Meaning In Life Without Free Will - Calvin College: Fill & Download for Free


Download the form

How to Edit and fill out Meaning In Life Without Free Will - Calvin College Online

Read the following instructions to use CocoDoc to start editing and writing your Meaning In Life Without Free Will - Calvin College:

  • First of all, seek the “Get Form” button and click on it.
  • Wait until Meaning In Life Without Free Will - Calvin College is ready to use.
  • Customize your document by using the toolbar on the top.
  • Download your completed form and share it as you needed.
Get Form

Download the form

An Easy-to-Use Editing Tool for Modifying Meaning In Life Without Free Will - Calvin College on Your Way

Open Your Meaning In Life Without Free Will - Calvin College Without Hassle

Get Form

Download the form

How to Edit Your PDF Meaning In Life Without Free Will - Calvin College Online

Editing your form online is quite effortless. There is no need to install any software through your computer or phone to use this feature. CocoDoc offers an easy tool to edit your document directly through any web browser you use. The entire interface is well-organized.

Follow the step-by-step guide below to eidt your PDF files online:

  • Search CocoDoc official website from any web browser of the device where you have your file.
  • Seek the ‘Edit PDF Online’ option and click on it.
  • Then you will browse this cool page. Just drag and drop the PDF, or attach the file through the ‘Choose File’ option.
  • Once the document is uploaded, you can edit it using the toolbar as you needed.
  • When the modification is finished, press the ‘Download’ button to save the file.

How to Edit Meaning In Life Without Free Will - Calvin College on Windows

Windows is the most widely-used operating system. However, Windows does not contain any default application that can directly edit PDF. In this case, you can install CocoDoc's desktop software for Windows, which can help you to work on documents effectively.

All you have to do is follow the instructions below:

  • Download CocoDoc software from your Windows Store.
  • Open the software and then attach your PDF document.
  • You can also attach the PDF file from Google Drive.
  • After that, edit the document as you needed by using the various tools on the top.
  • Once done, you can now save the completed file to your laptop. You can also check more details about editing PDF in this post.

How to Edit Meaning In Life Without Free Will - Calvin College on Mac

macOS comes with a default feature - Preview, to open PDF files. Although Mac users can view PDF files and even mark text on it, it does not support editing. Using CocoDoc, you can edit your document on Mac quickly.

Follow the effortless instructions below to start editing:

  • To get started, install CocoDoc desktop app on your Mac computer.
  • Then, attach your PDF file through the app.
  • You can select the PDF from any cloud storage, such as Dropbox, Google Drive, or OneDrive.
  • Edit, fill and sign your file by utilizing this CocoDoc tool.
  • Lastly, download the PDF to save it on your device.

How to Edit PDF Meaning In Life Without Free Will - Calvin College with G Suite

G Suite is a widely-used Google's suite of intelligent apps, which is designed to make your job easier and increase collaboration between you and your colleagues. Integrating CocoDoc's PDF file editor with G Suite can help to accomplish work easily.

Here are the instructions to do it:

  • Open Google WorkPlace Marketplace on your laptop.
  • Search for CocoDoc PDF Editor and download the add-on.
  • Select the PDF that you want to edit and find CocoDoc PDF Editor by choosing "Open with" in Drive.
  • Edit and sign your file using the toolbar.
  • Save the completed PDF file on your cloud storage.

PDF Editor FAQ

If I have not got the best of education from the top most colleges in the world, what do you think can make me a successful person in life?

Know this - Colleges do not have monopoly over education.This means that you can be your own minister or secretary for education as far as your own life is concerned.Next, you have the power to define what is success.For example, singers don’t have to compete in US Got Talent and gets insulted by judges in order to make a living out of singing. The world has so many great music schools, and Amazon can do your albums or DVD for you without you putting out any capital.Writers don’t have to go to big publishing houses in order to publish their books. Amazon is waiting for you to give you free services so long as you are willing to do your part.Entrepreneurs don’t have to go to arrogant venture capitalists to get funding. They can get their capital from crowd funding.Ultimate, you hold the key to your own success. You are your own best life coach and mentor.And, never forget that you don’t have to get any arbitrary advice from anyone, not even from me.Pick up several of the keywords above, and simply Google, and you’ll be shocked by the number of results you’ll get.The world is full of opportunities. Opportunities nowadays don’t knock once. They knock every hour of every day. Just ask udemy. They have more than 65,000 online courses waiting for you. Just do it.The question is whether you are man enough to last the distance. Calvin Coolidge says it best:Nothing in the world can take the place of PERSISTENCE.Talent will not.Nothing is more common than unsuccessful people with talent.Genius will not.Unrewarded genius is alomst a provebr.Education will not.The world is full of educated derelicts.The slogan “Press On!” has solved and always will solveThe problems of the human race.

What religion has had the largest effect on human history?

I am a Christian, but it is not bias that compels me to answer “Christianity.” It is simply the weight of history.Threads of monotheistic belief can be traced back in time through Judaism, and it is arguable that there were primitive seminal-monotheistic beliefs in Egypt and in Persia even before Judaism, but no other religion has ever had the kind of powerful, direct, broad and long-lasting ‘effect’ on human history that Christianity has had.Those ‘effects’ have not always been positive. The growth of secular political ‘State’ power, and its centralization, drove the development of persecution as a tool of enforcement in Medieval Europe. The church, which was also becoming a centralized power at the time, played a significant role in such persecution, (though not the leading role), for almost 500 years (from about 1200 to 1700).[1][2]Taking into consideration all of these “negatives,” Christianity’s positive effects still outnumber and outweigh them, so if you are asking for the largest positive influence, I would still say Christianity. However, if all you are asking is the largest effect, I take that to mean totality—both positive and negative together—and hands down, that’s Christianity. There is no one else that even comes close.War and PeaceChristianity has had an effect on war, and peace, throughout its history. It has generally been more of an influence for peace than war, but it has also been the impetus for more than one act of violence.[3] The Encyclopedia of War says all religious wars combined comprise less than 7% of the total wars in human history, because most wars are economic and political, and many studies conclude that ethnic animosities are the driving factor of many conflicts.[4]But Christianity has also been a direct and indirect cause of conflicts such as the Crusades, which were genuinely religious in nature, and other acts of violence such as the executions of ‘witches’ and heretics and Jews.[5]There are those who disagree, but studies indicate Christianity is not more likely to generate violence than Islam, polytheism or atheism.[6] The majority of all terrorist groups are Islamic, Nationalistic, ideological (such as animal rights, environmental activists, etc.) and/or ethnic. It is arguable that there are no actual Christian terror groups, even considering the KKK and the IRA.[7][8]It is true that Christianity has at times been used to ‘validate’ violence and that violence has sporadically been an aspect of its practice, but it is also true that Christianity has more often been used to stop violence and promote peace. Christianity has affected violence in both directions.[9]Christians have won a total of 78.3% of all the Nobel Prizes in Peace. [10] Though all religions have teachings on the value of peace, pacifism does not exist as an ideology in other religions. [11]Just war doctrine grew out of Christianity as well.Wherever Christianity has been, it has had one effect or the other—and sometimes both—on peace.Effect on Health and Happiness“In the midst of the squalor, misery, illness, and anonymity of ancient cities, Christianity provided an island of mercy and security.” [12](p.112)Christianity generated congregations who took care of each other. This increased both their health and their happiness. [13] A study based on ancient tombstones has established that early Christians tended to outlive their pagan neighbors.[14](Artist’s depiction of the Parable of the Good Samaritan)Modern studies connect religious faith with increased mental and physical health, decreased smoking and alcohol consumption, as well as positively effecting heart disease and blood pressure. Studies also indicate religious commitment and participation affects longevity, especially in men. Church attendance is a major predictor in suicide prevention, even more than employment.[15] Christianity continues to effect the happiness and well-being of its adherents. [16][17]Christianity has Affected Intellectual DevelopmentThere is hardly anything that has more influence on a society than the level of education of its people. Christianity has a long history of investment in human capital through education. The Catholic Church founded the West's first universities, which were preceded by the schools attached to monasteries and cathedrals and generally staffed by monks and friars. The early monasteries preserved classical knowledge, craft and intellectual culture and acted as major conduits of civilization.Missionary activity by Christian churches has always incorporated education wherever and whenever it has gone—and it has gone almost everywhere now. History shows that in evangelized lands, the first people to operate schools were Christians. In some countries, the Catholic Church is still the main provider of education and presently operates the world's largest non-governmental school system.This has impacted everything that education produces—like science.The roots of modern science reach back to Christianity of the Middle Ages. “Alfred North Whitehead (1861–1947), explained that science developed in Europe because of the widespread “faith in the possibility of science... derivative from medieval theology.”[18] [19] Robert K. Merton asserts that English Puritanism and German Pietism were responsible for the development of the scientific revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries. The connection between religious affiliation and interest in science created a significant ‘synergy’ between Protestant values and those of modern science.There are three famous instances of the Church repressing scientific investigation, but the record of history also shows the church fostering and supporting science for hundreds of years.The Protestant Reformers wanted everyone to be able to read the Bible for themselves, so they introduced compulsory public education. This also led to the translation of the Bible into hundreds of different national languages thereby supporting the development of many national literatures.[20]A nineteenth century book on "Colleges in America" says, "Eighty three percent of the colleges in [the U.S.] were founded by Christian philanthropy.” The majority of colleges in the world are still in the West. Check out this map of the 50 best universities in the worldA PEW center study in 2016 found Christians ranked as the second most educated religious group around the world after Jews. Christians were also found to have the second highest number of graduate and post-graduate degrees per capita, while in absolute numbers they ranked in first place having ~ 220 million. [21]According to the same study, Christians have a significant amount of gender equality in educational attainment, and the study suggests that one of the reasons is the encouragement of the Protestant Reformers in promoting the education of women."…There is a large and pervasive gap in educational attainment between Muslims and Christians in sub-Saharan Africa" as Muslim adults in this region are far less educated than their Christian counterparts, with scholars suggesting that this gap is due to the educational facilities that were created by Christian missionaries.[22]The level of effect Christianity has had by spreading education and the belief in the importance of it around the world is immeasurable—but undeniable.Ancient church records from Antiquity.Christianity affects Resilience in the face of SufferingChristianity is the only religion that embraces suffering as an aspect of its theology.“Christianity revitalized life in Greco-Roman cities by providing new norms and new kinds of social relationships able to cope with many urgent urban problems. To cities filled with the homeless and the impoverished, Christianity offered charity as well as hope. To cities filled with newcomers and strangers, Christianity offered an immediate basis for attachments. To cities filled with orphans and widows, Christianity provided a new and expanded sense of family. To cities torn by violent ethnic strife, Christianity offered a new basis for social solidarity. And to cities faced with epidemics, fires, and earthquakes, Christianity offered effective nursing services.” ―Rodney StarkModern studies of religious coping show that religious patients tend to use more positive than negative religious coping when dealing with both medical and non-medical problems.Positive religious coping involves behaviors such as: embracing belief in redemptive suffering and the ‘good’ purposes of God, trying to find a lesson from God in the stressing event, doing what one can do and leaving the rest in God's hands, seeking support from clergy/church members, and/or the ‘presence’ of God, thinking about how one's life is part of a larger spiritual force, looking to religion for assistance to find a new direction for living when the old one may no longer be viable, and attempting to provide spiritual support and comfort to others, are ways in which Christianity effects resilience.[23]Christianity has affected EconomicsJoseph Schumpeter, an economist of the twentieth century, referring to the Scholastics (from the 1200s), wrote, "it is they who come nearer than does any other group to having been the 'founders' of scientific economics.”[24]Protestant reformer John Calvin's contributions to economics include the “Protestant Work Ethic” which was an important force behind the development of capitalism and the industrial revolution.[25] [26] Calvinism made it possible for businessmen to work with the assurance their work was morally legitimate, and their Calvinist ascetisism meant they plowed profits back into development, growth and employee benefits. [27]Capitalism first emerged in the Protestant Netherlands, Britain and the United States. In modern times, the years when South Korea's economy grew from $2.7 billion to $230 billion (1962-89) are the same years when the proportion of Protestants in the country grew from 2.5% to 27%. The Protestant surge in Latin America seems to be matched by a similar surge of private enterprise.[28]Max Weber, the sociologist, pointed out that capitalism is a system of "restless activity."But, then, so is Christianity.Christianity has promulgated representative government.The relationship between politics and religion is not an easy one, indeed, Christianity continues to make different political arguments, support different political regimes—and even make apolitical arguments as well. Going back to Christianity's roots in ancient Rome, Christians have repeatedly tried to carve out a separate spiritual ‘space’ for themselves where political authority does not apply, insisting the kingdom of God matters far more than this world. The Roman government didn’t approve. In fact, “we serve a higher power than you” is one of the characteristics of Christianity that has repeatedly produced persecution into our modern day.This belief, along with Christian doctrines concerning the innate value of human life, its basic rights, and natural law, along with the biblical charge to overcome oppression, helped give the modern world the counterintuitive notion of limited government. This is the principle that a government's first duty is to get out of the way of its people's lives as much as it can. It's a principle the Protestants who first came to America wove into the DNA of the United States. [29] [30] There is no denying these concepts are linked to the development of democracy in the modern world.In China:“One of the things we were asked to look into was what accounted for the success, in fact, the pre-eminence of the West all over the world.We studied everything we could from the historical, political, economic, and cultural perspective. At first, we thought it was because you had more powerful guns than we had. Then we thought it was because you had the best political system. Next we focused on your economic system.But in the past twenty years, we have realized that the heart of your culture is your religion: Christianity. That is why the West is so powerful. The Christian moral foundation of social and cultural life was what made possible the emergence of capitalism and then the successful transition to democratic politics. We don’t have any doubt about this.” [31]The modern democracies we have, with all their weaknesses, represent an historic gain for the individual and much of that is an effect of Christianity. [32]Christianity and human rights." cannot and need not deny that Human Rights are of Western Origin. It cannot be denied, because they are morally based on the Judeo-Christian tradition and Graeco-Roman philosophy; they were codified in the West over many centuries, they have secured an established position in the national declarations of western democracies, and they have been enshrined in the constitutions of those democracies."[33]Howard Tumber says, "human rights is not a universal doctrine, but is the descendent of one particular religion (Christianity)." [34]This does not suggest Christianity has not had its share of human rights abuses. Let’s take, for example, one of the things Christianity is most often criticized for: the practice of slavery in the American South.Slavery goes back long before America—thousands of years—to 3000 BC and even earlier—where there were no civilizations that existed without the practice of slavery. All known societies above the very primitive level have been slave societies—even many of the American Indian tribes had slaves long before Columbus’s voyage.Back then, slavery was the “machinery” of civilization. Without slaves, ancient society collapsed. One of the things that led to the downfall of Rome was an ever increasing shortage of slaves. Slaves were like modern technology: a country couldn’t compete economically without them.So, this was the status quo into which Christianity was born. Amid universal slavery, only one group ever worked against it: Christendom. And it did so twice. The Church initially accepted slavery as part of the social structure of society, advocating for humane treatment of slaves but also admonishing slaves to behave appropriately towards their masters.[31] However, historian Glenn Sunshine says, Christians became the first people in history to oppose slavery systematically.Early Christians purchased slaves in the markets simply to set them free. Later, in the seventh century, the Franks..., under the influence of its Christian queen, Bathilde, became the first kingdom in history to begin the process of outlawing slavery.... In the 1200's, Thomas Aquinas declared slavery a sin. When the African slave trade began in the 1400's, it was condemned numerous times by the papacy.[35]“…At the fall of Rome there was very extensive slavery everywhere in Europe; by the time of the “Renaissance” it was long gone.”[36] But by the 1500s, the west became involved in slavery once again and Christianity was used as a justification of it by many. An entire economic system once again depended upon the exploitation of the few, and Christianity was used to attempt to make greed moral. Then in the 1700s, Christianity once again provided the impetus to do away with it.And once again it has not stayed gone. [37]Everyone should read this: John Dewar Gleissner's answer to What are some mind-blowing facts about slavery?Christianity and the free flow of information.Luther was not an apostle of free speech, but by insisting all human authority was provisional and that conscience can be constrained only by the Bible and the Holy Spirit, he ensured censorship would get worn down by Protestants' refusal to shut up when told to.Protestantism has continuously generated new ideas, revived old ones and questioned its own orthodoxies. Their bare-knuckle style of public argument gradually ushered in a respect for free speech that has become a foundational aspect of American culture. [38]Christianity has affected the practice of CharityHistorians record that, prior to Christianity, the ancient world left little trace of any organized charitable effort.[39] Classical philosophers taught that mercy was a character defect and that pity was a pathological emotion excusable only in those who had not yet grown up. [40](p. 197) Instead, Christianity established hospitals and practiced charity toward the sick and suffering viewing mercy as a virtue.Albert Jonsen, University of Washington historian of medicine, says “the second great sweep of medical history begins at the end of the fourth century, with the founding of the first Christian hospital at Caesarea in Cappadocia, and concludes at the end of the fourteenth century, with medicine well ensconced in the universities and in the public life of the emerging nations of Europe.”Christian charity and the practice of feeding and clothing the poor, visiting prisoners, supporting widows and orphan children has had sweeping impact in western culture.Christianity has had an effect on sexual mores, on the rights and roles of women, on our view of children as infinitely valuable, on monogamous marriage and divorce; it has impacted all of the arts, including inventing the nomenclature for writing music. Christianity has influenced philosophy, and concepts of free will, and personal responsibility which form the basis of law and justice. It would be hard to find an aspect of Western life that has not been influenced in some way by Christianity.Have there been other influences as well? Absolutely. We have also benefitted from our Greek and Roman heritage, humanism and secularism, our German heritage, ideas imported from the East, including Islam; these have all intertwined to add to the Western cultural ‘stew.’ But no one has been a greater influence—or probably even as much as—Christianity.Christianity has not been perfect. It has not done everything right or even everything well at all times, but it is certainly undeniable that it has been a powerful force.The religion that has had the largest effect on human history is, hands down, Christianity.Footnotes[1] The Formation of a Persecuting Society[2] Jenny Hawkins's answer to Did Christianity spread by the sword?[3] Who Kills More, Religion or Atheism?[4] Encyclopedia of Wars, 3-Volume Set[5] Seven Myths of the Crusades[6] The Myth of Religious Violence: Secular Ideology and the Roots of Modern Conflict by Cavanaugh, William T published by OUP USA (2009): Books[7] Jenny Hawkins's answer to Do you think that ISIS represents Islam?[8] Real Irish Republican Army - Wikipedia[9] War: Four Christian Views: Robert G. Clouse; editor, Herman A. Hoyt, Myron S. Ausburger, Arthur F. Holmes, Harold O.J. Brown: 9780884690979: Books[10] File:Religion of Nobel Prize winners.png[11] War: Four Christian Views: Robert G. Clouse; editor, Herman A. Hoyt, Myron S. Ausburger, Arthur F. Holmes, Harold O.J. Brown: 9780884690979: Books[12] The Triumph of Christianity[13] Jerusalem and Athens[14][15] Religion and mental health[16][17][18] The Triumph of Christianity[19] The Western Humanities, Complete[20] Hmong Refugees in the New World[21][22] Role of Christianity in civilization - Wikipedia[23] Religion and mental health[24] History of Economic Analysis[25] Max Weber (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)[26] What Calvinism Did for Economics[27] The Victory of Reason[28] Three surprising ways the Protestant Reformation shaped our world [29] R. E. Ewin, Kuhse, H.: [30] Christianity and Democracy, and The Rights of Man and Natural Law: Jacques Maritain: 9781586176006: Books[31] Jesus in Beijing: How Christianity Is Transforming China and Changing the Global Balance of Power (Audible Audio Edition): David Aikman, Colman M. Shew, Regnery Publishing: Books[32] Three surprising ways the Protestant Reformation shaped our world [33] Philosophy of Thomas Aquinas on Justice and Human Rights: A Paradigm for the Africa-Cultural Conflicts Resolution - Nigerian Perspectives (Philosophie) (9783643909091): JoeBarth C. Abba, Matthew Hassan Kukah, Wilhelm Vossenkuhl: Books[34] The Routledge Companion to Literature and Human Rights (Routledge Literature Companions): Sophia A. McClennen, Alexandra Schultheis Moore: 9780415736411: Books[35] Why You Think the Way You Do[36] The Triumph of Christianity[37] Contemporary slavery[38] Three surprising ways the Protestant Reformation shaped our world [39] Christian Charity in the Ancient Church[40] The Triumph of Christianity

If Jesus had not taught us to love others sacrificially, to help the poor and needy, to treat others as we would want to be treated, and to forgive, what do you think the world would be like now?

What would the world be like? This is a big question. It includes sociology, the impact of ethics and ideas on society and culture, and 2000 years of history—so—a genuinely big question in every sense.The answer is something most people—through no fault of their own—aren’t generally familiar with. Neither the history of Christianity, nor the history of the western humanities (which includes the history of Christianity), are taught in public schools. They aren’t even an elective at most colleges. So the average person simply has no way of knowing the facts that form the basis of this answer.Plus, it’s easy to make the mistake in thinking that what “is” was somehow inevitable—that it would have come about no matter what—Jesus or no. But there is no way to study history and not see all the various turning points and paradigm shifts and alternate directions in which society could have gone—and did in other cultures—and continue to hold such a naive notion.It isn’t necessary to be a follower of Jesus to recognize his cultural impact.Jaroslav Pelikan, the magisterial Professor of History at Yale University, states in his introduction to Jesus Through The Centuries:“Jesus of Nazareth has been the dominant figure in the history of Western culture…If it were possible, with some sort of super magnet, to pull up out of that history every scrap of metal bearing at least a trace of His name, how much would be left?”The implication is: nothing. Jesus Christ is the author of Western civilization. Without Him it would not exist as it does. Western civilization has, in its turn, impacted the world more than any other civilization.[1] What would the world be like without Jesus? Let’s address the aspects of this question one point at a time.If Jesus had not taught us to love others sacrificially,missionsLet’s begin with one of the most maligned aspects of the Christian faith: the missionary movement. Christians believe it is rooted in the sacrificial love of others, but opponents deny that by using the example of colonialism.Spain and then Portugal were the first to locate new lands through sea exploration, build trading posts, and conquer large extensions of land, and wherever those powers went, missionaries soon followed. Christian missions ran hand-in-hand with the colonial efforts of Catholic nations, and since merchants and governments often engaged in slavery and exploitation, the entangled actions and attitudes of the secular and the religious have been historically difficult to separate.Some missionaries were martyred, and some participated in forced conversions, but a closer examination of what actually happened—and may still be happening—in the encounter between Western societies, missionaries, and local populations, shows that in many cases, it turned out to be a good thing missionaries were there: it was the missionaries and church leaders who were most often the defenders of the rights of indigenous peoples. [2]counterforce: national prideRecent research shows Christian missionaries helped mitigate the impact of colonialism. Missionaries entered the missionary field to convert others, yet through the process of translating Scripture into local languages, it was they who first made the move to “convert” to a new language. The evidence the process of vernacular translation helped to promote the indigenous self-awareness that became a counterforce to Western colonialism is remarkably consistent.Armed with a written vernacular scripture, converts to Christianity invariably called into question the legitimacy of all schemes of foreign domination—cultural, political and religious. Here was an acute paradox: the vernacular scriptures and the wider cultural and linguistic enterprise on which translation rested, provided the means and occasion for arousing a sense of national pride, yet it was the missionaries—foreign agents—who were the creators of that entire process.I am convinced that this paradox decisively undercuts the alleged connection often drawn between missions and colonialism.Colonial rule was irreparably damaged by the consequences of vernacular translation—and often by other activities of missionaries as well.[3]democracy, reform, education and pluralismA gospel compatible with everyday language that depends on ordinary men and women as worthy bearers of the sacred had both a populist and a democratic effect. Women in particular discovered an expanded role. It opened up local culture to the demand and need for change and became a catalyst for democratic reforms and education. It expanded and deepened pluralism in language, social encounter, and ethnic participation in the Christian movement.About half of the democracies in Africa, Asia and Latin America today, can be explained as descendants of Protestant missionary work. Even the nationalist point of view that came to dominate much historical writing about the new Africa was to a large extent an effect of missions. [4]preservationLanguage is an expression of culture, and vernacular translation helped preserve local languages and thereby helped preserve local cultures. Missionaries assembled grammars, dictionaries, primers, and readers. They systematically compiled the proverbs, axioms, customs, and other ethnographic materials of the cultures that had formed those languages. Based in careful methodical and systematic investigations in the field, this furnished the scientific documentation which laid the foundation of modern historiography in Africa and elsewhere.[5]To make the contrast even starker, we can point out that the reverse phenomenon appears in Islam, also a missionary religion, but one that does not translate its scriptures for its canonical rites. …For example, Islamic gains in north Nigeria occurred at the hands of the Fulani reformers in the 19th century. In the process, the Fulani assimilated to an Islamized Hausa culture and lost their own Fulfulde language.…Islamic reform has nowhere to my knowledge made the perpetuation of the vernacular a concomitant of orthodox rectitude, and I know of no Muslim language institutes dedicated to the systematic study of the vernacular.…. For this reason the implications of Muslim success for pluralism are quite serious. [6]rationalismThe effects of Christian missions are further reaching than just this one. Everywhere Christian missions have gone they have carried the teachings of Jesus and the values of Christianity, and that includes a love of reason and a respect for education. Rodney Stark credits rationalism in Christianity for the rise of western civilization.“The truly fundamental basis …for the rise of the West was an extraordinary faith in reason…. from Christianity.While the other world religions emphasized mystery and intuition, Christianity alone embraced reason and logic as the primary guide to religious truth.”[7]educationBecause of this faith in reason, Christians in the West were the innovators and creators of modern education. They founded many of the world’s great universities, asserted the need for everyone to learn to read so they could read scripture for themselves, and were the first to make education compulsory.Look at this map of the distribution of the world’s top universities and imagine—without the impact of Jesus—the West looking like the rest of the world.Try and imagine what that world would be like.scienceThe Scientific Revolution occurred once. It occurred in one place.When I was an undergraduate Christianity was labeled an enemy of science. It was only after many years of reading outside academic orthodoxy that I realized it was the mother of science.Without the Christian faith there would have been no scientific revolution. [8]to help the poor and needy,charityChristopher Dawson, arguably the greatest of the cultural historians, argues that “If…we study a culture as a whole, we shall find there is an intimate relation between its religious faith and its social achievement….” Prior to Christianity, there is little to no trace of any organized charitable effort concerning the poor anywhere in the ancient world. After centuries of Christian influence, charity has become a universal practice.[9]The early Church during the Roman empire gave voice to the voiceless, the poor, who were at best invisible to Roman aristocrats, and at worst, looked down upon, denigrated and mistreated.hospitalsOne of the ways charity accomplished this ‘voice’ was the establishment of hospitals. This hospital system was different from the merely reciprocal hospitality of the Greeks and the family-based obligations of the Romans. These hospitals were established to cater to "particular social groups marginalized by poverty, sickness, and age."The modern Catholic Church maintains a massive network of health care providers. In the West, these hospitals are increasingly run by lay-people after centuries of being run by priests, nuns and brothers, and while the profit motive has stepped in, it does mean more people are taking responsibility for caring for the poor than ever before.All over the West, charity toward the poor and needy is now a societal standard that simply didn’t exist prior to Jesus.[10] Without Jesus, if history is anything to go by, such charity, and the hospital systems it built, would very probably not exist. [11]wealthIn How the West Grew Rich economic historian Nathan Rosenberg lists his first reason for the wealth of the West as that product of the Reformation: Calvinist theology. All callings are divine callings for the Calvinist, the merchant as much as the minister. Capitalism benefitted from this.The legendary work of Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, crediting Calvinism for modern growth economies has long been debated, but it is a matter of fact that almost all the world’s richest nations for the past five hundred years have been Protestant Reformation countries. Even today the United Nation’s HDI(Human Development Index) of the world’s most livable nations is dominated by Reformation societies.Rodney Stark lists capitalism, technological innovation, and the rise of science as indisputably fathered by Christian influence.Without Jesus, we would probably not be doing any more to help the poor and needy than the ancients did because we would not have developed as we did. We would be closer to what most third world countries are.We would be the poor and treat others as we would want to be treatedsanctity of lifeThe world's first civilizations were Mesopotamian sacred states ruled in the name of a divinity or by rulers who were themselves seen as divine. Rulers, and the priests, soldiers and bureaucrats who carried out their will, were a small minority who kept power by exploiting the many. Jesus turned this standard upside down saying, ‘he that would be greatest among you must be servant of all.’The ‘golden rule’ and the justice teachings of Jesus have demonstrated themselves in many ways but particularly in the Christian views of the sanctity of life. This is what prompted Christianity to help end practices such as human sacrifice, slavery, and infanticide.If we turn to the roots of our western tradition, we find that in Greek and Roman times not all human life was regarded as inviolable and worthy of protection. Slaves and 'barbarians' did not have a full right to life and human sacrifices and gladiatorial combat were acceptable...Spartan Law required that deformed infants be put to death; for Plato, infanticide is one of the regular institutions of the ideal State; Aristotle regards abortion as a desirable option; and the Stoic philosopher Seneca writes unapologetically: “Unnatural progeny we destroy; we drown even children who at birth are weakly and abnormal.” And while there were deviations from these views..., it is probably correct to say that such practices...were less proscribed in ancient times.Most historians of western morals agree that the rise of ...Christianity contributed greatly to the general feeling that human life is valuable and worthy of respect.[12]human rightsThis value of human life provided the philosophical foundation for the development of human rights doctrine found in natural law theories traceable to Christianity. As Howard Tumber says, "human rights is not a universal doctrine, but is the descendent of one particular religion (Christianity)."Though it began with Christianity, like charity, it didn’t stay there. Instead, it spread outward into society, having a powerful influence on law and politics. Thomas Sowell is surely right: “The rule of law seems like such a mundane phrase, but without it, freedom and human dignity are in deadly peril. It is, perhaps, Western civilization’s greatest gift to the world.”lawBy the 1500s, Hugo Grotius had taken many of Christianity’s arguments for human rights and natural law and added to them, arguing that society and law existed to protect natural rights. [13] [14] This became part of the founding of the USA.Natural law was the dominant paradigm in ethics, politics and law for hundreds of years, and human rights have now gone global. Charles Malik, a Lebanese academic, diplomat, philosopher and theologian was responsible for the drafting and adoption of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[15]Surely here is an idea that everyone can agree has revolutionized multiple societies, and continues to work changes everywhere it goes, and it began with Jesus.womenThe New Testament refers to a number of women in Jesus’ inner circle, and there are several Gospel accounts of Jesus imparting important teachings to and about women with empathy and respect. Jesus condemned marital infidelity and divorce equally among both men and women, and thereby elevated the status of women.sexualityRome had a social caste system where the legitimacy of sexual contact was determined by status. [16] Slaves (which made up about 40% of the empire) were not thought to have an interior ethical life because they had no social status. They were commonly used and abused sexually with no recourse.Christianity sought to establish equal sexual standards for men and women, and to protect all the young, whether slave or free. Making the body into a consecrated space also made it into a point of mediation between the individual and the divine. Taking care with one’s body became an aspect of obedience to God and status was no longer an excuse for immoral behavior."The legacy of Christianity lies in the dissolution of an ancient system where social and political status, power, and the transmission of social inequality, like slavery, to the next generation scripted the terms of sexual morality."[17]The Christian view that the powerful should be held to the same standards of sexual accountability as those without power has become the norm of a just society.That began with Jesus.and to forgive,This aspect of Jesus’ teaching is probably the most profound of all. For those who deeply and genuinely believe, faith is a transformative experience.The seeds of A.A. were planted in 1931 when a wealthy young American alcoholic named "Rowland H." traveled to Zurich, Switzerland and placed himself under the care of psychiatrist C. G. Jung. Rowland worked with Jung for almost a year. He then set out for home, but got no further than Paris before he was drunk again. He returned to Zurich, and what happened next became what A.A. cofounder Bill Wilson called, in a letter to Jung, “the first link in the chain of events that led to the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous.”Jung told Rowland that medicine and psychiatry could do nothing more for him. The single alternative left was a religious or spiritual experience...what Jung called "a genuine conversion." Jung had heard of such experiences helping alcoholics get sober but admitted that such cases were "comparatively rare."To Rowland, anything was better than the alternative...drinking himself to he returned to New York and joined the Oxford Group, a nondenominational group of conservative Christians who sought conversion through a program of prayer, confession, and service to others. Rowland was able to provide this service when in August 1934 he heard that his old friend Ebby T. was about to be institutionalized for alcoholism. Here was a soul he could help. Rowland intervened, passing on his message of conversion. Ebby took the bait and joined the Oxford Group. Then he went to carry the message to the most hopeless alcoholic he knew...his friend, stockbroker Bill Wilson.Wilson had been drinking around the clock for weeks when Ebby appeared at the front door of his New York apartment. When the two men sat down at the kitchen table, Wilson noticed something different about Ebby: his eyes were clear, his face content. Ebby was sober. Wilson produced a bottle. Ebby declined, saying that he had "got religion." Through Rowland and the Oxford Group, Ebby had discovered a simple plan for staying sober: "Realize you are licked, admit it, and get willing to turn your life over to the care of God."Wilson was floored. He concluded that Ebby, once an "alcoholic crackpot," was now "a little cracked about religion." Still, something about Ebby had piqued Bill's curiosity, and the next day...after getting drunk...Wilson paid a visit to the Oxford Group. There he found "life's discards and the rejects of society." After a few more days of drinking, Wilson decided to check himself into the hospital to "dry out" so he could think more clearly about what was happening to him. Wilson put himself under the care of Dr. William Silkworth, and it was in the hospital that Wilson had the spiritual experience that would change his life. He began feeling more and more depressed when the following occurred:"My depression deepened unbearably, and finally it seemed to me as though I were at the bottom of a pit. I still gagged badly at the notion of a Power greater than myself, but finally, just for the moment, the vestige of my proud obstinacy was crushed. All at once I found myself crying out, 'If there is a God, let Him show Himself! I am ready to do anything, anything!' Suddenly the room lit up with a great white light. I was caught up into an ecstasy which there are no words to describe. It seemed to me, in the mind's eye, that I was on a mountain and that a wind not of air but spirit was blowing. And then it burst upon me that I was a free man. Slowly the ecstasy subsided. I lay on the bed, but now for a time I was in another world, a new world of consciousness. All about me and through me there was a wonderful feeling of Presence, and I thought to myself, 'So this is the God of the preachers!' A great peace stole over me and I thought, 'No matter how wrong things seem to be, they are right. Things are all right with God and His world.'"After getting out of the hospital, Wilson set off "on jet propulsion" to cure other drunks. But despite his conversion he was still plagued by cravings. In 1935, while staying in a hotel in Akron, Ohio, his thirst grew so powerful that he called a church and asked to be put in touch with an alcoholic...after all, if nothing else, preaching to other alcoholics had kept Wilson himself sober. Wilson was referred to Dr. Bob Smith, an alcoholic physician. The meeting, which took place on Mother's Day, 1935, convinced the two men that alcoholics who couldn't stay sober separately could do so together. A.A. was born.Wilson's experiences led him to conclude that the only way to stay sober was by deflating the ego, which he believed was largely responsible for the will to drink. Borrowing from various religions, Wilson came up with the Twelve Steps. [18]Alcoholics Anonymous has more than 115,000 groups worldwide. Once again, basic concepts that began with Jesus moved into culture and spread.freewillJesus emphasized that choice and responsibility go hand in hand. The power to make a difference is ours.In 1950 two thirds of the world’s Christians were in the Western World of Europe and the US, and one third were in the Third World. By 2000 the numbers were reversed. Christianity is moving around the globe.The cultural impact of Jesus is impossible to calculate, but it’s safe to say, nothing would be the same without him.Footnotes[1] How Christianity Changed the World[2] European colonization of the Americas - Wikipedia[3] Christian missions and the Western guilt complex[4] The Missionary Roots of Liberal Democracy | American Political Science Review | Cambridge Core[5] Bible Translation Since John Wycliffe | Christian History Magazine [6][7] http://*The Victory of Reason: How Christianity Led to Freedom, Capitalism, and Western Success*[8] Letter to a cadet: How Christianity sparked Western civilization - Centennial Institute[9] Christian Charity in the Ancient Church - Kindle edition by Gerhard Uhlhorn. Religion & Spirituality Kindle eBooks @[10] Giving: Charity and Philanthropy in History: Robert H. Bremner: 9781560008842: Books[11] Global Patterns in Health Infrastructure and Personnel Distribution - Languages Of The World[12] Text, Cases and Materials on Medical Law and Ethics: Marc Stauch, Kay Wheat: 9781138051263: Books[13] Hugo Grotius and the Roots of Human Rights Law in: Human Rights Law: From Dissemination to Application[14] Hugo Grotius (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)[15] Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Wikipedia[16] http://Gardner, Jane F. (1991). Women in Roman Law & Society. Indianapolis: Indianna University Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-253-20635-9.[17] http://Harper, Kyle (2013). From Shame to Sin: The Christian Transformation of Sexual Morality in Late Antiquity. Cambridge, Massachusettes: Harvard University Press. p. 4,7. ISBN 978-0-674-07277-0.[18] Religion of Bill Wilson, Alcoholics Anonymous founder

View Our Customer Reviews

This is BY FAR the best editor I've used. It has a ton of stuff but is still super easy to navigate which is really hard to find. Definitely worth buying.

Justin Miller