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Who employs Gang Stalkers?

EDIT: This answer is long and in parts with additions over time. Please do not confuse this as jumping around and not connected. I’m just not that good of a writer, and am usually very pressed for time and money and do this at a public cafe. One thing has led me to another and without the prior, wouldn’t exist, therefore, I see them as connected.anyone with enough money and a stick up their ass who is connected, because you have to know the right person. What has made a real mess out of this and allowed a few people to hide amongst the masses like the cowardly pieces of shit they are, is societies general consent to throw the rights of a small subset who are simply not prepared or capable to defend themselves against the onslaught which is dropped on them from and by every level and every walk of life, right out the window.So when a handler, the person who receives a usually monthly stipen which has been setup as some type of fiduciary regulated payment, he then uses that at his discretion to encourage or purchase illegal and scandalous, merciless acts perpetrated by a single person or a group against a target as performance on an agreed contract.The handler is usually retired military with some years accrued in the service. They most likely will have seen combat, and or, are recon or people who have been exposed to the intelligence community such as the CIA, sis or mi6, aman or mossad, kgb or east german stasi and are aware or schooled in the tactics of human psychological warfare which they have seen or practiced in live combat situations and which they are willing to use on anyone for a price.The beauty about this is that it only takes one or two individuals and a comparatively, relatively small amount of money to turn an entire community against an individual. These guys will turn otherwise law abiding police officers into their puppets and have them crossing a line they can’t go back over. As a bonus and depending on the handlers political beliefs and agendas, he can work both sides of the coin for the price of one while advancing his political or racial beliefs.And all from the comfort of his Laz-y-boy while hitting the pipe and sipping cognac. I have been observing a seventy year old US Marine Corp combat veteran who was discharged for a mental disability, or so he says, do just this now for about two years. He claims to have been here for the past twenty and his story is confirmed as to length of time.He claims to be receiving benefits from the government, however, I’ve caught him in couple of indiscretions as to his story. So he’s been tripped up but doesn’t know it. Lies in regards to policy and procedure which have no grey area, therefore, that’s a pretty big gap in his cover.Child support, violence against women and sex offenses seem to be the big three as for motives, and, on a scary note. Some of these cases seem to come from men, like an aledged victims father who has passed away and has vowed to strike from the grave as to seeking revenge. Kind of a perfect crime scenario as far as the contractee goes.It would be easy to throw law enforcement up on a cross at this point, however, they know what is going on, but, probably aren’t in a position of making a viable move on this type of activity.But remember, these guys have been used and made fools of. Something they can never change. They’ve for the most part thrown the country’s long standing reputation right down the tubes. Forgotten their sworn oaths. Something they can never take back, and not only have to remember everyday for the rest of their lives, but, even when they look their kids in the eye. That’s got to piss them off like you and I can’t ever imagine.Do you think you’d want these guys on your ass after what has been done to them as payback for the price of their souls?This is as dark and foul as it gets, and, I’ll bet the farm on this one. The people responsible for gang stalking are going to pay.I can’t think of a denial in words equal to the task.addition: this answer is developing on an ongoing real time basis daily. There is a development which is linking gang stalking to trata de blancas, or, white slavery. Human trafficking. This activity is taking place within a few miles of the border in Tijuana/San Ysidro. People long associated with smuggling and the recruitment of “drivers” who as far as I can tell are just being setup for an encounter with waiting CBP. The recruiters are paid pretty well. There is a “boss” who I believe is the liason between the street recruiters and HLS. Furthermore the “boss” has links to the private security industry in the USA, or, maybe even as a police officer, more then likely in Mexico, but, who crosses frequently.Their specialty is deception and betrayal. I can’t see HLS/CBP not being aware of this. Once you get past this deception and what is giving rise to this developement is that an equal goal is defamation and separation based on influence of female counterparts, possibly for the purpose of turning them into sex workers. An interesting statistic I read the other day put sex sales ahead of drugs annually in the USA. If true, there is a pretty great demand for loyal workers.stayed tunedOK, here it goes. Straight the fuck up. 9–10–2019 3:39pm PST.The USA has apparently for a very long time, offered rewards for people giving up people who were “smuggling” contraband into the USA. And, paying pretty good money at that.Now, I’ve been staying in Mexico for eleven years to avoid sleeping on the streets of San Diego. I have been conducting an investigation into problems which beset me many years ago. The following is the product to date of that investigation. The names being used are real as well as the actions and activities described.There are four things which are on and crackin’ at the San Ysidro Port of Entry. Trata de Blancas, sequestradores, robar de infantes and trafficante de organes. Everything ties into these four one way or another. A tangent if you will, but, all connected someway to these four.Then with the influx (segue 1991) of millions of Mexicans flooding the border unimpeded, local businesses found a need for bilingual persons to fill the gaps created by different languages and a need to conduct business and direct employees.All this activity cleared way for always hustle ready Mexicans looking to exploit whoever and whatever they can to the fullest. Being very heirarchy conscious people, bosses or jefes hold a special place or a heavy influence on those who work for them.Herein, lies the story of Enrique. He got his start at the KMart located in San Ysidro, facing Mexico. It’s closed now, but for many years was probably the southern most retailer on the border of that size.Now, Enrique somehow ended up with the job of head security man at KMarts. His specialty was choke holds, something he learned in his days on the streets of Tijuana, running with little 5 man chokeout crews and utilized that tactic in the USA violating the rights of many an American, myself for sure.As he told me, “he didn’t care about my rights and that he had experience and knew people in San Diego law enforcement and would be dealing with us and knew just how to.”The way things work down here is that the men, no matter how dirty, funky or stinking they may be, run and control whoever they can assert power and control over. Tijuana streets tend to be full of poor, unsupervised, orphaned and abandoned people from everywhere all looking to come up, survive, be protected and consume. The bosses look at it like everything they see, they own, so, all these people running around belong to them to do with what they please.Therefore a female, solo, is a prime target for predators like Enrique and his lieutenants like long time associate Yolanda, who is a female Adolph Hitler who enjoys the suffering of others and has found a home under the perpetrations of Enrique who either has a lot of cops fooled in the USA and uses this to operate with impunity, or, there are a lot of corrupt cops working all through the County of San Diego.Don’t get me wrong. Both can be nice people. When they want something or are using you, other then that, forget it.My monies on the later.To give you an idea, Yolanda was stabbed 31 times and left for dead in the local graveyard. She claims the attack was a robbery and one of the guys liked her and she refused to have sex with him, so, he stabbed her 31 times.That’s an awful lot of hate for a robbery. Usually there are two things on the minds of thiefs. Acquire the desired item/s and get as far away as quickly as possible. As an experiment, simulate stabbing your table or desk while counting to 31 allowing for a live, moving, struggling target.Not consistent with the actions of thieves, at least in my opinion.In all fairness, Enrique doesn’t like people to know what he looks like. I’ve seen him three times. Once, he was sitting right next to me at the schools administration office waiting area.I was there to discuss my PELL grant, he was there to talk shit about me to the schools administrators. I would soon have to quit because of what he said to them.After everything had fallen apart in my life and i was trying to get a grip on things, the very first hipothesis I had put together I called it the 180 scenario.All things considered, and using a circle with 360 degrees of separation, travel 180 degrees from wherever you are and that is where you will find the truth concerning whoever or whatever you were seeking.So, if Yolanda presents as a ruthless smuggler coordinator/recruiter whose objective is to recruit Americans south of the border and put them in a car and send them north into what was usually the waiting arms of HLS, flip the script 180 degrees and that is what you are really dealing with.Therefore, If Enrique is this elusive smuggler boss and connect, what he probably is the boss or owner of a private security company/civilian police detail who recruits or enslaves the down and out to carry out his dirty work, while he gets paid. And I don’t believe either of them ever end up sharing any of the money they get. If so, it’s just enough to keep you on the hook.09/12/2019I said this was on an update basis. I got a break today. To everyone who is being gang stalked. Use this template to see how it compares to your situation. I’ve worked a long time to get this. I’ve been shot, beat down 19 times, twice while handcuffed and that’s nothing in the overall.Check this out.Remember the 180 scenario?What if:gang stalking isn’t about coming after you, it’s about keeping you from something.All the bullshit that is thrown at you is to distract you and so that people won’t listen to you even if golden nuggets are falling from your lips.the longer they keep you chasing your tail, the longer they can take what is yours.In attempting to ascertain exactly who or who isn’t reponsible in this is also a waste of time. If you are faced with solving an equation with multiple variables trying to determine the value of x but keep hitting dead ends, then the obvious result can be only one thing…..everybody is guilty.In our case, cops, judges, attornies, family, friends, co-workers…you name it.There are several thimgs that will get you stuck in this rut. For right now, I’m going to use child support. If you don’t pay, you are a piece of shit. Forget that you have just gone through the most gut wrenching thing a person can ever experience, whoever you are. That which is reason for any man or woman to take up whatever is in sight and use that until exhaustion drops you….your family is under attack. Your wife, your kids, your life.You are expected to stand by passively while that which would incite havoc and mayhem in every person on the planet hits you from all sides. Remember, this is all fairly new and in a way we have all taken part in the trial and error process of writing the book on this subject.That doesn’t excuse the actions of our politicians who knew exactly what they were doing.Everybody receives a court order stating custody and support arrangements. For me it was 12.50 a week times two. That’s all they wanted. At one point I had arrears of 3,500 dollars. Then the Clintons enacted legislation which took my arrears from 3500 to 26, 000 dollars and change. Overnite. None of this amount affected or changed my order of support as to how much these kids would receive because there was never an order of modification. That means, 22,500 dollars was going somewhere other than to the kids and was in addition to already well paid persons associated with the administration of child support related activities pay packages.last rough estimate I made had something like 34,000,000,000.00 in unpaid support floating around out there. That’s a lot of money. Using my situation, about twenty percent of that goes to the kids. That means that of the 34b, 7b goes to the kids and 27b is up for grabs.That would explain why cops, lawyers and the like have quit their careers to take up jobs opening companys specializing in support collections.I knew a divorce lawyer in San Diego, Charles Kish, who made a statement one time saying, “I wish I had known before about all the money there is to be made in child support. I wouldn’t be doing divorces.” I didn’t know what he was talking about, but it is starting to make sense.So, anybody with $35.00 can go down to the county clerks office, file a ficticious name, post an announcement in a paper, and, boom, you’re in business.Then all you have to do is start snooping in everyone’s business and find out who is paying or owes child support. Find someone who is in arrears and you can attach yourself like a vampire bat to a fat cow at night. Line up enough of these and you are kickin’ back and watching everyone elses money roll in.If you start to search the lower classes where people are not so well informed you can really make this work. People who can’t afford legal advice and so on.So here is what has been happening to me. Twenty years ago, they took my drivers license in a bizzare surreal court proceeding I doubt was even real. There goes my ability to disappear.Then they attack my abilitiy to make money. The kind they can’t garnish. Plasma donations. Pallets. My own businesses. Then they start to do weird shit like follow me only they make it obvious.What do I do? Start telling people, “hey, I got people following me, like everywhere.” What do they say, “oh yeah? Hmmmmmnnn.” “So how are you doing these days anyway Marcos?”Then they get an abnormal psyche book and go right down the line as to abnormal psychic condtions, enact these little drama theaters for my benefit, and, what do I do?Tell people, “hey, guess what?” The same people I told I was being followed. Now I’m starting to look like a real cracker.Who’s doing it? Advocates. Fatherless kids and their mothers. Sympathizers. The police, collection agents, FOC, Arizona Clearing house. Christian church groups. The Urban League. It becomes a real madhouse with little or no supervision.They are vandalizing my vehicles. One day I went outside to find that my truck had been tampered with. Being from the East Coast, I talk different then these West Coasters.So when I related to my therapist that, “yo, I got people under the hood of my truck,” which to an East Coaster like me means that someone has opened my hood and tampered with things mechanical with the intent of causing damage and/or sabotage and left evidence of such in the aftermath.Now to a West Coast Therapist with a way too tight blouse opened up on top and threatening to shoot the first buttoned button at any second from undue pressure being exerted on it, and a round circle opening between it and the next button down, this means that I believe I have actual little people dwelling under the hood of my truck in the engine compartment causing me mechanical difficulties.“I got people under the hood of my truck,” get it? This is the kind of mixed up problems which have contributed negatively to my efforts oftrying to straighten things out. So what do they do? Give me a brown paper lunch bag full of the best psycotropic narcotics the county has to offer and tell me , “see you in three days,” at which time I get another little lunch bag.One time they gave me Risperdal. I don’t know if I would consider this an ill side eefect, all things considered…but, after taking it a bit, I woke up with an erection that would absolutely not quit. Things was, I couldn’t get off either. My girlfriend didn’t know what to think, thank God or run for her life. In all this went on for eighteen hours and was quite uncomfrtable.We stopped at the Lucky SuperMarket in Lemon Grove. It was summer and I had some shorts on. That was an experience I’m here to tell you. When I went to the clinic the next day, the young lady who was listening to what had happened so as to adjust the medication only had one question, “so was it bulging?”I’m not usually at a loss for words, but, I gotta say I didn’t know what exactly she was asking and wasn’t gonna ask her what she meant.I’ve claimed to be sequestered at various times throughout my ordeal, even called the FBI and said I wanted to report a kidnapping. They asked who the victim was, and I responded it was me. They told me not to call back. I was however, very serious what I was saying, and, rightly so.This is how Yolanda and Enrique get over. He has some kind of criminal justice type connections or business license which enables him to perpetrate these activities.to be continued10/13/2019Yolanda is MIA, that doesn’t mean anything bad or good has happened to her, I just haven’t seen or heard of her for awhile now.As far as who pays these guys goes, right now where I’m at in Tijuana, they are building like crazy. All kinds of people are gone, as in dead, locked up or God only knows. A guy who gave me a ride mentioned something I thought was interesting. He referred to women down here as “broken toys.”Without a doubt, women are at the center of all this “gang stalking” bullshit. Child support, domestic violence and sex offense accusations are used to implement “fabrication of justification” which is how people are getting away with doing what they are doing.For example: If I have no job and live in Mexico and I want to make money and I’m a female who is or isn’t into selling my pussy for money, I become friends with as many single men who live alone as possible. I go by their places and scope it out. Now I always have people backing me up as I’m part of a crew and we tag team people and share information. We know who the crooked cops are and who will let us operate. We stick to Americans and we find out what dirt we can on them and use this to fabricate justification so that when we do our dirt, public opinion doesn’t do us in. We rob people who go to the states everyday and shoplift to survive. Anybody who has or is doing something wrong, we take advantage of that. That way, nobody is going to say anything. We can operate with impunity.It doesn’t matter to them what the circumstances are or even if someone is innocent or not, they fabricate their justification and are off to he races.This is where gang stalking is originating. Cops are supplying the 411 and/or people within the system who work in sub-contracted security jobs are getting it from where they work and using it to line people up and make them targets for these people to live off of without fear of being caught or prosecuted.to be continuedOK 2/26/20 It’s been a few but here it goes. When all this started on me back in 2000, I was taking home $2700 a week, give or take. As my jobs and clients I had in my business dried up due to the relentless non-stop harrassment that plagued me, all my assets and income slid downhill to the point where I had nothing coming in at all. As a result I had to keep finding new ways to make money.This led me to dumpster diving. This led me to conflicts with store employees, security guards and eventually the police. Having no other alternative I thought for years , that I was doing something wrong. In time, as I gathered more knowledge regarding what I was actually doing, I found out that the exact opposite true.I had every right to be where I was, doing what I was doing. I couldn’t believe what I was finding in these dumpsters. Filled, and I mean filled with perfectly good merchandise most of which wasn’t even near the “ëxpiration date.” The only sense I could m,ake out of this was that:No business could throw away the amounts of merchandise in the condition this was in and stay in business for very long, or, who in their right mind would throw obvious profit/money down the drain like this.This merchandise was obviously written off against tax liability to offset the amount of money owed by a corporation in income tax.The IRS didn’t have any field auditors looking in dumpsters and were oblivious to what was going on. They had to be.The reason managers had employees, hired security guards and even police running people off they found looking in dumpsters was 1. they don’t want people to actually become aware of what is actually in there, and 2. they are afraid people will bring it back in the front door for a refund. I mean what good is it to go through all that trouble bilking taxpayers expecting a nice quarterly bonus check to have some bum come back in the front door and negate all your hard work and anticipation?My conclusion was this. Stores use hand held inventory machines to track merchandise. So when they scan this merchandise and devalue it to be written off against their or the manufacturers taxes, take it out back and put it in a dumpster…..whose property is it at that point?Why the taxpayers of the USA, that’s who, and thereby public domain. So to sat that, “no, this is private property,” is a load of bullshit, and, actually opens them up other criminal charges in addition to those they have already committed.Chula Vista, California has a mall located at H street and Broadway. The Mall has a CVS and a Burlington Coat Factory located on the I street side. These guys just love to throw away tons of good stuff so naturally I made this a regular stop.When confronted by mall security, I would just grab my sack full of goodies and walk calmly off the property to the sidewalk where the guards who were dogging me and yelling orders like, “Stop!!” and “put that down,” had to stop because they couldn’t leave mall property.Now I tried informing them of California -v- Greenwood and explaining what was transpiring, but they didn’t care. The obvious next step was threats of calling the police, to which I would stop and tell them, “go ahead, I’ll wait right here.” Which I would do. CVPD would come out and tell me, “no, you’re wrong”amongst other things like, “I’ll arrest you and take you to jail,” to which I would reply, “no you’re not” and this would always turn into an empty threat. I figured I must be right.Well at some point the police must have gotten tired of all the repeated calls by these guys and someone must have given the green light for these guys to physically attack and beat me, and take my belongings.The last two times this happened were pretty serious assault and batteries where one time I seriously had questions as to whether or not I was going to make it. I had four guys on me. One had applied a choke hold and I couldn’t breath. Passers-by called 911.The cops came out and after having me hand cuffed in the back seat and their bodycam rolling, came up to me and wanted me to agree that I was in the wrong and he’d let me go, thereby having a confession of sorts on film. I wouldn’t go along and say what he wanted me to say.So he went over to the guard after telling me and his partner, “we’re going to have to 243 you.” California penal code 243 is battery. So he comes back and informs me I’m being charged on a book and release. They kept my cart and belongings which consisted of a bunch of large bags of M&M’s plain and peanuts.Upon going to court, the prosecutor keeps trying to get me to accept a plea bargain and I keep telling him, “no deals here, my man.” This has gone on for 2 years now, and then the other day I find out I’ve been charged with a felony. A new case where security guards from the same mall say I have taken a defibrulator valued at over $2000 and thereby the charge is grand theft.They say the theft occurred on 09/06/19, they claim to have video of me in the parking lot on 09/08/19, I received mail from local attornies on 09/24/19 offering to represent me on my serious case, but my attorney informs me the prosecutor didn’t file the case until the end of January 2020.Que pedo es esto? Point being, this is how gang stalking works. Police and people with no authority or priviledge to sensitive material can make life real hell on anyone they are so inclined to target.to be continued…26/06/2020Ok, here’s what the past year has brought. Turns out the DA’s tape shows someone who doesn’t resemble me at all, and my attorney has requested a dismissal but has of yet not received a response. The misdemeanor still pends.Looks to me like more tactics to avoid that billion dollar claim filed on 7/22/11. They are trying though. So who employs gang stalkers? Better yet and more direct, “who are gang stalkers?”I’m about 99.97% sure on this. In my situation it came out of Detroit, Michigan as a contract to cover some corrupt activity and keep me down. Iused to think that everyone was “in”on this, but, the way it turns out a very small crew very adept at manipulating the system is responsible, and, make allies out of everyday people through lies they perpetrate to the police, courts, the DMV, MADD, VAWA advocates….anyone who can be counted on to act and react in a normal fashion expected from persons who work at all the desired positions and are normal exhibitors of human nature.Those feelings and emotions which are embedded in us all and elicit elevated emotional responses to specific stimuli introduced into a controlled environment to the unwitting accomplice by a special interest manipulator with knowlwedge and intent to subject the target to an unlimited amount of possible violations restricted only by the accomplices imagination and moral and ethical boundaries. The sim knows full well that the accomplice is going to react.The best part of this is he doesn’t have to pay or come into direct contact with the person(s) and has an army of possible “helpers” at his disposal.And, he doesn’t mind using others in any capacity.Gang Stalking is real. Gang Stalking is as ugly as it gets. It has permitted a lot of people supposedly clean righteous and pious pillars of society to cross a line they can never go back across.It’s like the devil showed up one day and snatched an unbelieveable number of souls in a very short time, and, everyone who no longer has a soul still want to stand around and act like they do. Well, the joke’s on you.People might talk and think a lot of shit about me, and, I may be part of a vastly small minority……………….but I still got my soul. And you?END

Wouldn't false charges against Trump, his family, and compadres get thrown out like his own allegations of fraud was for lack of evidence?

I’m tired of Trump followers not accepting that Trump has been gaming the system for years, has many cases of fraud proven against him, and is facing criminal prosecution when his leaves office. Rather than have them look it up,I’m presenting it right here for anyone to read. 3500 legal cases involving Donald Trump, including fraud: Nest time you want to question the validity of public accusations against Trump, read the following article, which is very well documented.It’s interesting that Trump claims he pays his taxes when evidence indicates he has not paid any local taxes and has been citied by the local governments for non payment in multiple cases. He pays little in the way of federal taxes because he is such a terrible businessman. The Trump organization lost a racial discrimination case in which elder Trump built the apartments with federal money then refused to rent to people of color. Trump denies he is racist but the facts prove otherwise.People like Sean Hannity need to read up on the facts before they spew their hatred out for public consumption. His lies and disinformation may spell his own end. People ae tired of the lies and it would be well if the Republican party got it together and quit working against America, and began a new course of action that includes not attacking our greatest institutions, which are a part of this marvelous country.Legal affairs of Donald Trump - WikipediaLegal affairs of Donald TrumpFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to search(November 2020)For lawsuits arising out of his actions as president, see List of lawsuits involving Donald Trump.This article is part ofa series aboutDonald TrumpPresident of the United StatesIncumbentPresidencyTransitionInaugurationTimelineExecutive actions proclamationspardonsTrips internationalNorth Korea summits SingaporeHanoiDMZHelsinki summitShutdowns Jan 20182018–19PollsLawsuitsProtests St. John's Church photo opSocial mediaVeracity of statementsKillings al-BaghdadiSoleimaniCOVID-19 pandemic TaskforceCommunicationGovernment response CARES ActOperation Warp SpeedWhite House outbreakInterference with science agenciesAppointmentsCabinet speculationAmbassadorsFederal judges GorsuchKavanaughBarrettSupreme Court candidatesExecutivesU.S. AttorneysFormer ComeyPoliciesEconomy tax cuts repeal of the ACA individual mandatetariffsChina trade warEnvironment Paris withdrawalForeign policy America FirstIran dealGulf crisisJerusalemGolan HeightsTrump peace planAbraham Accords UAEBahrainSudanUSMCAKosovo–Serbia agreementImmigration travel banwallfamily separationmigrant detentionstroop deploymentsnational emergencyInfrastructureSocial issues cannabisSpace Space ForceImpeachmentEarly effortsTrump–Ukraine scandalInquiry and hearingsSenate trialshowPresidential campaignsshowInteractions involving RussiashowBusiness and personalvteAn analysis by USA Today published in June 2016 found that over the previous three decades, Donald Trump and his businesses have been involved in 3,500 legal cases in U.S. federal courts and state court, an unprecedented number for a U.S. presidential candidate.[1]Of the 3,500 suits, Trump or one of his companies were plaintiffs in 1,900; defendants in 1,450; and bankruptcy, third party, or other in 150.[1]Trump was named in at least 169 suits in federal court.[2]Over 150 other cases were in the Seventeenth Judicial Circuit Court of Florida (covering Broward County, Florida) since 1983.[3]In about 500 cases, judges dismissed plaintiffs' claims against Trump. In hundreds more, cases ended with the available public record unclear about the resolution.[1]Where there was a clear resolution, Trump won 451 times, and lost 38.[4]The topics of the legal cases include contract disputes, defamation claims, and allegations of sexual harassment. Trump's companies have been involved in more than 100 tax disputes, and on "at least three dozen" occasions the New York State Department of Taxation and Finance has obtained tax liens against Trump properties for nonpayment of taxes.[1]On a number of occasions, Trump has threatened legal action but did not ultimately follow through.[5]Of Trump's involvement in the lawsuits, his lawyer Alan Garten said in 2015 that this was "a natural part of doing business in [the United States]",[5][6]and in the real estate industry, litigation to enforce contracts and resolve business disputes is indeed common.[5]Trump has, however, been involved in far more litigation than fellow real-estate magnates; the USA Today analysis in 2016 found that Trump had been involved in legal disputes more than Edward J. DeBartolo Jr., Donald Bren, Stephen M. Ross, Sam Zell, and Larry Silverstein combined.[1]The Trump lawsuits[5][6]have attracted criticism from Trump's opponents, who say that this is not a trait that conservatives should support.[5]James Copland, director of legal policy at the conservative-leaning Manhattan Institute, states that "Trump clearly has an affinity for filing lawsuits, partly because he owns a lot of businesses" and has sometimes used litigation as a "bullying tactic".[5]Although Trump has said that he "never" settles legal claims, Trump and his businesses have settled with plaintiffs in at least 100 cases (mostly involving personal injury claims arising from injuries at Trump properties), with settlements ranging as high as hundreds of thousands of U.S. dollars[1]and recently as high as tens of millions of dollars.[7]Among the most well-known Trump legal cases was the Trump University litigation. Three legal actions were brought alleging fraud, one by the New York State attorney general and the others by class action plaintiffs.[8]In November 2016, Trump agreed to pay $25 million to settle the litigation.[7]Contents1Lawsuits 1973–19991.11970s1.21980s1.31990s1.3.1Business1.3.2Personal and sexual2Lawsuits 2000–20093Lawsuits 2010–present3.1Construction and property law matters3.2Defamation matters3.3Financial matters3.3.1ALM lawsuit3.3.2ACN lawsuit3.3.3Mary L. Trump lawsuit3.4Trump University litigation3.5Breach of contract matters3.5.120133.5.220143.5.320153.5.420183.6Assault claims3.7Poll watching controversy3.8Nevada early voting Latino turnout controversy3.9Lawsuit for inciting violence at March 2016 campaign rally3.10Payments related to alleged affairs3.11Lawsuits over congressional subpoenas4Special Counsel investigation5Allegations of business links to organized crime6Use of bankruptcy laws6.119916.219926.320046.420097Campaign contributions8Inaugural committee9Donald J. Trump Foundation10Controversy over tax returns11Destruction of documents12See also13References14Further readingLawsuits 1973–1999[edit]1970s[edit]Trump initially came to public attention in 1973 when he was accused by the Justice Department of violations of the Fair Housing Act in the operation of 39 buildings. The Department of Justice said that black "testers" were sent to more than half a dozen buildings and were denied apartments, but a similar white tester would then be offered an apartment in the same building.[9]The government alleged that Trump's corporation quoted different rental terms and conditions to blacks and made false "no vacancy" statements to blacks for apartments they managed in Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island.[10]Representing Trump, Roy Cohn filed a counter-suit against the government for $100 million, asserting that the charges were irresponsible and baseless.[9][11]A federal judge threw out the countersuit, calling it a waste of "time and paper".[12]Trump settled the charges out of court in 1975 without admitting guilt, saying he was satisfied that the agreement did not "compel the Trump organization to accept persons on welfare as tenants unless as qualified as any other tenant".[13]Tony Schwartz, the ghostwriter of Trump's book, The Art of the Deal, said that the housing case was "a classic example" of Trump being "a counterpuncher": someone accuses Trump of doing something horrible, and he "goes back at them with all guns blazing.... And admits nothing." If Trump loses, he will "declare victory".[14]The corporation was required to send a bi-weekly list of vacancies to the New York Urban League, a civil rights group, and give them priority for certain locations.[15]In 1978 the Trump Organization again was in court for violating terms of the 1975 settlement; Trump denied the charges.[9][12][16]1980s[edit]In 1985, New York City brought a lawsuit against Trump for allegedly using tactics to force out tenants of 100 Central Park South,[17]which he intended to demolish together with the building next door. After ten years in court, the two sides negotiated a deal allowing the building to stand as condominiums.[18]In 1988, the Justice Department sued Trump for violating procedures related to public notifications when buying voting stock in a company related to his attempted takeovers of Holiday Corporation and Bally Manufacturing Corporation in 1986. On April 5, 1988, Trump agreed to pay $750,000 to settle the civil penalties of the antitrust lawsuit.[19]1990s[edit]Business[edit]In late 1990, Trump was sued for $2 million by a business analyst for defamation, and Trump settled out of court.[20]Shortly before Trump's Taj Mahal opened in April 1990, the analyst had said that the project would fail by the end of that year. Trump threatened to sue the analyst's firm unless the analyst recanted or was fired. The analyst refused to retract the statements, and his firm fired him for ostensibly unrelated reasons.[21]Trump Taj Mahal declared bankruptcy in November 1990, the first of several such bankruptcies.[22]The NYSE later ordered the firm to compensate the analyst $750,000; the analyst did not release the details of his settlement with Trump.[23]In 1991, Trump sued the manufacturers of a helicopter that crashed in 1989, killing three executives of his New Jersey hotel casino business.[24]The helicopter fell 2,800 feet after the main four-blade rotor and tail rotor broke off the craft, killing Jonathan Benanav, an executive of Trump Plaza, and two others: Mark Grossinger Etess, president of Trump Taj Mahal, and Stephen F. Hyde, chief executive of the Atlantic City casinos.[25][26][27]One of the defendant companies was owned by the Italian government, providing a basis for removing it to federal court, where the case was dismissed. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit upheld the dismissal in 1992, and the Supreme Court denied Trump's petition to hear the case in the same year.[28]In 1991, Trump Plaza was fined $200,000 by the New Jersey Casino Control Commission for moving African American and female employees from craps tables in order to accommodate high roller Robert LiButti, a mob figure and alleged John Gotti associate, who was said to fly into fits of racist rage when he was on losing streaks.[29]There is no indication that Trump was ever questioned in that investigation, he was not held personally liable, and Trump denies even knowing what LiButti looked like.[29]In 1991, one of Trump's casinos in Atlantic City, New Jersey, was found guilty of circumventing state regulations about casino financing when Donald Trump's father bought $3.5 million in chips that he had no plans to gamble. Trump Castle was forced to pay a $30,000 fine under the settlement, according to New Jersey Division of Gaming Enforcement director Jack Sweeney. Trump was not disciplined for the illegal advance on his inheritance, which was not confiscated.[30]In 1993, Donald Trump sued Jay Pritzker, a Chicago financier and Trump's business partner since 1979 on the Grand Hyatt hotel. Trump alleged that Pritzker overstated earnings in order to collect excessive management fees.[31]In 1994, Pritzker sued Trump for violating their agreement by, among other ways, failing to remain solvent.[32]The two parties ended the feud in 1995 in a sealed settlement, in which Trump retained some control of the hotel and Pritzker would receive reduced management fees and pay Trump's legal expenses.[33]In 1993, Vera Coking sued Trump and his demolition contractor for damage to her home during construction of the Trump Plaza Hotel and Casino.[34]In 1997, she dropped the suit against Trump and settled with his contractor for $90,000.[35]Coking had refused to sell her home to Trump and ultimately won a 1998 Supreme Court decision that prevented Atlantic City from using eminent domain to condemn her property.[36][37]In 1996, Trump was sued by more than 20 African-American residents of Indiana who charged that Trump reneged on promises to hire 70% of his work force from the minority community for his riverboat casino on Lake Michigan. The suit also charged that he hadn't honored his commitments to steer sufficient contracts to minority-owned businesses in Gary, Indiana. The suit was eventually dismissed due to procedural and jurisdiction issues.[38][39]In the late 1990s, Donald Trump and rival Atlantic City casino owner Stephen Wynn engaged in an extended legal conflict during the planning phase of new casinos Wynn had proposed to build. Both owners filed lawsuits against one another and other parties, including the State of New Jersey, beginning with Wynn's antitrust accusation against Trump.[40][41]After two years in court, Wynn's Mirage casino sued Trump in 1999 alleging that his company had engaged in a conspiracy to harm Mirage and steal proprietary information, primarily lists of wealthy Korean gamblers. In response, Trump's attorneys claimed that Trump's private investigator dishonored his contract by working as a "double agent" for the Mirage casino by secretly taping conversations with Trump. All the cases were settled at the same time on the planned day of an evidentiary hearing in court in February 2000, which was never held.[42]Personal and sexual[edit]In 1992, Trump sued ex-wife Ivana Trump for not honoring a gag clause in their divorce agreement by disclosing facts about him in her bestselling book. Trump won the gag order.[43][44][45]The divorce was granted on grounds that Ivana claimed Donald Trump's treatment of her was "cruel and inhuman treatment".[46][47]Years later, Ivana said that she and Donald "are the best of friends".[48]A sexual assault claim from 1994 for child rape was filed against Trump on October 14, 2016,[49]a case that was dropped and refiled, remaining in suspension as of November 4, 2016.[50]In April 1997, Jill Harth Houraney filed a $125,000,000 lawsuit against Trump for sexual harassment in 1993, claiming he "'groped' her under her dress and told her he wanted to make her his 'sex slave'". Harth voluntarily withdrew the suit when her husband settled a parallel case. Trump has called the allegations "meritless".[51][52]Lawsuits 2000–2009[edit]In 2000, Donald Trump paid $250,000 to settle fines related to charges brought by New York State Lobbying Commission director David Grandeau. Trump was charged with circumventing state law to spend $150,000 lobbying against government approval of plans to construct an Indian-run casino in the Catskills, which would have diminished casino traffic to Trump's casinos in Atlantic City.[53][54]From 2000 on, Trump tried to partner with a German venture in building a "Trump Tower Europe" in Germany. The company founded for this, "TD Trump Deutschland AG" was dissolved in 2003, several lawsuits following in the years thereafter.[55]In 2001, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission brought a financial-reporting case against Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts Inc., alleging that the company had committed several "misleading statements in the company's third-quarter 1999 earnings release". Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts Inc. consented to the commission's cease-and-desist order, said the culprit had been dismissed, and that Trump had personally been unaware of the matter.[56][57][58]Trump sued Leona Helmsley,[59]and Helmsley counter-sued Trump[60]due to contentions regarding ownership and operation of the Empire State Building. In 2002, Trump announced that he and his Japanese business partners, were selling the Empire State Building to partners of his rival Leona Helmsley.[61][62]In 2003, the city of Stuttgart denied TD Trump Deutschland AG, a Trump Organization subsidiary, the permission to build a planned tower due to questions over its financing. Trump Deutschland sued the city of Stuttgart, and lost. In 2004 Trump's German corporate partner brought suit against the Trump Organization for failure to pay back a EUR 200 million pre-payment as promised. In 2005, the German state attorney prosecuted Trump Deutschland and its partners for accounting fraud.[63][64][65]In 2004, Donald Trump sued Richard T. Fields in Broward County Circuit Court (in Florida); Fields was once Trump's business partner in the casino business, but had recently become a successful casino developer in Florida apart from Trump. Fields counter-sued Trump in Florida court. Trump alleged that Fields misled other parties into believing he still consulted for Trump, and Fields alleged improprieties in Trump's business.[66]The two businessmen agreed in 2008 to drop the lawsuits when Fields agreed to buy Trump Marina in Atlantic City, New Jersey, for $316 million,[67]but the deal was unsettled again in 2009 because Trump resigned his leadership of Trump Entertainment after Fields lowered his bid.[68]Fields never bought the company, which went into bankruptcy about the same time and was sold for $38 million.[69][70]Trump's lawsuit was dismissed after a hearing in 2010.[71]In 2004, the Trump Organization partnered with Bayrock Group on a $200 million hotel and condo project in Fort Lauderdale Beach, to be called Trump International Hotel & Tower. After proceeding for five years, real estate market devaluation stymied the project in 2009 and Trump dissolved his licensing deal, demanding that his name be removed from the building. Soon after this, the project defaulted on a $139 million loan in 2010.[72]Investors later sued the developers for fraud. Trump petitioned to have his name removed from the suit, saying he had only lent his name to the project. However his request was refused since he had participated in advertising for it.[73]The insolvent building project spawned over 10 lawsuits, some of which were still not settled in early 2016.[74]In 2006, the Town of Palm Beach began fining Trump $250 per day for ordinance violations related to his erection of an 80-foot-tall (24 m) flagpole flying a 15 by 25 feet (4.6 by 7.6 m) American flag on his property. Trump sued the town for $25 million, saying that they abridged his free speech, also disputing an ordinance that local businesses be "town-serving". The two parties settled as part of a court-ordered mediation, in which Trump was required to donate $100,000 to veterans' charities. At the same time, the town ordinance was modified allowing Trump to enroll out-of-town members in his Mar-a-Lago social club.[75]Trump International Hotel and Tower in ChicagoAfter the 2008 housing-market collapse, Deutsche Bank attempted to collect $40 million that Donald Trump personally guaranteed against their $640 million loan for Trump International Hotel and Tower in Chicago. Rather than paying the debt, Trump sued Deutsche Bank for $3 billion for undermining the project and damage to his reputation.[76]Deutsche Bank then filed suit to obtain the $40 million. The two parties settled in 2010 with Deutsche Bank extending the loan term by five years.[77]In 2008, Trump filed a $100 million lawsuit for alleged fraud and civil rights violations[78]against the California city of Rancho Palos Verdes, over thwarted luxury home development and expansion plans upon part of a landslide-prone golf course in the area, which was purchased by Trump in 2002 for $27 million.[78]Trump had previously sued a local school district over land leased from them in the re-branded Trump National Golf Club, and had further angered some local residents by renaming a thoroughfare after himself.[78]The $100 million suit was ultimately withdrawn in 2012 with Trump and the city agreeing to modified geological surveys and permit extensions for some 20 proposed luxury homes (in addition to 36 homes previously approved).[79][80]Trump ultimately opted for a permanent conservation easement instead of expanded housing development on the course's driving range.[81]In 2008, developer Leslie Dick Worldwide Ltd., New York, filed a RICO complaint against 17 parties, including Donald Trump, financier George Soros, Fortress Investment Group and Cerberus Capital Management, over the 2003 sale of the General Motors Corp. Building in midtown Manhattan. The case was voluntarily dismissed without prejudice a year later.[82][83]In 2009, Donald Trump sued a law firm he had used, Morrison Cohen, for $5 million for mentioning his name and providing links to related news articles on its website. This lawsuit followed a lawsuit by Trump alleging overcharging by the law firm, and a countersuit by Morrison Cohen seeking unpaid legal fees.[84]The suit was dismissed in a 15-page ruling by Manhattan Supreme Court Justice Eileen Bransten, who ruled that the links to news articles concerned "matters of public interest."[85]In 2009, Trump was sued by investors who had made deposits for condos in the canceled Trump Ocean Resort Baja Mexico.[86]The investors said that Trump misrepresented his role in the project, stating after its failure that he had been little more than a spokesperson for the entire venture, disavowing any financial responsibility for the debacle.[87]Investors were informed that their investments would not be returned due to the cancellation of construction.[86]In 2013, Trump settled the lawsuit with more than one hundred prospective condo owners for an undisclosed amount.[88]Lawsuits 2010–present[edit]Construction and property law matters[edit]In 2011, Donald Trump sued Scotland, alleging that it built the Aberdeen Bay Wind Farm after assuring him it would not be built. He had recently built a golf course there and planned to build an adjacent hotel. Trump lost his suit, with the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom unanimously ruling in favor of the Scottish government in 2015.[89][90]In 2013, 87-year-old Jacqueline Goldberg unsuccessfully sued Trump on allegations that he cheated her in a condominium sale by bait-and-switch when she was purchasing properties at the Trump International Hotel and Tower.[91]In 2015, Trump initiated a $100 million lawsuit against Palm Beach County claiming that officials, in a "deliberate and malicious" act, pressured the FAA to direct air traffic to the Palm Beach International Airport over his Mar-a-Lago estate, because he said the airplanes damaged the building and disrupted its ambiance.[92]Trump had previously sued the county twice over airport noise; the first lawsuit, in 1995, ended with an agreement between Trump and the county; Trump's second lawsuit, in 2010, was dismissed.[92]Trump is suing the town of Ossining, New York, over the property tax valuation on his 147-acre (59 ha) Trump National Golf Club Westchester, located in Briarcliff Manor's portion of the town, which Trump purchased for around $8 million at a foreclosure sale in the 1990s and to which he claimed, at the club's opening, to have added $45 million in facility improvements.[93]Although Trump stated in his 2015 FEC filing that the property was worth at least $50 million, his lawsuit seeks a $1.4 million valuation on the property, which includes a 75,000-square-foot clubhouse, five overnight suites, and permission to build 71 condominium units,[93]in an effort to shave $424,176 from his annual local property tax obligations.[94]Trump filed the action after separately being sued by Briarcliff Manor for "intentional and illegal modifications" to a drainage system that caused more than $238,000 in damage to the village's library, public pool, and park facilities during a 2011 storm.[94]In October 2016, the Ontario Court of Appeal ruled that Trump, together with two principals of a connected developer, could be sued for various claims, including oppression, collusion and breach of fiduciary duties, in relation to his role in the marketing of units in the Trump International Hotel and Tower in Toronto, Canada.[95]A subsequent application for leave to appeal was dismissed by the Supreme Court of Canada in March 2017.[96]Also in October 2016, JCF Capital ULC (a private firm that had bought the construction loan on the building) announced that it was seeking court approval under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act to have the building sold in order to recoup its debt, which then totaled $301 million.[97]The court allowed for its auction[98]which took place in March 2017, but no bidders, apart from one stalking horse offer, took part.[99]Defamation matters[edit]Also in 2011, an appellate court upheld a New Jersey Superior Court judge's decision dismissing Trump's $5 billion defamation lawsuit against author Timothy L. O'Brien, who had reported in his book, TrumpNation: The Art of Being the Donald (2005), that Trump's true net worth was really between $150 and $250 million. Trump had reportedly told O'Brien he was worth billions and, in 2005, had publicly stated such.[100]Trump said that the author's alleged underestimation of his net worth was motivated by malice and had cost him business deals and damage to his reputation.[101]The appellate court, however, ruled against Trump, citing the consistency of O'Brien's three confidential sources.[102]In 2014, the former Miss Pennsylvania Sheena Monnin ultimately settled a $5 million arbitration judgment against her, having been sued by Trump after alleging that the Miss USA 2012 pageant results were rigged. Monnin wrote on her Facebook page that another contestant told her during a rehearsal that she had seen a list of the top five finalists, and when those names were called in their precise order, Monnin realized the pageant election process was suspect, compelling Monnin to resign her Miss Pennsylvania title. The Trump Organization's lawyer said that Monnin's allegations had cost the pageant a lucrative British Petroleum sponsorship deal and threatened to discourage women from entering Miss USA contests in the future.[103]According to Monnin, testimony from the Miss Universe Organization and Ernst & Young revealed that the top 15 finalists were selected by pageant directors regardless of preliminary judges' scores.[104]As part of the settlement, Monnin was not required to retract her original statements.[103]On January 17, 2017, Summer Zervos, represented by attorney Gloria Allred, filed a defamation suit against President-elect Donald Trump for claiming that she had lied in her public sexual assault allegations against him.[105]Financial matters[edit]ALM lawsuit[edit]In July 2011, New York firm ALM Unlimited filed a lawsuit against Trump for non-payment. ALM had been hired in 2003 to seek offers from clothing companies for a Trump fashion line, and it had arranged a meeting between Trump and PVH, which licensed the Trump name for dress shirts and neckwear. ALM, which had received over $300,000 during a three-year period, alleged in the lawsuit that Trump's discontinuation of payments in 2008 was against their initial agreement. In pre-trial depositions, Trump and two of his business officials – attorney George H. Ross and executive vice president of global licensing Cathy Glosser – gave contradictory statements regarding whether ALM was entitled to payments. Trump, who felt that ALM had only a limited role in the deal between him and PVH, said "I have thousands of checks that I sign a week, and I don't look at very many of the checks; and eventually I did look, and when I saw them (ALM) I stopped paying them because I knew it was a mistake or somebody made a mistake."[106]Trump and ALM failed to settle, and in January 2013 a judge ordered that the case go to trial.[107]During the trial in April 2013, Trump said that ALM's role in the PVH agreement was insubstantial, stating that Regis Philbin (rather than ALM) was the one who recommended PVH to him. Trump's attorney, Alan Garten, said ALM was not legally entitled to any money.[107][108][109]The judge ruled in favor of Trump later that month because there had never been a valid contract between him and ALM.[109]ACN lawsuit[edit]Main article: ACN Inc.As of 2019, investors are suing Donald Trump and his family for fraud, false advertising, and unfair competition. They allege that Trump recommended the multi-level marketing company ACN as a good investment and that Trump did not disclose that he was being paid by ACN.Mary L. Trump lawsuit[edit]Further information: Fred Trump § Wealth and death, Fred Trump Jr., and Too Much and Never EnoughTrump's niece, Mary L. Trump, opened a lawsuit against the president and his siblings Robert and Maryanne Trump, alleging that they conducted fraud to keep her and her brother out of the will of Fred Trump (Donald's father), including by conspiring with a trustee assigned to her, and acted to devalue her interests in the family business—effectively defrauding her of tens of millions of dollars. Further, she alleges that these accomplices pressured her to sign a settlement agreement by threatening to bankrupt interests benefitting her and cut off the healthcare insurance for her infant nephew, who was then suffering from cerebral palsy.[110]Trump University litigation[edit]Main article: Trump University § Allegations of impropriety and lawsuitsIn 2013, in a lawsuit filed by New York attorney general Eric Schneiderman, Trump was accused of defrauding more than 5,000 people of $40 million for the opportunity to learn Trump's real estate investment techniques in a for-profit training program, Trump University, which operated from 2005 to 2011.[111][112][113]Trump ultimately stopped using the term "University" following a 2010 order from New York regulators, who called Trump's use of the word "misleading and even illegal"; the state had previously warned Trump in 2005 to drop the term or not offer seminars in New York.[114][115][116]Although Trump has claimed a 98% approval rating on course evaluations, former students recounted high-pressure tactics from instructors seeking the highest possible ratings, including threats of withholding graduation certificates,[117]. In addition, the high reviews were solicited before the courses ended, when the students still anticipated receiving benefits that ultimately never materialized. Subsequently, more than 2,000 students sought and received course refunds before the end of their paid seminars.[117]In a separate class action civil suit against Trump University in mid-February 2014, a San Diego federal judge allowed claimants in California, Florida, and New York to proceed;[118]a Trump counterclaim, alleging that the state attorney general's investigation was accompanied by a campaign donation shakedown, was investigated by a New York ethics board and dismissed in August 2015.[119]Trump filed a $1 million defamation suit against former Trump University student Tarla Makaeff, who had spent about $37,000 on seminars, after she joined the class action lawsuit and publicized her classroom experiences on social media.[87]Trump University was later ordered by a U.S. district judge in April 2015 to pay Makaeff and her lawyers $798,774.24 in legal fees and costs.[87][120]Donald Trump was found to have defrauded students, and was forced to pay $25 million in restitution.Breach of contract matters[edit]2013[edit]In 2013 Trump sued comedian Bill Maher for $5 million for breach of contract.[121]Maher had appeared on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno and had offered to pay $5 million to a charity if Trump produced his birth certificate to prove that Trump's mother had not mated with an orangutan. This was said by Maher in response to Trump having previously challenged Obama to produce his birth certificate, and offering $5 million payable to a charity of Obama's choice, if Obama produced his college applications, transcripts, and passport records.[122][123]Trump produced his birth certificate and filed a lawsuit after Maher was not forthcoming, claiming that Maher's $5 million offer was legally binding. "I don't think he was joking," Trump said. "He said it with venom."[122]Trump withdrew his lawsuit against the comedian after eight weeks.[124]2014[edit]In 2014, model Alexia Palmer filed a civil suit against Trump Model Management for promising a $75,000 annual salary but paying only $3,380.75 for three years' work. Palmer, who came to the US at age 17 from Jamaica under the H-1B visa program in 2011,[125]claimed to be owed more than $200,000. Palmer contended that Trump Model Management charged, in addition to a management fee, "obscure expenses" from postage to limousine rides that consumed the remainder of her compensation. Palmer alleged that Trump Model Management promised to withhold only 20% of her net pay as agency expenses, but after charging her for those "obscure expenses", ended up taking 80%.[126]Trump attorney Alan Garten claimed the lawsuit is "bogus and completely frivolous".[127][128]Palmer filed a class-action lawsuit against the modeling agency with similar allegations.[129]The case was dismissed from U.S. federal court in March 2016, in part because Palmer's immigration status, via H1-B visa sponsored by Trump, required labor complaints to be filed through a separate process.[126][130]2015[edit]In 2015, Trump sued Univision, demanding $500 million for breach of contract and defamation when they dropped their planned broadcast of the Miss USA pageant. The network said that the decision was made because of Trump's "insulting remarks about Mexican immigrants".[131]Trump settled the lawsuit with Univision CEO Randy Falco out of court.[132]In July 2015, Trump filed a $10 million lawsuit in D.C. Superior Court for breach of contract against Spanish celebrity chef José Andrés, claiming that he backed out of a deal to open the flagship restaurant at Trump International Hotel in Washington, D.C.[133][134]Andrés replied that Trump's lawsuit was "both unsurprising and without merit"[135]and filed an $8 million counterclaim against a Trump Organization subsidiary.[134][136]Also in July 2015, Chef Geoffrey Zakarian also withdrew from the Washington, D.C., project with Andrés in the wake of Trump's comments on Mexican illegal immigrants, and is expected to lose his own $500,000 restaurant lease deposit as a result.[135]Trump denounced and then sued Zakarian in August 2015 for a sum "in excess of $10 million" for lost rent and other damages.[137]Trump's lawsuit called Zakarian's offense at his remarks "curious in light of the fact that Mr. Trump's publicly shared views on immigration have remained consistent for many years, and Mr. Trump's willingness to frankly share his opinions is widely known".[137][138]Disputes with both chefs were eventually settled in April 2017.[139]In 2015, restaurant workers at Trump SoHo filed a lawsuit that from 2009 to at least the time of the filing, gratuities added to customers' checks were illegally withheld from employees. The Trump Organization has responded that the dispute is between the employees and their employer, a third-party contractor. Donald Trump has been scheduled to testify in court on September 1, 2016.[140][141]2018[edit]Further information: List of lawsuits involving Donald TrumpIn 2018, Noel Cintron, the personal driver for Donald Trump before he became the president of the United States, filed a lawsuit Cintron v Trump Organization LLC with the Supreme Court of the State of New York (Manhattan). The lawsuit claims that during his 25-year employment by Trump, he was not compensated for overtime and the second time his salary was raised he was induced to surrender his health insurance, an action which saved Trump approximately $17,866 per year.[142]The lawsuit seeks $178,200 of overtime back pay, plus $5,000 in penalties that are seen under the New York State Labor Law.[143]Assault claims[edit]In September 2015, five men who had demonstrated outside of a Trump presidential campaign event at Trump Tower in New York City sued Donald Trump, alleging that Trump's security staff punched one of them. They also allege that Trump's security guards had been advised by city police that they were permitted to protest there. Several people videotaped the incident.[144][145]In June 2015, the Culinary Workers Union filed charges with the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), alleging that the owners of Trump Hotel Las Vegas "violated the federally protected rights of workers to participate in union activities" and engaged in "incidents of alleged physical assault, verbal abuse, intimidation, and threats by management".[146]In October 2015, the Trump Ruffin Commercial and Trump Ruffin Tower I, the owners of Trump Hotel Las Vegas, sued the Culinary Workers Union and another union, alleging that they had knowingly distributed flyers that falsely stated that Donald Trump had stayed at a rival unionized hotel, rather than his own non-unionized hotel, during a trip to Las Vegas.[5][146]Poll watching controversy[edit]On October 31, 2016, a New Jersey federal judge, John Michael Vazquez, ordered the Republican National Committee (RNC) to hand over all communications with the Trump campaign related to poll watching and voter fraud. He asked for testimony and documents relating to Kellyanne Conway, RNC officials Ronna Romney McDaniel of Michigan, and Rob Gleason from Pennsylvania.[147]It is claimed Gleason, McDaniel, and Roger Stone recruited poll watchers to check for voter fraud. The state Democratic parties of Nevada, Pennsylvania, Arizona, and Ohio filed lawsuits against Trump for encouraging illegal voter intimidation. The states' Democratic parties are also suing their respective Republican party counterparts, along with Roger Stone, who is allegedly recruiting poll watchers and organizing ballot security efforts in a number of states. Stone runs the group "Stop the Steal." It claims Trump supporters yelled at voters outside Las Vegas area polling places when they said they weren't voting for the Republican nominee, and that Stone is asking supporters to conduct an illegitimate "exit polling" initiative aimed at intimidating voters of color.Pat McDonald, the director of Cuyahoga County Board of Elections in Ohio, reported that "Trump supporters have already visited the county elections board identifying themselves as poll observers, even though they did not appear to be credentialed as poll observers as required under Ohio law." Election officials have expressed concern about "instability on Election Day," one lawsuit claims, and discussed the possibility of bringing police to polling sites to address conflicts. In Clark County of Nevada, a lawsuit claims: "A Trump supporter harassed and intimidated multiple voters outside of the Albertson's supermarket early voting location on Lake Mead Boulevard, repeatedly asking voters for whom they were voting, and then yelling at them belligerently and attempting to keep them from entering the voting location when they stated they were not voting for Donald Trump." When poll staffers told the Trump supporters to stop harassing voters, "the Trump supporter told poll workers that he had 'a right to say anything he wanted to the voters.'" Poll staffers called police, and the Trump supporter left. The lawsuit also claims similar incidents took place in neighboring Nye County as well. In Pennsylvania, Murrysville City Councilman Josh Lorenz supposedly posted instructions for the way Clinton supporters could vote online, even though there is no online voting in Pennsylvania. Eight registered electors, mostly from the Philadelphia area, challenged the portion of the state Election Code that prevents poll watchers from observing elections outside of the counties where they live.[148][149][150]In Pompano Beach, Florida, police asked two poll watchers to leave a polling site. Two precinct clerks were also fired for not adhering to policy and training. No arrests were made. No other incidents were reported in South Florida.[151][152]Nevada early voting Latino turnout controversy[edit]On November 8, 2016, Trump filed a lawsuit claiming early voting polling places in Clark County, Nevada, were kept open too late. These precincts had high turnout of Latino voters. Nevada state law explicitly states that polls are to stay open to accommodate eligible voters in line at closing time. Hillary Clinton campaign advisor Neera Tanden says the Trump campaign is trying to suppress Latino voter turnout. A political analyst from Nevada, Jon Ralston tweeted that the Trump lawsuit is "insane" in a state that clearly allows the polls to remains open until everyone in line has voted. Former Nevada Secretary of State Ross Miller, posted the statute that states "voting must continue until those voters have voted". Miller said: "If there are people in line waiting to vote at 7 pm, voting must continue until everyone votes.... We still live in America, right?"[153]A Nevada judge denied Trump's request to separate early voting ballots. Judge Gloria Sturman, of the District Court for Clark County Nevada, ruled that County Registrar of Voters Joe P. Gloria was already obligated by state law to maintain the records that the Trump campaign is seeking. Sturman said: "That is offensive to me because it seems to go against the very principle that a vote is secret."[154][155]Diana Orrock, the Republican National Committeewoman for Nevada and a vocal Trump ally, said she was unaware of the lawsuit before Politico contacted her. "I know that the [Clark County] registrar was on TV this morning saying that anybody who's in line was allowed to participate in the voting process until all of them came through," she said. "If that's what they did, I don't have a problem with that ... I don't know that filing a suit's going to accomplish anything." Orrock doubts the lawsuit will have any impact.[156]Lawsuit for inciting violence at March 2016 campaign rally[edit]During a campaign rally on March 1, 2016, in Louisville, Kentucky, Trump repeatedly said "get 'em out of here" while pointing at anti-Trump protesters as they were forcibly escorted out by his supporters. Three protesters say they were repeatedly shoved and punched while Trump pointed at them from the podium, citing widely shared video evidence of the events. They also cited previous statements by Trump about paying the legal bills of supporters who got violent, or suggesting a demonstrator deserved to be "roughed up."[157][158][159][160]The lawsuit accuses Donald Trump of inciting violence against protesters in Louisville, Kentucky. The plaintiffs are Kashiya Nwanguma (21), Molly Shah (36) and Henry Brousseau (17). The suit is against Trump, his campaign, and three Trump supporters (Matthew Heimbach, Alvin Bamberger and an unnamed defendant). Bamberger, who was wearing a Veteran's uniform in the video, apologized to the Korean War Veterans Association immediately after the event, writing that he "physically pushed a young woman down the aisle toward the exit" after "Trump kept saying 'get them out, get them out."[157]Trump's attorneys requested to get the case dismissed, arguing he was protected by free speech laws, and wasn't trying to get his supporters to resort to violence.[159][161]They also stated that Trump had no duty to the protesters, and they had assumed the personal risk of injury by deciding to protest at the rally.[157]On Friday, April 1, 2017, Judge David J. Hale in Louisville ruled against the dismissal of a lawsuit, stating there was ample evidence to support that the injuries of the protesters were a "direct and proximate result" of Trump's words and actions. Hale wrote, "It is plausible that Trump's direction to 'get 'em out of here' advocated the use of force," and, "It was an order, an instruction, a command." Hale wrote that the Supreme Court has ruled out some protections for free speech when used to incite violence.[citation needed]Defendant Heimbach requested to dismiss the discussion in the lawsuit about his association with a white nationalist group, and also requested to dismiss discussion of statements he made about how a President Trump would advance the interests of the group. The request was declined, with the judge saying the information could be important for determining punitive damages because they add context.[157]Hale also declined to remove the allegation that Plaintiff Nwanguma, who is African-American, was victim to ethnic, racial and sexist slurs at the rally from the crowd. The judge stated that this context may support claims by the plaintiffs' of incitement and negligence by Trump and the Trump campaign. The judge wrote, "While the words themselves are repulsive, they are relevant to show the atmosphere in which the alleged events occurred."[157]The judge stated that all people have a duty to use care to prevent foreseeable injury. "In sum, the Court finds that Plaintiffs have adequately alleged that their harm was foreseeable and that the Trump Defendants had a duty to prevent it." The case was referred a federal magistrate, Judge H. Brent Brennenstuhl, who will handle preliminary litigation, discovery and settlement efforts.[162]Heimbach filed a separate counterclaim in April 2017, arguing that Trump was "responsible for any injuries" he [Heimbach] "might have inflicted because Mr. Trump directed him and others to take action". Heimbach, "a self-employed landscaper", and a member of the Traditionalist Youth Network, "which advocates separate American 'ethno states', "spends much of his time" online writing "against Jews, gays and immigrants and urging whites to stand up for their race." He wrote his own lawsuit which requested that Trump pay Heimbach's "legal fees, citing a promise Mr. Trump made at an earlier rally to pay legal costs of anyone who removed protesters."[163]Heimbach's "counterclaim" against Trump has "probed the limits of free speech and public protest while confronting the courts with a unique legal argument".[163]On May 5, Trump's lawyers submitted legal filings that argue that Heimbach's "indemnity claim should be dismissed on the same grounds". According to a University of Virginia law professor, Leslie Kendrick, this indemnity or "impleader" case is "highly unusual."[163]New York University's Samuel Issacharoff, a professor of constitutional law, argued that care must be taken to not allow speech, in the "context of a political rally" to be "turned into something that is legally sanctionable."[163]Payments related to alleged affairs[edit]See also: Stormy Daniels–Donald Trump scandal and Karen McDougal § Alleged affair with Donald TrumpAdult film actress Stormy Daniels has alleged that she and Trump had an extramarital affair in 2006, months after the birth of his youngest child.[164]Just before the 2016 presidential election Daniels, whose real name is Stephanie Clifford, was paid $130,000 by Trump's attorney Michael Cohen as part of a non-disclosure agreement (NDA), through an LLC set up by Cohen; he says he used his own money for the payment.[165]In February 2018, Daniels filed suit against the LLC asking to be released from the agreement so that she can tell her story. Cohen filed a private arbitration proceeding and obtained a restraining order to keep her from discussing the case.[166]According to White House press secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders, Trump has denied the allegations.[167]On March 6, 2018, Daniels sued Trump in California Superior Court, claiming among other things that the NDA never came into effect because Trump did not sign it personally.[168]On March 16 Cohen, with Trump's approval, asked for Daniels' suit to be moved from state to federal court, based on the criteria that the parties live in different places and the amount at stake is more than $75,000; Cohen asserted that Daniels could owe $20 million in liquidated damages for breaching the agreement.[169]The filing marked the first time that Trump himself, through his personal attorney, had taken part in the Daniels litigation.[170]In early April 2018, Trump said that he did not know about Cohen paying Daniels, why Cohen had made the payment or where Cohen got the money from.[171]On April 30, Daniels further sued Trump for defamation.[172]In May 2018, Trump's annual financial disclosure revealed that he reimbursed Cohen in 2017 for expenditures related to the Daniels case.[173]In August 2018, Cohen pleaded guilty to breaking campaign finance laws, admitting paying hush money of $130,000 and $150,000 "at the direction of a candidate for federal office", to two women who alleged affairs with that candidate, "with the purpose of influencing the election". The figures match sums of payments made to Stormy Daniels and Playboy model Karen McDougal.[174][175]American Media, Inc. had reportedly in 2016 bought for $150,000 the rights to a story by McDougal alleging an affair with a married Trump from 2006 which lasted between nine months to a year.[176][177][178]David Pecker (AMI CEO/chairman and friend of Trump), Dylan Howard (AMI chief content officer) and Allen Weisselberg (chief financial officer of the Trump Organization) were reportedly granted witness immunity in exchange for their testimony regarding the illegal payments.[179][180]In response, Trump said that he only knew about the payments "later on"; Trump also said regarding the payments: "They didn't come out of the campaign, they came from me."[181]The Wall Street Journal reported on November 9, 2018, that federal prosecutors have evidence of Trump's "central role" in payments to Stormy Daniels and Karen McDougal that violated campaign-finance laws.[182][183]In a December 7, 2018 sentencing memorandum for Cohen, federal prosecutors implicated Trump in directing Cohen to commit the campaign finance law felonies for which Cohen had pleaded guilty. Shortly after the memorandum court filing, Trump tweeted, “Totally clears the president. Thank you!”[184]Cohen was sentenced to three years in federal prison.[185]On December 13, 2018, Trump denied directing Cohen to make hush payments.[186]That same day, NBC News reported that Trump was present in an August 2015 meeting with Cohen and David Pecker when they discussed how American Media could help counter negative stories about Trump's relationships with women, confirming previous reporting by The Wall Street Journal.[187][188]In 2019, Cohen testified to Congress that Trump did order to pay Stormy Daniels $130,000 as hush money and then lie about the payment.[189]Lawsuits over congressional subpoenas[edit]Further information: Trump v. Mazars USA, LLPIn March 2019, the House Committee on Oversight and Reform opened an investigation into Trump's finances, and issued a subpoena for ten years of his tax returns.[190]Trump later sued the chairman of the committee, Rep. Elijah Cummings, seeking to quash the subpoena.[191]In April 2019, Trump (along with his children Eric, Ivanka and Donald Jr, as well as the Trump Organization) sued Deutsche Bank, bank Capital One, his accounting firm Mazars USA, and House Oversight Committee chairman Elijah Cummings, in an attempt to prevent congressional subpoenas revealing information about Trump's finances.[192][193]On May 20, 2019, DC District Court judge Amit Mehta ruled that Mazars must comply with the subpoena.[194]Trump's attorneys filed notice to appeal to the Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit the next day.[195]On May 22, 2019, judge Edgardo Ramos of the federal District Court in Manhattan rejected the Trump suits against Deutsche Bank and Capital One, ruling the banks must comply with congressional subpoenas.[196][197]On October 7, 2019, Judge Victor Marrero of the federal District Court for the Southern District of New York issued a 75-page ruling that Trump must comply with the subpoena and provide his tax returns to a New York grand jury. Minutes later, however, Trump's attorney filed an emergency request with the 2nd US Circuit Court of Appeals, which immediately placed a temporary stay on the subpoena.[198]In November, the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit upheld the former District Court ruling and ordered Trump to turn over his tax returns to Congress.[199]Trump soon appealed to the Supreme Court, which blocked the order by the Second Circuit temporarily.[200]Special Counsel investigation[edit]Main articles: Special Counsel investigation (2017–2019) and Mueller ReportThe Special Counsel investigation is a United States law enforcement investigation of Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign and any Russian (or other foreign) interference in the election, including exploring any possible links or coordination between Trump's campaign and the Russian government, "and any matters that arose or may arise directly from the investigation."[201]Since May 2017, the investigation has been led by a United States Special Counsel, Robert Mueller, a former director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Mueller's investigation took over several FBI investigations including those involving former campaign chairman Paul Manafort and former national security advisor Michael Flynn.It has been noted that Trump has experienced a high turnover with respect to the attorneys handling this matter, as well as a large number of prominent lawyers and law firms publicly declining offers to join Trump's legal team.[202][203]On March 22, 2019, Mueller concluded his investigation and gave the final report to Attorney General William Barr.[204]On March 24, Barr sent a four-page letter to Congress summarizing the findings of the report.[205]Barr said that the special counsel found did not find that Trump colluded with Russia. But the report did in fact outline many events of Trump operatives working with Russian operatives to help Trump get elected. On the question of obstruction of justice, Barr stated that Mueller did not reach a conclusion; he quotes the special counsel as saying "while this report does not conclude that the President committed a crime, it also does not exonerate him."[206][205]Barr wrote, "The special counsel's decision to describe the facts of his obstruction investigation without reaching any legal conclusions leaves it to the attorney general to determine whether the conduct described in the report constitutes a crime," adding that he and Rosenstein "concluded that the evidence developed during the special counsel's investigation is not sufficient to establish that the president committed an obstruction-of-justice offense."[207][208]However, Mueller's report does in fact outline dozens of actions Trump took that were in fact obstructing the investigation, and Mueller concluded that he would have charged Trump with crimes had he been allowed to.Allegations of business links to organized crime[edit]Trump maintained a connection with organized crime members to supply the concrete for Trump Tower. According to former New York mobster Michael Franzese, "the mob controlled all the concrete business in the city of New York," and that while Trump was not "in bed with the mob ... he certainly had a deal with us. ... he didn't have a choice."[209]Mafia-connected union boss John Cody supplied Trump with concrete in exchange for giving his mistress a high-level apartment with a pool, which required extra structural reinforcement.[209]Trump admitted in 2014 that he had "had no choice" but to work with "concrete guys who are mobbed up." He further stated that "I don't like getting close to people like that, but they respected me."[209]Journalists David Cay Johnston and Wayne Barrett, the latter of whom wrote an unauthorized 1992 Trump biography, have claimed that Trump and his companies did business with New York and Philadelphia families linked to the Italian-American Mafia.[210][211]A reporter for The Washington Post writes, "he was never accused of illegality, and observers of the time say that working with the mob-related figures and politicos came with the territory."[212]Trump helped a financier for the Scarfo family get a casino license, and constructed a casino using firms controlled by Nicodemo Scarfo.[213]Trump also bought real estate from Philadelphia crime family member Salvatore Testa, and bought concrete from companies associated with the Genovese crime family and the Gambino crime family.[210][211][212]Trump Plaza paid a $450,000 fine leveled by the Casino Gaming Commission for giving $1.6 million in rare automobiles to Robert LiButti, the acquaintance of John Gotti already mentioned.[29]Starting in 2003, the Trump Organization worked with Felix Sater, who had a 1998 racketeering conviction for a $40 million stock fraud scheme orchestrated by the Russian mafia, and who had then become an informant against the mafia.[214][215]Trump's attorney has said that Sater worked with Trump scouting real estate opportunities, but was never formally employed.[216]Use of bankruptcy laws[edit]Trump has never filed for personal bankruptcy, but hotel and casino businesses of his have been declared bankrupt four times between 1991 and 2009 to re-negotiate debt with banks and owners of stock and bonds.[217][218]Because the businesses used Chapter 11 bankruptcy, they were allowed to operate while negotiations proceeded. Trump was quoted by Newsweek in 2011 saying, "I do play with the bankruptcy laws – they're very good for me" as a tool for trimming debt.[84][219]These types of bankruptcies are common in the business world for restructuring to avoid having to close a business. In the case of Trump's bankruptcies, three were tied directly to gaming industry, which as a whole had suffered during the time the bankruptcies were declared.[220]According to a report by Forbes in 2011, the four bankruptcies were the result of over-leveraged hotel and casino businesses in Atlantic City: Trump's Taj Mahal (1991), Trump Plaza Hotel (1992), Trump Hotels and Casino Resorts (2004), and Trump Entertainment Resorts (2009).[221][222]Trump said "I've used the laws of this country to pare debt.... We'll have the company. We'll throw it into a chapter. We'll negotiate with the banks. We'll make a fantastic deal. You know, it's like on The Apprentice. It's not personal. It's just business."[223]He indicated that many "great entrepreneurs" do the same.[221]1991[edit]In 1991, Trump Taj Mahal was unable to service its debt and filed Chapter 11 bankruptcy.[223]Forbes indicated that this first bankruptcy was the only one where Trump's personal financial resources were involved. Time, however, maintains that $72 million of his personal money was also involved in a later 2004 bankruptcy.[224]1992[edit]On November 2, 1992, the Trump Plaza Hotel filed Chapter 11 bankruptcy, and Trump lost his 49 percent stake in the luxury hotel to Citibank and five other lenders.[225]In return Trump received more favorable terms on the remaining $550+ million owed to the lenders, and retain his position as chief executive, though he would not be paid and would not have a role in day-to-day operations.[226]2004[edit]Donald Trump's third corporate bankruptcy was on October 21, 2004, involving Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts, the publicly traded holding company for his three Atlantic City casinos and some others.[227]Trump lost over half of his 56% ownership and gave bondholders stock in exchange for surrendering part of the debt. No longer CEO, Trump retained a role as chairman of the board. In May 2005[228]the company emerged from bankruptcy as Trump Entertainment Resorts Holdings.[229]In his 2007 book, Think BIG and Kick Ass in Business and Life, Trump wrote: "I figured it was the bank's problem, not mine. What the hell did I care? I actually told one bank, 'I told you you shouldn't have loaned me that money. I told you the goddamn deal was no good.'"[230]2009[edit]Trump's fourth corporate bankruptcy occurred in 2009, when Trump and his daughter Ivanka resigned from the board of Trump Entertainment Resorts; four days later the company, which owed investors $1.74 billion against its $2.06 billion of assets, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. At that time, Trump Entertainment Resorts had three properties in Atlantic City: Trump Taj Mahal, Trump Plaza Hotel and Casino (closed in 2014), and Trump Marina (formerly Trump's Castle, sold in 2011). Trump and some investors bought the company back that same year for $225 million. As part of the agreement, Trump withdrew a $100 million lawsuit he had filed against the casino's owners alleging damage to the Trump brand. Trump re-negotiated the debt, reducing by over $1 billion the repayments required to bondholders.[231][232]In 2014, Trump sued his former company to remove his name from the buildings since he no longer ran the company, having no more than a 10% stake; he lost the suit.[233]Trump Entertainment Resorts filed again for bankruptcy in 2014[234]and was purchased by billionaire philanthropist Carl Icahn in 2016, who acquired Trump Taj Mahal in the deal.[235]Campaign contributions[edit]According to a New York state report, Trump circumvented corporate and personal campaign donation limits in the 1980s – although he did not break any laws – by donating money to candidates from 18 different business subsidiaries, rather than giving primarily in his own name.[212][236]Trump told investigators he did so on the advice of his lawyers. He also said the contributions were not to curry favor with business-friendly candidates, but simply to satisfy requests from friends.[212][237]Inaugural committee[edit]The New York Times reported in December 2018 that federal prosecutors in Manhattan and Brooklyn are investigating whether Middle Eastern foreigners sought to buy influence over American policies by using straw donors to illegally funnel donations to Trump's inaugural committee and a pro-Trump Super PAC.[238]The Trump inaugural committee received a subpoena from federal prosecutors on February 4, 2019. The SDNY subpoena demanded a comprehensive array of documents involving the committee's donors, finances, attendees and activities.[239]The subpoena reportedly covered allegations of conspiracy to defraud the United States government, money laundering, false statements, mail and wire fraud, disclosure violations and prohibitions against contributions by foreign nations.[240][241]Donald J. Trump Foundation[edit]Main article: Donald J. Trump FoundationDuring the 2016 U.S. presidential election, media began reporting in detail on how the Donald J. Trump Foundation was funded and how Donald Trump used its funds. The Washington Post in particular reported several cases of possible misuse, self-dealing and possible tax evasion.[citation needed]Regarding the various irregularities in the Trump Foundation, former head of the Internal Revenue Service's Office of Exempt Organizations Division Marc Owens told The Washington Post: "This is so bizarre, this laundry list of issues.... It's the first time I've ever seen this, and I've been doing this for 25 years in the IRS, and 40 years total. When interviewed for the Post's article, Trump spokesperson Boris Epshtein said that Trump did not knowingly violate any tax laws.[citation needed]The office of New York State attorney general Eric Schneiderman investigated the foundation "to make sure it's complying with the laws governing charities in New York." The Trump Foundation was in fact found to have committed fraud and misappropriated funds, and was ordered to be shut down.[242]Controversy over tax returns[edit]Main article: Tax returns of Donald TrumpIn October 2016, The New York Times published some tax documents from 1995. Trump claimed on his tax returns that he lost money, but did not recognize it in the form of canceled debts. Trump might have performed a stock-for-debt swap. This would have allowed Trump to avoid paying income taxes for at least 18 years. An audit of Trump's tax returns for 2002 through 2008 was "closed administratively by agreement with the I.R.S. without assessment or payment, on a net basis, of any deficiency." Tax attorneys believe the government may have reduced what Trump was able to claim as a loss without requiring him to pay any additional taxes.[243][244]It is unknown whether the I.R.S. challenged Trump's use of the swaps because he has not released his tax returns. Trump's lawyers advised against Trump using the equity for debt swap, as they believed it to be potentially illegal.[245]Destruction of documents[edit]In June 2016, a USA Today article reported that Donald Trump and his companies have been deleting emails and other documents on a large scale,[246]including evidence in lawsuits, sometimes in defiance of court orders and under subpoena since as early as 1973.[247][248][249]In October 2016, Kurt Eichenwald published new research findings in Newsweek. The findings were first published by Paul Singer[250]on June 13, 2016[251]and gained larger attention[252][253]after a new report in Newsweek on October 31, 2016. According to Newsweek, Trump and his companies "hid or destroyed thousands of documents" involving several court cases from as early as 1973."Over the course of decades, Donald Trump's companies have systematically destroyed or hidden thousands of emails, digital records and paper documents demanded in official proceedings, often in defiance of court orders.... In each instance, Trump and entities he controlled also erected numerous hurdles that made lawsuits drag on for years, forcing courtroom opponents to spend huge sums of money in legal fees as they struggled—sometimes in vain—to obtain records."—Kurt Eichenwald, Donald Trump's Companies Destroyed Emails in Defiance of Court Orders Newsweek, October 31, 2016In 1973 Trump, his father and their company were in court for civil charges for refusing to rent apartments to African Americans. After their lawyers had delayed court requests for documents for several months, Trump, then being under subpoena, said his company had destroyed corporate records of the past six months "for saving space". In a court case beginning in 2005 against Power Plant Entertainment, LLC, an affiliate of real estate developer Cordish Cos., it was revealed that Trump's companies had deleted the data requested by court.[254]Cordish Cos. had built two American Indian[255]casinos in Florida under the Hard Rock brand and Donald Trump accused them of cheating him out of that deal. Nonetheless, Trump's lawyers had refused to instruct workers to keep all records related to the case during litigation.[247]Trump had established a procedure to delete all data from their employees' computers every year at least since 2003,[252]despite knowing at least since 2001 that he might want to file a lawsuit. Even after the lawsuit was filed, Trump Hotels disposed of a computer of a key witness without having made a backup of the data. A former general counsel of the Trump casino unit confirmed that all data were deleted from nearly all companies' computers annually. Trump and his lawyers claimed they were not keeping records and digital data although it was revealed that Trump had launched his own high-speed internet provider in 1998 and an IBM Domino server had been installed for emails and digital files in 1999.”[247][253]Attribution:Legal affairs of Donald Trump - Wikipedia

What were the most notable accomplishments made by Barack Obama during his presidency?

Hope you have a lot of time on your hands. Here are some accomplishments courtesy of pleasecutthecrap.com/obama-accomplishmentsWithin his first week, he signed an Executive Order ordering an audit of government contracts, and combating waste and abuse. http://1.usa.gov/dUvbu5·Created the post of Chief Performance Officer, whose job it is to make operations more efficient to save the federal government money. http://n.pr/hcgBn1·On his first full day, he froze White House salaries for the duration of the Great Recession. http://cbsn.ws/2aNMqNN·He appointed the first Federal Chief Information Officer to oversee federal IT spending and efficiency. http://www.cio.gov·He committed to phasing out unnecessary and outdated weapons systems and signed the Weapons Systems Acquisition Reform Act, in an attempt to limit waste, fraud and abuse in the defense procurement and contracting systems. http://bit.ly/hOw1t1·Established the Open Government Directive, which completely changed the government’s approach to technology at all levels. http://bit.ly/2iOTERn·He created the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform. http://bit.ly/hwKhKa·Signed an Executive Order instructing federal agencies to review all federal regulations and remove any unnecessary and/or burdensome regulations from the books. http://1.usa.gov/Lpo5bd·Dismantled the Minerals Management Service, thereby cutting ties between energy companies and the government. http://nyti.ms/bw1MLu·Banned gifts from lobbyists to anyone in the Executive Branch. http://bit.ly/fsBACN·Banned anyone from working in an agency they had lobbied in previous years and placed strict limits on lobbyists’ access to the White House. http://nyti.ms/gOrznV·Held the first-ever first online town hall from the White House, and took questions from the public. http://bit.ly/2atEVct·Became the first president to stream every White House event, live. http://1.usa.gov/kAgOP5·Established a central portal for Americans to find service opportunities. http://www.serve.gov·Restored the 30-day time frame for former presidents to review records and eliminated the right for the vice president or family members of former presidents to do the reviews, giving the public greater access to historic White House documents, and curtails the use of executive privilege to shield them. http://1.usa.gov/gUetLb·Improved the Freedom of Information Act and issued new guidelines to make FOIA more open and transparent when processing FOIA requests. http://1.usa.gov/gjrnp2·Streamlined the Department of Education’s procurement policies and made them more transparent. http://bit.ly/1r9oQvh·Provided the first voluntary disclosure of the White House Visitors Log in history. http://1.usa.gov/hQ7·Signed a law to completely reform NSA Data Collection program and keep phone records in the hands of the phone company. http://bit.ly/1dG34vD·Improved access and data available to Inspectors General throughout the federal governments and elsewhere, thus improving investigative quality.·Sought to improve project management and accountability throughout the federal government. http://bit.ly/2jRaC3A·Enjoyed a virtually scandal-free Administration for eight solid years. http://bit.ly/2iOCTFV·Prevented a Bush Depression, Improved the Economy·Pushed through and signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, also known as “the stimulus package.” He also launched http://recovery.gov, a website that allows taxpayers to track spending from the Act. http://bit.ly/2aw6HGt·By the end of his first year, the economy created and sustained 2.1 million jobs and the ARRA stimulated the economy by 3.5%. http://reut.rs/i46CEE·He guided the massive TARP financial and banking rescue plan and forced financial organizations to pay back virtually all bailout money. http://bit.ly/2alXjlV·Established the Making Home Affordable home refinancing plan. http://1.usa.gov/goy6zl·In 2010 alone, more jobs were created than had been created during Bush’s eight years. http://bit.ly/hrrnjY·He pushed through and implemented an auto industry rescue plan that saved as many as 1 million jobs and possibly the entire auto industry. http://bit.ly/ibhpxr http://bit.ly/gj7mt5·Through his investment in GM, returned to the company to its place as the premiere car company in the world. http://lat.ms/zIJuQx·In February 2016, GM was in such good financial shape, they gave a share of the profit to each worker, with checks up to $11,000. http://detne.ws/1mk7Jry·Doubled funding for the Manufacturing Extension Partnership, to improve manufacturing efficiency. http://bit.ly/eYD4nf·Increased infrastructure spending after years of neglect. http://bit.ly/f77aOw·Signed the Helping Families Save Their Homes Act, which helped millions of Americans avoid preventable foreclosures and provided $2.2 billion to combat homelessness and stabilize the housing market. http://bit.ly/2aiFCbi·Signed an Executive Order creating jobs immediately by reducing the time needed for review and permitting of infrastructure projects. http://1.usa.gov/GHxaYt·Through the Worker, Homeownership, and Business Assistance Act of 2009, he and Congressional Democrats provided tax credits to first-time home buyers, which helped the U.S. housing market recovery. http://bit.ly/dZgXXw http://bit.ly/2aOGmVM·Played a lead role in getting the G-20 Summit to commit to a $1.1 trillion deal to combat the global financial crisis. http://nyti.ms/gHlgp5·Signed new rules making it easier for home buyers to get a loan to buy a condominium. http://bit.ly/2c4VPDl·Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, saved at least 300,000 education jobs, such as teachers, principals, librarians, and counselors that would have otherwise been lost. http://1.usa.gov/ez30D·Provided funding to states and the Department of Homeland Security to save thousands of police and firefighter jobs from being cut during the recession. http://bit.ly/g0IKWR·Signed bill to provide extra training for local police forces, especially with regard to active shooter situations. http://bit.ly/2cvFlRf·China’s largest manufacturer, Foxconn, is building a large plant in Pennsylvania http://cnnmon.ie/1k7LT4S·Worked with Apple Computer to get them to build more product here, and the company is building two large plants to manufacture products here; one in Texas http://zd.net/1nkpt2O and one in Arizona http://bit.ly/1mXY5Vg·Created an institute to invest in more manufacturing jobs in the technology fields of the future. http://nyti.ms/1egyXrV·Ordered all federal contractors to pay a minimum wage of $10.10 per hour, leading the way to a national increase. http://wapo.st/1iaU5kd As a result of this decision, a number of large employers, including Disney and Walmart, have increased their minimums. http://bit.ly/2c3iwF5·Ordered the completion of the International Trade Data System, a digital trade record book, by 2016. This move will streamline and simplify the process through which small- and medium-sized businesses set up the export of US goods. http://bit.ly/1nwSRF4·Signed bill to expand opportunities and to promote greater Native American tourism. http://bit.ly/2dTIQmo·Specific Examples of Economic Improvement·As of December 2016, a record 75 consecutive months of overall job growth, a record. http://on.msnbc.com/1TKFCPQ·As of August 2016, Unemployment drops below 5% for the first time in eight years and without a significant bubble, remains below 5% until he leaves office. 4.9% http://on.msnbc.com/1TKFCPQ·As of December 2016, there have been 82 consecutive months of private sector job growth, a record. http://1.usa.gov/1Xhizho·In April 2016, new unemployment claims hit their lowest level since Nov. 1973. As of September 2016, they remain at 43-year lows. That means lower than at any time during Saint Reagan’s Administration. http://yhoo.it/2eaIPbf http://nyti.ms/1YhZEBk·Since February 2010, when unemployment peaked, 16 million non-farm private sector jobs have been created. http://1.usa.gov/1Xhizho·Contrary to GOP rhetoric, most of the new jobs created have been full-time, not temporary. http://bit.ly/2dF7pjO·Oversaw a reduction in the federal budget deficit by two-thirds since taking office. http://bit.ly/1xKMmjY·Reduced the federal budget deficit from 9.8% of GDP in Fiscal Year 2009 under Bush, to 2.5% of GDP in FY 2015. http://bit.ly/2cI4ABV·Scolds Congress and gets a $305 billion highways bill passed. This bill has the added benefit of created hundreds of thousands of new jobs and creating incentives for green cars. http://bit.ly/1NsL2Zq·Wages have risen more in 2015 and 2016 than at any time in almost 20 years, without the aid of an economic bubble. http://theatln.tc/2iX24JK·For the first time in 15 years, the lowest income demographic is seeing a rise in income. http://theatln.tc/2iX24JK·Addressed Wrongdoing in the Financial Sector·Signed the Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act giving the federal government more tools to investigate and prosecute fraud in every corner of the financial system, and create a bipartisan Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission to investigate the financial fraud that led to the economic meltdown. http://abcn.ws/g18Fe7·Ordered 65 executives who took bailout money to cut their own pay until they paid back all bailout money. http://huff.to/eAi9Qq·Along with Congressional Democrats, pushed through and got passed Dodd-Frank, one of the largest and most comprehensive Wall Street reforms since the Great Depression. http://bit.ly/hWCPg0http://bit.ly/geHpcD·Created and implemented rules to reduce the influence of speculators in the oil market. http://bit.ly/MDnA1t·Created and implemented rules so banks can no longer use depositors’ money to invest in derivatives and other high-risk financial instruments that work against depositors’ interests. http://bit.ly/fnTayj·Supported the concept of allowing stockholders to vote on executive compensation. http://bit.ly/fnTayj·Endorsed and supported the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act of 2009 that would close offshore tax avoidance loopholes. http://bit.ly/esOdfB http://bit.ly/eG4DPM·Negotiated a deal with Swiss banks permitting the US government to gain access to bank records of criminals and tax evaders. http://bit.ly/2aAwUS5·Signed the American Jobs and Closing Tax Loopholes Act, closing many of the loopholes that allowed companies to send jobs overseas, and avoid paying US taxes by moving money offshore. http://1.usa.gov/bd1RTq·Thanks to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, inflation in the healthcare sector dropped to its lowest point in 50 years. http://on.wsj.com/1E6cYjF·Improved Conditions for Consumers and Small Businesses·Signed the Credit Card Accountability, Responsibility and Disclosure (CARD) Act, to protect consumers from unfair and deceptive credit card practices. http://1.usa.gov/gIaNcS·Guided the housing market all the way back from total collapse, which led to a rally for housing starts. http://reut.rs/1NTAOVU·Spent unprecedented amounts of money on technology, to move the country well into the 21stCentury, after eight years of lag. http://bit.ly/2jCTwsA·Brought airline industry back to their highest profitability since before the recession. http://lat.ms/1O8H1iE·Created an airline passenger bill of rights, preventing airlines from stranding passengers on tarmac for hours, requiring them to return to the gate within three hours or face stiff fines. http://bit.ly/2c3jAZi·Blocked a monopolistic merger of Staples and Office Depot, to preserve at least some competition. http://bit.ly/1kcY2Kv·Stock market has reached record highs, restoring most of the economic losses felt during the Bush Recession. http://bit.ly/1z4FAtL·Promoted and signed a bill to established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and implemented it. http://1.usa.gov/j5onG http://bit.ly/fnTayj·Consumer confidence continues to inch up to its highest level more than a decade. http://bit.ly/1PZLRcK·Initiated a $15 billion plan designed to encourage increased lending to small businesses. http://1.usa.gov/eu0u0b·Created BusinessUSA, to allow online collaboration between small businesses and experts re managing a business. (The program has since merged with Small Business Administration.) http://www.business.gov·Through the FCC, Established the Open Internet Order, which established new neutrality as a standard for the future. http://fcc.us/2iGc0ZA·Took steps to improve minority access to capital. http://bit.ly/f9xVE7·Used recovered TARP money to fund programs at local housing finance agencies in California, Florida, Nevada, Arizona and Michigan. http://bit.ly/2b3jKOk·Crafted and signed an executive order establishing the President’s Advisory Council on Financial Capability to assist in financial education for all Americans. http://bit.ly/eyqsNE·Oversaw the most sweeping food safety legislation since the Great Depression. http://bit.ly/2aiIPaS·Through the Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act, extended the False Claims Act to combat fraud by companies and individuals using money from TARP and Stimulus programs. http://bit.ly/SLTcSa·Set up rules for banks in handling legal marijuana money. http://nyti.ms/1b80o2K·Added greater protections to consumer financial transactions to reduce identity theft. http://1.usa.gov/1pjfUFq·Took steps to prevent pirate fishing and protect fish populations, and ordered stricter labeling requirements on labeling of seafood products in stores. http://1.usa.gov/1BYhTUn·Signed the RAISE Act, which should encourage more people to open small businesses and help improve the economy. http://bit.ly/1QhTqkF·Signed a bill that allows low-volume vehicle manufacturers that will increase entrepreneurship among small car manufacturers, who often build replicas of classics but who often build green vehicles. http://bit.ly/1QhTqkF·Signs an Executive Order to strengthen cooperation with regard to global entrepreneurship. http://1.usa.gov/294u5eI·Signs a law to allow “ordinary investors” to help a company start up through crowdfunding. http://n.pr/299eZEn·Blocks the merger of several health insurers to ensure that competition remains in the health insurance business. http://bit.ly/2cvHV9P·Signs a law to strengthen American economic competitiveness. http://bit.ly/2932zfA·Prohibited the elimination of “floating homes” In the Tennessee Valley Authority. http://bit.ly/2k5C6S9·Established new offices at the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) that are designed to assist small businesses and to reduce unnecessary regulations. http://bit.ly/2jdpdp3·Banned the used of automated “ticket-bots” http://newsok.com/article/5531133·Offers greater protection for consumers who post online reviews. https://yhoo.it/2iP8ZkY·Strengthened the Middle Class and Fought Poverty·Worked to provide affordable, high-quality child care to working families. http://bit.ly/fNfidS·Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, cut taxes for 95% of America’s working families. http://bit.ly/eSEI4F·Tax rates for average working families are the lowest since 1950. http://bit.ly/f74pD8·Extended and fully funded the patch for the Alternative Minimum Tax for 10 years. http://bit.ly/eFeSdP·Extended discounted health coverage under the COBRA health insurance law for the unemployed from 9 months to 15 months, and he’s also extended unemployment benefits more than a few times. http://aol.it/evtVxDhttp://nyti.ms/emrqKJ http://bit.ly/hOtIpg http://bit.ly/fTT7kz·Provided a $20 billion increase for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (Food Stamps). http://nyti.ms/gfLqyM·Signed an Executive Order that established the White House Office of Urban Affairs. http://wapo.st/eWECA8·Included the Buffet Rule in his 2014 budget proposal, in order to fulfill a campaign promise to make sure tax rates are fair between the rich and the middle class. http://1.usa.gov/19PkdQo·Used the fiscal cliff negotiations to extend for five additional years the American Opportunity Tax Credit, which provides tax credits to families for college-related expenses, thus saving those families up to $10,000. http://onforb.es/17zYg3u·Increased protections for the unemployed who are seeking a government job. http://1.usa.gov/1jgXATu·Updated and modernized overtime regulations under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) http://1.usa.gov/1iGDO8e·Signed and implemented the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act, to improve nutrition in schools and make children healthier. http://1.usa.gov/GAXkSk·To make college more affordable and accountable, will begin rating colleges with regard to affordability and value. http://bit.ly/14Dn7UL·Initiated a reform of federal job training programs, to make them more relevant to the current economy and the job market. http://1.usa.gov/1kZLQHG·Under Obama, the bottom 95% of taxpayers pay lower federal income taxes than at any time in the last 50 years, including under Reagan, or either Bush. http://bit.ly/1w1W8Ns·Signed a presidential memorandum authorizing six weeks paid leave for all federal employees with a new baby and encouraged Congress to do the same for all workers. http://bit.ly/18613XA·2014 marked the first time since 1984 that unemployment dropped in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 1.usa.gov/1E25u0C·Took steps to improve workplace safety by creating an Advisory Board to study workers’ exposure to toxic substances. http://1.usa.gov/1M4s8IG·Changed overtime rules to make it far more difficult for employers to avoid paying overtime to workers. http://politi.co/1KHfiBe·Changed rules for federal contractors, guaranteeing that all workers earn paid leave; this should affect about 300,000 workers. http://1.usa.gov/1LcHZWl·Signed a Hague Convention Agreement to make it easier to collect child support from parents wherever they are in the world. http://bit.ly/2cI38wB·Negotiated a law to finally replace “No Child Left Behind” and remove much of the onerous government “oversight” that caused children to stagnate, not improve, academically. http://bit.ly/1Up9pMl·Signed executive order to expand charitable giving among federal employees. http://bit.ly/2e7cJQy·Helped to end the “Victory Tax” that caused financial hardship to successful Olympic athletes. http://bit.ly/2ds4uO2·Addressed Civil Rights and Equality·Formed a commission to examine and make recommendations for fixing the broken voting system. http://wapo.st/16K0D·Created a Civil Rights Division in the Justice Department that has become a very strong voice for Black people. http://bit.ly/1ObO7TI·At a press conference August 9, 2013, gave up some executive power, promising to create adversarial process in FISA regarding NSA surveillance. http://1.usa.gov/1dQmnyQ·Proposed rules to enhance Fair Housing Laws, to give HUD and other enforcement agencies more enforcement power. http://bit.ly/1qkz4uQ·Ordered a review of capital punishment policies after several botched executions. http://nyti.ms/RDJp58·Approved $1.2 billion discrimination settlement with black farmers who had proved USDA bias. http://huff.to/1Nol9Ab·Appointed Kareem Dale as the first ever Special Assistant to the President for Disability Policy. http://1.usa.gov/fi5IY0·Concentrated immigration enforcement on those who commit crimes, and vowed to stop breaking up families. http://1.usa.gov/1uTZ8gV·Streamlined the visa process, to make it more responsive and humane for those who want to be here legally. http://1.usa.gov/1tgDRti·Took steps to tighten the reins when it comes to providing local law enforcement agencies with military-style equipment and exercising more control over the equipment they receive. http://1.usa.gov/1ATWV3K·Changed fair housing rules to make more affordable housing available to more people. http://cnn.it/1JcR3qB·Helped Democrats in Congress pass and signed the Civil Rights History Act. http://bit.ly/th0JC8·Created a Policing Task Force to deal with the problems that led to the #BlackLivesMatter movement. http://nbcnews.to/1T17PON·His Justice Department investigated the Ferguson Police Department twice and slammed them for their racism and exploitive practices. http://nbcnews.to/1q9jTpf·Established the White House Council of Native American Affairs, to improve government-to-government relations with Native American nations. http://1.usa.gov/1cIEeEv·Limited local police acquisitions of military-style equipment, to reduce the likelihood of overkill. http://n.pr/1NGkBjT·Signed Blue Alert Law, which provides police officers with more information when they are threatened. http://bit.ly/1NGksga·Blocked the sale of Apache tribal land to foreign mining company, over Republican objections. Hero: Obama Blocks Sale Of Sacred Apache Land To Foreign Mining Firmhttp://bit.ly/1RYpmfi·Settled with the City of Cleveland over civil rights and excessive force violations. http://nbcnews.to/24GRQNw·Reviewed the practices of the Philadelphia Police Department and made 91 recommendations to prevent civil rights and excessive force violations. http://on.msnbc.com/1q9ktmX·Signed a law to modernize the way the federal government refers to minorities, removing certain archaic terms from the vocabulary. http://bit.ly/291BeIL·Took steps to treat opioid addiction as a health issue rather than purely as a law enforcement issue. http://bit.ly/2ccokd3·Signed a law to better protect children in tribal foster care. http://strib.mn/293Gyky·Blocked an oil pipeline in South Dakota that would have devastated sacred Sioux land. http://theatln.tc/2cmmmqb·Worked with Congress to pass bill establishing Commission on Native Children, which will examine some of the most pressing problems facing Native American nations. http://wapo.st/2esGxbC·Signed bill establishing a Sexual Assault Rights Act by working with Democrats in Congress. http://bzfd.it/2ejelVd·Worked with Congress to pass law to make sure there are changing tables in all federal restrooms, including men’s rooms. http://slate.me/2ejdWlu·Extended religious protection to atheists and agnostics. http://nbcnews.to/2jD7meL·Officially scrapped a post-9/11 registry that primarily targeted Muslim men http://cbsn.ws/2k5nNNk That makes the proposed Trump registry a lot more difficult to create. http://theatln.tc/2jEfDhZ·Established a law to allow disabled people to set up their own trusts and tend to their own financial affairs. http://bit.ly/2jR7BA1·Established the Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument. http://bit.ly/2iOtBtL·Signed bill to create thousands of outdoor recreation jobs while preserving an important part of the environment. http://bit.ly/2jCPSPN·Improved Workers’ Rights·He issued final rules that require all employers to prominently post employees’ rights where all employees or prospective employees can see it, including all websites and intranets. http://1.usa.gov/qu2EhQ·Obama’s Equal Employment Opportunity Commission clarified and strengthened rules prohibiting discrimination against pregnant workers. http://alj.am/1mo0kjV·Required companies who bid on federal contracts larger than $500,000 to publicly disclose all previous violations of labor law, including unpaid claims for back wages. http://1.usa.gov/V54qY3·Made it illegal for federal contractors with more than $1 million in contracts to force employees into arbitration in workplace discrimination accusations. http://1.usa.gov/V54qY3·Vetoed Republican bill that would have blocked new NLRB rules that were designed to speed up the time it takes workers to unionize. http://reut.rs/1agujMO He also added a Memorandum of Disagreement to make his reasons for the veto clear and made a major statement in support of unions. http://1.usa.gov/1NG7RuA·Cracked down on companies that were previously denying sick pay, vacation and health insurance, and Social Security and Medicare tax payments through abuse of the employee classification of independent contractor. http://nyti.ms/fOGLcj·Signed law that bans imports of goods produced through forced labor. http://nbcnews.to/1RuJu2y·Protected the Rights of LGBT People·Signed and implemented the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, which made it a federal crime to assault anyone based on his or her sexual orientation or gender identity. http://bit.ly/gsMSJ7·Oversaw and implemented the repeal of the reprehensible “Don’t Ask Don’t Tell” policy. http://bit.ly/fdahuHhttp://bit.ly/mZV4Pz·Extended benefits to same-sex partners of federal employees. http://1.usa.gov/g2RLCj·Appointed more openly gay officials than anyone in history. http://bit.ly/g1lA7D·Appointed first openly transgender Cabinet Official in History. http://bit.ly/58zUp7·Advocated that United Nations adopt a policy supporting gay rights worldwide. http://lat.ms/pQe1RS·As soon as the Supreme Court invalidated the Defense of Marriage Act, he moved to extend federal benefits to same-sex couples. http://wapo.st/1avDjue·Issued an order requiring hospitals to allow visitation by same-sex couples. http://reut.rs/llNJek·Changed HUD rules to prohibit gender and sexual orientation-based discrimination in housing bit.ly/9RxEnP·Changed his mind and publicly expressed support for same-sex marriage. http://bit.ly/JsiFKp·Issued a Presidential Memorandum reaffirming the rights of gay couples to make medical decisions for each other. http://1.usa.gov/aUueGT·Appointed several prominent gay athletes and others, and plans to show US government’s commitment to gay rights to anti-gay Russia. http://on.cpsj.com/1fckN9h·Department of Agriculture propagated new rules to better enforce non-discrimination when it comes to USDA investigations and to extend non-discrimination to gender identity. http://bit.ly/1yChJhi·Banned all federal contractors from discriminating against gay workers. http://1.usa.gov/1ok1gfH·Persevered with his campaign to turn “gay marriage” into “marriage” and won in the Supreme Court. http://cbsloc.al/1M4qLKb·Improved Conditions for Women·Establishing the White House Council on Women and Girls to ensure that all Cabinet and Cabinet-level agencies consider the effect of their policies and programs on women and families. http://bit.ly/e1puTk http://1.usa.gov/rFfqMM·Implemented the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, which restored basic protections against pay discrimination for women and other workers. http://bit.ly/fT3Cxg·Eliminated federal funding for abstinence-only education, and rescinded the global gag rule. http://bit.ly/eCFAI1 http://bit.ly/f92drF·Improved the Paycheck Fairness Act, making it possible for employees to talk about their salaries without retaliation, and ordering salary data collection, so as to make it harder for employers to pay women less. http://huff.to/1nwVOWf·Signed an Executive Order pledging support for efforts to end the global problem of violence against women and girls. http://1.usa.gov/MHTRVU·Shattered another glass ceiling by naming Janet Yellen chair of the Federal Reserve beginning Feb. 1, 2014. http://usat.ly/1gqMBfk·Expanded funding for the Violence Against Women Act. http://1.usa.gov/dSbI0x·Ordered companies with 100 employees or more to disclose pay data based on race and gender, to address the pay gap. http://theatln.tc/1Q04XPL·Signs law restoring Arlington Cemetery burial rights for women pilots in World War II. http://bit.ly/293rmjb·Signed a bill to allow for nursing women to bring breastfeeding equipment onto the plane and to protect women who choose to feed children while traveling. http://bit.ly/2k8eW1o·Addressed Criminal Justice Failings and the Gun Culture·Made significant reductions in drug sentencing guidelines for current prisoners. http://n.pr/1mWBLkM·Oversaw the first drop in the federal prison population in 32 years. http://bit.ly/1B5h8rW·Increased his use of clemency to release thousands of non-violent drug offenders from prison. http://nyti.ms/1KE8DJG·Ordered a ban on solitary confinement for juvenile offenders in federal prisons. http://bit.ly/20ObRzA·Took executive action to promote smart gun technology, to make them safer. http://1.usa.gov/1RhK1tU·After a failure by Congress to act, proposed executive orders to create more background checks and to fully staff the background check system. http://cnn.it/1JXmUg6·Relaxed HIPAA rules enough to allow for more information to be available to the background check system. http://on.wsj.com/SX9xaZ·Ordered the tracing of guns as part of criminal investigations to provide data to researchers. http://on.wsj.com/SX9xaZ·Order the Justice Department to look at the categories of mental health problems prohibited from owning guns to make sure people aren’t falling through the cracks, getting guns. http://onforb.es/1nUAGw3·Expanded the definitions of gun dealers and expanded the information available and required in background checks for firearm purchases. http://bit.ly/1K5aXee·Set up a task force to figure out what other measures can be taken to limit gun violence in the wake of Congressional inaction. http://1.usa.gov/1QjYMGJ·Signed bill to improve protections for correctional officers and their families. http://bit.ly/1SMCi4W·Changed the playing field on criminal justice reform by commuting sentences of low-level criminals and signaling a more practical footing. http://1.usa.gov/1YclW7f·Signaled major shift away from the failed “Drug War” by promising to commit more than $1 billion to combat addiction. http://2wsb.tv/1SMBQUv·Signed the Emmitt Till Bill, which will reopen cold cases from the civil rights era. http://bit.ly/2jsVaum·Set a record for granting clemencies or pardons, giving many non-violent offenders a second chance. http://bit.ly/2jcIBCy·Improved Treatment of Soldiers and Veterans·Provided active combat troops with better body armor. http://bit.ly/hzSv2h·Created a Joint Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record program for military personnel, in order http://abcn.ws/1ghLrEshttp://abcn.ws/1ghLrEs to improve the quality of their medical care. http://1.usa.gov/f4yaxW·Put an end to the Bush-era stop-loss policy that kept soldiers in Iraq/Afghanistan beyond their enlistment date. http://nyti.ms/e2YQ7Q·Signed and implemented Veterans Health Care Budget Reform and Transparency Act, making more money available to enable better medical care for veterans. http://1.usa.gov/fN4ur1·With Congressional Democrats, oversaw largest spending increase in 30 years for Department of Veterans Affairs, for improved medical and extended care facilities for veterans. http://1.usa.gov/gY8O3x·Implemented the Green Vet Initiative, which provides special funding to provide veterans with training in green jobs. http://bit.ly/epwUQY·Initiated and signed a recruitment and employment plan to get more veterans into government jobs. http://bit.ly/b48coi·Oversaw a $4.6 billion expansion of the Veterans Administration budget to pay for more mental health professionals. http://bit.ly/gjzTxX·Signed the Military Spouses Residency Relief Act, which ensures that spouses of military personnel who are forced to move because their spouse is posted for military duty can avoid state taxes in their temporary residence. http://bit.ly/1Gh0NX·Ordered improvements to access to mental health care for veterans, military personnel and their families. http://1.usa.gov/TP7PVZ·Got Syria to dismantle its chemical weapons without military firing a single shot or dropping a single bomb. http://nyti.ms/1lVEkU7·Along with Congressional Democrats, not only reauthorized families of fallen soldiers to be able to visit when the body arrives at Dover AFB, but also provided funding for it. Ended the media blackout on coverage of the return of fallen soldiers. Pentagon Will Help Families Travel to Dover http://bbc.in/gWSSkA·Funded Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) with an extra $1.4 billion to improve veterans’ services. http://1.usa.gov/huhqfo·Signed into law a bill that provides support, counseling, and breastfeeding supplies to military moms who are covered under TRICARE, the health insurance provided to veterans. http://bit.ly/1yNxL8O·Signed into law a bill that makes it easier for military dogs to retire at home with their handlers. http://bit.ly/1J78Y2U·Signed bill to expand the availability of housing to homeless veterans. http://bit.ly/2eaGQDJ·Raised soldiers pay. http://bit.ly/2k5sOFD·Improved America’s Reputation Around the World·Visited more countries and met with more world leaders than any previous president during his first six months in office. http://bit.ly/hZycda·As he promised, he gave a speech at a major Islamic forum in Cairo early in his administration. http://nyti.ms/dKvY4g·Made a speech at a US mosque to demonstrate his commitment to religious rights and send a message to Muslims around the world. http://cnn.it/1PGU1uI·Restored America’s reputation around the world as a global leader. http://bit.ly/h743y7http://bit.ly/ho4TCr·Re-established and reinforced our partnership with NATO and other allies on strategic international issues. http://1.usa.gov/e7QuDj·Closed a number of secret detention facilities. http://nyti.ms/rpUc9l·Improved relations with Middle East countries by appointing special envoys. http://1.usa.gov/tiGAGe·Pushed forward the first realistic Middle East peace strategy in more than a decade, without abandoning the two-state solution. http://wapo.st/1avyste·Pushed for military to emphasize greater development of foreign language skills. http://bit.ly/AxUCLV·Offered $400 million to the people living in Gaza, while calling on both Israel and the Palestinians to stop inciting violence. http://bit.ly/9axfWh·Refused to give Israel the green light to attack Iran over their possible nuclear program. http://bit.ly/xVmSZK·Ordered the closure of the prison at Guantanamo Bay, although blocked by Congress. http://bit.ly/eW6CVF·Ordered a review of our detention and interrogation policy and prohibited the use of “enhanced interrogation.” http://bit.ly/g6MTuC·Ordered all secret detention facilities in Eastern Europe and elsewhere to be closed. http://bbc.in/h6N9ax·Released the Bush torture memos. http://bit.ly/hWJ5z0·On his second day in office, banned torture, reversed all Bush torture policies and brought the US into full compliance with the Geneva Convention. http://1.usa.gov/dL6Zvehttp://nyti.ms/hzWWys·In response to the emerging “Arab Spring,” he created a Rapid Response fund, to assist emerging democracies with foreign aid, debt relief, technical assistance and investment packages in order to show that the United States stands with them. http://bit.ly/zfmGv9·Ended the F-22 program, saving $4 billion. Though the 187 aircraft cost $358 million each to build, it had never flown a combat mission. http://slate.me/PYzmzT·Passed the Iran Sanctions Act, to prevent war and encourage the Iranian government to give up their nuclear program. http://1.usa.gov/wLtNjb·Ended the Iraq War. http://tgr.ph/ru0tyS·Worked to keep our withdrawal from Afghanistan on track, despite GOP opposition. http://reut.rs/1cIOsF1 Reiterated that commitment in 2014. http://nyti.ms/1exnmRF·Conducted a secret mission by SEAL Team Six to rescue two hostages held by Somali pirates. http://bit.ly/y8c9Fz·Through United Nations Ambassador Susan Rice, helped negotiate a peaceful split of Sudan into two countries, creating an independent South Sudan. http://reut.rs/qzE0Tj·Helped make donations to Haiti tax deductible in 2009. http://huff.to/6YkAVY·Established a new U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue. http://1.usa.gov/eX28DP·Issued Executive Order blocking interference and helping to stabilize Somalia. http://1.usa.gov/hxdf8U·Established new, more reasonable policies in our relations with Cuba, such as allowing Cuban-Americans to visit their families and send money to support them. http://n.pr/hY3Kwa http://nyti.ms/emQBde·The new policies in Cuba led to thawed relations and the first US Embassy in Cuba in more than 55 years. http://abcn.ws/1ghLrEs·Became the first U.S. President to visit Cuba in more than 80 years. http://bit.ly/1qlKwbi·Negotiated a deal with Iran that will prevent them from getting a nuclear weapon anytime soon, without firing a shot or invading the country. http://cnn.it/1M3Hpvv·As a result of the Iran agreement, Iran shipped pretty much all of it nuclear material to Russia. http://nyti.ms/1PrzLty·Became the first US President to visit Jamaica in more than 30 years, worked to restore relations with the country and signed a natural gas distribution agreement with the country. http://bit.ly/1JtpFqi·Signs law extending some privacy protections to US allies, a reversal of the Bush practice of spying on people like Angela Merkel and the like. http://bit.ly/1VZza6w·With the Global Food Security Act, committed resources to expand food availability worldwide in an attempt to limit the scope of global hunger. http://usat.ly/2ehLnUr http://fandw.me/2czf6YG·Instituted Power Africa, an initiative to bring electrical generation to greater parts of the African continent. http://bbc.in/1QtYVud·Signed bill to end Americans’ involvement in international wildlife trafficking. http://bit.ly/2edq3V9·Signed an executive order to allow up to 110,000 additional refugees into the United States. http://bit.ly/2df2CJN·Refused to interfere with UN resolution condemning Israeli settlements. http://cnn.it/2k81evI·Changed US Approach to “Defense” and National Security·Created a comprehensive new strategy for dealing with the international nuclear threat. http://1.usa.gov/gDX1nE·Authorized a $1.4 billion reduction in Star Wars program in 2010. http://1.usa.gov/gLFZl2·Restarted nuclear nonproliferation talks and built up the nuclear inspection infrastructure/protocols to where they had been before Bush. http://lat.ms/gkcl3i·Signed and got ratification of a new SALT Treaty. http://bit.ly/f3JVtw·Negotiated and signed a new START Treaty that will stay in force until at least 2021. http://1.usa.gov/cI1bC4·Committed the US to no permanent military bases in Iraq. http://bit.ly/hk73OJ·Developed a comprehensive strategy with regard to Afghanistan and Pakistan designed to facilitate the defeat of al Qaeda, the withdrawal of most troops and the rebuilding of Afghanistan. http://wapo.st/ee4Xcs·Re-focused on Afghanistan, stabilized the country, and began the process of withdrawing troops from the country. http://bit.ly/lNXUna·Negotiated a deal with Afghan government, to withdraw troops and military support, while assisting in rebuilding and modernizing of the country. http://bit.ly/K362an·Took steps to severely weaken al Qaeda and limited their ability to terrorize the world. http://yhoo.it/n5lXs6·Negotiated and signed a nuclear nonproliferation treaty with India. http://1.usa.gov/aHp0Cn·Worked with NATO to limit the slaughter of innocents in Libya, so that Libyans could topple the despotic Khadaffy government and determine their own fate. http://aje.me/qAh4Sj·Got Egyptian President/dictator Mubarak to leave the Egyptian government to the people, to determine their own fate. http://f24.my/efvgNZ·In 2011, reoriented American focus from the Middle East to the Asian-Pacific region by simultaneously engaging China and crafting new alliances with Asian countries uncomfortable with Chinese behavior. http://bit.ly/RGlMDi·Restored federal agencies such as FEMA to the point that they have been able to manage a huge number of natural disasters successfully. http://bit.ly/h8Xj7z·Increased border security http://bit.ly/1JQDGz9·Ordered and oversaw the Navy SEALS operation that killed Osama bin Laden. http://bit.ly/jChpgw·Established the Homeland Security Partnership Council, to enhance the nation’s ability to “address homeland security priorities, from responding to natural disasters to preventing terrorism, by utilizing diverse perspectives, skills, tools, and resources.” http://1.usa.gov/VJjLXO·Signed agreement with Afghanistan to end war, turn security over to Afghans. http://nyti.ms/1xSjgBd·Breaking with recent presidential tradition, instead of just attacking Syria in the wake of chemical weapons attacks on Syrians, Obama ordered a full report on the decision-making process. http://cbsn.ws/184RFgu·Instead of holding hearings and creating a political football, he quietly captured a suspect who actually committed the Benghazi terrorist attack. http://wapo.st/1jFlmzv He is also getting a lot of useful information from the suspect. http://nyti.ms/UfE2Ka·Instituted rules to order sanctions against individuals and groups that threaten national cybersecurity. http://1.usa.gov/1HWcGMG·Instituted tougher new sanctions against North Korea after threats of nuclear attack and several tests. http://cbsn.ws/1L8L5hW·Got Congress to reauthorize FAA spending and to improve the efficiency of air travel for passengers. http://bit.ly/2cJZLrA·Took concrete steps to improve our counter-terrorism efforts. http://bit.ly/1RATjAh·Making great strides in defeating the Islamic State without committing hundreds of thousands of troops or carpet bombing civilians, against Republican objections. http://bit.ly/1TxBK5e·Established rules for data-sharing between the NSA and other intelligence agencies to improve the quality of information. http://bit.ly/2iOnc1F·Signed law to better protect the children who live on military bases. http://bit.ly/2k82nn7·Established program to provide more help for veterans with PTSD http://bit.ly/2k5kSEm·Established a national anti-propaganda center, to go after the fake news epidemic. http://bit.ly/2iXBy39·Improved Education and Educational Opportunities·Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, invested heavily in elementary, secondary and post-secondary education. http://1.usa.gov/gGRIAr·Created the Race to the Top program, which encouraged states to come up with effective school reforms and rewards the best of them. http://bit.ly/NHtZ7L·Oversaw major expansion of broadband availability in K-12 schools nationwide. http://bit.ly/fNDcj3·Oversaw major expansion in school construction. http://bit.ly/fYwNrV·Signed an executive order that expanded recognition and funding for historically black colleges and universities. http://on.thegrio.com/1rD50gc·Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, put $5 billion into early education, including Head Start. http://1.usa.gov/tzT2Rr·Signed the Democratic-sponsored Post-9/11 GI Bill, also known as GI Bill 2.0, to improve veterans’ access to education. http://bit.ly/hPhG7J·Oversaw expansion of the Pell Grants program, to expand opportunity for low and middle income students to go to college. http://bit.ly/hI6tXz·Signed and implemented the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which provided an extra $12.2 billion in funds. http://1.usa.gov/dQvtUe·Took major new steps to protect students from ineffective for-profit colleges through “gainful employment” measures, whereby schools have to demonstrate that its students actually find work to get federal aid. http://1.usa.gov/jkzQe2·Repeatedly increased funding for student financial aid, and at the same time cut the banks completely out of the process, thus us creating greater accountability. http://bit.ly/gYWd30 http://bit.ly/e9c7Dr http://bit.ly/eEzTNq·Reformed student loan program, to make it possible for students to refinance at a lower rate. http://nyti.ms/dMvHOt·Created a rating system for colleges, so that those applying for student financial aid know better what they’re paying for. http://bit.ly/14Dn7UL·Led a bipartisan effort to reform the federal approach to education and essentially repeal “No Child Left Behind.” http://cbsn.ws/2780qXu·High School graduation rates have soared under Obama http://huff.to/2diafzo·Restored the Adult View on Science and Technology·Created a Presidential Memorandum to restore scientific integrity in government decision-making. http://1.usa.gov/g2SDuw·Opened up the process for fast-tracking patent approval for green energy projects. http://bit.ly/j0KV2U·Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, committed more federal funding, about $18 billion, to support non-defense science and research labs. http://nyti.ms/fTs9t7·Obama EPA reversed research ethics standards which allowed humans to be used as “guinea pigs” in tests of the effects of chemicals, to comply with numerous codes of medical ethics. http://bit.ly/bKgqdS·Conducted a cyberspace policy review. http://1.usa.gov/gmbdvC·Provided financial support for private sector space programs. http://bit.ly/fn8ucr·Oversaw enhanced earth mapping, to provide valuable data for agricultural, educational, scientific, and government use. http://bit.ly/dNTRyP·Through American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, provided $500 million for Health Professions Training Programs. http://bit.ly/ecQSgA·Increased funding for community-based prevention programs. http://bit.ly/frMPG3·Expanded space exploration and discovery options to include more players. http://1.usa.gov/13qmZpm·Through the Connect America Fund, pushed through and received FCC approval for a move of $8 billion in subsidies away from telephone landlines to assist lower-income rural families in accessing broadband. http://lat.ms/vhRUEs http://bit.ly/129V3SY·In the wake of the West Fertilizer tragedy, formed the Chemical Safety and Security Working Group, to work on measures to prevent another such events. http://1.usa.gov/18kHSlA·Established a Cyber Threat Intelligence Integration Center, a recommendation made by the 9/11 Commission, to coordinate efforts to fight cyber-crime and terrorism. http://1.usa.gov/1A0aEoS·The Obama FCC, with his leadership, adopted strong net neutrality rules, to keep the Internet open and equal for everyone. http://fcc.us/1MhTlIA·Ordered rules to speed up deployment of a more comprehensive broadband infrastructure. http://1.usa.gov/M7rVpe·Set up a National Strategic Computing Initiative, to “maximize benefits of high-performance computing (HPC) research, development, and deployment.” http://1.usa.gov/1IN3FZa·Ordered a federal level change in national earthquake standards. http://1.usa.gov/1T5wGoR·Signed executive orders designed to strengthen government cybersecurity and prevent hackers from getting in. http://usat.ly/1R0saIt·Took steps to combat the effects of climate change by committing the U.S. to developing long-term drought resilience measures. http://1.usa.gov/1SMCuRY·Started the road to greater exploration of space by signing bill to encourage mining on asteroids and clarifying property rights in space. http://bit.ly/1RV2la9·Officially joined the Paris Climate Accords, thus strengthening the effort and making it a more powerful commitment to climate change. http://bit.ly/2jDgO1O·Signed bill to relieve California drought and to fix Flint’s water crisis. http://bit.ly/2iYd0a4·Signed a bill to improve science and technology research and development. http://bit.ly/2jd31vf·Signed the WIIN Act, which improves the country’s water infrastructure and which also protects the nation’s water supply to a greater degree. http://bit.ly/2jd3r4Y·Improved Our Health and Safety·Eliminated Bush-era restrictions on embryonic stem cell research, and provided increased federal support for biomedical and stem cell research. http://bit.ly/h36SSOhttp://ti.me/edezge·Led the enormous expansion of electronic medical records, which improves the availability and quality of care. http://bit.ly/2k7JLmX Currently, 96% of hospitals use electronic health records, up from 9.4% in 2009.·Electronic health records led to greater efficiency, leading to greater healthcare savings. http://on.wsj.com/2iGvL3h·Signed Democratic-sponsored Christopher and Dana Reeve Paralysis Act, the first comprehensive attempt to improve the lives of Americans living with paralysis. http://bit.ly/fOi2rb·Expanded the Nurse-Family Partnership program, which provides home visits by trained registered nurses to low-income expectant mothers and their families, to cover more first-time mothers. http://bit.ly/jRRRJc·Ordered that all vehicles be equipped with a rear-view camera by 2018, despite car makers’ complaints about cost. http://bit.ly/2c3jAZi·Along with Democrats in Congress, ushered through and signed a bill authorizing FDA to regulate tobacco and order tobacco companies to disclose their ingredients and to ban cigarettes falsely labeled as “light.” http://on.msnbc.com/fiKViB·Has overseen a 50% decrease in cost of prescription drugs for seniors. http://bit.ly/e5b1iq http://1.usa.gov/fVNkt9·Eliminated the Bush-era practice of forbidding Medicare from negotiating with drug companies on price. http://bit.ly/fOkG5b·Two weeks after taking office, signed Democratic-sponsored Children’s Health Insurance Reauthorization Act, which increased the number of children covered by health insurance by 4 million. http://bit.ly/fDEzGv·Urged Congress to investigate Anthem Blue Cross for raising premiums 39% without explanation. http://yhoo.it/e8Tj9C·Pushed through and signed Affordable Care Act, which expanded health insurance coverage greatly and ended many detrimental insurance company practices. He also established Get 2017 health coverage. Health Insurance Marketplace . http://www.healthcare.gov/·Through ACA, allowed children to be covered under their parents’ policy until they turned 26. http://nyti.ms/fNB26V·Through the ACA, provided tax breaks to allow 3.5 million small businesses to provide health insurance to their employees. http://nyti.ms/fNB26V·Through the ACA, millions of people receive help in paying their health insurance company premiums. http://nyti.ms/fNB26V·Through the ACA, expanded Medicaid to those making up to 133% of the federal poverty level. http://nyti.ms/ekMWpo (Note: except for those states whose Republicans refused to take the extra money.)·By 2014, the Affordable Care Act dropped the number of uninsured Americans by 22.3%, which amounts to more than 10.3 million people with insurance who didn’t have it before. Only 13.9% of Americans are uninsured, a drop from 18.9% in 2013. http://on.msnbc.com/1r4kjGn·The Affordable Care Act has increased the life expectancy of Medicare greatly. http://on.wsj.com/1yuNco6·Through the ACA, health insurance companies now have to disclose how much of your premium actually goes to pay for patient care. http://nyti.ms/fNB26V·Medicare costs actually declined slightly, for the first time in decades in 2011, according to the Congressional Budget Office. http://1.usa.gov/oMxpTh·Since passage of the ACA, health care inflation is at its lowest level since 1960. http://1.usa.gov/1vXR0Ld·Created the HIV Care Continuum Initiative, to strengthen the government’s ability to respond to the continuing domestic HIV epidemic, after years of Republicans weakening the government’s ability to deal with the crisis. http://1.usa.gov/1iLED0t·Signed bill that will provide health insurance premium support to workers who lose their health insurance due to foreign competition. http://bit.ly/1evvVDF·In response to the confusion triggered by the Hobby Lobby decision, which essentially declared that corporations could have “religious rights” and lord them over employees, created new rules to give all women with insurance the right to free birth control. http://on.wsj.com/1O44a1t·Implemented the National HIV/AIDS Strategy for 2015-2020, which is a follow-up to the first such strategy in US history, which he implemented in 2010. http://1.usa.gov/1IXknHm·Took steps to improve the country’s approach to drug addiction and mental health. http://bit.ly/2cJTHQ9·Signed and will implement new child safety standards for e-cigarettes. http://bit.ly/1XaFCIS·Put into place the first mandatory rules regarding labeling of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) http://bit.ly/2ciVlH7·Set up a White House Cancer Moonshot Task Force, in order to implement ways to develop a cure for cancer. http://1.usa.gov/20AeKY4·Took steps to improve detection and treatment of mental health problems. http://1.usa.gov/25HEDp5·Signed Trevor’s Law, which will allow for better tracking and study of cancer and disease clusters. http://bit.ly/297uFJK·Signed a memorandum of understanding with Cuba to share healthcare information. http://bit.ly/29mCojf·Expanded availability of Cuban cigars and Cuban run in the absence of a GOP Congressional bill lifting the Cuban embargo. http://bit.ly/2esLtNE·Extended an incentive program for Big Pharma that was about to expire, that encouraged them to find cures for pediatric diseases. http://bit.ly/2dF55t7·Signed a bill designed to improve research into and increase the availability of new treatments and drugs in the healthcare industry. http://bit.ly/2iOQxZU·Made sure that health insurance coverage was guaranteed for eating disorders. http://bit.ly/2iY6h05·Signed a law enforcement pact with Cuba, to foster greater cooperation between the two countries. http://on.wkyc.com/2k7G9kS·Addressed Environment, Climate Change While Meeting Energy Needs·Doubled federal spending on clean energy research. http://bit.ly/iN0sCE·Pushed through a tax credit to help people buy plug-in hybrid cars. http://bit.ly/j8UP5Y·Created a program to develop renewable energy projects on the waters of our Outer Continental Shelf that will produce electricity from wind, wave, and ocean currents. http://1.usa.gov/fgfRWq·Reengaged in the climate change and greenhouse gas emissions agreements talks, and proposed one himself. He also addressed the U.N. Climate Change Conference, officially reversing the Bush era stance that climate change was a “hoax.” http://bit.ly/dX6Vj3 http://bit.ly/fE2PxK http://nyti.ms/hfeqvv·Fully supported the initial phase of the creation of a legally-binding treaty to reduce mercury emissions worldwide. http://bit.ly/eJ6QOO·Required states to provide incentives to utilities to reduce their energy consumption. http://bit.ly/lBhk7P·Under Obama, our dependence on foreign oil has dropped to its lowest rate since 1985, and continues to drop. http://1.usa.gov/1p6kTUy·Meanwhile, oil consumption is way down because of reduced driving and higher mileage standards. http://ti.me/1z4HFG8·Improved siting, review and permitting stations for power plants, in an attempt to seriously improve the nation’s electric grid. http://1.usa.gov/1l8zNqn·Reengaged in a number of treaties and agreements designed to protect the Antarctic. http://bit.ly/fzQUFO·Created tax write-offs for purchases of hybrid and electric vehicles. http://bit.ly/glCukV·Established a quadrennial review of our energy infrastructure, to encourage a modernization of the grid, and to encourage the transition away from fossil fuel use. http://1.usa.gov/1nx2oMo·Mandated that federal government fleet purchases be for fuel-efficient American vehicles, and encouraged that federal agencies support experimental, fuel-efficient vehicles. http://1.usa.gov/hmUSbk http://1.usa.gov/fLWq5c·Encouraged BP to pay $20 billion to establish Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, to reduce the need for taxpayer funds to be used for compensation and clean up. http://wapo.st/ds2BxT (Note: it took 20 years to get $1.3 billion for the Exxon Valdez spill. )·Oversaw and pushed through an amendment to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 authorizing advances from Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. http://1.usa.gov/yTRYVo·Actively tried to amend the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 to eliminate the liability limits for those companies responsible for large oil spills. http://nyti.ms/bxjDi3·Became the first President to simply say “Climate Change is a fact,” and set up the first federal government protocols for dealing with the impacts of climate change. http://1.usa.gov/1b7V67B·Initiated Criminal and Civil inquiries into the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. http://nyti.ms/bVuB7a·Asserted federal legal supremacy to bar Texas from authorizing new refinery permits on its own.http://bit.ly/ww8eMd·Set up new, stricter standards severely limiting power plant emissions, curring them to 68% of 2005 levels by 2030. http://1.usa.gov/1mML2M3·Strengthened the Endangered Species Act. http://bit.ly/hscjsH·Strengthened protection for wildlife, and expanded enforcement of laws against wildlife trafficking. http://1.usa.gov/1fce1Ai·Obama EPA improved boiler safety standards to improve air quality, and save 6500 lives per year. http://bit.ly/jYH7nt·Through the EPA, attempted to take steps to severely limit the use of antibiotics in livestock feed, to increase their efficacy in humans. http://bit.ly/fBuWd2·Through new EPA regulations, he created a pretext for closing the dirtiest power plants in the country, by limiting emissions of mercury and other toxic gasses. http://bit.ly/rQCIgA·Increased funding for National Parks and Forests by 10% http://bit.ly/fbJPjY·Announced greatly improved commercial fuel efficiency standards. http://1.usa.gov/oQiC1K·Signed a bill that allowed for increased regulations of a large number of chemicals and other toxic materials, allowing the EPA to make the use of certain toxic materials more transparent. http://usat.ly/2911hA4·Announced a huge increase in average fuel economy standards from 27.5mpg in 2010 to 35.5mpg starting in 2016 and 54.5 starting in 2025 http://1.usa.gov/qtghsW·Facilitated investment in industrial energy efficiency to create jobs and strengthen US manufacturing while saving businesses $100 billion over a decade. http://1.usa.gov/WsIgbx·Set up the Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Council to oversee Gulf Coast restoration efforts after the 2010 BP oil spill. The money to fund the restoration efforts comes from fines against BP. http://1.usa.gov/Rxjb29·Engaged in the most comprehensive plan to combat climate change in a generation. http://bit.ly/13lXhET·Ordered energy plants to prepare to produce at least 15% of all energy through renewable resources like wind and solar, by 2021. http://reut.rs/fV155p·Oversaw the creation of an initiative that converts old factories and manufacturing centers into new clean technology centers. http://bit.ly/mjnq2R·Guided a 418% increase in solar power capacity between 2010 and 2014. http://bit.ly/1rHkWJC·As of May 2015, 74% of new electrical capacity was provided by solar and wind power. http://bit.ly/1T5r0LC·Bypassed Congress and ordered EPA to begin regulating and measuring carbon emissions. http://bit.ly/froaP5·Oversaw a tripling in the use of wind power to generate electricity. The US now leads the world in increased wind power capacity. http://www.worldwatch.org/node/5448·Ordered the federal government to incorporate climate resilience and climate science into all international development in which the United States engages. http://1.usa.gov/YV1EpW·Fast-tracked regulations to allow states to enact fuel efficiency standards that exceeded federal standards. http://nyti.ms/e8e94x·Fast-tracked increased fuel economy standards for vehicles beginning with the 2011 model year. It was the first time such standards had been increased in more than a decade. http://politi.co/hiaPKM·Oversaw establishment of an Energy Partnership for the Americas, to create more markets for American-made biofuels and green energy technologies. http://bit.ly/lZp73y·Obama EPA reversed a Bush-era decision to allow the largest mountaintop removal project in US history. http://bit.ly/lP3yEL·Ordered the Department of Energy to implement more aggressive efficiency standards for common household appliances. http://1.usa.gov/g3MTbu·Obama EPA ruled that excess CO2 is a pollutant. http://bit.ly/iQTSNN·Closed a deal with China to limit carbon emissions to slow down climate change. http://nyti.ms/1xzyS8K·Blocked all oil and gas drilling in Bristol Bay, Alaska, one of the most pristine environments in North America http://lat.ms/13xUVFD·Signed an Executive Order to improve environmental efforts in the Arctic region and to combat climate change by better coordinating the efforts of the 23 federal agencies operating in the area. http://usat.ly/ZEzLzE·Vetoed a bill to fast track construction of the parallel Keystone XL pipeline. http://nbcnews.to/1DVDFo7·Expanded clean water regulations to more stringently protect all of the nation’s waterways, even when states fail in their duty. http://bit.ly/1RdQpTc·Signed an Executive Order committing the federal government to lead the way in building a sustainable economy. It’s his fifth doing just that. http://1.usa.gov/1EzO2ne·Banned the use of antibiotics in food served in US Government-run cafeterias and ordered agencies to only use antibiotic-free meat. http://bit.ly/1G1vUxi http://bit.ly/1KHkl4N·Developed new rules to address climate change and to create a significant boost to clean energy. http://bit.ly/1UnQcuR·Negotiated and signed a virtually Republican-Proof global agreement on climate change, with 190 countries signing on. http://bit.ly/1RkjVG8·Became one of 196 countries that signed onto a UN Framework on Climate Change. http://unfccc.int/2860.php·Ordered a moratorium on new coal leasing on federal land, and they will examine the whole leasing process. http://wapo.st/23Q6en8·Signed a bill to better protect pipelines and to authorize greater oversight. http://bit.ly/291woja·Signed an order turning more than 87,000 acres of Maine Woods into the North Woods National Monument. http://bit.ly/2ciWDCc·Signed into law a measure directing the Department of Transportation to issue guidelines for minimum standards for underground storage of natural gas. http://bit.ly/291AdjL·Established the Northern Bering Sea Climate Resilience Area in an effort to preserve the Bering Sea and to protect the people who live in the area and depend on the sea for their lives. http://bit.ly/2k8cpEP·Permanently banned offshore oil and gas drilling in many areas of the Arctic and North Atlantic, to preserve the environment and stave off climate change. http://bit.ly/2jDcLm7·Infused a lot of extra money to assist Texas in its study of better hurricane protection. http://bit.ly/2iP9Mm1·Created national parks in Nevada and Utah to do as much as possible to preserve the environment before the Trump debacle. http://bit.ly/2jdbj6t·Pledged $500 million to United Nations Climate Fund that Trump promised to de-fund. http://bit.ly/2jCEiUH·Signed a pact with Cuba to coordinate resources in cases of oil spills. http://reut.rs/2jcZsp7·There’s So Much More!·Nominated Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan to the Supreme Court. Sotomayor is the first Hispanic Justice in the court’s history, and the women represent only the third and fourth women to serve on the court, out of a total of 112 justices. http://huff.to/eOChg6http://bit.ly/i02wgP·Appointed the most diverse Cabinet in history, including more women than any other incoming president. http://bit.ly/dX6vNB·Loosened the rules and allowed the 14 states that legalized medical marijuana to regulate themselves without federal interference. http://huff.to/eQfa7j·Signed national service legislation, increasing funding for national service groups, including triple the size of the Americorps program. http://bit.ly/idgQH5·Signed a bill that provided $4.3 billion in additional assistance to 9/11 first responders. http://bit.ly/o7cWYS·Placed major restrictions on the ivory trade in a bid to prevent the wholesale slaughter of elephants in Africa. http://ti.me/292Z4Gg·Signed a bill that will seriously curb the use of animal testing and establish alternative testing methods. http://bit.ly/28Z5AuS·Signed the Claims Resolution Act, which provided $4.6 billion in funding for a legal settlement with black and Native American farmers who had been cheated out of government loans and natural resource royalties in the past. http://1.usa.gov/dGppUa·To help those communities devastated by Hurricane Sandy, issued an executive order setting up the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force, and asked Congress to approve $60 billion in supplemental assistance to aid in storm recovery. http://1.usa.gov/134L7hl·Produced 23 Executive actions designed to make it easier for law enforcement to identify those who shouldn’t have guns, thus helping them enforce the law. http://on.wsj.com/SX9xaZ·Expanded trade agreements to include stricter labor and environmental agreements in trade pacts like NAFTA. http://bit.ly/etznpY·Oversaw funding of the design of a new Smithsonian National Museum of African American History, which is scheduled to open on the National Mall in 2015. He protected the funding during budget negotiations. http://on.fb.me/fD0EVO http://bit.ly/ff5Luv·Oversaw and passed increased funding for the National Endowment for the Arts.http://bit.ly/dFb8qFExpanded the authority of Customs to improve enforcement of trade and customs laws and to better coordinate said enforcement among various agencies. http://bit.ly/1S5pun7Was voted most admired man of the year for 2016. http://ti.me/2jDauHtAnd Did You Know?Despite the characterizations of some, Obama’s success rate in winning congressional votes on issues was an unprecedented 96.7% for his first year in office. Though he is often cited as superior to Obama, President Lyndon Johnson’s success rate in 1965 was only 93%. http://n.pr/i3d7cYAnd of course…Despite the odds, became the first black president and then, was reelected by a wide margin.·Acted with grace and dignity for right years and restored a proper level of dignity to the office of the president.·Also, left office with an approval rating above 60%, 20 points higher than his “replacement” had going into the office.

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