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What are the strengths and weaknesses of consequentialism generally?

It depends on whether you see consequentialism (which I’ll blur together with utilitarianism*, the most popular form of consequentialism) as your single source of moral truth, as a toolkit for enacting some higher-level moral system, or as one of several moral impulses that you have.I’ll explain the above in more detail, but I bring it up because, over the years, I (a single-source-of-truth utilitarian) have had confusing discussions with others about the pros and cons of utilitarianism, only to discover—after many wasted words—that they and I were thinking of the subject in totally different ways. They were making false assumptions of how I was thinking and vice versa.In short, when I said “I’m a utilitarian**,” I meant that utilitarianism is my moral system. It defines what is right and wrong for me. What some people seem to mean is “Utilitarianism is a way of doing what’s right or wrong according to some other moral system.” In my view, it’s the goal; in some other people’s views, it’s a technique for achieving a goal.Here’s how many people adopt or semi-adopt or start-considering utilitarianism before running into problems with it: they start out a common collection of somewhat disconnected moral rules such as “Don’t lie; don’t steal; don’t murder …” Then, if they aren’t religious and can’t connect those rules together by saying they’re all parts of God’s will, they’re excited to hear about utilitarianism, because basically says “don’t cause suffering,” which seems to connect all their disparate moral ideas.“Yup. Lying causes suffering. Stealing causes suffering. Murder causes suffering …”To people who reach this conclusion, utilitarianism isn’t so much their core moral system (though they may think it is when they first discover it) but, rather, a way of summing up their various moral impulses and finding what seems to be a common thread between them. And it may also give them a toolkit—or rule of thumb—they can apply without having to think through all their rules.“Just avoid making anyone suffer, and you’ll wind up achieving the goals of not lying, not stealing, and so on.”Whereas for me, the situation is sort-of reversed. I’d say “Just don’t lie, don’t cheat, and most of the time, you’ll wind up decreasing suffering.”This may seem like nit-picking, but most of the “paradoxes” with consequentialism come down to “But in this situation, working to decrease suffering would mean you’d have to murder someone!” And the problem there is that “You’re not supposed to murder.” There’s some (maybe unconscious) moral system being invoked that says “Murder is wrong.” Whereas I don’t believe murder is wrong. I just because “Don’t murder” is a good rule-of-thumb, because murder tends to cause a great deal of suffering.The problem, for these people who use consequentialism as a toolkit or a summing-up mechanism, comes when a rule they have (or, if “rule,” isn’t the right word, a moral impulse) seems to conflict with “decrease suffering/increase happiness.”The most famous way of revealing this conflict is with the Trolley Problem, in which one has to choose between killing one person to save all the people on the Trolley. To stop them from dying, you have to push the one guy on the tracks (which, in this imaginary scenario, stops the trolley). “It’s right to save all those people but it’s wrong to murder an innocent person!”“It’s wrong to murder the innocent person” may be revealing that the person saying it or thinking it isn’t a consequentialist to the core. In fact, he has some deontological rules that are also core—or more core—to him, such as “murder is wrong.”To someone like this, a strength of consequentialism is that it roughly sums up his moral sentiments; a weakness is that this summing up is rough, and he keeps bumping into exceptions. ← Me actually answering the question!“Consequentialism tells me it’s to do X, but I know X is wrong!”The question is, wrong according to what? Presumably (since he used the word “wrong”), he means some sort of moral system. Which means that consequentialism isn’t his main or his only moral system. So perhaps we could also say that for people with multiple moral systems, consequentialism doesn’t always play nicely with the rest. (While a strength might be that it often seems to join all the rest into a neat package—albeit, imperfectly.)Many people seem to think that there’s morality and then there’s consequentialism, which is, to them, a way of enacting morality. Given this view, it makes sense to say “It’s not always up to the task.”In his answer, Tim Harding says the problem with consequentialism is that it can conflict with justice. It’s very possible I misunderstand what he’s saying, but, to me, it sounds like there’s ethics over here and justice over there. And we shouldn’t adopt a moral system if it doesn’t play nicely with justice.Whereas my view is that justice comes from one’s moral system, so that over-here, over-there doesn’t make sense. To a consequentialist, that which is just is be that which best aligns with consequentialism. It sounds like, to Tim, there are prior rules of justice and consequentialism is weak because it doesn’t always gel with them.Or, if justice is separate from ethics, I would say, for me, ethics takes the lead. I am willing to be unjust if it will increase happiness and decrease suffering. Those values are more important to me than justice, and I only care about justice because I believe it tends to increase happiness and decrease suffering. If you convince me it doesn’t, bye-bye justice!But I wonder if Tim simply has another moral system he’s not talking about. (I don’t mean to imply he’s being dishonest. Lots of people have implicit moral systems they don’t think of making explicit. They assume everyone shares them.) Would he say “It’s wrong to be unjust?” If so, wrong according to what? If his answer is “My moral system,” then he’s just saying “I’m not a consequentialist,” or, as per above, “I think of consequentialism not really as a core moral system but as means of enacting my moral system—or a means of summing it up—and it does an imperfect job of that.”Sorry if I’ve put words in Tim’s mouth that aren’t his. It’s very likely I have, but if those aren’t Tim’s words, they’re words of a lot of other folks I’ve talked to who have said similar things.If the Trolley Problem and other thought experiments tempt you to say “The problem with consequentialism is that it can lead to immoral behavior,” then my question is “Immoral according to what?” If you mean immoral according to some other moral system, then maybe the problem with consequentialism—for you—is that you’re not a consequentialist.Is Tim saying “The problem with consequentialism is that it leads to consequentialism, and according to my top-level ethics (or something that, to me, is more important than ethics in some situations), we shouldn’t always privilege consequentialism”?To me, and to some other consequentialists/utilitarians, consequentialism really is our core moral system. I’m a strict utilitarian. And almost all the gotchas meant to trip me up don’t have that effect on me.“But that means we’d have to murder 17 children and kick a dog!”Well, if I really believed that doing that would increase global happiness and decrease global suffering, I’d say “Yes, we have to do that.” For me, something can’t be wrong if it is in keeping with utilitarianism, because for me utilitarianism defines what’s right and wrong.It’s totally obvious to me that I should push the guy onto the tracks. Whether or not I’d do it is another matter. But if I failed to do it, I’d say I was acting unethically. There’s nothing strange about having a moral system and failing to follow it perfectly. Lots of non-consequentialists have rules like “stealing is wrong” which they sometimes break, but when they do, they feel guilty. They know it’s wrong. They find fault with themselves, not their moral systems. Same with me.I do believe there are some real weaknesses of consequentialism, but before I get to them, I’d like to not that it’s an old system. It’s been around for a long time, and lots of smart people have thought about it and written about it. So if you think you’ve found a gotcha, it might not really be one. Check with moral philosophers before you assume you’ve found a crack in utilitarianism’s foundation.I often get punched with “So you’re saying I should sacrifice my child to save two other children?” No, I do not believe utility* is best served by children growing up in a world where they know their parents might sacrifice them. That would cause immense suffering. And if you think you’ve found some other crack (“So if having slaves makes a majority of people happy, we should allow slavery?”), you might want to talk to an actual utilitarian, first, before you assume we reason that way or live with an apparent paradox. Still, it is true that if you’re not a consequentialist, some of my thinking might shock or confuse you***.I simply am a utilitarian. By which I mean I never chose to be one and can’t imagine how I could not be one. To me, happiness and suffering outrank everything else, and if I didn’t believe that, I wouldn’t be me. It feels as baked in as my sexual preference and my introversion. I can’t defend it. It’s axiomatic. Of course, as a child, I didn’t know the terms “consequentialism” and “utilitarianism,” but when I finally read some Moral Philosophy, I had a shock of recognition. “Ah! There’s a name for what I am!”And I’m skeptical that anyone can simply choose his moral system. Which is another reason why, when people claim that consequentialism doesn’t work, they mean that it doesn’t work as a means of enacting some other moral system that they already have. Or that it doesn’t work as a perfect means of summing up or connecting all their individual moral rules.There’s something very strange (to me) about discussions in which we rank moral systems. Which should you be, a consequentialist, a deontologist, or a virtue ethicist? “Should” according to what? Some meta-moral system that rides on top of moral systems. Don’t consequentialism, deontologies, and virtue ethics define what we should and shouldn’t do? I don’t see how you can argue which is best, unless—again—you think of them as action plans rather than goals. And if they are action plans, where do the goals come from? You haven’t really solved anything, because it then becomes my goals vs your goals, and you’d need a meta-meta-moral system to break the tie.What would it mean to say that utilitarianism doesn’t work as my moral system? That I don’t really have the values I think I have? It will lead me to immoral behavior? Ah! There we are are again. Immoral according to what? Utilitarianism? Utilitarianism will lead me to immoral behavior according to utilitarianism? According to some other moral system? What system is that?Me actually answering the question → It’s really hard for me to talk about the strengths of consequentialism. To me, it doesn’t have strengths. It’s just my set of values. It’s like talking about the strengths of existing. I don’t know. I simply do exist. I can’t say its strength is that it leads me to ethical behavior because, to me, it is ethical behavior. It’s not a toolkit for achieving some higher moral end. It is the higher moral end.And there is it’s first weakness. It’s actually not an action plan. It’s a goal. And the weakness of goals is that they don’t tell you how to achieve them. “Write the Great American Novel” is my goal. But having that goal doesn’t tell me how to write the Great American Novel. That doesn’t make the goal worthless. I can use it judge my progress. But goals generally don’t ship with instruction manuals.Utilitarianism does not define happiness (or “well-being,” as some prefer to say), and I have to admit, my definition of it is not much more mature than “I know it when I see it.”What’s worse is that many actions have unforeseen consequences. I may try to increase happiness and, due to bumbling or lack-of-information, wind up causing misery. Lack-of-information is huge problem for consequentialists. You can’t perfectly predict what the consequences will be without perfect information, and you can never have perfect information.Deontology (rule-based ethics) is the ethics of certainty. Don’t steal is don’t steal. Consequentialism is the ethics of doing the best you can with the limited information you have. Is is clear from its name, it is based on evaluating consequences, but you can’t know a consequence until it happens, and, unfortunately for the consequentialist, that occurs after the action.I’m not sure what I can do about that except work with the info I have and hope for the best, correcting errors as I encounter them. I can’t just “not be a consequentialist.” I could lie and say I wasn’t, but I’d still care about happiness/suffering more than anything else.A big weakness of consequentialism—depending on how much of an activist you are—is that most people aren’t consequentialists and probably can’t be consequentialists. It’s pointless to try to turn them into consequentialists. I deal with the weakness of “How are you going to convince everyone to be a consequentialist?” by not trying. I think of it as an ethical system for me. If that sounds like giving up, I’d say it’s something much more fundamental than that. Right or wrong, I believe it’s impossible to change someone’s core moral system. You might be able to change the way he puts his system into action, but, remember, for me, consequentialism is a set of goals, not an action plan.But the fact that I’m in a minority leads to a variety of moral and social problems. If I can’t make everyone (or even most people) into consequentialists, that means there’s no path to the world becoming a place where most people behave ethically (as I define correct ethical behavior) and, socially—since lots of people find strict consequentialism shocking, I either have to keep my mouth shut or have a huge number of awkward conversations***.Me answering the question → There is a possible weakness of consequentialism that I find fascinating, though I’ve never heard anyone discuss it and don’t know quite how to think about it:What if being a consequentialist is a bad way to further consequentialism’s goals?That’s a bit a mind-fuck, so I’ll try to parse it out: let’s say, for the sake of argument, that you are a utilitarian. You are confident that your goal in life should be to increase the amount of happiness in the world. And lets say that—magically—you can measure how much happiness you generate on a scale of 1 - 10, with 10 being the highest.On Monday, you keep the goal of consequentialism always in the front of your mind. Whenever you’re about to do anything, you first think, “Will this increase happiness?” and you only proceed if your answer is yes. At the end of the day, you discover that your score is 3.On Tuesday, you just follow a bunch of rules. You don’t worry about whether or not they’ll increase happiness. The rule is “Don’t lie” so you don’t lie. Etc. To your surprise, your score winds up being 5.On Wednesday, you don’t think about ethics at all. And if you’re confused about what to do, you flip a coin. Strangely, your score winds up being 7.If those scores sound unlikely to you (as they do to me), that’s probably because we tend to assume that keeping a goal in mind is the best way to achieve it. And that’s probably true in a lot of cases. But is it true in all cases? I don’t know. And I’m not even sure how to investigate it. But if this counterfactual is true, the maybe a weakness of consequentialism is that it sabotages itself. Though that could be true of any goal-based system.* Utilitarianism is an ethical system in which “good” is defined as doing that which increases the total amount of happiness in the world and/or decreases the total amount of suffering, with each person’s (or each sentient being’s) happiness and suffering having equal weight. That’s the sum total of utilitarianism. It has no rules: just that goal.** There are different versions of utilitarianism. Its most famous form suggests that we should maximize happiness, which seems to suggest that if we found a way to create super-happy robots, we should force everyone in the world to work full-time creating them, assuming the total amount of generated happiness would offset the suffering caused by the slave labor.That’s not my version of utilitarianism. There isn’t a name for mine (as far as I know), but it’s in the ballpark of Negative Utilitarianism, which is only concerned with minimizing suffering (not maximizing happiness).But that’s not exactly mine, either. I am concerned with both minimizing suffering and maximizing happiness, but only for sentient beings that currently exist and ones that will almost certainly exist in the future.This means that I have a responsibility to people and animals alive now, and I also have a responsibility to—for instance—keep the world from getting so polluted it will be a dystopia for people 200 years from now.But I don’t have to go out of my way to help us create happy robots that we could choose to not create. Not-creating them is an option. And if we don’t create them, I don’t have to worry about their suffering or their happiness.Another ramification of my view is this: I’m vegan, and I’m sometimes told that if we all stopped eating meat, cows would go extinct. Let’s say that’s true (I don’t know if it is or not). It doesn’t bother me. Non-existent cows can be neither happy nor in pain, so they are morally inert to me. This is just another version of the happy-robot thought experiment. Even if we find a way to make cows really happy, it does not follow—to me—that we need to start breeding lots of happy cows. Another option is to not breed any cows. I am not concerned with the happiness or suffering of potential cows that could exist but don’t have to.This means I am not always against extinction. In fact, I am not bothered by the extinction of the human race, though I am bothered by the suffering that would almost certainly lead up to it. But if we all simultaneously winked out of existence (leaving no mourners), that would be okay with me.As long as I’m shocking you, I’ll also tackle the “Matrix” gotcha. “So, if we could all be drugged into a state of bliss all the time, you’d be okay with that?” Yes. I’d even (potentially be in favor of it), as long as that really was the result. There couldn’t be lots of nasty side effects or a huge burden placed of the folks who didn’t or couldn’t take the drugs.“But what if the drugs made us happy idiots? We just were happy all the time, but we never created anything or explored anything or did anything interesting?” Sorry to shock you, but I’d be in favor of that if we really were happy all the time.I really am a utilitarian to the core: happiness and suffering out-rank everything else for me. Everything.*** I once got into a heated argument about rights. It was trying to be an argument about abortion, but it couldn’t graduate to that, because we got stuck in a philosophical cul-de-sac.I’m pro-choice, and the argument started when a pro-life friend asked me if I thought we had the right to murder unborn babies. I guess he was used to people responding with something about fetuses not being humans, so he was shocked when I said “My moral system doesn’t have the concept of rights.”We couldn’t get past that, because he refused to believe me. He didn’t disagree with me. He literally thought I was being dishonest about not believing in rights. He didn’t think that was possible.I don’t think he knew much about utilitarianism, so I had to explain it to him. Even then, he thought I was playing word games. I guess he thought that I must believe in rights but that I called them something else. (We agreed that we weren’t talking about legal rights. Of course I believe that governments make laws and that some things are legal and others aren’t.)I was trying really hard to (a) be honest about what I believed and (b) not be a nit picker about tiny, inconsequential details or word choices, but it’s pretty fundamental to my system that there are no rights. There’s just a goal. The distinction is really important, because a right is absolute (e.g. “Everyone has a right to body autonomy”), whereas even if I have a rule-of-thumb (e.g. “It’s generally a good idea to give people body autonomy, because that tends to minimize suffering”), I will abandon it in any specific case where it increases suffering or decreases happiness.The rights issue rears its ugly head a surprising number of times, often with allies. A friend will say “We …” (including me) “… believe a woman has the right to choose.” Well, I am pro-choice, but not because I believe a women (or a man or a fish) has a “right” to anything. Which I know will seem like nit-picking to most people (“Fine, as long as you’re pro-choice!”), so I mostly stay quiet about it, but feels like being a Jew and having people constantly assume I believe Jesus is the son of God. My lack-of-belief-in-rights is not a minor detail to me.

Can you suggest some books or videos to fight OCD?

Self-help booksBreak free from OCD by Challacombe, Bream-Oldfield, Salkovskis. (0091939690)The Beating OCD Workbook by Fitzgerald. ...Overcoming Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder by Veale & Willson. ...Pulling the trigger – OCD, Anxiety, Panic Attacks and Related Depression by Shaw & Callaghan. ...Brain Lock by SchwartzI hope it will help youI didnt read this books even though i am diagnosed with ocd .i usually educate myself with google articles and stuffAnd video as far as i know i will attach a link hereAnd one more thing few days back i came jacross a word called mindfulness .it says that it will help you to overcome the odds and worst of ocdMindfulness is the psychological process of purposely bringing one's attention to experiences occurring in the present moment without judgment, which one develops through the practice of meditation and through other training.mindfulness?Here are 10 easy ways you can practice mindfulness in your daily life.Eat mindfully. ...Walk mindfully. ...Observe your breathing. ...Connect with your senses. ...Pause between action. ...Listen wholeheartedly. ...Get lost in the flow of doing things you love. ...Mediate dailyThree components of mindfulness: Attention, Intention, attitude.Mindfulness practice. choosing a quiet place, adopting wakeful posture, closing eyes, and possibly meditation practice. ...Impact of mindfulness: ...Mindfulness applications:mindfulness techniques, exercises and interventionsPeople who meditate are happier, healthier, and more successful than those who don’t.The amazing benefits of practicing meditation and mindfulness are available to everyone who has the time to practice these skills.If you have already tried meditation, mindfulness or other positive psychology interventions before, you may have thought it “wasn’t for you” after a couple of tries.But like any skill, mindfulness takes practice. Try it again! Sometimes the only thing standing between our goals and us is a little bit of direction.Hopefully, this article can provide the direction for you to give mindfulness a try either in your own life, your therapy, or your coaching sessions. Let’s dive in!Before you read on, we thought you might like to download our 3 Mindfulness Exercises for free. These science-based, comprehensive exercises will not only help you cultivate a sense of inner peace throughout your daily life but will also give you the tools to enhance the mindfulness of your clients, students, or employees.This article contains:4 Mindfulness Activities for Groups and Group Therapy6 Fun Mindfulness Interventions, Techniques, and Worksheets for AdultsIntroducing Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT)5 Simple Mindfulness Exercises from Dialectical Behavioural TherapyMindfulness Techniques for Depression, Anger, Addiction, and AnxietyA Take-Home MessageReferences4 Mindfulness Activities for Groups and Group TherapyGroup therapy that incorporates mindfulness has shown some promising results. It is as effective as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), a staple of the clinical psychology world (Kocovski, Fleming, Hawley, Huta, & Antony, 2013).There is also evidence that group mindfulness meditation therapy is as effective as individual CBT (Sundquist et al., 2015). In a global climate with few clinical psychologists in relation to the need for them, and in a time when individual therapy time is limited and expensive, the proven efficacy of group-based therapy is great news.Even if you do not feel a need to visit a therapist, there are mindfulness-focused groups that share and deepen meditation practice (Brach, 2016). Here are four exercises from such groups.Fleming & Kocovski’s Treatment PlanOne such group mindfulness-based treatment program by Fleming & Kocovski (2007) aimed to reduce social anxiety. It is a good example of how mindfulness exercises can be incorporated into a group setting for its various benefits.In this example, the exercises used have proven effective for treating social anxiety disorder in particular; however, they can be applied to many other group settings with positive results.The treatment plan involves groups of about 8 members meeting for 2 hours, every week for 12 weeks. The first portion of each session is devoted to a short mindfulness exercise and discussion.The treatment plan’s mindfulness exercises went as follows:Session 1: Raisin Exercise;Session 2: Body Scan;Session 3: Mindful Seeing;Session 4: Mindfulness of the breath, sounds, and thoughts;Session 5: Acceptance of thoughts and feelings exercise;Session 6: Acceptance of Social Anxiety;Session 7: Mountain Meditation;Session 8: Acceptance of Social AnxietySession 9: Breath Focus without Guidance;Session 10: Lake Meditation;Session 11: Non guided Breath Focus.There are many different mindfulness exercises mentioned here which were specifically put together for the aim of reducing social anxiety disorder; however, the first three exercises are commonly used in group sessions to encourage mindfulness.A description of each of these group exercises can be found below.5 Mindfulness Exercises You Can Do Anywhere1. The Raisin ExerciseMindfulness Exercise with Eating Raisins.This is a great introductory exercise for beginners to start practicing mindfulness since it can be attempted by anyone with any kind of food (although one with an interesting or unusual texture, smell, or taste is best).In this exercise, the facilitator provides participants with a few raisins and asks that they pretend they have never seen a raisin before. The facilitator then asks them to pay careful attention to:The way the raisin looks;How it feels;How their skin responds to its manipulation;Its smell;Its taste.Focusing on the single object of the raisin is meant to bring the participant’s mind to the present, to what is right in front of them. We may be used to raisins, and not used to taking time to actually notice them.“By focusing on the raisin in their hand and making a point to notice everything about it, they are unlikely to be expending energy, time, and attention on worrying or ruminating about other parts of their lives.”When you follow these instructions and take notice, it is much easier to focus on what is in front of you. If your mind does wander, that is natural too. Gently guide it back to the exercise.2. The Body ScanAnother popular exercise for practitioners of mindfulness is called the Body Scan. It requires very little in the way of props or tools, and it is also easily accessible for most beginners.Would you like to follow a Body Scan right now? Try this 30 minute guided narrative by expert and founder of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Jon Kabat Zinn:Step 1: the Body Scan begins with the participants lying on their backs with their palms facing up and their feet falling slightly apart. This exercise can also be done sitting on a comfortable chair with feet resting on the floor;Step 2: the facilitator then asks the participants to lie very still for the duration of the exercise, and move with awareness if it becomes necessary to adjust their position;Step 3: next, the facilitator begins guiding the Body Scan. Participants begin by bringing awareness to the breath, noticing the rhythm, the experience of breathing in and expelling out. The facilitator explains that nobody should try to change the way they are breathing but rather just hold gentle awareness on the breath;Step 4: next, the facilitator guides attention to the body: how it feels, the texture of clothing against the skin, the contours of the surface on which the body is resting, the temperature of the body and the environment;Step 5: the facilitator guides awareness to the parts of the body that are tingling, sore, or feeling particularly heavy or light, s/he asks the participants to note any areas of their body where they don’t feel any sensations at all or are hypersensitive.A typical Body Scan runs through each part of the body, paying special attention to the way each area feels. The scan usually moves systematically through the body, e.g. starting at the feet and moving upwards as follows:Toes of both feet;The rest of the feet (top, bottom, ankle);Lower legs;Knees;Thighs;Pelvic region (buttocks, tailbone, pelvic bone, genitals);Abdomen;Chest;Lower back;Upper back (back ribs & shoulder blades);Hands (fingers, palms, backs, wrists);Arms (lower, elbows, upper);Neck;Face and head (jaw, mouth, nose, cheeks, ears, eyes, forehead, scalp, back&top of the head);The “blowhole” (Fleming & Kocovski, 2007).After the Body Scan is complete and the participants feel ready to come back to the room, they can slowly open their eyes and move naturally to a comfortable sitting position.Now that you have a firmer understanding of the Body Scan, check out our mindful body scan script which will help you facilitate this exercise for others within a group setting.3. Mindful Seeingwoman doing the body scan - Mindfulness TechniquesFor some, the absence of visual stimuli can feel stifling. After all, a healthy imagination does not come naturally to everyone.The activity of Mindful Seeing may be helpful to anyone who identifies with this.It is a simple exercise, requiring only a window with some kind of a view. The facilitator guides the group following these steps:Step 1: find a space at a window where there are sights to be seen outside;Step 2: look at everything there is to see. Avoid labeling and categorizing what you see outside the window; instead of thinking “bird” or “stop sign,” try to notice the colors, the patterns, or the textures;Step 3: pay attention to the movement of the grass or leaves in the breeze. Notice the many different shapes present in this small segment of the world you can see. Try to see the world outside the window from the perspective of someone unfamiliar with these sights;Step 4: be observant, but not critical. Be aware, but not fixated;Step 5: if you become distracted, gently pull your mind away from those thoughts and notice a color or shape again to put you back in the right frame of mind.There’s an extensive group treatment plan by Fleming and Kocovski’s (2007) that offers a glimpse into how to use mindfulness in any kind of group session and provides detailed worksheets, exercises, and handouts which can provide inspiration and guidance for your group facilitation.4. Mindful ListeningThis last activity is extracted from the Positive Psychology Toolkit and introduces mindful listening as a group exercise.Mindful listening is an important skill and can be a great group mindfulness exercise. In general, people thrive when they feel fully “heard” and “seen,” and mindful listening offers a break from focusing on the self or our own response.Instead, this form of listening can create an inner stillness where both parties feel free of preconceptions or judgments, and the listener is not distracted by inner chatter whilst learning valuable positive communication skills.The Mindful Listening exercise involves these steps:Step 1: invite participants to think of one thing they are stressed about and one thing they look forward to;Step 2: once everyone is finished, each participant takes their turn in sharing their story with the group;Step 3: encourage each participant to direct attention to how it feels to speak, how it feels to talk about something stressful as well as how it feels to share something positive;Step 4: participants are instructed to observe their own thoughts, feelings, and body sensations both when talking and when listening;Step 5: after each participant has shared, you can break into small groups and answer the questions below. Next, regroup and have a discussion and debrief with the following questions.Those questions are:How did you feel when speaking during the exercise?How did you feel when listening during the exercise?Did you notice any mind-wandering?If so, what was the distraction?What helped you to bring your attention back to the present?Did your mind judge while listening to others?If so, how did “judging” feel in the body?Were there times where you felt empathy?If so, how did this feel in the body?How did your body feel right before speaking?How did your body feel right after speaking?What are you feeling right now?What would happen if you practiced mindful listening with each person that you spoke with?Do you think mindful listening would change the way you interact and relate with others?How would it feel if you set the intention to pay attention with curiosity, kindness, and acceptance to everything you said and everything you listened to?In addition to the group activities here, you may also be interested in trying gentle yoga or Qigong, both of which involve a deliberate posture, purposeful breath, and an emphasis on awareness. Both of these activities have provided evidence for the benefits of mindfulness (Newsome, Waldo, & Gruszka, 2012).6 Fun Mindfulness Interventions, Techniques, and Worksheets for Adultswoman mindful listening - mindfulnessThere are several ways to engage in mindfulness on an individual level, including worksheets, techniques, and different exercises.If the idea of participating in group mindfulness exercises is anxiety-provoking or stressful for yourself or your clients, then diving into mindfulness practice alone can be the best way to proceed.Here are six exercises that can help to build mindfulness in different ways.1. The Self-Compassion PauseThis PDF Self Compassion Pause Worksheet guides the reader through an exercise on practicing mindfulness and self-compassion.It is an ideal worksheet for many who struggle to show themselves compassion, even if they may be quick to extend compassion to others. It is also a great way to practice mindfulness by bringing awareness to emotions and staying in the moment with them.First, the worksheet provides a short description of the importance of self-compassion for maintaining a high quality of life;The next section provides the method for the exercise. Start by taking a moment to pause thoughts and actions, with a focused awareness that being mindful can help;Next, the worksheet instructs you to move a hand on your chest, give yourself a hug, or make physical contact with yourself in some other way, and take a few deep breaths;After this is the important step of acknowledging suffering. This step is both a place to practice mindfulness and encourages mindfulness as a result. The aim is not to become overwhelmed by the pain or emotion, but rather to acknowledge it as real and hurtful while giving yourself permission to feel it.The last step may be the most difficult, but it is very important. It involves vocalizing three statements:“This is suffering” (or something similar);“Suffering is part of being human” (acknowledge that all humans suffer and struggle);A phrase that you feel offers compassion, such as “May I love and accept myself just as I am.”2. The Observer MeditationThe Observer Meditation (download the PDF here) looks at why it is worthwhile to detach from our internal thoughts and feelings—an important part of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, in which mindfulness plays a large role.Adopting an Observer perspective can help us put some distance between who we are and problematic domains in life that we might be overidentifying with.To begin the exercise, follow these steps:Take a comfortable seated position, and listen to the script.Let yourself settle into your body and your mind.Try to let go of thoughts and clear the mind of its usual considerations.Focus your attention first to the room you’re sitting in. Picture yourself from the outside as you sit, exactly as an outsider might. Next, shift your attention inwards into your skin. Try and feel your skin as you are sitting in the chair.Try to envision the shape that your skin is making as you sit in contact with the chair, shifting your awareness toward any physical sensations you are experiencing. As you feel each one, acknowledge its existence before letting your consciousness let go of it and move on naturally.If you find any emotions coming up, recognize them and create space for them. Then bring your attention back to your observing self—your feelings and thoughts are there, but you are separate from them, noticing them. This is the “Observer you”.This exercise can be continued for as long as desired and there are many stages you can work through that will help you practice being an observer of yourself. It is not an easy exercise at first because we are often habitually inclined to react to and over-identify with our feelings.If you are having trouble stepping outside your own head and body, try practicing the Self-Compassion Pause first to make the experience more comfortable. The goal of evoking the Observing Self is to enter a separate mode which allows you to step back from yourself and your experiences. Simultaneously, however, you are connecting with a deeper constant self that is unaffected by dynamic emotions.3. Five Senses ExerciseThis exercise is called “five senses,” and provides guidelines on practicing mindfulness quickly in nearly any situation. All that is needed is to notice something you are experiencing with each of the five senses.Follow this order to practice the Five Senses Exercise:Notice five things that you can see.Look around you and bring your attention to five things that you can see. Pick something that you don’t normally notice, like a shadow or a small crack in the concrete.Notice four things that you can feel.Bring awareness to four things that you are currently feeling, like the texture of your pants, the feeling of the breeze on your skin, or the smooth surface of a table you are resting your hands on.Notice three things you can hear.Take a moment to listen, and note three things that you hear in the background. This can be the chirp of a bird, the hum of the refrigerator, or the faint sounds of traffic from a nearby road.Notice two things you can smell.Bring your awareness to smells that you usually filter out, whether they’re pleasant or unpleasant. Perhaps the breeze is carrying a whiff of pine trees if you’re outside, or the smell of a fast-food restaurant across the street.Notice one thing you can taste.Focus on one thing that you can taste right now, at this moment. You can take a sip of a drink, chew a piece of gum, eat something, notice the current taste in your mouth, or even open your mouth to search the air for a taste.This is a quick and relatively easy exercise to bring you to a mindful state quickly. If you only have a minute or two, or don’t have the time or tools to try a body scan or fill out a worksheet, the five senses exercise can help you or your clients bring awareness to the current moment in a short amount of time.4. The 3-Step Mindfulness Exercisewoman smelling flowers - mindfulness exercises adults You can find another great exercise if you are strapped for time in this 3-Step Mindfulness Worksheet. In this exercise, there are only three steps:Step 1: step out of “auto-pilot” to bring awareness to what you are doing, thinking, and sensing at this moment.Try to pause and take a comfortable but dignified posture. Notice the thoughts that come up and acknowledge your feelings, but let them pass. Attune yourself to who you are and your current state.Step 2: bring awareness to the breathing for six breaths or a minute.The goal is to focus attention on one thing: your breath. Be aware of the movement of your body with each breath, of how your chest rises and falls, how your belly pushes in and out, and how your lungs expand and contract. Find the pattern of your breath and anchor yourself to the present with this awareness.Step 3: expand awareness outward, first to the body then to the environment.Allow the awareness to expand out to your body. Notice the sensations you are experiencing, like tightness, aches, or perhaps a lightness in your face or shoulders. Keep in mind your body as a whole, as a complete vessel for your inner self;If you wish, you can then expand your awareness even further to the environment around you. Bring your attention to what is in front of you. Notice the colors, shapes, patterns, and textures of the objects you can see. Be present at this moment, in your awareness of your surroundings.When you are ready to finish the exercise, open your eyes slowly and try to carry that mindfulness with you as you go about your day.5. Mindful Walking Down The Street TechniqueOne core process that can be influenced by mindfulness practice is our ability to observe our thoughts, emotions, and sensations without reacting to fix them, hide them, or solve them. This awareness creates room for choice between impulses, and action which can help develop coping skills and positive behavioral change.In the first step of this intervention, the facilitator helps the client visualize a scenario in which they are walking down a familiar street when they look up and see someone they know on the other side of the street. They wave, however, the other person doesn’t respond and continues to walk right past.In the second step, the facilitator prompts reflection from the client by asking a series of questions:1. As you were imagining, did you notice any of your thoughts?2. As you were imagining, did you notice any of your emotions?In the third and final step, the facilitator asks the client to reflect on the series of emotions and thoughts that came up, how this affects their behavior, whether the exercise was helpful, and for any final comments.6. The 3-Minute Breathing SpaceUnlike meditations or a body scan, this exercise is quick to perform and useful in getting a mindfulness practice started.With meditations and the body scan, thoughts often pop up, and keeping a quiet and clear head can be a challenge. This last exercise of 3-Minute Breathing Space can be the perfect technique for those with busy lives and minds. The exercise is broken into three sections, one per minute, and works as follows:The first minute is spent on answering the question “how am I doing right now?” while focusing on the feelings, thoughts, and sensations that arise, and trying to give these words and phrases.The second minute is spent on keeping awareness of the breath.The last minute is used for an expansion of attention outward from the breath, feeling the ways in which your breathing affects the rest of the body.Keeping a quiet mind can be rather challenging, and thoughts will often pop up. The idea is not to block them, but rather to let them come into your mind and then disappear again. Try to just observe them.All the exercises mentioned above can be used for the benefit of yourself, individual clients, and even in group settings. They are beneficial to all client groups; however, some will be better suited than others, so a method of open-minded trial and error can often be necessary.The most important part of mindfulness is to recognize that it is a training of the mind, and like any exercise will take some time to see the benefits. The trick is to persevere, approach the process with self-compassion, and allow for reflection, change, and flexibility between different techniques and interventions.Introducing Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT)The Three Steps of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT)Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (or DBT) is a type of cognitive-behavioral therapy that is mainly used to treat individuals with borderline personality disorders.Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is characterized by the following steps:The first priority for DBT treatment is to target the life-threatening behaviors that often manifest in people with severe mental health problems;Second, therapists aim to eliminate the behaviors that interfere with therapy, such as refusal to strive for the goals of DBT, missing sessions, etc.;Next, DBT therapists aim to correct the behaviors that interfere with the client’s quality of life, including non-productive relationship behaviors, communication problems, and bad financial decision-making.Mindfulness is a core skill taught in DBT, as it helps clients gain awareness of their own thoughts and feelings (Jennings & Apsche, 2014).The Effectiveness of Dialectical Behavioural Therapy-MindfulnessIn one study, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Mindfulness (DBTM) training was added to general psychiatric treatment to test its effectiveness. A module on mindfulness was developed to help clients achieve the “wise mind,” and focused on two sets of skills—the “what” skills and the “how” skills (Soler et al., 2012).What are the “What” skills?This first set of skills is meant to help the client learn how to:Simply observe their experience.Describe their experience using a verbal label.Be fully present in the moment and in their actions without feeling self-conscious.These skills allow the client to be aware of what is happening to them and of their part in their own experience. Becoming aware of their own thoughts and grounded in the present forms the foundation for the next set of “how” skills.How Do the “How” Skills Work?The “how” skills relate to the goal of teaching clients how to observe, describe, and participate in their own experience. This set of skills is intended to help clients:Learn to have experiences in a non-evaluative and non-judgmental manner.Focus on one thing at a time and learn to bring their attention back to the target when they go off course.Be effective, or keep their focus on their goals regardless of their current mood (Soler et al., 2012).The clients were also taken through a series of other mindfulness interventions including mindful breathing, the body scan, and other simple awareness practices.Individuals in this study who received DBTM training, in addition to the usual treatment, had enhanced benefits compared to the group who received only the usual psychiatric treatment: the more minutes an individual spent practicing mindfulness, the greater the improvements in psychiatric symptoms (Soler et al., 2012).DBT clearly has something to teach us all in its application of a wide range of mindfulness techniques and exercises. Let’s take a look at a few easily applicable examples.5 Simple Mindfulness Exercises from Dialectical Behavioural TherapyThese five exercises are quick and easy and can be put into practice every day.1. Observe a Leaf for Five Minutesobserving leaf mindfulnessThis exercise calls for nothing but a leaf and your attention.Pick up a leaf, hold it in your hand, and give it your full attention for five minutes.Notice the colors, the shape, the texture, and the patterns. This will bring you into the present and align your thoughts with your current experience.2. Mindful Eating for Four MinutesAs with the raisin exercise described above, this exercise calls for mindful eating.Pay attention to what you are holding, notice the feeling of it in your hands. Once you have noticed the texture, the weight, the color, etc., bring your awareness to the smell.Finally, move on to eating, but do so slowly and with concentrated attention. Notice the taste and its texture against your tongue. This exercise may help you discover new experiences with familiar foods.Download the exercise here as a PDF.3. Observe Your Thoughts for 15 MinutesThis exercise is a staple of mindfulness, designed to simply enhance your awareness of your own thoughts.To begin, sit or lie down in a comfortable position and try to let all tension in your body dissipate. Focus on your breathing first, then move your awareness to what it feels like to be in your body, and finally move on to your thoughts.Be aware of what comes into your head, but resist the urge to label or judge these thoughts. Think of them as a passing cloud in the sky of your mind.If your mind wanders to chase a thought, acknowledge whatever it was that took your attention and gently guide your attention back to your thoughts.4. Mindfulness Bell Exercise for Five MinutesIn this exercise, you begin by closing your eyes and listening for the cue. When you hear it, your aim is to focus your attention on the sound and continue your concentration until it fades completely. This exercise helps you to keep yourself firmly grounded in the present. You can use the audio below:5. Stare at the CenterThe goal is simple: to focus your attention on the center of the shifting pattern of color. You can let your mind wander freely, noticing whatever thoughts come into your head but staying in the present.This experience is similar to the well-known phenomenon of the quiet fixation that results from staring at a candle flame or a campfire.The same focus and deep thought can be brought on by this exercise, but be careful not to lose yourself in thought, and instead stay present with the moment and let your thoughts pass by.This exercise requires a video to practice, you can use the one below:Things that Mindfulness Can TreatMindfulness Techniques for Depression, Anger, Addiction, and AnxietyMindfulness has been a crux of therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder, and it also has applications for people without a diagnosis of mental illness.People anywhere on the mental health spectrum can benefit from mindfulness techniques. It helps regulate emotions and can be a helpful resource for management and coping (Arch & Craske, 2006; Dubert, Schumacher, Locker, Gutierrez, & Barnes, 2016).Mindfulness Techniques for DepressionMindfulness is used in the treatment of depression to reduce symptoms and lowers the risk of debilitating relapse. One study with 11 individuals suffering from depression concluded that there are three keys for making mindfulness effective in the treatment of depression (Nauman, 2014 June):Mindfulness helps patients learn to be present in the moment, which helps them take a moment to pause, notice their own thoughts and feelings, and choose a response that is not based in their present emotions.Mindfulness teaches patients that it is okay to say “no” to others, which helps them balance their own lives and enhance self-confidence.Mindfulness allows patients to be present with others, meaning that they are more aware of the state of their relationships and are better able to acknowledge their own communication problems and thus more effectively relate with others.We’ve described practices focused on breathing and muscle relaxation already (such as the Three Minute Breathing Space or the Body Scan). The “Eye of the Hurricane” meditation also aims to tap into your inner peace as a helpful way of dealing with depression.As a therapist, you can progress through the script with your client at whatever pace seems right. If you’re doing this meditation yourself, feel free to use our mindfulness meditation script audio on the same page. The “Eye of the Hurricane” meditation has two parts. In the first, the Eye of the Hurricane Metaphor is introduced.As you find a calm, peaceful place to sit, take up a tall but relaxed sitting position. Breathe in and out deeply three times, taking it slowly as you start to cultivate awareness of your body and any physical sensations that are present.The Eye of the Hurricane is a still and tranquil space that exists at the center of a storm. This inner core is peaceful despite any movement and noise represent our feelings, thoughts, and memories. Through this meditation, the goal is to access and find your place in this safe, calm inner core—the eye of the storm.While your client notices and may recognize emotions, events, and sensations that move dynamically with the hurricane, this metaphor helps them visualize themselves in the center.Part Two is a reflection, how did it feel to take an observing stance? Did any other feelings arise through this meditation?Following this guided mindfulness exercise will help you to clear your mind of worry about the past or the future, and allow you to focus on the present moment in time.If you are interested in learning more about mindfulness techniques for treating depression, you can look into Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy.Alternatively, watch this inspiring TEDtalk by Zindel Segal who explains the mindful approach needed to not only address depression but also manage recovery and reduce the risk of relapse.By continuing to think through your feelings during meditation, you can stop and redirect your attention back to awareness of sensations in your body. Segal offers many other tips on bringing awareness to our physical experience.At one point, Segal asks the audience to think about their feet, and later, to experience the sensation of their feet. The difference is profound and offers a gateway to accessible mindfulness and meditation.Mindfulness Techniques for AngerMindfulness techniques can also discharge acute or chronic anger. As one of our strongest emotions, anger can be hard to view objectively and defuse. Mindfulness helps create space between stimulus and an immediate, impulsive response.This technique can help you deal with the experience of anger (Cullen, Pons, & Mindful Staff, 2016):First, sit in a comfortable position with your eyes closed and notice the places where your body is touching the floor, cushion, or chair;Draw in a few deep breaths, completely filling up your lungs and quickly exhaling;Think back to a time that you recently experienced anger, preferably a mild or quickly addressed episode. Allow yourself to experience the anger you felt in that moment;Disregard any other feelings that come up with this memory, like guilt or sadness;Turn your attention to how you are experiencing anger in your body. Notice whether any parts of your body are manifesting your anger with sensations like warmth or cold, the intensity of these reactions and whether they change as you observe them or move through your body;Bring compassion to the anger. This can be a difficult step, but remind yourself that anger is a natural human emotion that affects us all at one point or another. Try to hold your anger “like a mother cradling a newborn,” with love and understanding;Say goodbye to your anger. Gradually bring your attention back to your breath and rest here for a while until your emotions have subsided or settled down;Reflect on the experience. Notice the sensations that this exercise brought up in your body. Notice if they changed through the process. Take note of whether you applied compassion to your anger, and if so, how you did it. Think about what happened to the anger when you showed it compassion.This exercise can be repeated as many times as necessary. It is recommended to work your way up from milder experiences of anger to the most intense and memorable episodes.Practicing this technique can help you to defuse chronic anger in a rather counterintuitive manner: by accepting and mindfully feeling your anger, you can take control of the experience and compassionately address it.For other resources and techniques on dealing with anger through mindfulness, you can try our Leaves on a Stream MP3. Alternatively, you can follow this 20 minutes guided anger management mindfulness meditation:Mindfulness Techniques for AnxietyMindfulness techniques can also aid an undiagnosed individual who suffers from occasional (or not-so-occasional) anxiety.A meta-analysis in 2010 advocated for the effectiveness of mindfulness exercises on anxiety and depression. The researchers found that mindfulness-based therapy was moderately effective for treating anxiety and improving mood and that the effects lasted beyond the initial improvements (Hofmann, Sawyer, Witt, & Oh, 2010).To begin applying mindfulness to your anxiety, or that of your clients, Mindful - healthy mind, healthy life has provided a short description of 10 attitudes that will help build the foundation for successfully addressing anxiety:Volition or intentionThis is the building block of all other attitudes. First, you must bring your focus to the intention of working with your anxiety.Beginner’s mindThis refers to a mindset that is ready to see from a new perspective and consider new ideas with regards to dealing with anxiety.PatienceThis is a very important attitude to cultivate since it can broaden your perspective and help you persevere when you run into obstacles on your journey.AcknowledgmentHaving the mindset of acknowledgment means that you take each experience for what it is; you accept what is happening and are secure in the knowledge that it will pass.Non-judgmentThis attitude involves experiencing your present moment without evaluating and judging it. It means you let go of value judgments about yourself and how you are feeling and allows you to begin your work from a more balanced starting point.Non-strivingThis attitude refers to the willingness to accept a situation or experience as it is, without trying to change it. To combat your anxiety, you must first be present with it and accept your current state.Self-relianceThe mindset of self-reliance is characterized by trusting yourself and your ability to handle your feelings. Cultivating your self-reliance will allow you to more easily acknowledge, experience, and let go of your anxiety.Letting be or allowingSimilar to the attitude of non-striving, letting be or allowing refers to the mindset of allowing yourself to feel anxiety. Often it is more effective to work with anxiety than expend energy trying to deny or fight it.Self-compassionAs mentioned earlier, showing yourself compassion is an important part of mindfulness. Being kind to yourself, as you would be kind to a dear friend or family member, can help you to decrease your anxiety by being a support for yourself.Balance and equanimityThese attitudes allow wisdom to develop through a broadening of perspective. They require an understanding that your whole experience is more than your current feelings, whether positive or negative.Take note of how you feel. Afterward, reflect on your experience and describe it, with a special focus on your feelings during the process.For a rather more simple method of applying mindfulness to anxiety, you can try this quick exercise:Focus on the sensations that arise in your body when you are anxious;Be present and with the moment;Allow yourself to think the anxious and distressing thoughts.By recognizing these thoughts for what they are, you may come to realize that they are not true, and consequently be able to let them go (Hofmann, 2013). If you are interested in trying other mindfulness exercises to address anxiety, you can check out our extensive range of mindfulness articles.For more information on anxiety, and how to approach dealing with it through mindfulness, you can also listen to Dr. Kim Taylor Show. She clarifies the signs and symptoms of anxiety and offers techniques to treat and manage anxiety.Mindfulness Techniques for AddictionAddiction is a serious issue that should be addressed by a mental health professional or an institution that has proven effective in treating addiction. However, there are some mindfulness techniques you can use to supplement addiction management.Relevant reading: 26 Mental Health Exercises & Interventions Based on ScienceMindfulness has been shown to help those suffering from addiction by decreasing their usage and reducing the occurrence of more long-term psychiatric problems (“Extinguish addiction,” 2016).The practice of mindfulness increases the number and strength of connections in the brain, allowing us to become more aware of our body and more effective at regulating our emotions. It also helps individuals recognize, tolerate, and cope with negative emotions (“Extinguish addiction,” 2016).One mindfulness technique is specifically crafted for those suffering from cravings. There is a theory that people develop cravings through incentive sensitization, a process that occurs in four steps:Repeated exposure to an addictive substance results in hypersensitization, meaning that the substance or substances will have a greater effect on neurobehavioral response in the future;Hypersensitization leads to incentive salience, a desire for the substance that is well beyond a simple preference;The incentive salience all but guarantees the individual will repeat the behavior;This unconscious process develops into a conscious craving for the substance.The result of this process is a very strong association between the substance and the “reward” (the feeling an individual gets when s/he uses the substance).Following this theory, it is not the fault of the individual that they experience cravings. They are not punished with cravings for being weak, or lazy, or unwilling to stop. Cravings are like intruders on the mind, uninvited guests that try to influence behavior.Thus, those struggling with addiction can use mindfulness to pause, identify the cravings and label them as intruders, and thereby give themselves permission to ignore them. Mindfulness can turn the cravings into passing thoughts that may disappear simply by acknowledging their presence (“Mindfulness meditation,” 2017).For more information and a guided meditation on dealing with addiction cravings you can watch this short video by Jessica Graham:If you are looking for more comprehensive information on the neurological origins of our addictive behaviors and how we can challenge addiction at the level of the brain, you can watch this fascinating talk by Dr. Judson Brewer:A Take-Home MessageI hope that I provided you with enough techniques, exercises, and activities to bring you and your clients the benefits of mindfulness.Mindfulness can be useful to a variety of populations. It is a relatively easy practice with significant results on the brain that can enhance the quality of life, self-confidence, and peace of mind of those using it.If you haven’t yet, consider trying an activity mentioned above. Over time, the exercises help increase the awareness of our bodies, our thoughts, and our selves.Feel free to share your experiences with mindfulness in the comments below, as well as any techniques or exercises that you use to cultivate mindfulness in your life.We hope you enjoyed reading this article. Don’t forget to download our 3 Mindfulness Exercises for free.If you wish to learn more, Mindfulness X© is our 8-module mindfulness training package for practitioners which contains all the materials you’ll need to not only enhance your mindfulness skills but also learn how to deliver a science-based mindfulness training to your clients, students or employees.Was this article useful to you?About the AuthorCourtney Ackerman, MSc., is a graduate of the positive organizational psychology and evaluation program at Claremont Graduate University. She is currently working as a researcher for the State of California and her professional interests include survey research, well-being in the workplace, and compassion.CommentsLawrence AbelnLawrence Abeln on 30th April 2020 at 8:00 pmFirst time visiting your website, I really like your site!ReplyLay PhengLay Pheng on 15th March 2020 at 4:41 amDear Ms. Courtney Ackerman,I find your article at” very beneficial and will help in my related research project. Hence, I’d like to ask for your permission to use parts of your article and cite you as the source of my information in my project article . Please let me know if that would be possible by replying my email. Thanks and wishing you a joyful dayThanks,ReplyAnnelé VenterAnnelé Venter on 21st March 2020 at 4:42 pmHello LayWe are glad to hear you liked the article,You are welcome to refer to the work as long as you give the author proper attribution.Thanks,AnneléReplyLeave a ReplyYour email address will not be published. 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Find a quiet space. ...Now breathe. Close your eyes, take a deep breath, and relax. ...Stay focused. Thoughts will try to pull your attention away from the breath. ...Take 10. A daily practice will provide the most benefits.Link of mindfulness strategies video🎥If you visit this you will get more vvideorelated to mindful ness i didnt tried yet but i am 100%it will help you once you decide to start doing it .

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