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What is the latest research on brain structure, chemistry, physiology and genetics as well as emerging theories regarding psychopathy?

Part 1 of 2: What is the latest research on brain structure, chemistry, physiology and genetics as well as emerging theories regarding psychopathy?This answer is a collaboration between Athena Walker and Dr. Natalie Engelbrecht, BA MSc ND RP. As such, it is divided between two posts. The first half is presented in Athena Walker’s post with a link to Natalie Engelbrecht’s, and the second half is presented in Natalie Engelbrecht’s post with a link to Athena Walker’s. Please start with Athena Walker’s post. Both posts were a collaboration, with neither being written solely by either individual.Care was taken to use the most up-to-date research (<5 years)—older if nothing recent was available (<15 years)—and in places with appropriate seminal work. It is important to recognize that in the DSM-V, psychopathy is referred to as antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). However, researchers such as Blair have indicated that the two are not synonymous. That said, all attempts have been made to utilize studies that are indicative of psychopathy, not ASPD or sociopathy; however, researchers still utilize a variety of terms when referring to psychopathy, making it challenging at times to identify the population they used in their study.Emerging Theories Regarding PsychopathyIntroductionAlthough the media continues to use exaggerated and unrealistic psychopathic characters, in reality, psychopathy exists on a spectrum, where each individual is like no other and rather exhibits a unique personality and individualized traits, signs, and symptoms in varying degrees.According to James Fallon, about 2% of men and about 1% of women are true psychopaths in most societies. Kevin Dutton asserts that the number is even smaller, ranging from .75%–1% of the general populace. When you include those on the border who do not quite get over the test scoring for a full-blown psychopath, then you start to get up to 5%, 10%, or 15% of the population who may be a near-psychopath or prosocial psychopath that can navigate their way very well through society without ever being identified by others, or even be aware themselves.Recognizing that psychopathy may be a significant portion of our population, it is important to consider the possibility of it being a variant of the neurotypical brain, rather than a disorder. With technology now allowing gene research and brain scans, we are starting to understand primary psychopathy in new ways. Kevin Dutton speaks about “the good psychopath,” who is able to “dial up or down qualities such as ruthlessness, fearlessness, decisiveness, conscience and empathy to get the very best out of himself . . . in a wide range of situations.” Further, Blair, who is responsible for one of the major theories regarding psychopathy, proposes that psychopathy is a cognitive and neural dysfunction with an increased risk for antisocial behavior. However, it is not equivalent to a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, which concentrates only on the increased risk for antisocial behavior and not a specific cause.As such, this post presents genetic research, brain structure of primary psychopathy, and emerging research suggesting that psychopathy is not in the DSM-V because it is not a mental illness, but a personality variant, although the antisocial aspects or other concomitants that may accompany it are.Psychopathy as a Neurobiological VariantPsychopathy is a born condition. It is marked by a unique formation of the brain that results in a different experience of emotions. Most emotions in a psychopath are very blunted, and some are missing entirely. Psychopathy is not predicated on abuse, neglect, or trauma, though these things can have an effect on the manifestation of traits within the person that has a psychopathic brain.Sociopathy is a condition that is likely genetically rooted. The person is born with a neurotypical brain formation that experiences severe abuse, neglect, and/or prolonged trauma prior to the age of six. This causes the brain to prune away certain neurons, causing the person to have a reduced emotional menu but a fully formed brain.ASPD is a personality disorder that is characterized by antisocial behaviors. This makes it a sweeping condition that is difficult to nail down as to causation and reasoning, short of saying that environment is involved, as well as factors such as abuse, and neglect.Psychopathy presents a unique problem with the different approaches to it in the scientific fields. Traditionally, psychopathy is thought of as a personality disorder, as the primary place to see the occurrence of the specific behaviors that are attributed to psychopathy has been in the halls of a prison or a mental institution. It is only recently that this belief is beginning to be called into question and a different manner of viewing the condition is emerging.As science either stalls in its progression—or attempts to make headway in challenging the static thoughts regarding psychopathy—it is stymied at every turn. However, another progression has begun to take a foothold, and people are beginning to take notice. It is forcing the consideration that perhaps the picture of psychopathy has been looked at upside-down all along, and now, there are those looking to set the picture straight. The place that this reexamination is taking place in is in the field of neuroscience, and the pictures that are emerging, while as colorful as any work of art may be, are coming from advanced scanners that are showing the hard science that will hopefully in the near future redefine what psychopathy is thought of in both terms and manifestation. Dragging old prejudices out from the dark hiding place under the carpet, dusting them off, and standing them against comparison to what is a more pragmatic and logical picture, psychopathy is due a rebranding and most definitely a new understanding. Let’s begin.Psychiatry (the study and treatment of mental illness, emotional disturbance, and abnormal behavior) and psychology (the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behavior) both focus on the human mind but on different aspects of the brain: the internal workings and the manifestation of the web of neurons firing represented in the perceptible reality in which we all dwell. This is where there should be incredible collaboration and cooperation, but for the moment, there are battle lines drawn—the old taking on the new. It’s an unnecessary war, but one that seems to be happening quietly, so a spotlight for the fighters has become a requirement. Neuroscientists (scientists such as neurochemists and experimental psychologists who deal with the structure or function of the nervous system and brain) have one view of the condition, while psychiatrists and psychologists hold a very different view. The opposing sides are at odds due to the original thoughts regarding psychopathy and the research that has gone into it as a personality disorder. This is understandable, as psychology/psychiatry has had decades of behavioral manifestations that have been determined to formulate a menu of antisocial traits that are then applied to the condition of psychopathy in a blanket method.However, in light of the emerging abilities to scan brains and see the neurological differences in the brain structure of psychopaths, it is now in need of being reexamined, not the least of reasons being that the vast majority—over 86% of psychopaths—are not serving time, nor have they any interest in doing so. This puts the screws on the very nature of antisocial behavior and its causes. Is psychopathy in any way the cause, or is it that some people—regardless of their brain formation—given the right circumstances, are prone to developing violent traits and that psychopaths are not immune from such a fate? Toxic environments may contribute to these abnormalities in brain function. For example, neuropsychological data on maltreated youngsters show hyperresponsivity to anger—an indirect index of amygdala hyperreactivity.What seems to be something that is agreed upon when it comes to the personality disorders—narcissism, sociopathy, borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder—is that there is a negative history associated with their causation. This being the case, it could be seen that there is a genetic predisposition to these traits, but they are not activated unless the negative causative factor(s) is/are introduced, and in fact, perhaps those genetic factors could have positive results if their carriers are instead exposed to a positive environment instead of a negative one.Applying this same reasoning to psychopathy and the genetic map that appears to be associated with it, it is easy to see that while both schools of thought have something in the way of the truth, it is the burgeoning neuroscience that is showing that likely, a better understanding of psychopathy is it being a formation of the brain that is in no way on its own associated with pathology, such as antisocial behavior. A person with the formation of the psychopathic mind may struggle with impulse control, but this is remedied by influences that teach delay of gratification, impulse control, and stresses accountability of action. When these stopgaps are put into place, psychopathy goes from being something to hide away in the dark due to the social stigma to a significantly positive attribute that serves society in many positive ways.Someone that is not inhibited by fear would far more easily not collapse under the stress of facing fire on a daily basis. Fire in a building, fire coming from an AK-47—it matters not to the psychopathic mind. A job needs doing, and fear is nothing to be paid mind to. Finding a terrorist, finding a brain bleed—it’s all the same. It is something that must be done, and a psychopathic mind can focus on that task with the coldness and precision necessary to eliminate the problem. Regardless of the problem, unless absolutely insurmountable, a psychopath will not be stopped in their quest of completion. What is necessary will be done. It could nearly be a motto of the psychopathic mind.Now, the black deal of wedging separation between personality disorder and neurological formation proves to be difficult, as the static mindset tends to be of monstrous implications brought down by studies solely conducted on prisoner data sets, Hollywood using psychopathy as the villain of choice, and people’s own misunderstandings and demonization of the condition. The presentation of psychopathy in films tends to be one of a genius serial killer that coldly collects scalps for their collection. Even in the softest version, it is one steeped in the antisocial traits that are rarely attached to psychopathy.Psychiatry and psychology itself tends to lean hard on the stereotype of the psychopath seeking to do harm. This is due to their reading of the studies that show psychopaths to be the worst criminal cohort, along with patients who seek treatment who have been generally harmed by abusive people (although in the majority of cases, these are not psychopaths). This is perpetuated by the use of the PCL-R as the standard assessment tool of the field. It leans heavily on the antisocial traits and criminality. Robert Hare, the proprietor of the PCL-R, has rooted the identity of psychopathy in the antisocial traits of the criminal and defended that position against harsh criticism in recent years. Despite the position that many researchers are rebelling against, his defining terms of psychopathy being corner-stoned in the criminality and antisocial traits, he holds fast to his position. He not only continues to profit handsomely from the royalties of the PCL-R; he sues to keep its critics at bay.For a professional that is supposedly genuinely interested in helping people, it seems a heavy conflict of interest if you consider the following: Hare did not originate the list that makes up the PCL-R. This list of traits was mostly constructed back in the 1940s by psychologist Hervey Cleckley. It remains now nearly entirely intact—with very few alterations—in the form of the PCL-R. Those alterations are inclusive of more antisocial traits, as well as criminality. This was Robert Hare’s contribution to the list. His additions were based on his observations of incarcerated prisoners. This in and of itself is limiting. However, if this is extracted further, and the current neuroscience demonstrating that psychopathy is far more than a collection of antisocial traits, one can begin to see that it is more limiting as newer research emerges.The PCL-R might be an excellent diagnostic tool for antisocial traits, but it does not actually separate the various causes of those traits, which manifest in a variety of personality disorders. In no way are they exclusive to—or diagnostic of—psychopathy, and in no way are they a core aspect of psychopathy as a brain formation. If we separate psychopathy from the antisocial traits that are currently applied by the psychiatric/psychological side of things, it would negate the value of the PCL-R as a tool of assessing psychopathy completely.PCL-RPsychopathic Checklist RevisedRobert Hare has a copyright on the PCL-R. Not only that, it brings him over thirty thousand dollars in royalties annually. Being the proprietor of the PCL-R also gives Hare the distinguished position of being the recognized expert in psychopathy, and puts him in a unique position to be the gatekeeper of the perception of psychopathy. He capitalizes on this by conducting seminars, also called psychopath-spotting weekends. These not only generate a tremendous amount of income for him, but they also go against the ethics of assigning diagnoses by a layperson to people that they may meet. It flies in the face of professional ethics to be “instructing” people without training that they are in a position to be making these assessments.If the very idea of psychopathy and what it means undergoes an overhaul, Hare’s corner on the market dissolves, and he loses his income stream. Having a financial stake in the understanding of psychopathy is at the very least questionable, and it borders on unethical.In short, he has built his career on its back and makes his living from his identification of what psychopathy is. He is so known for it, there was a rumor that he would have his way having psychopathy reintroduced to the DSM as Hare’s Syndrome.This being the assumption the condition has left a very sour taste in most clinicians minds as they think of the psychopath as the manipulative client that shows no remorse and has no issue about lying to achieve the results desired. They often do not have a detailed education on personality disorders as a whole, and certainly most are not digging into the neuroscience of psychopathy.This also does not come close to cracking the shell of cognitive dissonance that seems to surround psychopathy as a psychological topic. There is this seeming need for many people in the profession to have psychopaths stay in one place—the negative column—no matter what evidence there may be to the contrary. What this does is it makes for a near impossible chasm to bridge. Learning is certainly something that is encouraged across careers, but there does tend to be a refusal to do so in the case of psychopathy. This is so much the case that when James Fallon—a well-known neuroscientist—discovered quite by accident that he had the brain patterns of a psychopathic mind; along with the genetics, he was met with outright accusations of being a fraud, as he did not have the criminality that often comes with it.Fallon does not fit the psychopathic mold that the psychiatric/psychological community holds aloft as sacrosanct. As such any information that has to do with pro-social psychopaths is immediately disregarded as crack science from the fringes of academia and as having no bearing on reality. These findings are denied, and the research dismissed. There is no willingness to budge on the topic. Even Kevin Dutton who dared to find positive aspects of psychopathy and lectures on it is called a maverick. He is a tenured psychology research professor at Oxford University, one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Despite this he is not only ignored, but often attempts to dismiss his work over understanding is the norm.The method of diagnostics favored by Kevin Dutton is the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI-2). This is an inventory of over 150 questions that does not assume criminal or antisocial traits. In stark contrast to the headline-grabbing soundbites thrown out by the media and film industry, when psychologists like Dutton use the word ‘psychopath’, they are referring to a specific subgroup of individuals with a distinct subset of personality characteristics. These characteristics include: Ruthlessness, Fearlessness, Impulsivity, Self-confidence, Focus, Coolness under pressure, Mental toughness, Charm, Charisma, and a lack of Empathy and Conscience. This was standardized against a non-incarceration population and is far more valuable in assessing psychopathy in the general public.Personality characteristics have been demonstrated to be due to epigenetic influences on genes. As such, it is necessary to consider psychopathy as researchers such as Dutton (a research psychologist) and Fallon (a neuroscientist), and Blair (a researcher responsible for one of the two major theories on psychopathy) have done. This has been via separating it away from mental conditions to a variation in neurological formation. As such psychopathy is not in the DSM-V because it is not a mental illness, but that the antisocial aspects that may accompany it are.Imagining Genetics – fuses Genotype with PhenotypeYou need both the genes and changes in brain pattern to result in psychopathy. By themselves neither will result in psychopathy.PET scan: Measures the amount of sugar that is taken up. A PET gives the most amount of information, but is the most expensive to do—and is also no longer done, but was used in previous studies.fMRI: Measures the amount of blood flow in each area. An fMRI is moderately expensive and gives more information than a SPECT scan, but less than a PET scan.SPECT scan: measures blood flow in the brains and gives the least amount of information, but is the cheapest scan to do.Brain Structure (Phenotype)IntroductionThe use of brain scan technology to study mental health and disease began in the 1990s. Research has made correlations between areas of the brain and symptoms like increased anxiety or decreased empathy, and have begun to map out phenology of different personalities and disorders. The field of psychopathy has seen rapid growth in the use of neuroimaging to understand the condition. In some cases scientists are beginning to be able to predict pathology and personalities based on brain scans; however due to brain plasticity, controversy exists as to whether the personality alters the brain or the brain changes themselves create the personality.James Fallon, a leading neuroscientist at the forefront of psychopathy has been exploring the map of the psychopathic mind for the better part of two decades. Fallon describes a great loop that starts in the front of the brain including the parahippocampal gyrus and the amygdala and other regions tied to emotion and impulse control and empathy. Under certain circumstances these regions light up dramatically on a neurotypical person’s MRI scan, but are darker on a psychopath’s.Brain function structural models of psychopathyTwo researchers, Blair and Kiehl have proposed two distinctive but prominent models on the neurological origins of psychopathy. Both researchers suggest that there are changes in the function and structure in specific emotional processing areas of the brain. Both models suggest dysfunction of the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, however, Khiel’s model also includes additional paralympic region alterations, such as the anterior superior temporal gyrus and the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex.The key points of the Blair model are that the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex alterations are indicative of psychopathy. These brain regions allow for communication between the thinking and feeling centers of the brain. Blair further states that although psychopaths can sync normally, they do not integrate feelings appropriately. A metaphor to describe Blair’s model is that psychopaths know the words but not the music, and this is supported by behavioral and imaging data. Blair’s model indicates that while both psychopaths and neurotypicals recognize that running into a burning building is dangerous, only the neurotypical feels negative emotions associated with the act.Paralympic hypothesis of psychopathy: Kiehl ModelKiehl’s model of psychopathy developed via research of the behavior changes associated with acquired brain injuries that resulted in psychopathic behavior. This led the researchers to develop the term pseudopsychopathy and acquired sociopathic personality (or secondary psychopathy). His model states that it is a result of structural and functional abnormalities in the paralimbic structures of the brain, and that psychopathy has a developmental course. While this model is not related to primary psychopathy, it does however demonstrate the behavioral changes associated with alterations in brain structure, and function in the paralimbic structures.Changes in Brain Region Connectivity in PsychopathyIt is important to understand that research shows not only structural changes, but also diminished activity in areas of the brain, including diminished connectivity between areas of the brain. It is a combination of these factors that result in the personality that is unique to psychopaths. In 2011 Kiehl, Joseph Newman (a heavyweight in psychopathy) and colleagues demonstrated via imaging that psychopathy is associated with reduced structural integrity in the right uncinate fasciculus, the primary white matter connection between the vmPFC and anterior temporal lobe. The team further demonstrated that psychopathy is associated with reduced functional connectivity between the vmPFC and the amygdala as well as between the vmPFC and the medial parietal cortex. These findings indicate that diminished vmPFC connectivity is a characteristic neurobiological feature of psychopathy. The study’s most important finding centered on impairments in the link between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (a control node for regulating emotion, threats, decision-making and social behavior) and the amygdala—a locus of emotional processing.EditsQ & A from comments:Question 1. from: Martin Silvertant“This causes the brain to prune away certain neurons causing the person to have a reduced emotional menu, but a fully formed brain.”This is very interesting! In autism this pruning process happens to a considerably less degree. Hence we are associative, detail-oriented and often riddled with anxiety. I suspect then that a sociopath is at the other end of the spectrum with many of these features. Is this over pruning also present in psychopathy?Answer: Athena Walker & Natalie EngelbrechtResearch regarding synaptic pruning and psychopathy is uninvestigated as of yet. There do however exist theories with regard to a premature arrest in pruning or a lack of pruning. The theory suggests deficiency of growth, rather than over pruning. Perhaps this is why psychopaths pay attention to detail much like people with autism do.One possibility is that the dysfunction occurs at the cellular level, where a premature arrest in synaptic and neuronal pruning in some areas, coupled with deficient growth in others, results in ineffective and/or dysfunctional processing. Our data do not address this level of analysis directly, but they do suggest an interesting avenue to investigate. is important to be cautious in interpreting the findings of increased striatal volumes observed in the present study. First, although greater volume of a brain region is commonly interpreted as an indication of better functioning (11) and vice versa (23), increased volume may also reflect a lack of synaptic pruning during development, a process by which unnecessary connections are eliminated to increase the efficiency of other connections; thus, it is possible that increased volume could indicate poorer functioning 3. from: Martin Silvertant“Traditionally psychopathy is thought of as a personality disorder, as the primary place to see the occurrence of the specific behaviors that are attributed to psychopathy has been in the halls of a prison, or a mental institution.”I think a good portion of the issuesI don’t get it. Why would whether it’s considered to be a disorder rely on the extent of problems the person gets into? I actually think you may be conflating two distinct meanings of disorder. In one sense, a disorder seems to be defined by certain challenges. So in that regard I understand it’s more appropriate to think of psychopathy as a disorder only due to the disorder seen in low-functioning psychopaths’ lives. But in terms of neurology, a disorder is a disruption of the systematic functioning or neat arrangement thereof. “Disruption” in this sense I take to be a deviation from the normal (average) functioning of the human brain, rather than that it necessarily implies problems for the individual.In conclusion, I feel you are conflating disorder as used in psychology with disorder as used in neuroscience.Martin SilvertantAnswer: Athena Walker & Natalie EngelbrechtThe issue with conflation rests not here in the paper, but in the very dilemma that psychopathy faces currently as to what it is, and how it should be considered. So long as the argument can be made that the majority of the people with this variant should be defined by the minority that have antisocial traits as a core feature of their personality, the conflation cannot and will not disappear.The word at its root, psychopathy is not an informative word for the neurological condition, and yet it is the one that we are constrained by. The word originates from Greek psycho- , meaning and spirit, soul, mind; and -pathy again Greek, where it meant “suffering,” “feeling” ( antipathy; sympathy); in compound words of modern formation, often used with the meaning “morbid affection,” “disease”. So the very word means mind disease. The issue of course other than its very definition being related back to a disorder, it that there is no differentiation between those that are identified for their actions that are antisocial, and those that will never see the inside of a courtroom.What’s to be done about this? At the moment there is little that can be done without a consensus that the word is inadequate to describe something that is a neurological formation without the assumed standardized criminal features. I think it is appropriate that the word psychopathy stays along with the notion of the brain formation that includes the antisocial manifestations and another, more accurate term be found to address what is being called pro-social psychopathy presently. It cannot be ignored that the majority of the understanding directed at psychopathy is from the side that views it as a disorder, a malfunction, and something that at it’s core is a toxic entity. The newest voice is the smallest, and easily shouted down currently in terms of it being taken seriously. Anything other than disorder, disruption or variant, it’s a conflation, that at its inception is a beleaguered castle. New terminology stands against the ramparts of the old mentality, while the accepted understandings assault new information. Not for being wrong, but for the crime of disagreement. If we look throughout history, we see many people prosecuted for what the masses disagree with. For example Pope Paul V ordered Galileo, to abandon the opinion that heliocentrism (the planets revolve around the Sun) was physically true. Galileo was found “vehemently suspect of heresy”, namely of having held the opinions that the Sun lies motionless at the centre of the universe, that the Earth is not at its centre and moves, and sentenced to formal imprisonment at the pleasure of the Inquisition. He remained under house arrest for the rest of his life.Question 5. from: Martin Silvertant“Recognizing that psychopathy may be a significant portion of our population, it is important to consider the possibility of it being a variant of the neurotypical brain, rather than a disorder.”Is there a difference? It seems to be a semantic difference only. Whether my autism is considered a disorder or a variant of the neurotypical brain, that shouldn’t matter. In fact, arguably all neurological conditions are variants of the neurotypical brain. But we call certain conditions disorders because they disrupt normal functioning. It seems you are attempting to redefine normalcy to include disorders, and I don’t see the point to it, except for normalizing your condition.Martin SilvertantAnswer: Athena Walker & Natalie EngelbrechtThe issue with conflation rests not here in the paper, but in the very dilemma that psychopathy faces currently as to what it is, and how it should be considered. So long as the argument can be made that the majority of the people with this variant should be defined by the minority that have antisocial traits as a core feature of their personality, the conflation cannot and will not disappear.The word at its root, psychopathy is not an informative word for the neurological condition, and yet it is the one that we are constrained by. The word originates from Greek psycho- , meaning and spirit, soul, mind; and -pathy again Greek, where it meant “suffering,” “feeling” ( antipathy; sympathy); in compound words of modern formation, often used with the meaning “morbid affection,” “disease”. So the very word means mind disease. The issue of course other than it’s very definition being related back to a disorder, it that there is no differentiation between those that are identified for their actions that are antisocial, and those that will never see the inside of a courtroom.What’s to be done about this? At the moment there is little that can be done without a consensus that the word is inadequate to describe something that is a neurological formation without the assumed standardized criminal features. I think it is appropriate that the word psychopathy stay along with the notion of the brain formation that includes the antisocial manifestations and another, more accurate term be found to address what is being called pro-social psychopathy presently. It cannot be ignored that the majority of the understanding directed at psychopathy is from the side that views it as a disorder, a malfunction, and something that at it’s core is a toxic entity. The newest voice is the smallest, and easily shouted down currently in terms of it being taken seriously. Anything other than disorder, disruption or variant, it’s a conflation, that at its inception is a beleaguered castle. New terminology stands against the ramparts of the old mentality, while the accepted understandings assault new information. Not for being wrong, but for the crime of disagreement.If we look throughout history, we see many people prosecuted for what the masses disagree with. For example Pope Paul V ordered Galileo,to abandon the opinion that heliocentrism (the planets revolve around the sun) was physically true. Galileo was found "vehemently suspect of heresy", namely of having held the opinions that the Sun lies motionless at the centre of the universe, that the Earth is not at its centre and moves, and sentenced to formal imprisonment at the pleasure of the Inquisition. He remained under house arrest for the rest of his life.Helicobacter pylori, or H. Pylori is the cause of ulcers. This is known medical science that seems to go without question. This was not always the case. Back in the late seventies when this was a thought in two doctors’ minds, and they pressed forward to have it be accepted into general medical understanding when they hit an absolute stone wall. Their theory called preposterous and the paper that they wrote with their findings was rejected. It took many years, and one of the two doctors to do the unthinkable, make himself the human guinea pig ingesting a drink infested with the bacteria, and having an ulcer as the result. In time with dogged determination their theory was proven to the rest of the world. In 2005 Barry Marshall and Robin Warren won the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine delivering a permanent blow to the established assumptions regarding the human body.Operations without anesthetic:, Letter by an Dr. George Wilson , Edinburgh doctor in the 1850’s to the prominent advocate of anaesthesia, the famous obstetrician, Dr Simpson.Pain was not just an unavoidable side effect of surgery. Most surgeons operating in a pre-anaesthetic era believed it was a vital stimulant necessary for keeping the patient alive. This is why opiates and alcohol were used sparingly, and typically administered shortly before (not during) a procedure, as the loss of consciousness was considered to be extremely dangerous.George Wilson—a Professor of Chemistry at Edinburgh University—underwent a foot amputation in 1842. He remembered ‘the fingering of the sawed bone; the sponge pressed on the flap; the tying of the blood-vessels; the stitching of the skin; and the bloody dismembered limb lying on the floor’.“I have recently read, with mingled sadness and surprise, the declarations of some surgeons that anesthetics are needless luxuries, and that unendurable agony is the best of tonics. Those surgeons I think can scarcely have been patients of Those surgeons, I think, can scarcely have been patients of their brother surgeons, and jest at scars only because they have never felt a wound; but if they remain enemies of anesthetics after what you have written, I despair of convincing them of their utility.” (p 210)“Of the agony it occasioned, I will say nothing. Suffering so great as I underwent cannot be expressed in words, and thus fortunately cannot be recalled. The particular pangs are now forgotten; but the black whirlwind of emotion the horror of the black whirlwind of emotion, the horror of great darkness, and the sense of desertion by God and man, bordering close upon despair, which swept through my mind and overwhelmed my heart, I can never forget, however gladly I would do so I would do so.” (p 211)“For a long time they haunted me, and even now For a long time they haunted me, and even now they are easily resuscitated they are easily resuscitated; and though they ; and though they cannot bring back the suffering attending the cannot bring back the suffering attending the events which gave them a place in my memory, they can occasion a suffering of their own, and be the cause of a disquiet which favours neither the cause of a disquiet which favours neither mental or bodily health mental or bodily health... (p 214) ... (p 214)The static mindset of many in the medical and psychological communities can be the largest barrier in the advancement of knowledge. How this status quo is allowed to go on is something difficult to grasp. Like a great Orobus consuming itself, it is a chain that needs breaking so new ground can be broken. For the moment however we have a stalemate that has been reached.Standing in their concrete shoes, many on the psychological side refuse to give an inch. Redefining, reeducating, and rebranding the brain formation as a variant, instead of either a disorder or a disruption would make a good deal of headway in the more moderate community that is unaware that there is even a war happening. Those that are steadfast and stubborn will be cleared away in time, and hopefully more level headed and logical replacements, with cross field interests take their place to provide a clearer ground for understanding. First however, the bloated corpse of ASPD needs to be cleared off the battlefield before a step towards a truce can be made.Question 7. from: Martin Silvertant“Genetic brain scans and brain chemistry are all lending to this turn in the tides form psychopathy as a mental illness to psychopathy as a unique personality.”Is it considered to be a mental illness right now? What is that based on? It doesn’t make sense to me at all to call it a mental illness. By the same reasoning I should be considered mentally ill as well.Martin SilvertantAnswer: Athena Walker & Natalie EngelbrechtThe Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is the handbook used by healthcare professionals in the United States and much of the world as the authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental disorders. That means that both autism and psychopathy (which is under the heading ASPD) are considered mental illnesses.However, It should be understood that about 68% of DSM-V task-force members, which represents a relative increase of 20% over the proportion of DSM-IV task-force members with such ties, and 56% of panel members reported having ties to the pharmaceutical industry, such as holding stock in pharmaceutical companies, serving as consultants to industry, or serving on company boards. As such it has been suggested that today, the field of psychiatry is perceived to have suffered a unique “crisis of credibility” with respect to the growing influence of pharmaceutical companies on organized psychiatry. As such the DSM-V can be considered an insurance repayment manual, not the bible of mental health.Cosgrove, L., Bursztajn, H. J., & Krimsky, S. (2009). Developing unbiased diagnostic and treatment guidelines in psychiatry. New England Journal of Medicine, 360(19), 2035-2036., M., & Gallardo-Pujol, D. (2014). The role of the monoamine oxidase A gene in moderating the response to adversity and associated antisocial behavior: a review. Psychology research and behavior management, 7, 185.Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W., ... & Poulton, R. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297(5582), 851–854Dutton, K., & McNab, A. (2014). The Good Psychopath's Guide to Success. Random House.Viding, E., Hanscombe, K. B., Curtis, C. J., Davis, O. S., Meaburn, E. L., & Plomin, R. (2010). In search of genes associated with risk for psychopathic tendencies in children: a two‐stage genome‐wide association study of pooled DNA. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 51(7), 780–788.Sources: more information go herePsychopathy information

What is the birthday gift I can give to my best friend who is a bibliophile?

How about one of these?An Annotated Bibliography of Typography, Letterpress Printing and Other Arts of the Bookby David S. Rose • Five Roses PressThe explosion of desktop-based, digital pre-press technology at the end of the twentieth century brought to a wide audience the previously specialized world of typography. Modern type design applications give users the ability to create new digital typefaces from the imagination, to recreate classic faces that are otherwise unavailable in digital form, and to adapt existing faces for specific needs.For those artisans who still hand-set and print with traditional letterpress technology, a dozen type foundries continue to provide a constant stream of classic metal faces. And for designers who combine the two worlds by printing letterpress from photopolymer plates, the options are unlimited.As with any powerful tools, the more one knows of the history behind them, the better able one will be to utilize them. The books listed here are just a few of hundreds that have been written on the subject of typography over three centuries, but they will provide a solid start for reading in this area.While many of the works listed are classics in the field, not all of them are currently in print. Those that are not available from the publisher (or from reprint houses such as Dover Publications) may often be found at antiquarian dealers who specialize in the field of Books about Books. A number of such dealers are listed at the end of this bibliography, and the rapid adoption of the Internet by antiquarian book dealers now means that most of these books are a simple click away.Overviews of Printing TypesPrinting Types: An Introduction by Alexander Lawson with Dwight Agner [Boston: Beacon Press, 1990] is a short (120 pages) easy-to-read overview that is exactly as advertised: an introduction. For over thirty years, Lawson has taught a course in the history of printing types at the Rochester Institute of Technology School of Printing, and this book grew out of his need for a simple handbook on the subject for his students. It is a well designed and illustrated inexpensive paperback, and would probably be your best bet if you have a casual interest in the subject and only want to read one book. The latest edition, brought current through 1990, covers electronic typography as well.Printing Types: Their History, Forms, and Use by Daniel Berkeley Updike (1860-1941) [New York: Dover, 1980 reprint of the second (1937) edition]. This is the classic work in the field of typographic history. Updike was a leader in the revival of traditional printing typefaces in the United States, and was the founder of the Merrymount Press (1893). A series of lectures he gave at Harvard from 1910-1917 served as the basis for Printing Types, which was first published in 1922. This Dover reprint is in two volumes, 618 pages of text plus 300 unnumbered illustrations. As Dover says in the jacket notes, "Printing Types presents the standards, the landmarks in typography that anyone connected with printing must know. In its mammoth, illustrated coverage, it is without a doubt the definitive guide to the subject.Letters of Credit: A View of Type Design by Walter Tracy [Boston: David Godine, 1986. 224 p, ill.] A beautiful and profusely illustrated step-by-step demonstration of type-design aesthetics that traces the beginnings and the path of modern-day typesetting.Fine print on type; the best of Fine print magazine on type and typography by Charles A. Bigelow, Paul Hayden Duensing, Linnea Gentry [San Francisco: Fine Print: Bedford Arts, 1988] is an excellent selection of articles from Fine Print magazine, the late indispensable periodical with which anyone concerned with type should be familiar. Each issue was designed by a different typographer, printed by letterpress and included scholarly articles, typographic overviews, reviews, and notices of new books on typography. Fine Print was published quarterly through about 1990, after which the publication led cliff-hanging existence as various groups and institutions tried to save it. While long gone, a final retrospective index is currently nearing production, and will also be a must-get.Typographical periodicals between the wars; a critique of the Fleuron, Signature, and Typography by Grant Shipcott [Oxford: Oxford Polytechnic Press, 1980. xiv, 111 p. :ill.]. These classic periodicals (particularly the Fleuron) were to their time what Fine Print was to typography and book design today, but because of the ferment in the world of design during the 20s and 30s and because of their illustrious contributors, they had a much greater effect on the typography of the time.Type and Typefaces by J. Ben Lieberman [New Rochelle: The Myriade Press, 1978] is an alternative to the Lawson book, but rather less accurate, bigger (142 pages, 8 1/2 x 11, hardcover) and harder to find. Ben Lieberman was an enthusiastic amateur printer and the father of the American Chappel movement of hobby printers. This book is an exuberant look at the history, classification, identification, and personalities of typography. It includes examples of over 1,000 type faces, and is well illustrated. Lieberman was not a scholar, but if you like unabashed 'boosterism,' you might find this book fun to read, despite its errors of both omission and commission.History and Development of Lettering and Letter formsThe 26 Letters by Oscar Ogg [New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1948]. A nicely done book by a well known American calligrapher, tracing the evolution of the alphabet from prehistoric times to the invention of printing. 250 pages, well illustrated.Letters by James Hutchinson [New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1983]. A stylishly designed, very readable history of alphabets, writing, and printing types.The History and Technique of Lettering by Alexander Nesbitt [New York: Dover Publications, 1957]. A thorough history of type design from its origin through the mid-twentieth century, this book covers some of the same material as the Ogg book, but includes much more information on the development of letter forms since the invention of printing. It is written from an artist's perspective, and has a how-to section on lettering.The Alphabet and Elements of Lettering by Frederic W. Goudy [New York: Dover Publications, 1963. Reprint of 1952 University of California edition]. This falls somewhere between the Ogg and Nesbitt books, from Goudy's unique perspective as the most prolific type designer of the twentieth century.Roman Lettering by L.C. Evetts [New York: Taplinger, 1979] includes a character-by-character analysis of the letters on Trajans Column in Rome, which have served for centuries as one of the foundations of roman (serif) letter design. Evetts also includes charts showing the evolution of the roman alphabet through the centuries. Handsome lettering, with little text to clutter the presentation.An ABC Book: ABC of Lettering and Printing Types by Erik Lindegren [New York: Pentalic, nd ca. 1976]. A survey of type, calligraphy, and design, with examples of work from all periods, with an especially strong representation of lettering by Swedish, English, German, and American scribes and designers. A lively, well-designed introduction to letters.Writing, Illuminating and Lettering by Edward Johnston [New York: Taplinger, 1980]. The comprehensive calligraphy manual by the man who led the twentieth century revival of calligraphy. Johnston's influence on English, American and German lettering and design was immense.History of Lettering by Nicolete Gray [Boston: David Godine, 1987. 256 p].Type Designs from Various PeriodsArt of the Printed Book, 1455-1955; masterpieces of typography through five centuries from the collections of the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York by Joseph Blumenthal, (1897- ) [New York: Pierpont Morgan Library; 1984. Boston, MA: D.R. Godine, xiv, 192 p. : ill.]. Available both in hardcover and paperback, this collection by one of the great printer/scholars of the century is a must have for anyone interested in original source material. More than a hundred full pages facsimiles from the Morgan Library provide an instant overview of the development of typographic design from Gutenberg to the mid-twentieth century.Anatomy of a Typeface by Alexander Lawson [Boston: David R. Godine, 1990, 428 pages] A great book from one of the leading typographic experts of the late twentieth century, this substantial work examines a wide variety of typefaces in great detail, and explains why they look the way they do. An excellent reference work for the designer and printer that will both improve your eye for the detail of font design and inform the choices you will make in specifying and setting type yourself.Selected Essays on Books and Printing by A. F. Johnson [Amsterdam: Van Gendt, 1970]. Johnson was a scholar at the British Museum, and along with Daniel Berkeley Updike and Stanley Morrison was considered one of the experts in the field of typographic history. This lovely, massive (500 pages), and very expensive collection of some of his writings from 1927-1957 concentrates primarily on the typographic work of sixteenth century calligraphers and printers.A view of early typography up to about 1600 by Harry Carter [(The Lyell lectures 1968) Oxford, Clarendon P., 1969. xii, 137 p. 45 plates. illus., facsims., col. map].A history of the old English letter foundries; with notes, historical and bibliographical, on the rise and fall of English typography by Talbot Baines Reed, 1852-1893 and A. F. Johnson [Folkestone: Dawsons, Reissued 1974 xiv, 400 p., fold. leaf : ill., facsims].Notes on a Century of Typography at the University Press, Oxford, 1693-1794 by Horace Hart [Oxford, Clarendon Press, Reissued 1970 (1st ed. of 1900 reprinted) with an introduction and additional notes by Harry Carter. ix, 16, xvi, 203 p., plate. illus. facsims]. History of the types and typography of the Oxford University Press, generally regarded as the preeminent scholarly press in the western world.Nineteenth Century Ornamented Type Faces by Nicolete Gray [Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976]. Reprint of a classic from 1938, this large format 240 page work is the definitive book on its subject.American Wood Type, 1828-1900 by Rob Roy Kelly [New York: Da Capo Press]. Notes on the evolution of decorated and large wood types, and comments on related trades. As with the Nicolete Gray book, this is the definitive work in its field. The book was issued in several editions, of which this (paperback) is the least expensive.The Typographic Book 1450-1935 by Stanley Morrison and Kenneth Day [Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963]. A lush, expensive, visual treasury of almost 500 years of typography, including 357 plates.American typography today by Rob Carter [(New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989. 159 p. : ill. (some col.)].The Liberated Page Edited by Herbert Spencer [San Francisco: Bedford Arts, 1987]. An anthology of the major typographic experiments of the 20th century, as recorded in Typographica magazine.TypographyA Typographic Workbook: A Primer to History, Techniques, and Artistry by Kate Clair. A good place to start for a basic grounding in typographic design.The Elements of Typographic Style by Robert Bringhurst. A highly acclaimed, although somewhat more advanced, standard work in the field.The Crystal Goblet; sixteen essays on typography by Beatrice Warde [Cleveland and New York: World Publishing Company, 1956]. From a major woman in the field of typography come some thought-provoking pieces, including the famous analogy that gave the collection its name. Mandatory reading for would-be typographers.The Case for Legibility by John Ryder [London: The Bodley Head, 1979] "Not a typographer's manual nor a 'do-it-yourself' guide to book design, it is a personal statement of great sincerity and conviction by a distinguished practitioner of the art." Ryder also wrote “Printing For Pleasure”, one of the touchstones of the avocational letterpress printing movement.Better Type by Betty Binns [New York: Watson-Guptill, 1989. 192 p]. A trade book from the early days of the desktop publishing revolution that shows by copious examples the subtle differences in relationships between typefaces, letters, and spaces. From the preface: "This book systematically trains designers to make these fine discriminations, with the aim of specifying text type that is not only readable, but also beautiful and expressive." Only released in this one edition, and not readily available, but a nice book nevertheless.Introduction to Typography by Oliver Simon [London: Faber & Faber, 1945]. Not a bad place to start. This edition is out of print, but there has been at least one reprint in recent years. Simon's introduction is designed for the layman, and discusses many of the basic principles and theories of designing with type.First Principles of Typography by Stanley Morrison [Cambridge: at the University Press, 1951]. An important book from the man who designed Times Roman for the London Times.Asymmetric typography by Jan Tschichold [(Translated by Ruari McLean) New York, Reinhold Pub. Corp. 1967. 94 p. illus. (part col.) facsims]. Jan Tschichold (1902-1974), a well-known typographer, caused many people to rethink 'conventional' theories of typography when this seminal work was published in the mid-60s. Whether or not you agree with his approach, this book is required reading and will widen your typographic horizons.An essay on typography by Eric Gill [1st U.S. ed. Boston: D.R. Godine, 1988]. A classic typographic manifesto on the art and craft of letterforms from the designer of Gill Sans and the famous typography of London Underground.Typography, A Manual of Design by Emil Ruder [Niederteufen, Switzerland: Arthur Niggli Ltd, 1977. 3rd Edition]. A fascinating, disciplined, and very Swiss analysis of typography and letterforms. Ruder's discussion and illustration of the importance of white space in letter forms and graphic designs is excellent background reading.Report on the typography of the Cambridge University Press by Bruce Rogers [Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: University Printer, 1950. viii, 32, (3) p. : ill.]. Bruce Rogers (1870-1957) is regarded by many as having been the greatest typographer and book designer of the twentieth century. After World War II he was commissioned by the Cambridge University Press to undertake a thorough review of all of the Press' publications and standards. The resulting Report had a major impact not only on the C.U.P., but also on the general typographic theory in both Britain and the U.S.Designing with type; a basic course in typography by James Craig and Susan E. Meyer [Fourth. ed. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1999. 176 p]. A modern 'how-to' book, often used as the primary textbook in college design courses, that is available at many large bookstores and graphic arts dealers.Finer Points in the spacing & arrangement of Type by Geoffrey Dowding.Book DesignMethods of Book Design: The Practice of an Industrial Craft by Hugh Williamson. An excellent book, not only for the author's typographical observations, but also as a comprehensive survey of printing at the height of letterpress.The Design of Books by Adrian Wilson. A classic on the design, layout, and typography of traditional pages and books, written by a great letterpress printer in 1967.Bookmaking: Editing, Design and Production by Marshall Lee Originally written primarily about letterpress in 1965, this 500+ page work has recently been re-issued in a greatly updated third edition for the computer era.Printing Poetry: A workbook in typographic reification by Clifford Burke. A very informative work on this subject that also applies to other letterpress printing. Issued in an edition of only 1000.Type DesignersTwentieth Century Type Designers by Sebastian Carter [New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, 1987]. An excellent look at the people behind the type faces, with in-depth profiles of designers such as Goudy, Morrison, Zapf, etc.Typologia; studies in type design & type making, with comments on the invention of typography, the first types, legibility, and fine printing by Frederic W. Goudy (1865-1947). [Reissued 1977. Berkeley: University of California Press, xviii, 170 p.: ill.; 24 cm.]. Written by the most prolific type designer of the 20th century [creator of, among others, the eponymous Goudy Oldstyle], this reprint of the 1940 edition discusses the history, function, and meaning of type, and gives some very good insights into how a type designer works.Jan Tschichold: typographer by Ruari McLean [Boston: David R. Godine, 1975]. This puts Tschichold's career and writings in the context of developments in society around him. It is informative and thought-provoking on its own, and serves as useful background to his writings on the subject.Manuale Typographicum; 100 typographical arrangements with considerations about types, typography and the art of printing selected from past and present, printed in eighteen languages by Herman Zapf [Frankfurt, New York: Z-Presse, 1968]. Herman Zapf is known to most desktop typographers primarily for giving his name to the Zapf Dingbat font. He is, in addition, one of the most respected and creative typographers and type designers of the century, who created not only the Dingbat and Zapf Chancery fonts, but also Optima and many other faces. Manuale Typographicum is a breathtaking 'tour de force,' consisting of 100 broadsides about type design in a wide variety of faces and styles. Superb as a source of inspiration and example.Herman Zapf and His Design Philosophy by Herman Zapf, Introduction by Carl Zahn [New Haven: Yale University Press, 90 color plates]. While the Manuale shows the master at work, this volume is a discourse on Zapf's insights into type design. An excellent book.Edward Johnston by Priscilla Johnston [New York: Pentallic, 1976]. This biography of the twentieth century's most important calligrapher, written by his daughter, traces his career and influence. Unlike many printing books, this one is a delightful read.Of the Just Shaping of Letters by Albrecht Dürer [New York: Dover Publications, 1965. (reprint of the Grolier Club translation of 1917)]. Originally part of Dürer's theoretical treatise on applied geometry, here is the source for those famous capital letters set against a gridded background.Champ Fleury by Geoffrey Tory, translated into English and annotated by George B. Ives [New York: Dover Publications, 1967. (reprint of the Grolier Club translation of 1927)]. The other famous humanistic alphabet similar to the one discussed in the Dürer book, but this is the one with the letters shown against naked human bodies in addition to the grid system.Pioneers of modern typography by Herbert Spencer [Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1983. Rev. ed. 160 p. : ill.].Typeface Reference WorksAmerican Metal Typefaces of the Twentieth Century by Mac McGrew [New Castle, Delaware: Oak Knoll Books, 1994, 2nd rev, ed. 376 p. : ill]. The definitive work on the subject, and an essential reference for both graphic designers and current letterpress printers. Currently in print from the publisher.The Encyclopedia of Type Faces, 4th Edition by W. Pincus Jaspert, W. Turner Berry, and A. F. Johnson [Poole, Dorset: Blandford Press, 1983]. A standard, comprehensive reference in the field, this work is a detailed listing of over 1,000 faces, arranged by name, with full information on their history, designers, etc. Although even after several editions it has numerous uncorrected errors (dates, foundries, names, even occasionally an incorrect specimen shown) it is still a required reference work on the subject.A.T.A. Type Comparison Book by Frank Merriman [Advertising Typographers Association of America, 1965]. An indispensable handbook for identifying typefaces. Hundreds of faces are grouped together by design, making it easy to find the one you want. Still in print, possibly in a more recent edition.Graphics Master 7: Workbook of reference guides & Graphic Tools for the Design, Preparation & Production Print and Internet Publishing by Dean Phillip Lem [Los Angeles, Calif.: D. Lem Associates, 2000. 7th ed. 158 p. : ill. (some col.)]. Although it covers much more than just type design, and is fairly expensive, this is one of the most important and continually useful reference work that a desktop designer and/or publisher should have.Font & Function [Mountain View, California: Adobe Systems] was Adobe's biennial catalog of their latest font offerings. But this tabloid size, four-color publication was also quite a bit more. It included articles on typographic history, the background to many Adobe PostScript fonts, technical information and a graphic listing of over 1500 Adobe fonts. While it is no longer being published, back issues are available from a number of sources.The typEncyclopedia; a user's guide to better typography by Frank J Romano [New York: R.R. Bowker Co., 1984. xii, 188 p. : ill.].Type and typography; the designer's type book by Ben Rosen [New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1976 Rev. ed. 406 p. : ill.].History of PrintingA Short History of the Printed Word by Warren Chappell [Boston: Nonpareil Books (David Godine), 1980]. A once-over-very-lightly in 240 pages of large type, hitting the highlights in the development of type, printing and bookmaking.Five Hundred Years of Printing by S. H. Steinberg [Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1974]. A 400-page small-print paperback which is still in print, this covers Gutenberg through the early 20th century. Steinberg's style is a little dry. Since his death, the book (starting with the third edition) has been edited by James Moran.A Dictionary of Book History by John Feather [New York: Oxford University Press, 1986, 278 pp] is a concise one-stop reference, in alphabetical order, to topics including bibliography and bibliographical terminology, the history of printing, the physical history of the book (including typography, binding, etc.) and book collecting. It has over 650 articles ranging from a few lines to several pages, and covers the ground pretty thoroughly. Although not a classic work (and, indeed, poorly designed itself as a book), it serves as a very handy reference to the history of books. An expensive purchase at the original price of $45, it is often available on remainder for about $10.The Making of Books by Seán Jennett [New York and Washington: Frederick A. Preager, 1967]. A good overview of the entire art and craft of the book, including a little history and a fairly detailed examination of every stage of the process. If you are interested in books in general, this is a good place to start. Out of print, but rather ubiquitous at second-hand and antiquarian dealers.The Book: The Story of Printing & Bookmaking by Douglas C. McMurtrie [New York: Oxford University Press, 1943]. Almost 700 pages of large type devoted to the history of the book, by one of the most prolific writers in the field. Easy to read, anecdotal, and illustrated. Although out of print, it is not particularly scarce and, if you can find it, probably the quickest way to get up to speed on printing history.Letterpress Printing InstructionIntroduction to Letterpress Printing by David S. Rose.: [New York: Five Roses Press, 2003, 32pp.] The complete 21st century Getting Started Guide to everything you need to know about acquiring a press, finding supplies, learning to print, and setting up your very own letterpress shop. (Note: this indispensable little reference gets first place on the list because it was written by [ahem] the author of this very bibliography. A fully hyperlinked electronic version with up to date sources can be downloaded from Printing by Glen U. Cleeton and Charles W. Pitkin.: [Bloomington, Ill: McKnight & McKnight Publishing Company, 1941-1963, 195pp.] Probably the best all-around introductory book for traditional letterpress printing, this manual is profusely illustrated with detailed and useful photographs. It is the one most recommended on the Letpress list, and several members personally knew the authors. Copies of the book are readily available in both paperback and hardcover.The Practice of Printing by Ralph W. Polk (in later editions, together with Edwin W. Polk) [Peoria, Illinois: The Manual Arts Press, 1937-1945; later editions Charles A. Bennett & Co., 1952-1964, 300+ pp]. The most ubiquitous letterpress printing manual of the twentieth century. This is the standard, in print for over 40 years, from which many current letterpress printers first learned in school print shop classes, and is a good basic reference for the letterpress printer. Although out of print, it is readily available, in one or another of its many editions, from most book arts dealers and online sources. In later years, it was distributed by the Kelsey Co. as the advanced printing manual for their mass-market presses. By 1971 it was updated to de-emphasize handset type, and was re-issued as "The Practice of Printing: Letterpress & Offset". If you are primarily interested in letterpress printing, try to get one of the earlier editions.Platen Press Operation by George J. Mills [Pittsburgh, Carnegie Institute of Technology, 1953, 150 p. illus.] This manual is the first choice of letterpress cognoscenti who are printing on platen presses, and serves as the missing "owner’s manual" for traditional platen presses such as Chandler & Price, Gordon, Pearl and other floor-mounted job presses. It should be read in conjunction with one of the above books, which provide more thorough coverage of hand type-setting and composition. This invaluable book is still available, in a reprint of the 1959 edition, from NA Graphics.Printing Digital Type on the Hand-Operated Flatbed Cylinder Press by Gerald Lange (Second Edition). California: Bieler Press, 2001 This is one of the few letterpress manuals currently in print, and the only one specifically addressing both Vandercook proof presses (the gold standard for current fine letterpress printers) and photopolymer plates. This book is the authority on the technologies of "modern" limited edition letterpress printing. Subjects covered include digital type and computer practices; letterpress configuration; photopolymer plates, flat-bases, and processing equipment; photopolymer plate-making; plate registration and travel; impression; cylinder packing and makeready; presswork; ink and inking; press operation and maintenance, as well as an updated listing of manufacturers and distributors. Newly included with this edition are troubleshooting guides to problems encountered during the processing and printing of photopolymer plates.Printing on the Iron Handpress by Richard-Gabriel Rummonds is the most comprehensive book ever published on the subject, and is still in print from Oak Knoll Press. (Note that "handpress" here means something specific when it comes to letterpress printing, and doesn't refer to ordinary hand-operated presses such as a Kelsey or a Pilot.) Precise techniques for printing on the handpress are presented in lucid, step-by-step procedures that Rummonds perfected over a period of almost twenty-five years at his celebrated Plain Wrapper Press and Ex Ophidia. In tandem with more than 400 detailed diagrams by George Laws, Rummonds describes every procedure a printer needs to know from setting up a handpress studio to preparing books for the binder. The author also maintains a constantly updated web-site to accompany the book.Printing for Pleasure, A Practical Guide for Amateurs by John Ryder [published in multiple editions from 1955-1977, in England and the US, by publishers including Chicago: Henry Regnery Co., (1977) and London: The Bodley Head (1976) This is still in print from The Bodley Head in the UK or Oak Knoll Books in North America]. A lovely, classy, little (12 mo) book, both pleasing to look at and inspirational for the novice amateur printer. This introductory work gives a light overview of the hobby of letterpress printing on both sides of the Atlantic, covering how to choose a press, type, paper and ink, as well as planning, design and production. A good place to start if you are just considering taking up this avocation, and a nice place to come back to every now and then to remind you why you are still printing.A Composition Manual: PIA Tools of Industry Series by Ralph W. Polk, Harry L. Gage et al. [Printing Industries of America 1953, 4to, 311 pp., index, biblio., 433 pps] A really excellent tutorial and reference work, sponsored by the printing industry trade association as the definitive manual for apprentices. It is a thorough overview of the entire typesetting and proofing end of the business that took four years and several experts to write. Because it was published in 1953, it came out just at the inflection point between hot and cold type, and is a fascinating final masterwork from an industry that feels the winds of change approaching. In addition to very detailed and well-illustrated tutorials on hand-setting and proofing metal type, it includes surprisingly useful overviews and illustrations of all the other composition-related tools of the shop, including Elrod, Ludlow and Monotype casters. To quote from the Forward, "The industry recognized the need for a manual containing basic principles of good typography that are fundamental to the presentation of the printed word, irrespective of whether that word is composed by hand, by machine, by photo-typesetting or by some yet unnamed method of the future…"I.T.U. Lessons in Printing [Indianapolis: International Typographical Union, 1927-1972, Various paginations] Published in many editions across half a century, these ten volumes were created by the printing unions as the standardized training course for American printers. While not as elegantly written or produced as many of the other letterpress manuals, these thousands of pages cover just about everything the journeyman printer was supposed to know, eventually encompassing Unit One (Elements of [Letterpress] Composition) through Unit Ten (Photocomposition, Ruling and Pasteup). Along the way is detailed information on topics including Display Composition, Imposition and Lockup, Trade Unionism, Linotype Operation, Design, and even English ("because English is a 'reasoning' subject which may have caused the student difficulty in school."). The first volume, covering the history of printing through typesetting and a proofing, is probably the most useful one for the modern letterpress printer. The original edition of 1927, written by John H. Chambers, was replaced by a much better text in the 50's that was almost certainly ghost-written by Ralph W. Polk, who also wrote the even better manual on behalf of the employers, as well as his own manuals (see above).Printing For School And Shop by Frank S. Henry [New York: John Wiley & Sons 1917, B&W photos and drwgs 318pp] Subtitled "A Textbook for Printers' Apprentices, Continuation classes, and for General Use in Schools" and updated with another edition in 1944, this was the original vocational course textbook which was eventually supplanted for the most part by Polk. Nevertheless, it provides detailed technical instruction and illustrations and—particularly in the later edition—can still serve as a useful learning tool for today's printer.The Essentials of Printing by Frank S. Henry [New York: John Wiley & Sons 1924, B&W drwgs 187pp + index] Subtitled "A Text-book for Beginners" and half the length of the preceding book. "It develops that there is an insistent demand for a shorter text, one that shall cover only the absolute essentials of printing...this volume attempts to present to the novice, in sequence, the operations necessary to the production of a piece of printed matter." Useful and relatively short, but somewhat outdated (even for letterpress!)Printing as a Hobby. By J. Ben.Lieberman [New York: Sterling Publishing Co. & London: Oak Tree Press, 1963. 128 p. Index.] is the brash, bigger, and less restrained American counterpart to the quintessentially British book by Ryder. Lieberman was an enthusiastic amateur printer, and this book is an exuberant well-illustrated pitch for his hobby. The author was not a scholar (nor particularly an aesthete), but if you like unabashed 'boosterism,' you might find this book fun to read, despite its errors of both omission and commission (not unlike his later book, Type and Typefaces, described above.)Printing, A Practical Introduction to the Graphic Arts by Hartley E. Jackson [New York; McGraw-Hill, 1957, 8vo., 286 pages]. Organization and use of the type case, hand setting, use of the platen press, and basic binding, with short sections on linoleum blocks, silk screen and photography in this industrial arts text. Not as good as Polk, but more than acceptable as an apprentice course book.Graphic Arts by Frederick D. Kagy [Chicago: The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc., 1961, 8vo, 112 pps.] Another (and probably the last) of the high-school vocational textbooks designed for once-over-lightly printing classes included as part of a longer graphic arts program, this short book gives a simple but well-illustrated quickie introduction to hand type-setting and platen press printing in about twenty pages. Nowhere near as comprehensive as many of the others, but certainly better than learning through pure trial and error.Introduction to Printing, The Craft of Letterpress by Herbert Simon, [London: Faber and Faber, 1968]Getting Started in Hand Printing & Binding by Van Waterford, [TAB Books, Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania, 1981]Other Book ArtsHand Bookbinding: A Manual of Instruction by Aldren A. Watson. A clear, thorough, inexpensive introduction to hand binding.The Papermaker's Companion: The Ultimate Guide to Making And Using Handmade Paper by Helen Hiebert. Extensive step by step instructions.How to Marbleize Paper: Step-By-Step Instructions for 12 Traditional Patterns by Gabriele Grunebaum. A slim, inexpensive, but useful paperback.Practical Typecasting by Theo Rehak. The ultimate and definitive book on the subject, by the dean of American typefounders.Miller's Collecting Books by Catherine Porter. A modern, illustrated guide to all aspects of book collecting.BibliographiesA Typological Tally compiled by Tony Appleton [Brighton, (T. Appleton, 28 Florence Rd., Brighton, Sussex BN1 6DJ), 1973. 94 p. ill.]. Thirteen hundred writings in English on printing history, typography, bookbinding, and papermaking, compiled by one of the world's top dealers in the field.A Bibliography of Printing with Notes and Illustrations by F. C. Bigmore and C. W. H. Wyman [London: Oak Knoll Books, 1978]. Universally known as "Bigmore and Wyman," this is to printing bibliographies what Updike is to books about printing types. Published in 1880 (editions since then have been reprints) B&W provides excellent commentaries on just about every book that had been written on the subject as of the year it was published.Book Dealers/Publishers Specializing in Typography and the Book ArtsOak Knoll Books, ABAA 310 Delaware St. New Castle, DE 19720 USA tel:302-328-7232fax:302-328-7274 email: [email protected] Veatches Art of the Book P.O. Box 328 140 Crescent Street Northampton, MA 01061 tel: 1-413-584-1867 fax: 1-413-584-2751 email: [email protected] Wakeman Books 2 Manor Way, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 2BD, UK tel: +44 (0)1865 378316 fax: +44 (0)1865 378934 email: [email protected] Bookpress Ltd. 1304 Jamestown Road Williamsburg, Virginia 23185 USA tel:(757) 229-1260 fax:(757) 229-0498 email: [email protected] Hawley Books 915 S. Third St. Louisville, KY 40203 U.S.A. tel: 502-451-3021email: [email protected] Knuf Antiquarian Books P.O.Box 780, Oss NB, Netherlands, 5340 AT. tel: +31 412 626072. fax: +31 412 638755 email: [email protected] Book Shop 117 Water Street Exeter, NH, 03833 tel: email: [email protected] Graphics Attn: Fritz Klinke P.O. Box 467 Silverton, Colorado 81433 tel: 970-387-0212fax: 970-387-0127 email: [email protected] R. Godine, Publisher 9 Hamilton Place Boston, MA 02108-4715 tel: (617) 451-9600fax: (617) 350-0250 email: [email protected] Press 1249 Eighth Street Berkeley, CA 94710 tel (800) 283-9444 tel (510) 548-5991www.peachpit.comDawson's Book Shop 535 North Larchmont Blvd. Los Angeles, CA, 90004 tel: (213) 469-2186Many thanks to Howard Gralla, Alvin Eisenman, Robert Fleck, Kathy Schinhofen, Chuck Rowe, Earl Allen, Susan Lesch, Kathleen Tinkel, Michael J. Boyle, John Horn, Chris Simonds, Fritz Klinke, Roberta Lavadour, David Norton, Tom Parson, David Goodrich and the many members of the Letpress Internet mailing list for their suggestions before and during the compilation of this bibliography.An earlier version of this bibliography was originally published by Aldus Corporation in conjunction with their release of the Fontographer type design application. That version was, in turn, adapted and expanded from an earlier annotated checklist by the same author prepared for members of the MAUG Forums on Compuserve.Copyright © 1988-2014 by David S. Rose [email protected] The current version of this bibliography is always available online at and hyper-linking to it is encouraged. For any other publication inquiries, please contact the author.Revision: August 20, 2003 / December 18, 2014

How can I tell my parents that I don’t love them, and they make my depression, anxiety, anorexia, and bulimia worse every day? How do I tell them that I’m moving out? My parents are incredibly clingy to me. What can I do?

First of all, I'm SO sorry you have so much going on in your life and are suffering so badly. You are obviously seriously ill, But you know this, right? And, by the sounds of it, at the end of your tether with your parents.You have my empathy and understanding because that’s exactly how (almost ten years ago now) my husband and I responded to the self same health challenges you are going through right now, with our then, 11yr old daughter. (Now 27. )All our daughter wanted was to be left alone-, in peace space, and privacy right?We were in a real quandry though, as she was far too ill to be allowed that.What would we do? Follow her around in ever increasing anxiety concern and fear for her very life-because we were so worried for her welfare, her safety and her health, and as such felt completely bewildered and helpless watching her deteriorate and get thinner and thinner until she collapsed, especially when in and out of hospital on drips and/or having her stomach pumped from overdoses,attempted suicides etc.Parents are OFTEN the reason illness strikes, there I have said it.No one gives you an instruction manual how to deal with mental Psychological and or emotional illness or body dysmorphia or addictions come to that, and our daughter has been there, just like you, -and more. A-nd you may be totally right because obviously something traumatic has happened to you, as happened to our daughter with a significant care giver over the years to cause you so much anxiety and cluster illness .So what can you do?It is not I repeat NOT your fault. But somewhere along the way you lost your Identity your confidence and ended up with probably your cluster of problems and family issues that, ‘til now, ever remain unresolved- a real deep festering wound which never got dealt with, in any real quantifiable effective or appropriate manner,bubbling away resentment and fury under the surface, right?You may not like what I’m about to say, and explain but it’s a reality none of you can escape from..that while you remain in limbo and under their roof they do have a duty of care. They do have the right to say abide by our rules because they must be going insane and sick with the stress of seeing you suffer and are probably worried sick for you.They feel extremely helpless , and scared.. Anyone would!You don’t say how old you are. And you won’t like this but.. Until you are 18, they still have a duty of care for you. Especially whilst living under their roof. And are naturally worried sick for you.If, however, you are well past 18, you have serious abuse issues from either of them and or always had this strained relationship and they have always been clingy, anxious, depressive people and have suffocated your free will and independence all your life , then you raise very,very, valid points.But you have to be brutally honest with yourself about your situation and all your conditions.Where would you go? How severe are your conditions? Are you seeing a specialist as you deserve and need? Accepting help,and receiving support?2. It is vital that if they abuse you in any way at all, ie: by blackmail, force,deceit cruelty or unkindness then you have every right to leave, but seek intervention in a calm and reasonable manner and ask outside help to put a stop to it.But this is the thing. Have you somewhere else safe and appropriate to live?Do you have any close trusted impartial friend or relatives that could help you? If only to explain to your parents that you are finding their clingyness too full on?Hatred is a strong word, and without knowing all the facts and details their background, their one misdemeanour seems to be to have been: clingy , and felt unable to let you go .You don’t say how long your illnesses have lasted so far, and I would bet all you want is to scream at them to be left alone in peace and quiet. Am I right?Well I would say Ditto! That’s exactly how my daughter reacted, growing up.Whether you’re under 18,or over 99- living with the parents is fraught with compromises and often a thorn in ones side even with complete full health.But I will try to offer you some advice. These insights comes straight from personal experience with my lovely 27 yr old daughter, who has a long history of these issues and health dangers herself and is just starting her long road to recovery.Then it’s up to you, if you take it or leave it by the wayside.If you haven’t already, I BEG you to get help and support - try to take a step back, deep breath in, out, then let go of all the tension. Attend your reviews appointments and practise deep breathing and relaxation techniques. As far as you are able,try to concentrate on something nice you used to enjoy.Seriously,everyday Ask yourself: do you want to live or die?I beg you to seek treatment and support for your health. However off putting or frightened you feel of it. The problems lie in a deep seated deep rooted unresolved conflict. If it’s your parents, then I would suggest family therapy and some open honest dialogue with them. Show them this reply, or at least your question and take it from there.If you are fortunate to be able to and your illnesses are manageable maybe it be best to find a new home as far as you are able to away from them for the time being . Look to the future .have hope and take it from there.Wishing you all the best.

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