degrees of RF phase shift that can be modulated at 100 kHz. The communications configuration, meanwhile, must support 10 gigabits per second of modulation on each of the in-phase and quadrature components of a lightwave.Russian Company RTIAs for semiconductormodulators in microchipperformance, then in 2019 the researchwork on this topic in whichOKB-Planeta OJSC is an industrial partner.Within three to five years is possibleorganization of the development, design and production of photonicintegrated circuits (FIS) both in packageless execution, and in the case.The implementation of these plans will allowJSC "RTI" take a leading positionin development and productionadvanced domestic radio systems based on componentradiophotonic bases.VEGA, RTI and KRET all state having photonic radar prototypes and VEGA seems to have demonstrated the the photonic radar antennas which the source states is as thin as paint but a little thicker. In other words this is the ideal smart skin layout 6th gens are dreamed of having for sensing targets in all directions.6th Gen Requirements: Communication/Computers/Data speeds?I do not know the internet traffic of the city Edinburgh in a second in determining the information the BAE Tempest radar can gather, but I do know that it is in the UK and the UK in 2020 reports that on a busy day traffic can go high as up to 132 terabits per second, while the speed transmission of information for a photonic radar is hundreds of terabits per second according to Alexey Leonkov. DARPA wants communication to receive 10 gigabits per second, RTI in a 2017 article pdf states in 100ghz speeds of 400 gigabits per second can be received. I know that MADL uses high frequency in 20–30ghz for gigabit speeds. DoD’s broader Network Services 2020 plan calls for aircrafts to exchange 100 gigabits per second.I take it that current 4 or 5th gens will use just electronic computers. 6th gen will use optical(photonic) computers and 7th gen will use functional quantum computers. Scientists of the Mendeleev Russian state technical University have grown nonlinear optical crystals in their lab from glass to turn invisible infrared radiation into visible light which is a requirement needed for a functioning optical computer.6th Gen Requirements: Engine/ Variable Cycle/ high supersonic to hypersonic?The F-22 has a high bypass ratio meaning the range is limited but supersonic cruise is possible. Some calculations were made in removing its two external fuel tanks with a range of 2,049 kms but I wouldn't say that is entire accurate. While current engines of Su-35 and Su-57 are low bypass ratio along with F-35 where they maximize range more than speed to not bleed as much fuel. So it is argued that variable cycle engines is a requirement for 6th gen aircrafts which combines the best of both worlds. New ADVENT engine as a variable cycle engine for F-35 proposes 35% increase in range, 25% reduction in fuel consumption 10% thrust increase. Designers for Team Tempest say this variable cycle engine is a requirement for a 6th gen aircraft but also say they are developing reaction engines. The FCAS proposes a SABER engine for their 6th gen which is to reach hypersonic speeds and of course same kind of information was said about the Mig-41. But I have no idea if NGAD proposes variable cycle or a near to right at hypersonic speeds engines. U.S. and Russia are the only countries that have demonstrated airbreathing aircraft engines.It is even argued that the Izdelie 30 or 2nd stage Su-57 engine could be a variable cycle. But that does make sense because 18,000 kg of thrust is offered and the previous AL-41F1 engine is 15,000 kg of thrust. Stated to be 30% lighter than previous engine with better fuel efficiency. So there is a 20% increase in thrust while reports have said range will stay the same or be increased. However if ranges do stay the same as an example that means the quality of a low bypass ratio engine are still there and with speed capabilities for super sonic cruise show the quality of a high bypass ratio like the F-22 means that it has the qualities of an adaptive cycle engine.6th Gen Requirements: Controlling drones?Su-57 gets the Su-70, BAE Tempest gets BAE Taranis, FCAS gets Neuron and F-35 is to get the MQ-25 Stingray since they are considering bringing it back besides refuel purposes. Currently the Su-70 is the only drone with set production date for 2024 and the only drone that has an interceptor role because it extends the radar of the Su-57 and the 2nd half of this year to fire air to air missiles. two more prototypes will be introduced with the 3rd prototype looking like the Maks 2019 airshow design. The Su-70 is able to control 10 lightning drones that have the capabilities to fly and detonate few hundred kilometers away from targets. 6th gen programs strongly emphasize on having networks controlling drones.6th Gen Requirements: Central Nervous system?The ATD-X program was to be lead to the Mitsubishi F-3 6th gen program which has a feature known as the self-healing flight control function and the Su-57 is being given a central nervous system. Russians have used fiber optics to be spread around the body which I assume is the same as Japan control function feature. But this is a good feature to have if there is wear and tear in some of the composites to pin point where issues have occurred in the aircraft to reduce maintenance costs.6th Gen Requirements: Electric Actuators?Japans F-3, U.S. NGAD and Russia 2nd Su-57 variant undergoing testing in 2022–2024 are dumping hydraulics for electric actuators. Such benefits are radar visibility of the machine is reduced, increase its maneuverability and simplify maintenance.6th Gen Requirements: Energy Weapons?Of course this has been said many times but the talk of using lasers and microwave weapons. F-X, Mig-41, FCAS, i3 fighter, Tempest, NGAD talk about using microwave weapons and lasers that physically destroy things. F-35 has presented a 100 kilowatt laser and although the current Su-57 is the only 5th gen with a functional DIRCM that blinds missile, the avionics upgrade for 2nd variant might or might not have a laser that can physically destroy a missile.6th Gen Requirement: Metamaterials for Stealth?I currently know the Japanese like to emphasize that the i3 fighter and F-x will use metamaterials for their stealth. Russia and China say it is a great application for stealth technology from their following quotes.“This new, lab-made “metamaterial,” in essence a very fine mesh with microscopic etchings, could shrink the radar signature of a fighter jet, warship, or missile by a thousand times, claimed the scientists at the Chengdu-based Institute of Optics and Electronics, part of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.”“The new metamaterial is completely transparent to electromagnetic waves due to the excitation of "anapoles" in them. Russian and Italian scientists have developed technology to camouflage military equipment. When detecting an object using a radar, a wave signal is sent to it, and its location is determined by the reflection of the wave.Modern stealth camouflage techniques aim to ensure that the wave reflected from an object is absorbed by the cloaking coating, minimizing the response to the radar. However, the coating alone is not capable of reducing this response to zero due to a combination of factors: surface geometry, high speed of movement, progressive highly sensitive methods of location, ineffectiveness of absorption of stealth coating.”ConclusionI heard not having vertical stabilizers as a design concept for 6th gen. But not enough info if that is the final design or why other 6th gen design concepts have not presented it. Also options of going unmanned and A.I. pilot functions have already been beaten to death on current operational 5th gens(F-35/Su-57) to 6th gen aircraft projects. It is argued that some 6th gens have 5th gen features and that some 5th gens have many 6th gen features.I do not want to be a comedian but the 2nd variant Su-57(not the in production 1st variant Su-57) undergoing testing in 2022–2024 pretty much already has its foot in the door to qualify as a 6th gen aircraft before even introducing the Mig-41 or Rostec starting their own 5th gen programs which might be the LMFS which design wise looks like the X-32 could incorporate 6th gen features.70% certainty 2nd Su-57 variant will have photonic radar. RTI stated in September 2019 that in a few years their prototype photonic radar will be mounted on a multifunctional fighter. mass scale production of PICs might take place between 2022–2024 which is the timeframe that the new Su-57 will tests its new avionics. Could be a possibility that RTI could be talking about Rostecs 5th gen development or the mig-41.80–90% certainty that the 2nd stage engine is variable cycle. But if all 6th gen go with close to hypersonic or hypersonic speeds than variable cycle wont be a 6th gen. But I still have high doubts Europe can create a hypersonic engine for an aircraft before the U.S. or Russia.70% certainty with communication and data speeds, but 0–3% certainty it will have a photonic computer because the discovery by Mendeleev University was not to long ago and that they have yet to present a functional photonic computer.Russia’s lightning drones, Lockheed Martin’s Speed racer drones and FCAS concept image of drones look exactly alike. Since Su-70 has a production date their is 100 % certainty the Su-57 will just be using drones the majority of its time in which even those drones control other drones. This is the most talked about feature with Tempest, NGAD and FCAS.Central nervous system type feature was recommended by Japan and not too long ago implemented by the Su-57 so 100% certainty. Also I am sure news reports might be shown later of other 6th gen programs recommending a type of feature that would show wears and tears in material as a smart feature to quickly resolve issue.NGAD and F-X what a more electric use aircraft. And it is already guaranteed the 2nd variant Su-57 will have it so 100% certainty.50% certainty on lasers to destroy things(they already can blind things), they have demonstrated a 1 megawatt KPVC laser and the Peresvet laser which uses a nuclear fuel pump and being bigger than the KPVC in size determines 1–10 megawatts, while other countries at best are still stuck on presenting new kilowatt range land lasers. the DIRCM is part of the avionics package which 2nd variant Su-57 is being upgraded with new avionics. But this rests on a 50/50 choice happening.0% certainty on 2nd Su-57 using metamaterials because they want to use the metamaterials as elements of qubits of quantum computers and would require re-doing the physical layout of the Su-57 which they emphasize they would not do for the 2nd Su-57. So it is questionable if current 6th gen programs plan on using it while having an operational 6th gen. Что такое анаполь? Новый метаматериал для стелс-покрытийI think the Su-57 2nd variant will be leaning on almost all the 6th gen requirements, if it isnt than its pushed to a 5th gen++. For example Japan’s 6th gen radar feature is using GaN MMIC while the U.S. and Russia are dead set on acquiring PICs which offer better performance. Even though the Su-57 might not have metamaterial present will other 6th gens have them present in the end? How many in the end are going with the variable cycle than the hypersonic approach? How many will actually have functional high power lasers or microwave weapons in the end?Hard to decide what 6th gen technologies are, depending if some take easier or harder routes setting those standards.SourcesTempest drives forward as Leonardo unveils new radar sensing technologyWork is proceeding at pace to meet the ambitious timescale for Tempest, which is expected to go into-service in 2035 New radar receiver/warner technology is four times as accurate as existing sensors in a package 1/10th the size The lab demo was part of conceptual and development activities for the Tempest sensor suite and mission system, which Leonardo is leading Leonardo UK has demonstrated the performance of a new radar receiver/warner technology as part of its on-going development work for Tempest, the next generation combat air project which will see the UK, Italy and Sweden working closely together. In a laboratory demonstration for the UK Ministry of Defence and other Team Tempest partners, the new sensor demonstrated a direction finding performance of four times what is possible with a typical radar warning receiver while being just 1/10th the size of a standard system. Leonardo UK is one of the four founding members of Team Tempest , which was brought together by the UK MOD to develop a next generation combat air system for the UK and partner nations: since the team was contracted to begin development work in 2018, Italy and Sweden have announced their intent to work with the UK on this project. Leonardo’s UK role in the team is to develop Tempest’s sensor package and integrate these sensors into the platform’s mission system. The ambitious timescale for the Tempest project, which is working towards seeing a new aircraft in-service with the RAF in 2035, means that Leonardo in the UK is already hard at work developing some of the advanced technologies which will be needed to face the threats of the future. One such area of development, and the focus of the recent lab demonstration, is in radar warning . This technology is used to sense the radio frequency (RF) signals emitted by potentially hostile radars and then use this information for a variety of uses, including warning an operator that an enemy is trying to ‘lock on’ to their aircraft. Such sensors can also support tasks such as intelligence gathering and combat identification. In future, threat radars are likely to use a range of technologies and software techniques to make it harder to identify their signals, meaning that Tempest’s sensors will need to be sophisticated enough to be able to counter such techniques and flexible enough to be updated in response to new technologies as they emerge on the battlefield. The reduced size and weight of Leonardo’s new receiver technology , as well as reduced power requirements, means that it will be possible to integrate the sensor into a multi-function array. This concept, one of a number of innovative ideas being considered for Tempest, could see a number of multi-purpose sensors spread around the aircraft, simultaneously sensing and tracking enemy aircraft, incoming missiles and other threats from all directions, while being fully integrated with a forward-facing radar. stealth fighter planes: The quarterback of the kill web - Military Embedded SystemsWARFARE EVOLUTION BLOG: There are 14 countries working on 6th Generation (6G) fighter planes these days: the U.S. (PCA, F/A-XX, NGAD); the United Kingdom, Sweden, Italy, and maybe India (Tempest); France, Germany, and Spain (FCAS); Japan (F-3); Taiwan (ADF); South Korea and Indonesia (KF-X); Russia (MiG-41); and China (J-XX). Before we get into the details, we need to define what a 6G fighter jet is. The F-35 and F-22 are 5G fighter planes. There are six aircraft generation classification charts out there: Hallion, Aerospaceweb, Air Force Magazine, Winchester, Air Power Development Center, and China’s Air Force. All these templates have been overcome by advances in technology and evolving mission requirements. So, we’ll be breaking new ground in this essay, by adding to the common 6G characteristics from the old charts and building an updated definition. Then, we’ll integrate those new aircraft into the kill web. Enable Cookies is using a security service for protection against online attacks. The service requires full cookie support in order to view this website. Please enable cookies on your browser and try again. Please Enable JavaScript is using a security service for protection against online attacks. The service requires full JavaScript support in order to view this website. Please enable JavaScript on your browser and try again. is using a security service for protection against online attacks. This process is automatic. You will be redirected once the validation is complete. No. 1 (20) of 2018Разработанная в рамках проекта ФПИ антенна вошла в Топ-10 изобретений 2020 годаРазработанная в рамках проекта Фонда перспективных исследований антенна малой высоты профиля, способная работать с широкой полосой частот, вошла в Топ-10 лучших изобретений 2020 года по версии Роспатента. На основе изобретения созданы макеты антенн, построена антенная решетка первого в мировой практике действующего демонстрационного макета радиооптической фазированной активной антенной решетки. Технология позволяет создавать антенны и антенные решетки, которые могут быть выполнены в виде активной обшивки различных носителей с толщиной немногим более толщины лакокрасочного покрытия. Tempest's New Radar - Collects a City's Worth of Data per Second | IE (В России создан фотонный радар, способный обнаружить любую цель – Новости РуАН ( ( page 24Patterson_AY17-18_ISR_RTF.pdf ( site translation into English and other languages – Yandex.TranslateGE Adaptive Cycle Engine | GE AviationFuture of British air power: the next-gen Tempest ( Navy May Expand MQ-25 Mission Set | Aviation Week NetworkУдарный беспилотник "Гром" сможет управлять роем из десяти дронов "Молния" - Армия и ОПК - ТАСС ( project of the unmanned complex of group use "Lightning" (高運動飛行制御システムの研究,三菱重工技報 Vol.45 No.4(2008) ( Not Found (Небесная электромеханика: Су-57 получит новейшие системы управления | Статьи | Известия ( Fighter Aircraft ( Has China Just Made a Major Stealth Breakthrough? (Что такое анаполь? Новый метаматериал для стелс-покрытий (

Can the Russian S-400 shoot down a US F-22, F-35 or B-2?

Key word to understand is data fusion .Data fusion was around for decades and it is just the matter of protocol of linking (in Russian–sopryazhenie) various sensors with their OUTPUTS (measurements) to a “processor” with appropriate soft (algorithms).ANY modern sensors from radar, optronic systems (FLIR, IRST, UV) to sonar to whatever else ALL are “capable” of data-fusion–because their outputs ARE “fusionable”. . Russians are not complete idiots to blow massive funds to design a radar “to hunt” POS F-35 which is easily seen by any radar from S-300 to S-400 and even Irbis of SU-35 sees it just fine. Especially when one considers the fact that all Russia’s 4+ gen. fighters such as SU-35 have a… drum roll, still drumming, continuously drumming… data fusion which allows to fuse sensor outputs from Irbis, IRST, passive electronic means etc.For people to have good understanding of data fusion I recommend University of Idaho data fusion pdf file fusion first appeared in the literature in the 1960s, as mathematical models for data manipulation. It was implemented in the US in the 1970s in the fields of robotics and defense. In 1986 the US Department of Defence established the Data Fusion Sub-Panel of the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) to address some of the main issues in data fusion and chart the new field in an effort to unify the terminology and procedures. The present applications of data fusion span a wide range of areas: maintenance engineering[1], robotics[2], pattern recognition and radar tracking[3], mine detection[4] and other military applications[5],remote sensing[6], traffic control[7],[8], aerospace systems[9], law enforcement[10], medicine, finance, metrology [11], and geo-science. alone can deal with F-35 just fine. But it is a long story of explaining what is this Ps in the numerator of the Main Radar Equation. Nebo radar was developed for, for a whole range of targets, including VLO. It was also designed for detection of ballistic and hyper-sonic targets.Every single Russian AD system which was developed is “capable” of “data fusion”. Again, by having specific algorithms and processing hardware I can unify several old S-125 with their ancient radar, plus get some other old AD systems into network and thus will create a situation with numerous sensors being “fused” in delivering their data–this whole thing was around for a while.Data fusion is very important and useful for target recognition and tracking. A system with multi-sensors can fuse data from different sensors to overcome the limitations in the system with single sensor, it can make use of the complementary and redundancy of data from different sensors to improve the precision and robustness of target recognition and tracking. Data fusion at characteristic level can combine characteristics from different sensors to improve the ability of target recognition.In pure “radar” the so called “data fusion” is based on using different frequencies and ESM (Electronic Support Measures–such as providing targeting on “radiating” targets, passive) which are provided with the so called extrasystemic radar systems which have been in use since hell knows when. S-300 are designed as such and once digital processing capabilities reached ability to process large data arrays–around mid 1980s–every single AD system in Russia was effectively moved into data fusion paradigm. Nebo-M is not “Anti-stealth” it is just by the nature of its design it is capable to cover a huge array of targets, including hypersonic and ballistic ones, be them stealth or not. But so is S-400 is “anti-stealth”, and so is S-300. All modern radar, and sonar, and optronic systems are developed on “data fusion” principles everywhere–from ships to aircraft, to Air Defense. Most modern specifically Russian systems since late 1980s are created with this “data fusion” and extrasystemic capability which is a defining feature of whole Russian Air Defense. So all major Russian AD complexes are by definition “anti-stealth” (well, Nebo in particular is also scanning the near space) and “data fusion” capable since use multiple sensors, from variety of band-widths from different emitters-receivers, to ESM and other sensor capability.Data-fusion was developed for the averaging of heterogeneous sensors, from radar to optronics, and is profoundly mentioned in Alberts and Garstka large work on Net Centric Warfare. start with page 144 and table on Sensor Network. Page 151 (Figure. 27) gives a P distribution. It was 20 + years ago.

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