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PDF Editor FAQ
Is healthcare being ignored by Modi and other Indian leaders? If so, what could be the steps to improve healthcare?
This is a good question. The responsibilties are though divided between centre and state, there are points to ponder on what Modi government has contributed to the healthcare.India slipped from 143/188 as per report published during 2016 to 154/195 as per report published during 2017 in Lancet Healthcare ranking, which is one of the most respectable and renowned healthcare ranking which exists today. (evidences enclosed)So why it happened?1. Modi Government cut down the expenditure on health immediately after they came to power. It is no brainer to say that it should have been other way round. India’s healthcare budget was already the lowest and cutting down drastically does not make sense. (Ref 1,2,3)2. Off late then in 2017 government took some knee jerk choppy measures with misplaced priorities. (Ref -4)3. International journal Lancet, the widely-respected medical journal, has criticized the Modi government for not paying sufficient attention to India's health sector and has warned that the country could face a serious crisis under the weight of its own ill health. India lags behind healthcare targets(ref 5,6)4. India slipped behind in Lancet world ranking in 2017 on healthcare compared to previous year. India’s rank was 143/188 in 2016 ranking which slipped to 154/195. The baseline has changed by 7 and India’s position fell is by 11 which indicates a downfall. (ref 6,7)References:-RSS slams Modi govt for reducing health, education budget2. India slashes health budget, already one of the world's lowest3. India's healthcare spend remains dismal; why budget should focus on better utilisation of resources4. Three Years Of Modi Govt: Healthcare Sector5. Health's vanished from Modi govt focus: Lancet - ET HealthWorld6. India Ranks 154 Among 195 Countries in Healthcare Index7. On new health index, India ranks 143/188
Why can't a smoothbore cannon fire hesh effectively?
A smoothbore gun CAN fire effective HESH.I have made a HESH effect by placing platic explosive on 75 mm armour plate - it caused catastrophic spalling which would have killed anyone on the other side.Similarly, the Anglo Australian Malkara antitank missile used HESH. Here at Bovington Tank Museum.Neither of these use spinning so we can reason that rotation is not required for the HESH to function.The centrifugal effect of spinning ammunition will, however, improve the pancaking of the plastic explosive and hence the effect of the round.So why do only rifled tank guns use HESH?Maybe because the British use both HESH and rifled tank guns! The British (and Indian) militaries have carried on with rifled weapons whereas most other nations have switdhed to smoothbore since the 1970s (Western) and 1960s (Russian).HEAT is reduced in effect with rifled ammunition owing to centrifugal effects which is a factor in the British using HESH with rifled guns as their non kinetic energy armour attack weapon of choice.HESH works very well against cast and rolled homogeneous armour, ( although the effect is quite variable- see ref 2) and is brilliant against concrete. However, spaced armour and Chobham type armour considerably reduces the effectiveness of HESH. Theory of HESH at Ref 3.Thus HESH is no longer considered fully effective against complex modern tank armour but owing to the large HE component in the round, it is likely to damage the target tank with a good probability of a mobility or firepower kill. Using HESH against a modern tank, a follow up round would add to this effect![ However, I did once hear a Centurion crewman say that he saw a Centurion hit by a 105 mm HESH on the “bazooka plate” on the side of the track. A big chunk came of the bazooka plate but the tank could be driven off afterwards. He didn’t get the follow up round though! This is supported by trials data- Ian Holloway's answer to How strong are MBT tracks? How easily are they knocked out/destroyed?]HESH is a versatile round that can be used very effectively against concrete structures, strongpoints and lightly armoured/softskin vehicles. It is less effective against personnel as it does not generate good fragmentation owing to the base fuze [ref 4}. It makes a big bang though-and so produces the desired psychological and morale sapping effect.Most other countries use HEAT and HE rounds to cover these areas in their tanks.It is all compromise and I don’t think there are right answers. Smoothbore guns give better performance with FSAPDS but generally have worse long range accuracy with FSHE and FSHEAT compared to rifled guns firing conventional ammunition- there aren't a lot of smoothbore howitzers on the market![HEAT is very poor in the general purpose role- I saw a video of a Brimstone missile hitting the rocket launcher on the back of a small truck. The driver got out of the cab and ran off afterwards!]ReferencesCourtney Green P R Ammunition for the Land Battle Brasseys (1991)War Office Report WO 195-15442 – Resistance of armour to attack by HESH (1962)Patel et al REVIEW ON SCABBING OF HESH AMMUNITION IJIRT | Volume 4 Issue 1 (2017)Wieland C J (1956) Use of HESH as a Substitute for High Explosive in AFVs. War Office
How effective would the 165 mm HESH shell from the Royal Ordnance L9 if it used against other tank?
This answer is based on detailed trials data. Just read the short answer if you don’t like detail!Short AnswerA tank with “conventional” armour - such as a Centurion, or IS-3- would probably suffer a kill if hit with this weapon, and would probably be beyond economic repair. Hits on the running gear would cause a mobility kill.A tank with more advanced armour such as an M1, T72, Challenger etc would suffer damage which would impair its fighting ability:Hits on exposed running gear would have a good chance of immobilising the tank.Crew fatalities would be unlikely.Some crew injuries would be likelyVisual equipment, smoke dischargers etc would be rendered inoperable.Hits on the base of turret could jam the same.Hits on the mantlet/gun shield could render the gun inoperable.Hits just below the gun could kill the driver.Shock effects could cause equipment failure inside the tank.Very Long Answer, with Trials Data, Photos and ReferencesHigh Explosive Squash Head-Introduction and HistoryFirstly, a quick reminder of how high explosive squash head works.When the shell hits the target, the nose (which is normally a special padding material) is crushed and the explosive charge will spread against the target, forming a flattened cone.The base fuse initiates the explosive charge a few tenths of a millisecond later causing a compressive shockwave owing to the large surface area and direct contact with the target. This is how HESH differs from conventional HE, where the air-gap between the projectile causes much greater blast reflection owing to the impedance mismatch between air and armour.The shock wave from the explosion is transmitted through the armour. When it reached the armour-air interface at the back face of the armour, the incident compressive shockwave is reflected as a tensile wave, again, owing to the impedance mismatch. At the point where the compressive and tensile waves intersect is a high-stress zone causing local failure and fragmentation of the armour.The fuse delay is an important performance parameter, as is the speed of the shell impact. Too fast an impact may cause the shell to disintegrate mechanically or deflagrate.The HESH round performance thus depends on a range of factors. The target material- cast armour or RHA etc [Ref 1] and temperature [Ref 2] as armour become more brittle in the cold.HESH was first developed by the British in World War II. The British were also the first to consider countermeasures to HESH [ Ref 3] and recognised that spaced armour, spiked armour and spall liners would defeat, or at least mitigate the effects of, HESH attack.HESH was favoured by the British (some say to the point of fetishism!) because the round is versatile. It can kill tanks, is very effective against masonry targets, bunkers etc and about 90% as effective as HE against enemy troops. [Ref 4]. One round to serve all purposes is logistically efficient as well as needing one set of ticks on the sight reticule!2. How HESH Causes DamageThe HESH round is designed to cause damage primarily as a result of the scab of armour that flies into the tank after impact. This will clearly cause trauma to any persons in its path and damage to equipment.Secondary effects will occur from:Spall fragments in addition to the main scab. These may occur without the scab detaching. A spall liner would mitigate this.The shell also produces air blast. This can enter the tank via openings.Airblast can also be generated inside the tank by the unreflected part of the blast wave passing through the armour discussed in section 1 above.Airblast generally results in burst eardrums (which act as an indicator of its presence) and can cause injury and death through lung damage. Pressure sensors to measure blast were included in the trials below and the rabbits’ ears were tested for rupturing.Hits by large high explosive rounds can cause damage by impulsive loading also known as a shock (terms can be used in a vague way that is prejudicial to clear understanding). This means the tank is shaken up and crew are injured. Bar mines and buried IEDs can kill the crew by throwing the whole vehicle in the air and causing trauma to them. Very large explosions can tip the tank over. Accelerometers were used to measure this in the trials below.The explosion generates heat and light flash that can cause thermal and optical injury. Thermal flash was indicated by the rabbits’ fur in the tests below.The explosion will generate fragments (aka splinters) both from the casing and objects kicked up by the blast.The magnitude of all the above is clearly a function of the size of the explosion. However, the effects are also a function of impact location and vehicle design.3. Size of HESH RoundsThe 165 mm round is a big one, with an explosive content about 4 times that of a 120 mm HESH.The approximate content of a range of ammunition types is shown in table 1.The HE content 165 mm round is about the same of that of the 183 mm and the Malkara missile. These comparators will be used to predict the effect of the 165 mm round in the absence of any data on that particular projectile.Examination of Table 1 shows what we are dealing with here. The Malkara was designed to “completely disrupt any tank in service or projected”, hence the large warhead.3. Effect on Different Tank TypesAgainst an older heavily armoured tank (IS-3, T62, T-54, Chieftain etc) the 165 mm round would have about 80 % chance of a kill.Against medium armoured tank such as a Leopard, AMX-30, T34 the kill probability would be 90%[In fact, these figures should be multiplied by about 0.9 to allow for blinds. That is British for duds, not Venetian blinds. Remember, for the tank hit by a 165 mm HESH shell, if it's not blind, it's probably curtains!]A kill is uncertain because the shell could fail to function in its design mode at compound angles [Ref 5]. If the HE detonated, without forming the HESH cone on the armour some damage would be likely - as per a hit on spaced armour discussed below.For around functioning correctly, the resulting scab inside the tank could weigh up to 20 kg and damage would be severe within the tank.Hits on running gear would be likely to cause a mobility kill.Against a tank with spaced or other complex armour, the effects would be more limited. These are discussed below.4. Trials DataThe British Fighting Vehicles Research and Development Establishment carried out trials of weapons against various targets. The relevant one here is Ref 6.This report is germane here because the warhead is pretty much the same as the 165 mm and the Conqueror/Super-Conqueror represents a good spectrum of relevant targets owing to its high protection.During this trial, a Conqueror tank was taken to the test range Pendine Sands in South Wales and subject to 12 Malkara missile attacks, using controlled attacks.Six were against spaced armour and six against unspaced. (The astute reader will only count 11 impacts = that is because one attack was a blind).Make no mistake, the Super Conqueror was a tough customer. It had a glacis 150 mm thick. Over the standard armour and 14–20 mm spaced armour and a 150 mm space then the standard armour. It had shrugged off attacks with 120 mm HESH and with the US Dart missile- for the tests described in my answer What happens when a tank is penetrated by HEAT? had to have the spaced armour removed!The tests were carried out with the tank in fighting condition with the engine running. The two concessions for the tests were the use of stored practice ammunition and a crew of crash-test dummies and rabbits. The tanks were fitted with blast monitors and accelerometers.Overall from the 11 attacks, there would have been just four “fatalities” amongst the crash test dummies and 3 rabbit fatalities, albeit half the impacts were on the running gear rather than crew compartments. Only two rabbits were singed, so the attacks cannot be described as hare razing.There was no live ammunition in the tank, but only one attack was expected to have caused an ammunition explosion and this round had caused severe damage anyway.The tanks were fuelled up but there were no fires.It is unclear from the reports whether the Malkara exploded on the spaced armour, or whether the missile punch through and the spaced armour functioned by prematurely triggering the fuze. I believe the former.4.1 Effects on Conventional Heavy TankThe attacks are set out in Table 2. All six hits either immobilised the tank or put the gun out of action or both.Damage is shown from impact L7 above.4.2 Attack on a Heavy Tank with Spaced ArmourThese are shown in Table 3.The tank would need repair in all cases.There were no fatalities and no serious injuriesAbove shows the effect of hit F5 on spaced armour glacis. Apart from a burst left eardrum and severe shaking, the driver was ok after this insult.4.3 Attack on Spaced Armour CenturionTrials had previously been carried out against a Centurion III tank modified to mount spaced armour. The methodology was less detailed, but it may be instructive to see the effect on a lesser opponent than the heavyweight Conqueror. Results in Table 4 below. Data from Ref 7.5. Summary5.1 Older TanksUsing a heavy HESH warhead has a high probability of at least disabling it. Hits on the turret or hull would cause substantial damage and some fatalities in most cases. The tank was not always a write-off following a hit, showing that the Malkara did not succeed in its design aim.5.2 Tanks with Spaced or other Complex ArmourAttacks on a spaced armour tank would cause some damage which might well result in a mission kill. Of course, if the tank were neutralised by a hit, it might get another in a few seconds!Fatalities on board are possible but unlikely for most impact sites.Hits on mantlet likely to kill driver through fragments of roof being blown in.Side plates protecting the running gear were quite effective in preserving mobility.The main structure tank withstood there very considerable insults very well.Hits from a large weapon would leave the tank needing repairs.6. Other Conclusions from these TrialsStatements such as:“ an HE shell from a SU-152 can blow a Tiger tank’s turret off by sheer brute force” and“If the tank were hit by a 155 mm HE shell, the blast would reduce the crew to jelly”are not supported by this data, which studies multiple hits from a larger warhead.Despite 11 direct hits with a warhead of this size, the target tank looked like a tank that had endured a very bad day. It did not look like a pile of scrap metal.Moral- if you see a picture of a totally wrecked tank, the tank was probably destroyed by an internal explosion.ReferencesWO 195/15062 (1960) The Scab Resistance of Armour Plate*Hurlich A (1951) Comparative Effectiveness of Armor-Defeating Ammunition WAL 710/930–2 p6Hurlich A (1950) Spaced Armour WAL 710/930–1 page 7WO 341/26 (1957) 120 mm HESH in HE role*WO 291/1431 (1955) Tank Effectiveness of Heavy Tank FV215*+FVRD TR65 (1965) Trials of Malkara (HESH) Against Spaced Armour Conqueror Tank*+Lush FH. (1957) FVRDE G1 F/311 Trials of 60 lb rocket, 120 mm BAT and Malkara HESH Against Spaced Armour Centurion*= Available from UK National ArchivesI have uploaded to Scribd
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