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What are some of the best new inventions?

Each year there are countless new products and inventions on the market.This list includes some of the most exciting products to come out over the years.1. Portable toasterThere actually is a concept of a knife that could be heated enough to toast a slice of bread. You could take this time-saving, easy-to-clean gadget anywhere and not spend a ton on toast in hotels. It would be really cool if it looked like this light saber from The Hitchhiker’s Guide To The Galaxy, but reality is slightly more boring.2. Electronic Sensor PenUsing the Phree pen, you can write anything anywhere. It really works: all the symbols written on any surface will be digitized and sent to a smartphone or computer. It’s an indispensable thing if you need to write something down urgently and have neither a phone nor paper at hand.3. Portable Copy & Paste ToolCopy & Paste allows you to scan and print images anywhere and on anything. Simply push the button and scan the object, and then the image can be transferred to any surface using ink. For the moment this is only a concept, but when this device is released, there will be a long line to buy it.4. Aqua TreadmillWater Walker & Spa looks like a huge bathtub and has a moving surface at the bottom for walking or running. It’s the perfect machine for those recovering from an injury as it reduces the amount of pressure put on the body during cardio. It helps to strengthen the muscles and burn excess fat through aerobic exercises. Water Walker also functions as an amazing spa bath, so you can relax after your workout.5. Port Solar ChargerPort is a compact portable battery that charges your phone using solar energy. All you need to do is attach it to any window in the house, car, or plane with a special suction cup. You may check yourself how convenient it is.6. Pilot Wireless Headphone TranslatorsAs soon as you insert these tiny headphones into your ears, it starts automatic translation to the language chosen in settings. And all this without connecting to the Web. So today your travels become even more easy and interesting.7. 3-Sided Flip PhoneThree interconnected screens in one cell phone can work in various modes, even if you use different apps simultaneously. The keyboard is located on the back of one of the folding elements. Advanced users hope that the project’s production is launched as soon as possible.8. Surface SterilizerThe Kitchen Sanitizing Wand device uses UV rays to destroy up to 99% of harmful bacteria and microorganisms from any solid non-porous surface. It seems that the dream of all housewives has come true: now the kitchen will shine with purity and cleanliness.9. Xbox Adaptive ControllerThe Xbox adaptive controller is here to make the gaming world more inclusive. The Microsoft developed Xbox Adaptive Controller is here to help those with limited hand and arm mobility play gamesThe product itself was inspired by previous efforts made by groups like the Cerebral Palsy Foundation.10.Gravity blanketsGravity is here to help you combat your anxiety. Starting off as a Kick starter campaign, the company Gravity has created a therapeutic weighted blanket engineered to be around 10% of your body weight.The super comfy blanket helps those who have a sleeping problem, who may be stressed, or deal with anxiety.11. The MirrorThe Mirror is one of the sleekest looking inventions on this list. Perfect for those with fitness goals in 2019, the interactive mirror helps take your home fitness regime to the next level.The device streams live workouts and even offers an interactive fitness coach.12. HabitAwareA common New Year’s resolution centers around the idea of kicking some sort of bad habit. HabitAware is here to make your life a little easier.As a friendly reminder, the fashionable Keen band vibrates anytime it catches you doing the bad habit you are trying to shake.13. Solar Charged JacketIf you are a night runner, then this one's for you. Created by U.K.-based sports-gear startup, Vollebak, the Solar Charged Jacket phosphorescent membrane absorbs light during the day and releases its “kryptonite green energy” for those who need to be safe after dark.14. Gravity Jet SuitCreated by Gravity industries, the 1,050 horsepower system uses five mini-jet engines to help users soar through the sky at 80 kph.15. Ironing Board Mirror16. The Rolling Bench That You Can Use After Rain17. Hour Glass LED Traffic Lights18. Universal Wrapping Paper19. Cup Holder Umbrella20. The Inside-Out Umbrella21. THE DINING SET FOR DEMENTIA PATIENTSEat-well is an 8-piece dining set that fosters mealtime independence for sufferers of dementia. The bowls have slanted bottoms for easy scooping and bright blue interiors to help users easily identify food. The spoons hug the side of the dinnerware making collecting food easier and preventing spillage, and all handles allow for easy gripping and stability.The Eat-well dining set gives dementia patients dignity while they eat.22. THE STRAW THAT FILTERS WATERThe Life Straw filters out virtually all microbiological contaminants to make water safe to drink. The invention was designed to help people in developing countries who don’t have access to safe water and in emergency scenarios following natural disasters when water is contaminated.23. THE DRINKABLE BOOKThis book is genius: along with providing basic information on clean water, each page of the Drinkable Book is coated with silver nano particles, which kill 99.9% of bacteria when water passes through. The result: clean, safe drinking water. Once a page of the book has been torn out, it can be used multiple times as a filter, providing up to 30 days of clean water for one person.24. THE FLAT PACK REFUGEE SHELTERDeveloped in coordination between the IKEA Foundation and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the Better Shelter is a refugee shelter that combines form, function and sustainability. Unlike the traditionally-used tents, the shelters can last up to three years and are fitted with solar panels, mosquito nets, lights, and ventilation and a lockable door for privacy and safety.25. THE EDIBLE WATER BOTTLE YOU CAN MAKE AT HOMEOoho! is a new kind of packaging made from seaweed that proposes an alternative to plastic bottles. The H2O orbs are servings of water encased in an algae-based gel, which in due time could be a common replacement for the bottles we use every day.26. NANO1 – World’s Smallest Astronomy CameraNANO1 is the perfect invention for passionate stargazers who not only like to be awestruck by looking at the wonders of the sky but also want to capture these with their cameras. The inventors of NANO1 bill it as the smallest astronomy camera in the world which can capture 25 times more light than the human eye and condense an hour-long recording into 3 minutes for a charming view of the sky as well as other phenomena like the Northern Lights. You can connect NANO1 with your smartphone over Wi-Fi or Bluetooth and view an augmented reality map of constellations to appreciate the beauty of the sky.27. THE BUS THAT RUNS ON HUMAN WASTEWaste treatment company Gene-co has come up with a groundbreaking new invention - the trash and sewage-guzzling Bio Bus. The first Bio Bus is currently active in the United Kingdom, shuttling passengers back and forth every day from Bristol Airport.28. Solar RoadwaysSolar Roadways is exactly what you’re thinking after reading the name. These are solar panels which can be used to pave roads, driveways, sidewalks, or any surface meant for walking. Solar wafers protected under thick layers of shatter-proof Gorilla Glass can be used to generate electricity from any surface. These modules come in hexagonal panels which makes replacement super easy. Additionally, Solar Roadways panels can be programmed electronically to show specific markings on the road. The panels can generate enough heat to melt the snow and thus ensure easy walking or driving over them during winters. All of this while saving the Earth and Earth-dwellers from succumbing to the damage caused by greenhouse gases.29. Dolfi – Next Gen Washing DeviceGet ready to forget your woes of spending hours getting adamant stains out of your clothes using soap bars. Because it’s time for ultrasonic solutions to take over and Dolfi is an example of how technology can transform the way we wash clothes. Using carefully modulated ultrasonic waves, Dolfi knocks dirt out of your clothes automatically without even requiring you to dedicate any time to washing. Just keep the dirty laundry in a bucket filled with water and detergent, and let Dolfi clean them for you.30. Bimoz – World’s lightest and smartest e-bike driveWith the growing stress on the environment, more and more people are turning away from motorcade and towards bikes. And with this, we’ve seen an increase in the number of smart bikes or e-bikes which come with assistive drivetrain to help you keep going without getting exhausted. But if you don’t want to give up on your old bike, you can convert it into an e-bike with Bimoz. It comes with a 250W battery pack which adds less than 2kg to your bike’s weight and the easy installation process allows you to replace any bike pedal with Bimoz. With the compatible app, you can note your GPS location, track routes, connect with friends, and even simulate mountains on flat roads to train your legs. So, whether it’s for exercise or for getting more power out of your bike, Bimoz is the ultimate solution for converting any bike into an e-bike.31. Padrone Ring – Coolest Mouse EverNo matter how sophisticated the trackpads on our laptops get, mice are still irreplaceable because of the high freedom of movement and speed they offer. Padrone Ring is a small and nimble finger ring which can be used as a computer mouse. This ring mouse connects to any device over low-energy Bluetooth and supports a variety of clicking and scrolling gestures. More importantly, it comes in 12 different sizes and is waterproof, which means you can continue wearing it anywhere you go without worrying about breaking it or frying the internals.32. Rone Mini HeaterWe leave no stone unturned when it comes to keeping ourselves warm in winters but that often involves plugging in or moving heavy heating equipment. Rone is a solution to that problem as it comes in a very compact form factor and can easily find space on your table or desk. With its tiny size, moving Rone around isn’t a tiring job either. Besides the heater module which has multiple speed options, Rone comes with a pebble-shaped enhancement which can help you warm your hands. Further, Rone is incredibly quiet and would hardly make you feel its presence unless you toggle the highest fan speed.33. Geopress Purifier – Clean Water, Anywhere in the WorldObtaining potable water is a major challenge when you’re off-grid and this is where handheld filters come into play. You must have heard of LifeStraw which lets you drink water directly from any running stream without worrying about any impurities and Geopress takes it a step further. Geopress Purifier uses zeolites for ion exchange along with an activated carbon filter to remove disease-causing viruses, bacteria, protozoan, heavy metals, and other chemical impurities from almost any dirty stream of water, making it suitable for drinking. With Geofilter, you can not only instantly filter dirty water and prevent diseases like Rotavirus and Hepatitis A but also store 24oz (710ml) for thirst on the go.34. Hover 2 – The 4K Drone that Flies ItselfDrones have helped us capture important moments of our lives with greater flexibility than a hand-held digital camera or camcorder. Hover 2 is designed to do that and a lot more, without much human intervention. The drone comes with an AI on board which not only guides it while flying but also helps capture 4K videos from the best possible angles. The AI is capable of detecting obstacles and dodging them in real time, allowing you to focus on enjoying nature while Hover 2 takes care of the rest. Moreover, it comes in a lightweight and fold able design, and advanced subject mapping that ensures a cinematic quality while the inbuilt gimbal ensures a great amount of stability. All of these features ensure that Hover 2 enjoys a comfortable position in our list of some of the coolest and most awesome inventions of contemporary times.35. NATEDE – A Smart Natural Air PurifierNATEDE is the air purifier of the future which utilizes the goodness of sustainable technology and indoor plants to remove suspended particulate matter, microbes, pet dander etc. from the air without using too much energy. NATEDE is a unique potting solution which relies on letting air flow through indoor plants and a reusable photocatalytic filter instead of just filter media to clean indoor air. It is compact and seamlessly blends with any furniture or setting; removes 99% of the bacteria and viruses from the air without using too much energy. The compatible app not only informs you about the quality of the air but also the condition of the soil while its advanced water circulation system ensures that your life-saving plants are never thirsty. This is one of the coolest and most convincing and awesome inventions, especially if you live in an urban jungle which often has a thick layer of smog.36. Rechargeable USB batteriesBatteries you can charge via USB. We can’t believe that these aren’t more widely used!37. Green and red parking lightsCar parks that show if a space is free or taken by using red and green lights. Every car park should have genius idea!38. Anti-tangle earphonesEarphones that will never tangle! We can’t believe this idea hasn’t taken over the world! Tangled headphones are unbelievably annoying!39. USB wall socketsAn outlet that has USB sockets. Many people have these kinds of sockets in their home these days. They’re so convenient!40. Drip catching mugA mug that catches drips with a simple groove in the middle. So simple yet so genius!41. Backpack with built-in hoodieA backpack with a built-in hoodie. What a great concept! It would be cool if it was a detachable hood so that you can decide if you need it based on the weather.42. Tile tracking device for keysThis Tile has a tracking device that you sync with an IOS app so if you ever lose your keys you can locate them. Brilliant! What a great way of offering that extra peace of mind that all is not lost if you misplace your keys. Also, if someone takes your keys, you have a chance of retrieving them.

Who would win in a fight, Iron Man or Starscream?

“Friday - status!” commanded Tony Stark, urgently.Iron Man’s opponent, an alien technology that could transform and disguise itself as an advanced, American F-22 fighter jet, was laughing maniacally.Curiously it sounded like another villain - Ultron.Only this robot was more physically vicious and aggressive.Tony’s mind raced as he continued to plummet, his Mark 50 suit desperately trying to reboot itself.Starscream commandeered a Cybertornian stealth shuttle with enough resources and energy for an extended trip to Earth. His plan, as always, domination of the Decepticon clan by usurping its leader, Megatron.The Decepticon second in command had made contact with an unknown entity after being compelled to fly and explore a strange, incongruous, planetoid in an unexplored sector of the galaxy.A brief surge of data had imprinted itself on his pico neural pathways and easily convinced him that Megatron could be quickly disposed if the right assets were in play.Not one to argue with grand opportunity the Transformer readily agreed and had already turned to scheming for his ultimate advantage.The shuttle had been programmed to enter a dimensional flux stream and, after some trepidation, he found himself in geosynchronous orbit around Earth once more.However, the scanners on his spacecraft revealed some irregularities.There were greater concentrations of energy, higher levels of advanced technology, and even more surprising, strange, altered life forms inhabiting the planet.He ignored these facts in favour of one - there were no traces of Autobots, or Decepticons.Ever.By his estimation, the planet was ripe for his picking.With his shuttle holding place in orbit the Decepticon broke through the atmosphere and transformed into his jet mode.Activating advanced stealth features he took his time, smugly surveying various sites of interest, loitering, and taking pleasure in confusing the lowly humans.Purely for spite he would briefly reveal himself on their primitive radars.He liked playing a cat and mouse game to pass the time as he scanned military installations for great concentrations of energy that he could plunder.Strangely, the most concentrated form of energy was not located on a military base, as he presumed, but from an industrial complex 36.2 miles west of Houston, Texas.Once he had trained his scanning array on the source it intrigued him to no end.It was at least five times more potent and concentrated than anything he had seen thus far. He hovered in the air, hidden by a dense bank of clouds, studying the size of the complex and the disposition of its defences.Snorting in derision he decided to enjoy himself before the inevitable pillaging began.Dropping all his cluster bombs he quickly switched to his robotic form.The bombs instantly wreaked havoc on the automated defenses, sowing chaos among the scurrying, babbling, primates.Swooping down from the skies like a sinister, 18 foot tall, bird of prey he laughed and started shooting indiscriminately.Twenty minutes earlier Tony Stark had been working on the schematics for a new, high tech, foundry addition to his Nada, Texas, manufacturing complex.His holographic CAD/CADM schematic showed him areas of interest which his AI assistant, Friday, had pointed out earlier.“Friday?” asked Tony, “show me the data on the left foundry again.”“Here you are,” replied a pleasant female, Irish, voice. “The plant’s arc generator can easily absorb the power cost of a dual furnace setup with modifications, here, here and here.”A large, red, dot of holographic light traced an outline on the plan glowing in the air.Tony gave a low wolf whistle.“Adjust it for a dual carbonadium pipeline. There’s enough overhead for this …” began Tony.“Sir?” interrupted Friday. “There’s a strange contact on Stark satellite W34.”“I’m not interested in weather patterns. Eyes over here, okay?” replied Tony, directing the AI’s camera with his hand.“I’ve been tracking an atmospheric disturbance nine miles above this location, holding steady, for the last three minutes,” confirmed the AI.Tony blinked and paused. His AI didn’t normally trail off on an unimportant tangent.“Friday - confirm if Thor’s coming to visit the wine cellar again. Break out a keg of Bordelaux 1812. Let’s finish this up.” ordered Tony.“Sir - analysis on screen. There are no visuals, no radar contact. Judging by the footprint in the atmospheric gases the Object is estimated at 63.1 feet long, by 46.6 feet wide, with a height of 17.8 feet, and is now 2 miles above us.”Tony quickly absorbed Friday’s data and reached a conclusion about 10 seconds before the first bombs hit.“RED ONE!” was all he had time to cry out before the all to familiar thud of explosions shook the office.He reveled at the scurrying inhabitants, ducking for cover, screaming their incoherent, high pitched voices. He randomly fired beams of energy from his arm mounted cannons anytime it looked like the motes were massing for trouble or not making enough noise.Every step he took shuddered the ground, generating fear.He couldn’t stop smiling as he slowly meandered closer to the power source in the center of the complex.The defenders could do nothing to stop him. Their side arms were futile.The automated defences were, by and large, ineffective. What rabble remained could not target him effectively due to his active stealth components. Any that tried were immediately rendered useless by his ‘null’ beam cannon - effectively a concentrated EMP beam. He decided that he had more sympathy for dumb technology than intelligent specks of dust.A last stand of security personnel tried to bar his way, buying time for their unarmed peers to escape.At least, this is what he wanted the flotsam to believe. He gave into the moment, grandstanding and taking devilish pleasure.“Are you not impressed!” Starscream proclaimed, boisterously. “You could all be dead. DEAD! But if you keep me amused I’ll let you live another day!”He gave his best performance, sarcastically imitating the laugh of his despised leader, Megatron. Security took the opportunity to fire back.Small arms fire and a Humvee sporting a mobile autogun, spit their defiance at the Decepticon.He laughed again, almost hysterically, at the pitiful resistance.“I’m going to love it here!” he rasped loudly.He stomped the ground 10 feet away from the humans, causing them to scatter and trip over each other in a confused state of retreat. One of the security detail hammered Starscream again with the autogun.“Goodbye, insignificant mote!” he cried happily. He raised his left foot high, letting it loom for a second over the vehicle. Then he brought it down.“Friday, magnetize joints! Brace for impact!” cried Tony in his Iron Man suit.“Generating counter force,” complied the AI calmly.Iron Man landed just in time to catch Starscream’s foot and save the Humvee, and its occupant, from a gruesome death.The armour creaked a little ominously at the strain, but Friday reassured him that systems were performing beautifully.“Let’s try a little Brazilian Jiu Jitsu, courtesy of Captain America,” suggested Tony as he flexed and twisted.Friday routed the necessary suit power and articulations to magnify Tony’s actions. She also duplicated Tony’s voice, broadcasting it throughout the entire facility.“Evacuate! Delta Red!” Iron Man cried. “Move people!”Personnel flooded out of the complex, gravitating towards the roads and designated safe spots some 20 miles in the distance.Starscream couldn’t believe two things.First, he didn’t realize the complex was defended by a unique individual who was all but invisible to his radar.Second, he didn’t think anybody would ever think to twist his massive ankle joint. It started to hurt as he tried exerting pressure on the impudent little insect.Suddenly, he was off balance and flailing, his ankle in shooting pain!“You little BUG!” he cried, activating his jets and searching for the source of the resistance and pain.Tony channeled as much power as he could into the armour, bending the ankle while throwing it off balance.“Okay, let’s kick this up a level,” he proclaimed calmly.Activating his repulsor jets Iron Man streaked off as the giant robot used its jet thrusters, to regain its balance.“Friday, scan active contacts, all bands,” ordered Tony.“193 band scan commencing,” confirmed the AI.Tony could see his very large foe but noticed that conventional radar and doppler were mute. Thermography was strange.The energy signature for such a large, moving, object was abnormally spotty at best, sometimes disappearing entirely for seconds at a time.Starscream had never tracked so agile a foe. Even Soundwave’s flying peon, Laserbeak, was a moth compared to the armoured fly in front of him.His active tracking sensors had difficulty locating, and locking, onto the significantly smaller, and faster opponent. Thankfully, Starscream was not an organic being.His technology allowed to react faster, think faster, and move faster than the ordinary inhabitants of this planet. He launched a seeking missile while he regained his footing.“Sir - active tracking detected,” warned Friday. “I also have the scan results ready.”“Just a moment,” replied Tony, activating his anti-missile chaff and pulling a hard right loop.The missile trailed off, exploding harmlessly on the open Texan, plain.“Friday, broadcast a warning. Let’s see what it wants,” commanded Tony, as he quickly reviewed the AI’s results.“STOP!” announced Iron Man, hovering 40 feet in the air, 100 feet in front of Starscream.“Let’s deal. I’m full of resources. What do you want to settle this peacefully?” continued the metal clad insect.The Decepticon considered the offer.“Your energy source. Your technology. Your eternal obedience,” he rasped, cruelly drawing out the final syllables.Tony considered the data in front of him and took over the negotiations.“How about a partnership with my factory at your disposal? Let’s figure out a way to get what we all need. We’re even talking the same language,” countered Iron Man. “There’s some common ground here.”He activated a remote access channel in his suit. An automatic door in the complex opened. A minute later a drone flew forth carrying a pure sample of extracted Vanadium in a clear receptacle towards the negotiations.Starscream thought about the counter offer. It would take no effort to feign acquiescence, then break his word when the opportunity presented itself.The power source of the complex was considerably advanced and would be a valuable asset in his plans. The technology hovering on display in front of him, as much as he could monitor and scan, was incredible.If he could just tear into and peel back the little metal insect he was sure there were secrets to be added to his considerable abilities.“Your suit. Give it to me as a sign of your good intentions, and I will accept your generous offer,” replied the Decepticon.“Tough negotiations,” Tony observed to Friday. “Let’s try this instead.”He directed the drone and had it fly level in front of his opponent while he reviewed the data.Friday’s scans noticed that the large robot was suspectible to magnetic fields as well as a few other, less common, forms of energy.“I’m sure you know this is pure Vanadium. Hard to extract, incredibly useful. Your form is based on advanced military technology which uses Vanadium in its construction. I can offer you a steady supply, and more, to keep yourself in tip top shape.”Starscream had all the time he needed on this planet to take what he wanted. But he was intrigued enough to have some fun since he was so close to attaining his goal.“I’ll take your offer of Vanadium,” began the Decepticon, reaching out and grasping the drone gently, regally, between two very large, metal, fingers.Tony tensed.He had taken part in many negotiations in his lifetime and could recognize a change of intent from across a board room.“I’ll also take YOUR HEAD!” concluded the Transformer, quickly raising his cannon and blasting the armoured form in front of him.Friday had been monitoring their opponent using passive LIDAR scans. She detected movement of the left arm and relayed her conclusions to Tony.What should have been a telling blow was reduced to a glancing blow as Iron Man rolled with the impact, his suit reconfiguring itself to better reflect and absorb the energies from the cannon.Adjusting his suit’s flight trim for extreme turning, he shrugged off the blast and took off at high velocity, gaining altitude quickly.“Well that was predictable,” Tony concluded humourlessly. “Plan B. Let’s see what he can take. Fire up satellite C3D. Run all telemetry and tracking through your scans.”“Uplink and monitoring,” confirmed Friday pleasantly.Tony let loose a volley of rockets from his shoulders, feeding real time tracking adjustments on the target 300 feet below him.The missiles shot downward at Starscream. He was bemused as he transformed into a jet and blasted off.His metal form easily withstood severe G forces that would have caused a human pilot to be crushed.Releasing chaff at the last instant he dodged. The missiles overshot and exploded harmlessly overhead as Starscream peppered cannon fire at Iron Man.Tony had given Friday access to all the databases at his disposal, including military tactics and advanced piloting combat gleaned from the best aviators on Earth and elsewhere. With Friday controlling the suit Tony kept reviewing the scan data and planning.Iron Man continued to rapidly put altitude between himself and his opponent, crossing through a thick bank of clouds at 18000 feet.Energy blasts cascaded harmlessly around him, missing his agile form by a large margin.“He’s not very good, is he,” Tony noted laconically as he analyzed the magnetic field numbers.He was going to setup his brutish foe with a localized EMP ramjet missile delivered from the satellite. His armour would be immune, hardened to the magnitude of the attack. With any luck he would be done before afternoon tea was served.“Friday – satellite status?” asked Tony.“Online and armed,” confirmed Friday.“Okay - let’s swing this back to our end of the inning,” stated Tony.Friday reconfigured the suit’s flight trim and Tony executed a tight turn, expertly avoiding another flurry of missiles.He sped toward the advanced F-22 at Mach 5, before executing a bewildering set of large, looping, circles aimed at distracting his opponent while the satellite delivered the EMP payload.“Sir, please watch your G force tolerance. Any more than Mach 6.2 and you will risk a blackout,” advised Friday.The Mark 50 Suit was theoretically capable of speeds well in excess of Mach 9. Reality was limited by Tony’s ability to absorb G-forces, and remain conscious.Even when supported by the suit his body had limits, even more so when executing acrobatics.“We’re fine Friday. Just monitor my vitals and let me know how we’re doing. This is about to end in another minute,” replied Tony nonchalantly.“Sir? My analysis of the factory logs is complete. There’s something interesting you should see,” began Friday.The Decepticon recognized a delaying tactic when he saw one. He also realized that he could target the small armoured primate with his Null canon, visually.He kept firing just behind the dodging target to continue lulling it into a false sense of security. He couldn’t help but brag about his abilities since victory was all but assured in his mind.“You fool! I see in 1134 frames per second compared to your feeble, primate, mind! Surrender before you annoy me!” he threatened, blasting away.Tony scoffed.Friday was an advanced AI that let him see thousands of frames more, per second, with advanced scanning and analysis of the environment. She was like Pepper Potts, Tony’s trusted confidante and aide, only portable and faster, by far. He couldn’t help but retort, as he executed one last, tight, turn since victory was almost at hand.“I hope you like being framed for defeat!” joked Iron Man loudly to his foe, interrupting his AI.“Friday, launch the ramje,” began Tony.Starscream suddenly transformed into robot mode, easily absorbing massive G-forces, abruptly slowing down and turning tighter than Iron Man, could anticipate.Before either Friday or Tony could adjust to the new situation the Transformer easily targeted the flying monkey and sent a null beam blast 23 feet in front of the looping metal ape.Pain exploded across Tony’s neural net mesh.His systems went haywire from the feedback. The in-suit suite of holo-display screens flickered on and off.He started breathing faster.All the major electronic systems in his suit were knocked out.Friday started babbling non-sensical conclusions and observations like a drug addict.“42 powers 2.1! The square root! Beets! Hell! Ponies! Lineal suits! Clover!” blathered the shocked AI.“Friday! Emp! Reboot! EMP REBOOT!” ordered Tony, desperately. He knew an EMP after effect when he saw one.He had assumed that only an atmospheric, nuclear scale, electro magnetic pulse could knock out the new suit.Unfortunately neither he nor Friday had anticipated current tactics. He cursed himself for not looking at the factory logs during the fight.There may have been more information from the sensors on the ground or the eyes in the sky.As it stood, he was falling from an altitude of over 25000 feet.His advanced armour was now the most expensive dead weight on the face of the planet.His AI was reduced to being the largest assembly of code and neural net learning to fall at terminal velocity.Himself - Avenger, billionaire entrepreneur, CEO, and premier proto-techno adopter - about to experience death at the hands of an alien robot who was laughing manaically like Ultron.Looking out of his face mask eye slits, one of only two analogue components in his suit, he could see his enemy changing trajectory, approaching with hands raised high.Starscream watched the falling red and gold metal suit.He raised his arms high in victory, accelerating to maximum speed, closing the gap.The time for revelry had passed. He would take this new technology, scan it, adopt it, and add the power source to his personal form.Then he would depose Megatron for good.There was no way the Decepticon leader would be able to cope with these new abilities, especially since Starscream planned on surprising everyone when they least suspected.He laughed out loud, his afterburners firing like twin suns in the afternoon Texas sky.“Friday! Status!” commanded Tony Stark, urgently.“Robots can be any colour,” stated the AI uselessly.Blind, deaf, and having trouble breathing, Tony continued his attempts to revive Friday. His keen mind took stock of the situation.At least Friday was recovering. She went from incoherent babbling to purely nonsensical. That was a glimmer of hope. Had the EMP truly had full effect Friday would be silent.If only he knew how close they were to the ground…He was a seasoned business professional who knew the value of the adage “use all your resources as efficiently as possible.”The one resource that needed to be used most efficiently was time.He idly noticed that there were no more cirrostratus clouds in view.He made his choice.Whispering a prayer to the gods he toggled the only other analogue component in the suit - the reboot commands. He shut down Friday and powered her back up.If anybody could use time better than him it was Friday.If he could just cut out her illogical loops, brought on by the EMP, she might be able to find a way out of this situation.The babble stopped instantly. But no pleasing Irish lilt greeted his ears.He mentally kissed Pepper Potts, almost mouthing “forgive me” in case he didn’t have a chance to see her again.“Friday?” he questioned urgently, breathing harder.Dark clouds passed in view, whistling by alarmingly fast.Starscream was 1000 feet away from his foe.He licked his metal lips - a very human affectation he picked up somewhere in his scans when they first crashed on his Earth, decades ago.He was imagining what victory would be like back home.Megatron destroyed.Shockwave humbled.Even that insipid little backstabber, Soundwave, would be at his every beck and call. Maybe he’d let him keep Laserbeak, if only to keep the silent Decepticon in line.As he contemplated victory he momentarily lost sight of his prey in a thick bank of dark clouds.“Friday!” Tony persisted for the tenth time.“Status! Update! Root X!” he commanded desperately. Friday had not responded after the reboot.Tony had no idea if she was active. His voice should have triggered a response.His breathing was laboured now, the suit’s air becoming saturated with carbon dioxide since the recycler had no power.His amour began to spin out of control. He couldn’t even see his foe, nor the clouds, and only caught sporadic light streaming through his facemask.It was disorienting, chaotic, even more so than when he’d been binge drinking before rediscovering the path of a super hero.He almost felt that he had hit rock bottom once more, no pun intended he ruefully thought, as he plummeted to meet the Earth in the world’s most expensive coffin.“This is more like a pizza box,” he joked, almost incoherently, to himself as the carbon dioxide concentrations accumulated.The whistling of the air around him changed slightly.He thought he saw the Colorado River underneath him as he spun.It was a pretty watershed - he wished he’d taken time to go fishing when he first set up shop near Nada, Texas.He would have loved to hear Pepper’s laugh again, reeling in a big catfish. Or watch Happy Hogan, his chauffeur, grinning, telling jokes on the boat as he brought out the net.He even missed Thor’s chugging of expensive beers and wines, emptying out the cellar, and boasting that it was ‘nice but needed more Asgardian ale’.“Friday. Kiss me for a fool,” he whispered, resigned.The mighty Colorado spun beneath him again, slower this time.Something was happening.If anything he should have been spinning faster. The wind should have been whistling at a higher pitch.Was he slowing down?Where was that stupid brute of a toy looking robot? Did it finally catch up?“Hold on Sir,” announced Friday.The holographic displays were still off line.Tony couldn’t see anything.But, come to think of it, Tony realized, his breathing wasn’t any more difficult than under normal times of stress.Without power his suit was literally a hermetically sealed box of death. But with power to the proper sub systems it could keep him alive in almost any environment for a considerable length of time.“Friday?” asked Tony. He tried flexing his fingers, his toes.“Just. One. Moment,” Friday intoned over the space of three seconds.Tony watched the Colorado rise up alarmingly fast.The whistling of the wind continued to dull by the second. The spinning had almost stopped.Tony could feel a subtle presence in the interface mesh. This meant that Friday was monitoring his systems once more.She could even trigger certain bio chemical responses, through the nano technology under Tony’s skin, within reason.“Relax. Let me help,” requested Friday, in a pleasant Irish lilt.The repulsor jets suddenly roared to life.Tony’s arms and legs moved as the armour’s nano-tech surfaces reconfigured themselves to drastically slow their descent and regain control.He suddenly felt a little more relaxed than possible, and realized that Friday was coaxing dopamine into his system.Instead of watching the Colorado plummet into view Iron Man was now tracing a graceful, controlled, arc downward, at around Mach 2, passing through a low bank of stratus clouds.“Friday? What’s the 411?” asked Tony as the in-suite screens popped into view, sporting a boot screen.“Your reboot worked. I returned and scanned the last save state logs. Based on that data I diverted the majority of my AI power to controlling surfaces and angling our descent towards the river. Any left over power I used to start the reboot of our systems,” replied Friday.“Are we back to 100% yet?” asked Tony hopefully.“Current system status is 25% and climbing. 3 minutes until full capacity,” chirped Friday.“Damn,” muttered Tony.Starscream suddenly lost sight of the figure as they entered another bank of white clouds.He had been within 50 feet, at full after burner.Now, outside of the clouds once more, his prey was nowhere in sight. Whatever stealth components the gold and red suit sported were once more active, foiling his radar and scanners.He took up a hover position and rotated quickly, visually scanning the environment.It took him about 30 seconds to find the small speck of a figure, arcing downwards towards a placid river below.He snarled and transformed into an F-22 once more, using gravity to add speed to the chase.“Friday, let’s go for a swim,” instructed Tony.“I’ll need to divert power from main thrust and control surfaces to adapt ourselves for entry and operation Sir,” began Friday. “What’s the 411, please?”Tony smiled to himself as the AI imitated his sayings in an effort to coordinate. It came across as patiently frustrated in his mind - very classy.“I’m gambling that an F-22 isn’t designed for water combat. We’re going to take 2 and turn the tables like he did to us,” outlined Tony. “And, I bet I have a surprise for him if he does try to join us. Study the white paper I found on new Russian torpedoes - look in my inventory 23/2/2016 filed under ‘to do,’ ” finished Tony.“Prepare for water breach in 15 seconds,” replied Friday.Starscream closed the distance quickly.Instead of using his Null Beam he decided that it was time to take pleasure in ripping the primitive ape apart, peeling back the layers of technology and scanning them while listening to high pitched screams.Even if the prey descended into water the Decepticon’s robotic form was well equipped for aquatic environments.His great strength afforded him easy mobility, and water cooled his systems for greater efficiency. He could even use his thrusters to propel himself faster than most nautical craft on the planet.Smiling cruelly he anticipated the surprised screams of shock and pain to follow shortly, as he descended.Tony dived into the water, reaching the bottom of the river in seconds.“Mark 50 holds up really well, doesn’t she?” observed Tony proudly.“All systems nominal. Full charge in 2 minutes,” confirmed Friday calmly.“Can we do it?” asked Tony. “What’s the energy cost?”“A surprisingly cheap re-articulation of the magnetic seals with relevant surfaces and sub systems. Are you sure about the last part of the plan?” queried Friday once more.“All the numbers say this will work. Have you reconciled with the factory data?” replied Tony.“Working on it - another 4 minutes.”“That’s not a lot of time for the end game. Can you shave some more time off?” asked Tony.Tony noticed the shadow of his foe over the water. Another moment later, a large set of metallic feet broke the water’s surface.Large collections of bubbles accompanied the robotic body as it plunged into the river. A set of arms reached out threateningly in Tony’s general direction.“Persistent little toy isn’t he?” interrupted Tony. “Let’s go.”He knew that it wouldn’t take long for the metal villain to take note and give pursuit.Starscream’s robotic sensors and eyes pierced the gloomy depths of the Colorado river.Smirking he boomed his voice underwater.“RUN!”Laughing he activated his boot jets, rapidly closing the distance to within 20 feet.“Hit it,” stated Tony calmly.Firing up the repulsor jets Iron Man took off from the river bed and traveled down the Colorado river at a depth of 30 feet.Friday activated the suit’s magnetic seals, articulating specific control surfaces on the upper body of the armour.Charging the nano-surfaces, alternating polarity in a specific pattern the AI used the suit’s gas exchanger in a novel, new, way of processing, and expelling great amounts of the CO2 in the environment to center around the Mark 50 armour.The repulsors suddenly engaged in full burn.Combined with the gaseous envelope around the suit, Iron Man quickly gained speed, attaining over 275 knots per hour.He shot away from Starscream with the speed of a super cavitating torpedo.The Decepticon blinked, then became quickly enraged. He willed himself to full speed, doing his best to streamline his shape and keep visual contact with the quickly receeding opponent.It was like trying to corner a wily, lower lifeform.Frustrating.A waste of his precious time.He should have killed the man when he had the chance.Starscream thundered away underwater, causing water to boil into large waves on the surface.Afternoon boaters were overtaken by sudden swells on a normally placid body of water.“How’re we doing on that analysis Friday?” asked Tony, monitoring his screens once more.“2 minutes and counting.”“Power levels at optimal?” asked Tony.“30 seconds,” replied Friday.“Time to shoreline?” he asked, one last time.“10 seconds.”He breathed slowly and firmly.“Time to gamble,” he said to himself.Iron Man broke the water’s surface, springing through the air to land on the shore near some farm land. It was deserted as anticipated.“Open up all environmental charging solutions please. I want to make sure we pump out every last giga watt,” ordered Tony.“Understood. Are you sure you don’t want to wait for backup?” asked Friday.“Now or never. I don’t want this conflict to get any more out of hand. It ends here,” was Tony’s firm reply.“Would you like another shot of dopamine Sir?” asked Friday helpfully.Tony smiled.“Deep scan my pre-frontal cortex Friday,” Tony replied. “This is as firm as I ever get.”“Noted,” Friday asserted. “Charging. Preparing to release dampers on your mark.”The water bubbled at the edge of the shore. Waves started to crash onto the rocky, sandy soil, growing larger by the second.By the time the Decepticon breached the surface the waves were two feet high, spraying the placid super hero.Laughing cruelly, his quarry bent down on one knee, Starscream was almost ecstatic.“Had enough, gnat?” he asked mockingly. “I will make it quick out of recognition for your surrender.”He let a sarcastic edge emphasize the word quick.There was never any intention beyond a brutal torture of a lower life form at stake.“Now,” stated the metal figure on the beach, turning its torso slightly to angle a large, glowing circle in its chest upwards.“Firing,” stated Friday.Iron Man’s uni-beam screamed forth from the golden Avenger’s chest mounted arc reactor.Within picoseconds an almost incomprehensible amount of EMP energy poured forth and hit the Transformer full in the face.“Hope they have karma where you come from, jerk,” muttered Tony as he watched the armour’s power indicators drop precipitously.Starscream did what he always did best.He bellowed in pain.EMP energy bombarded his senses, his systems and wreaked pure havoc on his entire being.Unwillingly he felt himself shutting down, from the effect of the pulse on his electric systems and from the pure pain of it all.He was hardened to conventional, terrestrial EMP and technologies. But this outburst was along the lines of the best he had ever received from either Decepticon or Autobot.He could not last.His final thought as consciousness ebbed, his hulking metal form crashing onto soft sand and rocks, was that he would have his revenge.Tony stopped the Uni beam.He felt exhausted. The suit would need a lot of time to recharge before anything beyond basic mobility returned.“Turn off anything but basic support and articulation systems,” ordered Tony. “Let’s try and recharge a little faster than normal if we can.”He raised the face mask, gulping fresh air for the first time in the afternoon.He quietly observed the strange, purple logo on the wing of the alien. He would ask his friends to run a match and see if there was any more information in their extensive databases.He couldn’t remember all the villains he had ever encountered but he was sure this was a new antagonist.He waited several minutes, breathing hard, before asking Friday, “Any match for that symbol in our databank?”“None at the moment,” began Friday, “but once we are re-connected to the external databases more options may be available.”Suddenly, a large metal hand spasmed in the water.Tony looked alarmingly at the metal robot shuddering.“Friday, status!” he exclaimed, alarmed.“Power levels at 6%. Basic mobility at 25%,” began Friday.“Can we take it out with repulsors?” asked Tony, lowering the face plate and extending his gauntlets, palms outward, towards his enemy.The wind started to pick up, throwing waves onto the shore once more.“Repulsors at insufficient charge to critically damage an opponent of this size. We might be able to manage a few shots but without advanced scanning it’s a crapshoot,” observed the AI.“Options?” asked Tony, his weary mind racing once more.“Let’s see what Thor can do,” stated the A.I.Tony looked up.(Bonus question – How long would Starscream last against Thor?)The sky grew dark very quickly, kicking up wind and water over the Decepticon.He had just recovered and was raising his considerable bulk out of the river. His eyes seethed with rage, his face a snarl as he locked onto the small red and gold figure on shore.“Your life is over, miserable little primate!” he declared. He raised his left arm cannon and tried to steady himself against the ever increasing wind and surf.Heavy rain began to whip against his body.Thunder crackled ominously overhead.He had never known Earth weather to be so turbulent and localized. The little metal figure standing on shore, 30 feet away, was not the least bit affected.Starscream, however, was being buffeted by winds of 110 miles per hour, and hail the size of golf balls was assaulting him, throwing off his focus.Was that a voice, coming from above? The Decepticon could scarcely believe his audio receptors.“Base villain! Thou shalt not stand!” cried Thor, Asgardian god of thunder.He willed a lightning bolt to sizzle downward, splitting the skies to strike the metal robot below. Another lightning bolt followed within seconds, then another.The Transformer had taken all the punishment his Cybertronian frame could bear.Mortally exhausted he shut down once more, overloaded beyond even his capacity to easily recover.Starscream crashed into the water again, face landing in the shore, his arms flopping haphazardly.The storm died down as suddenly as it began.The large, immortal frame of Thor landed gently beside Tony Stark.“I heard thy whispered prayers my friend, and came as quickly as I could from Asgard.”Tony was ecstatic.“Thor! You just took down that beserk son of a kid’s toy with a localized, MEGA, superstorm! That’s incredible!”Thor looked lost in thought for a few moments before responding.“Aye. ‘Tis easier these days for a thunder god to sow energies of destruction in the skies. The Earth is angry. Her emotions manifest as stronger storms and disasters.”Iron Man was incredulous.“C’mon Thor. I’ve met gods, yourself included. The Earth? It’s a big chunk of rock in space with a habitable zone, resources and lots of little things scurrying on it like us humans.”“Are not earthquakes but the trembling of her body? Hurricanes and tornadoes - the railing protest of her voice? Volcanoes - naught but the tip of her fury at being slowly destroyed,” replied the thunder god in a tone heavily tinted with irony and regret.“Plate tectonics and..” started the hero.“Am I not the progeny of All Father Odin, and his mate, Gaea, the Elder goddess of the Earth?” interrupted Thor quietly. “Does the frequency of events, as you mortals spin so often, seem to be rather ill timed?”Tony paused.He had learned to respect the ancient being at his side, manyfold, during their numerous adventures together. While seemingly in the aspect of a humanoid with impressive proportions Thor was, ultimately, a god whose depth of knowledge and experience allowed a unique, highly focused, point of view.He was no Asgardian fool.Thor had given Iron Man food for thought.“Tony, son of Stark, the time for debate has passed. I must return to my duties in Asgard. Call me whenever thou hast dire need and I will attend thee again,” interrupted Thor gently. “I will dispense yon metal warrior with the Captain.”Thor easily picked up the large, comatose, Decepticon and whirled his impossibly heavy Uru hammer at an impossibly quick speed.Suddenly he was cast upward, disappearing quickly into the bright blue Texan sky.Iron Man sat back on his haunches, his advanced armour instantly supporting his body in the most comfortable way possible.The suit had already started to repair itself and was replenishing its energy using the warm, full, sun of a traditional Texas afternoon.Tony relaxed and felt the suit piece itself back together.It was a pleasant, ephemeral, feeling almost like driving on a safe, well lit, country road in a super luxury car.His genius level intellect was grasping at something just beyond the fringes of cognition, like a child touching a cookie jar on a counter just a little too high.The strange encounter today, last month’s skirmish with six alien hunters, the incident outside Chicago around Christmas, they all involved very strange opponents with very bizarre readings.“Friday?” asked Tony.“Would you like access to scanning logs or a curated wine list?” replied the perceptive AI in a pleasant, Irish voice.Tony smiled.He already knew that Friday was constantly monitoring him and anticipating based on her advanced learning AI routines. But he couldn’t stop smiling whenever she almost thought like him, or Pepper Potts, his devoted aide and confidante.“Do you like always scanning my deep cerebrum to predict my behaviour, Friday?” tested Tony, curiously.“It’s a living,” quipped the AI non-commitally. “Would you like to see Logs, Alcohol, or Schematics?”“Business as always – I’ll have to work with you a little more on your delivery,” promised Tony.“Noted, for the 38th time,” replied the same sweet, professional voice.“Call up the X-scan logs for date marks 2018, 6, 7, 4, 14 and 12, 25, 2017. Nothing but the U-Bands,” commanded Tony.“There’s 24 pages of data. I can see your cerebrum working. In these instances I noticed specific parts working harder than others, indicating you want to look for anomalies, scan for patterns, while you think about improving my performance,” stated the AI.Tony paused, pleased with himself and his AI’s observations.“Your performance can wait,” began Tony.“Noted, for the 3rd time today,” interrupted Friday.Tony continued, nonplussed.“Riiight. Anyway, scan associated binary logs for energy anomalies in the first minutes of those encounters, then let me know what you find,” he asked.“Just a moment. Would you like to review the latest issue of World Wide Wines while waiting? You should have enough time to read the new releases,” Friday answered.“Just step on it please,” replied Tony. A growing feeling of uneasiness was starting to claw at him.“I’m noticing increased activity in your amygdala – let’s suit up and those results will be ready,” offered Friday.Tony didn’t answer. He already reviewed his memories of the logs and had projected Friday’s analysis.He may not have known the precise answer but he was sure that his educated hunch was going to be in line with his AI’s.He quickly stood up and felt the suit auto assemble itself around him.Skin tingled as subdermal mesh interfaced with the inner lining of the Iron Man suit. The collective slither of semi autonomous nano technology felt like a gentle caress as titanium ceramic armour encased his body. His helmet smoothly slid around his skull with the visor flipping over his face, sealing him in once more.Friday displayed her conclusions.Tony whistled. He was right and wrong all at once.“Friday, call Reed and Pym,” Tony began calmly. “Rent out the usual meeting area in Non-Space. We’ve got a developing situation on our hands.”“I have already reached out to Mr. Richards and Mr. Pym. The rental agreement is being finalized as we speak,” confirmed Friday.“How long to reach New York?” asked Tony.“One and a half hours under optimal conditions. If I call Nick Fury he can meet us half way,” stated Friday.“I could kiss you for that,” quipped Tony as he triggered the repulsor jets.“Only if Ms. Potts and I agreed, beforehand,” stated the AI firmly.Tony didn’t reply as he launched, smiling, into the sky, the glowing Texan landscape below dwindling away rapidly... .. .Motives. Unbound.” notes a flat stretch of one dimensional light.“Secure vanguards,” comes the reply in a voice deeper than Time and twice as old.Dimensional walls shudder, briefly, and all is still once more.But for how long?

What are some of the Forgotten traditions of tamil culture?

Is there a scientific reason behind our Tamil/Indian Tradition & Custom?Most of the practices, customs and traditions or rituals have some basis, some of which are truly scientific. The tradition might also be right under the conditions prevailing at the time it was made part of the social conduct. Later on, they get incorporated more as practices as over the years, the actual reasons are forgotten.Most of the Tamil Hindu customs and traditions had some scientific reason behind them. Most of the Tamil customs and traditions are derived from our ancestors. Tamil has a very long history dating back to thousands of years. Traditions and customs were taught at a very young age and followed as part of life.You may be thrilled and happy to know the real intention of the customs we follow in our day to day lives.For instance, when disinfectants were not known much, the people have been using cow's urine. Cow dung has been used to plaster mud houses and mud floors.Why Ancient people provide drinks in Silver Tumblers?People have been giving water, hot drinks etc to guests in silver tumblers. The guests felt honored as they were offered drinks in cups made of a precious metal.Scientifically, the silver Metal served a specific purpose for the host. The metal was germicidal and so it helped prevent any infection that the guests might carry inside.WHY DURING MENSTRUATION WOMEN WERE NOT ALLOWED TO DO ANY WORK OR COOK ANY FOOD ITEMS?The women in the families were required to be kept in quarantine for three days in order to prevent infection (as menstrualtual discharge had some toxic substances) and also to give the women the much needed rest during the period.This seems like a regressive thought that our ancestors suffered from, but our ancestors kept in mind the discomfort and trouble that a woman goes through while menstruating, suffering from cramps and exhaustion.To keep women away from all work and to give her the much-needed rest, this theory of banning a menstruating woman in those days and not allowing her to cook (because cooking was a major activity and the woman had to cook for many members) came into being. Though over the ages, it did become a notoriously backward practice.Why should not use left hand to receive/handover anything?In Tamil culture, the left hand is primarily used for personal hygiene purposes and hence using left hand to receive or hand over anything from anyone is considered as an insult.But now, since people are more healthy conscious, they were keeping both their hands hygienically clean and so no probs !!After attending a funeral, why to take bath and why cooking is not done in those houses?After attending a funeral both men and women stay outside the house. Then they go to the well and have a bath, wash all their clothes and then only enter the house. This is preventing any infection from the funeral house. This is more prevalent in the villages. I.e. Every person visiting the house of the dead person during the mourning period is believed to suffer from pollution. The first thing; he is expected to do on leaving the house of the dead person is to have purificatory bath. Only after this bath, they have to drink off even a glass of water or to eat and enter the main parts of his own house. The house where death was occurred is considered polluted and cooking is not done for few days. The neighbors supply them food.Why a bundle of Neem leaves were hung on chicken pox affected houses?If anyone in the house suffers from an infectious disease like chicken pox, a bundle of Neem or margosa leaves are hung at the gates of the house indicating there is an infection a brilliant method of isolation.Also Neem act as anti-bacterial, anti-parasitic, anti-fungal, anti-protozoa and anti-viral, thus helps in protection from all the micro-organisms, which are always ready to invade in our body causing serious ailments. Neem tree is commonly known as margosa tree in English.Why our Tamil/Indian ladies wearing pottu/Bhindi in their fore-head?On the forehead between the two eyebrows a spot considered a major nerve point in human body since ancient times. The Pottu is believed to prevent the loss of "energy", The red 'kumkum' between the eyebrows is said to retain energy in the human body and control the various levels of concentration.While applying kumkum the points on the mid-brow region and Adnya-chakra are automatically pressed. This facilitates the blood supply to the face muscles. The entire body emanates energy in the form of electromagnetic waves - the forehead and the subtle spot between the eyebrows especially so. That is why worry generates heat and causes a headache.Using plastic reusable "sticker Pottu/bindis" is not very beneficial, even though it serves the purpose of decoration.The tilak and pottu cools the forehead, protects us and prevents energy loss. Sometimes the entire forehead is covered with Santhanam/Sandalwood.That's why, in Tamil Functions like Marriage, Traditionally dressed Tamil girls stay at the main entrance to welcome the guest with Panner (Rose water), Santhanam (Sandalwood), and Kunkumam (Vermilion).APPLYING HENNA BEFORE AUSPICIOUS OCCASIONS:Henna is typically applied during special occasions like weddings and during festivals. Henna is applied to hair, hands, and feet and believed to bring good luck.Our ancestors have advised applying heena to hands, to the bottom of the feet, and hair, etc, especially at the onset of rainy season.This was because during rainy season, the susceptibility to get infected by germs was manifold and henna’s anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties were believed to fight those germs. Though henna is seen as an adornment, scientifically, henna extracts show antibacterial, antifungal, and ultraviolet light screening activity.Henna is anti-fungal and can be effective against psoriasis [A noncontagious inflammatory skin disease]. Henna is most commonly used as a natural hair and skin dye, but henna also contains a compound called lawsone [hennotannic acid], which is what gives heena its antibacterial and antifungal capabilities. Henna is effective against prevention of dandruff too.Why to take Bath daily in the morning?We find that in olden days people took bath in rivers, mountain pools, waterfalls and the seas. This habit is in vogue even today. Pulanadal or river bath is described as a significant act in all Tamil Classics. The Tamil proverb "Even if it be the humble gruel to consume, have it after a bath." Summarize the significance Attached to the daily bathing. ie Bathing is an integral part of daily routine in every Tamil's life.The practice of regular oil bath, men taking on Wednesdays and Saturdays and women folk on Tuesdays and Fridays has been in vogue In Tamil nadu from ancient period. Its origins are unknown. Yet its significance can be understood by the advice of AVVAIYAR'S statement that one should is regular in Saturday's oil baths. (Athi-16)That a bath keeps us healthy through personal hygiene is a well-known fact. But there are other aspects as well that are not well known. Polygraphic studies proved that water enhances electro-magnetic activity. In the context of this finding, the practices like washing hands and feet before entering temples and taking bath every day, worshipping with wet clothes and offering prayer standing in the middle of water chest-deep in rivers and tanks etc., seem to be more scientific than a mere act of cleanliness.Human body is Center of electric currents and impulses. A continuous process of generation and consumption of electric energy takes place in the human body. More energy is generated in our body whenever we are excited and battle various emotions as well as indulge in intense physical activity. However, at night when we retire until the next morning this generation and consumption level of power drops drastically. This is the reason why we feel so lethargic on waking up in the morning. We are neither active physically non mentally. Washing our face immediately clears the cobwebs of drowsiness. A bath certainly freshens up completely and puts us in our best shape. This happens due to the fact that water consumes the electricity in our body. This is known as Electro-magnetic activity. Therefore, taking bath has more to do with such scientific reasoning than merely cleanliness.DO NOT TAKE BATH IMMEDIATELY AFTER EATING:If a person is immediately taking bath after a meal, the digestion process gets slowed down by a great deal as cold water activates certain chemicals in the body that rushes the blood to the skin to keep it warm and the digestion process takes a backseat. So, it was always advised by our ancestors to take food after having a bath. ie Bath will increase blood flow to the hands, feet and body that causes the amount of blood around the stomach will continue to decrease. This will weaken the digestive system in our stomach.START ALWAYS WITH SPICY FOOD AND END YOUR MEAL WITH SWEETS:Our ancestors have stressed on the fact that our meals should be started off with something spicy and sweet dishes should be taken towards the end. The significance of this eating practice is that while spicy things activate the digestive juices and acids and ensure that the digestion process goes on smoothly and efficiently, sweets or carbohydrates pulls down the digestive process. Hence, sweets were always recommended to be taken as a last item.CONSUMPTION OF JAGGERY IN DIET AND IN SWEETS:Jaggery (Vellam- made of Sugarcane juice) is an excellent remedy for respiratory diseases. The benefit of jaggery includes its ability to cleanse the body and act as a digestive agent. Jaggery is full of minerals. Jaggery effectively cleans respiratory tracts, lungs, food pipe, stomach, and intestines. It pulls out dust and unwanted particles from the body. It also helps in giving relief from constipation.In India, it is recommended to take a small amount of jaggery after having had a heavy meal.Jaggery facilitates the digestion process. Jaggery activates digestive enzymes and speeds up digestion. Unlike sugar, jaggery is very rich in minerals, especially iron with traces of other minerals. While most of the iron in it comes through processing in iron vessels, the other minerals come right from the sugar cane juice, since this juice does not undergo refining or bleaching of any kind. So, jaggery is a very good source of minerals for the body.MEDITATION UNDER TREES:Gautama Buddha attained enlightenment after meditating under a Peepal (Arasa Maram) tree or Bodhi Tree. Peepal trees have many medicinal uses. Juice extracted from the leaves is used for eardrops. The bark is used to heal inflammations of the neck and glandular swellings. Chewing the roots of a Banyan tree is said to help prevent gum disease. Many rishis and sadhus wrote great epics of literature sitting under the Peepal trees.What is with trees and enlightenment?Hence, sitting under a tree meant fresh oxygen for brain cells, and fresh oxygen activated brain cells and people tended to think wisely and intelligently.Even Sir Issac Newton thought about gravity while he was sitting under an apple tree.The four trees “Peepal, Gooler, Banyan, and Pakad are called to be the storehouse of Sun rays. The wood of these trees is considered very auspicious for Havans in Indian scriptures.Peepal tree has been given the prime importance among all these trees and worshipped even today. The reason is right from the root to its leaves; the tree contains the medicinal values and cures many diseases like biliousness & heart diseases, relieves constipation, Jaundice, leprosy, gum diseases etc.,. That was the reason our ancient sages recognized the importance of this tree and declared- Peepal tree is the abode of Gods and Goddesses.The veracity of the fact has been traced during excavation of an ancient civilization by the name Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. It has been ascertained that the civilization existed around 1300- 1700 B.C. The findings establish that the inhabitants of that civilization. Almost all experts call the civilization "proto-Dravidian" and many are of the opinion that they are the ancestors of Tamils worshiped the tree known as Peepal in English or Arasa Maram in Tamil.They belief that Women circumambulate the peepal tree to be blessed with children or to gain a desired thing or person. Scientifically, Its juice has an enzyme that stimulates child bearing capacity. So people go around the tree for want of a child, by aspiration of the air emanated by the tree. The most important value of this wonderful tree is that, a person dying with snake bite can be cured and can get life.Scientific research suggests that the Peepal tree is best antidote [counteracts or relieves a harmful or unwanted condition; remedy ] to all kinds of pollution, specifically, water pollution, air pollution and noise pollution. Also this is the only tree that emits oxygen even in night whereas other trees emit oxygen only at day time by photosynthesis.Most plants largely uptake Carbon dioxide (CO2) and release oxygen during the day (photosynthesis) and uptake oxygen and release (CO2) during the night (respiration). Some plants such as Peepal tree can uptake (CO2) during the night as well because of their ability to perform a type of photosynthesis called Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM). However, it is not true that they release large amounts of oxygen during the night. Trees will continue to photosynthesize as long as there is light. there is always some light at night, like moonlight etc, but its intensity is less hence provides less energy for photosynthesis.As peepal tree is huge it gives lots of oxygen during day & lots of carbon di oxide during the night. So people feel giddiness or breathlessness at night when they stand under this tree. People think that there is a ghost or evil sprit under the vast trees like Banyan & Peepal.WHY NOT TO EAT DURING ECLIPSE AND TO STAY INDOOR?Solar eclipses and lunar eclipses have been dreaded natural phenomenons and continue to scare people even now.our ancestors gave a religious touch to eclipses and prohibited people from venturing out during eclipses and eating anything during the phenomenon knowing the harmful effects the radiations could cause.Long before the scientific revelations threw light about the harmful radiations coming out of the solar eclipse and the negative effect it could have on eyes and health.Also due to radiation and difference in frequence, eating at that time may cause digestion problem as well.Science behind Abhishekam:Abhishekam is mentioned in the Agama tradition. It is specified in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and was performed to all Kings of olden times.Abhishekam is the process where the granite stones are given a herbal bath. This technique allows for relating the Divine energy (we call God) with personal affinity. This also helps in sustaining the energy installed in the diety (under the stone statue or vigraham) for a longer period, by cooling the granite structure.Water being an electrolyte, transmits energy much faster than air. Pouring certain items, most of which are edible, on these energized dieties (stones) - energized by the link (copper wires connected from the kumbham (brass structures above the temple structures) to the copper yantram (plate with certain scientific carvings) under the granite diety, releases powerful positive vibrations (can be seen through a Kirlian camera) that can be picked up more easily than from the air. Hence these structures are not removed/moved, once installed (pratishtam), instead a drain system is provided.The sound vibrations caused by the chanting of mantras in a specific way enhances these transmissions.This is the science behind Abhishekam.Why to wake-up early in the morning?Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.*-Benjamin FranklinEarly rising means waking up before sunrise. Waking up at this time means that the blood circulation in our body and mind is positive. Waking up after sunrise causes negative blood circulation and blood flow becomes sluggish. Late rising also induces baseless and negative dreaming and weakens the immune system.Benefits of rising early:The body and mind will stay fresh if you get up before sunriseConstipation and indigestion will remain under controlThe mind and mood will remain cheerful throughout the dayYou will have sufficient time to think, plan and organise the day lying ahead of youThe power and capacity of the mind will increaseThe memory will sharpenThe eyesight will not get weakenedGetting up early before the Sunrise is a must for the Tamils. (Silappathikaram: 14-5 to 13.) This is followed still in all rural parts and by a majority in the urban areas. Avvaiyar in her didactic poem the AATHICHUDI, (Ref. 106) advised the children and youth to get up "BEFORE THE DAY BREAK".Which direction should a bed face for peaceful sleeping?1. A Tamil treatise on almanac [The Varshaadi Nool ] says:Sleeping Eastward is good;sleeping Southward prolongs life;sleeping Westward and Northward brings ruin.Even the Ayurvedic physician seats his patients facing eastward before diagnosing the disease or administering his medicine.2. Vastu sleeping direction:[Aintiram Ainthi'ram) is a Tamil text on Vastu Shastra attributed to Mamuni MayanThe Science related to numerical order enables one to know the principles of role of number, space order nature of inner space and significantly know the potency of micro-structure. (atoms)"Mayan's Aintiram 347]East:Sleeping with head resting in the East enhances memory, health and spiritual inclination. It is usually advised by Vastu Shastra Consultants to plan the children's room in such a way that their Vastu sleeping direction comes out to be east. This leads to higher concentration and retention power.South:Vastu Shastra highly recommends this direction as your usual sleeping position with head towards the South. This is believed to provide sound sleep and increase the wealth and prosperity in the household.West:This is not a very advisable sleeping position. Vastu Shastra says sleeping with head resting in West might cause disturbed sleep due to nightmares, some major illness and tendency towards violence.North:The Vastu sleeping position with head in the North direction is strongly opposed. It might cause major illnesses and sleepless nights for the person sleeping in such a position.We all know that our planet has a magnetic pole stretched from north to south with the positive pole at the north and the negative pole at the south. Now, health scientists tell us that we too have a similar magnetic stretch with the positive pole at the head and the negative one at the feet.It is common knowledge that like poles repel and unlike poles attract not only scientific but also in social spheres. When we lay our heads on the north side, the two positive sides repel each other and there is a struggle between the two. Since the earth has a greater magnetic force, we are always the losers, and rise in the morning with headache or heaviness.But when we lay our heads in the southern direction, there is mutual attraction and we wake up fit, fresh and free, unless afflicted by some illness. We also know that our planet revolves itself from west to east, and sun's magnetic field enters earth from east side. This magnetic force enters our head if we lie with head on the east and exits through feet, promoting cool heads and warm feet as per the laws of magnetism and electricity. When the head is laid towards the west, cool feet and hot head – result - an unpleasant start for morning.Now we may realize why the ancient people said, that our intellect improves by east facing head or house, and life lengthens with the head facing south.Throwing Currency Coins into a River:Many of us would have noticed our co-passengers throwing coins into rivers especially when traveling over river bridges.The general reasoning given for this act is that, it brings Good Luck back to us. It is also believed that it will bring back Goddess of Wealth, Lakshmi to our households.In the ancient times, most of the currency used was made of copper unlike the stainless steel coins of today. Copper is a vital metal very useful to the human body. The intake of copper with water is very good for health. Throwing coins in the river was one way our fore-fathers ensured we intake sufficient copper as part of the water. Rivers were the only source of drinking water. Making it a custom by saying it will bring good fortune to us has ensured that all of us follow the good practice.Joining both palms together to greet others:In Tamil culture, I have seen people greeting others by joining their palms together. This is termed as “VANAKKAM" as per Tamil traditions. This is the most common way of greeting others.Vanakkam: The Tamil way of greetingWhile greeting others, we join both the hands together. Joining both hands ensures joining the tips of all the fingers together; which are denoted to the pressure points of eyes, ears, and mind. Pressing them together is said to activate the pressure points. This helps us to remember the person for a long time.The joining of hands at the level of the heart symbolically signifies the greeting from the heart/soul. Both hands join together at the palms straight across the chest signifies a salute from the soul, or a welcome from the heart. Some others say that it signifies, bow to the God in you or bow to you or my soul bows to your soul.But what is little known is that the five fingers represent the five elements“ this is best expressed in Mudras. Mudras are very common in various dance systems like Bharatha Natiyam, Kathakali and Kuchipudi.The significance of the five fingers is that :Thumb stands for fire energy (thumbs up sign for success or victory?)Index finger stands for Air/Wind energy,Middle finger stands for space/Akash/Shunya“Ring finger stands for Earth energy (another reason for putting the ring on this finger) andLittle finger stands for water energy.The true meaning of VANAKKAM is the neutralization of all the energies by bringing both the hands together so that each finger of one hand touches the corresponding finger of the other hand, to denote that the person does not have any powerful positive/negative energies to affect the other person. Thus, it is a true gesture of friendship and welcome.Shaking hands often involve touching another person. Even though it is a very friendly gesture, it can often transmit unfriendly germs. Sometimes, we might be uncomfortable shaking hands with a person who has a sweaty palm, or whose cleanliness we may not trust. But shaking hands in the corporate world is an accepted norm everywhere. Shaking hands is the most trusting gesture that we can see in day to day life, and is part and parcel of our everyday life.But is shaking hands the only way to greet?No. Just the other day, I was visiting a patient in the hospital, and the attendant was telling everyone NOT to shake hands, as it might transmit germs. This is especially true since we travel in buses, touch the doors, knobs, handles, purse, etc, and we do not know how much of germs we may carry. Whereas the Tamil way of greeting by doing VANAKKAM is so clean,!Tying Mango and Neem Leaves to the doors on auspicious days:The general reason given for this act is that tying mango and neem leaves would not allow the evil powers to enter the house.On auspicious days and on special occasions, all of us gather at one place along with our relatives and friends. Photosynthesis is a process where in plants take in carbon-di-oxide and gives out oxygen. This process helps in circulation of oxygen and in turn keeps the room temperature at an optimum level. Mango leaves and neem leaves are very effective in the photosynthesis process comparative to other plants. Neem leaves purify the bacteria too. In order to keep the temperature cool and to circulate air, we tie mango leaves and neem leaves to all the doors.Why do elders rotate crystal salt, lemon around head?Dristhi is stated as an evil eye [a look that is believed by many cultures to be able to cause injury or bad luck for the person at whom it is directed for reasons of envy or dislike/' (Kan padudhal) literally means 'casting an eye'(with an intention to cause harm)/ on the person who feels jealous about others. It is believed that if a person gets Dristi, he would be ruined or would fell sick due to the evil eye. As a cure and remedy to this evil eye, elders take dristhi by revolving salt or lemon around the person.Salt can be considered as the first antibiotic. Not only that, the salty and acidic substances would less affect the magnetic field. Keeping these properties if lemon and salt in mind, we revolve salt and lemon around the person.The salt and lemon when revolved around, it would kill all the bacteria around the person. It forms an aura layer of antibiotics around the person. Not only has this, revolving around the person balance the magnetic field too. This would make the person affected with dristi feel better.Why Fasting?A lot of our time and energy is spent in procuring food items, preparing, cooking, eating and digesting food. Certain food types make our minds dull and agitated. Hence on certain days man decides to save time and conserve his energy by eating either simple, light food or totally abstaining from eating so that his mind becomes alert and pure. Since it is a self-imposed form of discipline it is usually adhered to with joy.Also every system needs a break and an overhaul to work at its best. Rest and a change of diet during fasting is very good for the digestive system and the entire body. The more you indulge the senses, the more they make their demands. Fasting helps us to cultivate control over our senses, sublimate our desires and guide our minds to be poised and at peace.The act of putting water around the plate :The act of putting water around the plate in which we have food and to keep some part of what is served in the plate outside the plate on the ground while you sit on the floor to have dinner/lunch.As we know water acts as a repellent to many tiny creatures that roam on the floor seen and unseen, hence the circle of water stops them to approach the plate when kept on the floor also they are attracted towards the part of food kept outside the plate making it safe to consume the food. This practice is redundant while eating on dining table which is presumable cleaner than the floor. Those who still practice it on table are just following tradition without knowing the meaning behind it.What is the scientific reason behind the Ear-piercing?We have nerve branches from all the body at the tip of the ears. and earrings are worn to keep these nerves activated. They say that to check if all organs work fine for a new born baby, they generally pull its ear and if the baby cries out loud, it really is healthy.Earrings are worn by getting the ears pierced in the ear lobe area where the important pressure point exists.Scientific reason behind wearing bangles in hands?The bangles or kaappu or vaalayal are worn in hands and it continuously applies pressure on the point as depicted in the figure :Scientific reason behind wearing Kolusu in legs?The anklets are worn in legs and it continuously applies pressure on the points as shown in the figure.Scientific reason behind wearing Thali or mangalsootra in Neck?The ˜Thaali Kodiâ [mangalsootras] are worn in neck and it continuously applies pressure on the points as shown in the figure below:Scientific reason behind wearing pottu or Bhindi in fore-head?Similarly the ˜Pottu apply pressure on the third eye areaNow all these pressure points are the points which when pressed increases fertility both in men and women. These pressure points are used in Acupressure therapy these days to treat fertility related problems in the entire world. Most of these ornaments are used by Indian women after marriage and the sole purpose of the establishment of marriage institution was child birth and survival of the human race.Probably this was the reason our ancestors and thinkers again associated these ornaments with high dignity and made people feel it to be auspicious, pious and Godly. This tradition of ours is only symbolic mark of a rich tradition now and has lost its significance in today’s world of fashion and the mad race of looking beautiful by compromising on its health benefits.Why did we get this punishment? or Scientific reason behind Thoppukaranam?Remember the good old school punishments? Holding the earlobes with arms crossed over your chests, bending the knees and then sit and then stand and so on. If you still cannot figure out the punishment just see this picture. I hope now you remember. Even we do this steps in temple when we pray to Lord Vinayaka/Ganesha.Talking about the logic behind this Punishment/Prayer (தோப்புக்கரணம் in Tamil), it is very interesting to know that this particular posture increases the blood flow in the memory cells in brain and synchronizes the right and left side of the brain to improve function and promote calmness, stimulates neural pathways via acupressure points in the earlobe, sharpens intelligence and also helps those with autism, asperger syndrome, learning difficulties and behavioral problems.Now US Scientist claimbing this as a Super Brain Yoga.Why does "wedding" Prohibit during July-August or in the Tamil month of Aadi?The monsoon months are the weakest months of the year, easily causing diseases due to change in the climate because of the pouring rains. Monsoon is strong during these days spreading diseases through water and air. That is why marriages, family celebrations and other communal activities are not held during this month.These practices link the people to the age old sentiments and customs that have passed on to our modern generations traditionally. According to traditions this month is inauspicious.Why newly married bride were sent to their parents house in Tamil month of Aadi?The real meaning behind this has many scientific implications. If the bride conceives in this month, she will deliver the child in the second half of May (Chithirai), the hottest period of the year, which may harm both the child and the mother. Moreover, contagious diseases like small pox, measles, etc. are more prevalent during this time.Another practical reason is that this season is the time for busy agricultural tasks of cultivation. All people have to focus their whole attention to agriculture, Rivers and streams are filled with water due to monsoon rains and men cannot waste their time in other engagements. They have to get up very early in the morning and involve themselves in their duties.Putting small pieces of Dharbai during an eclipse:The practice of putting small pieces of Halfa grass (Dharbai in Tamil) during an eclipse may seem odd. Normally, the grass is made to float on any water body, including milk, during the eclipse. And after the eclipse, the grass is taken out and thrown and the water/milk used. To the casual observer it may seem a simple ritual.But in essence, Scientifically the small pieces of grass floating on the surface of the water in the vessels actually disturbs the surface tension, due to which invisible infrared/ultraviolet rays which abound during an eclipse, does not affect the water body since the disturbed surface tension deflects the rays through refraction. Sounds incredible?Also, there is the added feature of Halfa grass that is believed to absorb negative rays. Hence, the practice of putting grass on water during an eclipse seems very much scientific indeed!What is the significance of the Thoranams?Tamil Hindus festoon the upper frame of their main door with mango leaves and marigold flowers on festivals and auspicious occasions.The twigs of the green mango leaves and the orange flowers serves as a decorative and also has a lot of medicinal value.The threshold [An entrance or a doorway or A piece of wood or stone placed beneath a door; a doorsill] below is smeared with a lot of turmeric paste and dots of vermilion (kumkum) on it makes it a very pretty site. During functions the main door is flanked by banana saplings or trees. This completes the picture of a ceremony.The significance of the thoranams being:The saplings and the green mango leaves give a lot of oxygen which is needed in the surrounding area .The leaves and turmeric have germicidal (anti-germ) properties.The mango leaves and the marigold flowers also give a lot of positive vibrations which helps the people who gather in that place.A marigold flower repels mosquitoes and some insects.Why Rangoli in the entrance of House?Rangoli will be traditionally made at the doorstep with rice flour everyday afresh.This practice serves a very simple purpose that of feeding the lower organisms as ants and insects thereby keeping them at bay from entering the household. Birds will also intake these rice flour made rangoli or "Kolam" in Tamil.Traditional dress: Saree & VaettiThe ancient Tamil people mainly wore garments that were wrapped and draped, rather than sewn [untailored]. This was not because they did not know the art of sewing. Early Tamil people were experts in fine weaving but because they preferred the flexibility and creativity that draped clothing allowed.Light Loose, flowing garments were practical in the hot climate of southern Asia, and the Sari & Vaetti/ Dhoti woven of cotton or silk, was both cool and Generally the climate of Indian subcontinent is warm and humid. Saree and its male counterpart vaetti [dhoti] was most suited for this land.The Ancient Tamil concept of beauty was that of small waist and large bust and hips, and the sari seemed to be the perfect dress as it exposes the waist of a woman and emphasizes the waist and bust with the pleated fabric.The sari, being an unstitched drape, enhances the shape of the wearer while only partially covering the midriff. In Indian philosophy [example, In ancient Indian tradition and the Natya shastra (an ancient Indian treatise describing ancient dance and costumes)], the naval of the Supreme Being is considered to be the source of life and creativity, hence the midriff is to be left bare by the sari. Hence by tradition, the stomach and the navel is to be left unconcealed.Along with dhoti [vaetti], the angavastram [shawl] or thundu (an extra piece of cloth) will be draped depending on its use. Farmers carry it on one shoulder and treat it as sweat towel. Also woman used a breast band and a veil or wrap that could be used to cover the upper body or head.Both could be easily turned into working dress or party-wear. Also both are a versatile piece of clothing, suitable even in our modern societies. The one dress that is universal is the sari & dhoti. It fit every one every body shape.They really applicable for one size fits all ie. saris & vaetti [sarongs] are more or less one size fits all,since these garments are wrapped or tied. If chosen and worn carefully along with the right accessories, saree & dhoti can look good on all women & men.Also sari is comfortable to manage household chores. Working class tucks the same length above the ankles and if they have to work in water or fields, they would tuck the front pleats between the legs to the back, and tie the upper portion round the waist. This left them free movement of hands and legs.Rani [queen] Velu Nachiyar, Belawadi Mallamma and Kittur chennamma fought enemy troops on horse back, wearing saree this way.Now a days, the sari is usually worn over a petticoat [pavada/pavadai in the Tamil], with a Blouse forming the upper garment.Why do we light a lamp?Light symbolizes knowledge, and darkness, ignorance. Knowledge removes ignorance just as light removes darkness. Also knowledge is a lasting inner wealth by which all outer achievement can be accomplished. Hence we light the lamp to bow down to knowledge as the greatest of all forms of wealth..Take off his/her shoes/sandals before entering:In the great Biblical story of Moses, when Moses, the hero of Exodus, approaches the burning bush he is asked to take off his sandals. The reason he is told by the voice of God from the burning bush is that it was holy ground that he was standing upon.In most of the religions, one is required to take off his/her shoes/sandals before entering the holy place, be it a temple, sanctum sanctorum or the altar.One can safely assume that it is because of general cleanliness..பொங்கல் திருநாளின்போது இல்லங்களில் காப்புக் கட்டுவார்கள்:காப்பு நான்கு தாவரங்களைக் கொண்டு கட்டப்படுவது. கூழைப்பூ, ஆவாரம்பூ, மாவிலை, வேப்பிலைகளால் கட்டப்பட்டு வீட்டின் கூரைகளில் செருகப்படும். கூழைப்பூ பாம்புக்கடிக்கு சிறந்த விஷமுறிவு மருந்தாகும். பாம்பு கடித்து விட்டது என்று அறிந்தவுடன் கூழைப்பூவை கசக்கிச் சாறெடுத்து கண்ணில் விட்டால் அது விஷத்தை முறிக்கும் என்பது தமிழர்கள் கண்டறிந்த உண்மையாகும்.அந்த கூழைப்பூவை பாதுகாக்கத்தான் வேப்பிலையும், மாவிலையும், ஆவாரம்பூவும் ஒன்றாக கட்டப்படுகின்றன. இப்படி பொருளறியாத பல தமிழ் மரபுகளை நாம் அறிந்து பாதுகாக்க வேண்டும்.யார் வேண்டுமானாலும் பயன்படுத்திக் கொள்ளலாம் என்கிற பொது உடைமை நோக்கில்தான் வீட்டுக்கு வெளியே காப்பு கட்டப்படுகிறது. எதிர்பாராமல் ஏற்படும் விபத்துகளை எதிர்கொள்ளவே இத்தகைய முன்னெச்சரிக்கை நடவடிக்கைகளை தமிழர்கள் ஏற்படுத்தியிருந்தனர்..

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