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What are some examples of great marketing?

Edward Bernays, a graduate from Cornell University and the nephew of Sigmund Freud was the first to apply the new science of psychology to make marketing vastly more effective. This he accomplished by renaming it Advertising and Public Relations. Bernays published, "Crystallizing Public Opinion" and taught a course at New York University, both of which are considered firsts in the modern field of public relations.Bernays used his uncle Sigmund Freud's ideas to help convince the public, among other things, that only disposable Dixie Cups were sanitary by linking the imagery of an overflowing cup with subliminal images of diseased vaginas. One of his best-known campaigns include a 1929 effort to promote female smoking by branding cigarettes as feminist "Torches of Freedom.""Girl in Red" advertisement for Lucky Strike; shot by Nickolas Muray, a photographer enlisted by Bernays to help popularize feminine thinness and cigarette smoking.Here he attempted to persuade women to smoke cigarettes instead of eating, first by promoting the ideal of thinness itself, using photographers, artists, newspapers, and magazine to promote the special beauty of thin women. Medical authorities were hired to promote the choice of cigarettes over sweets. As part of his campaign, Bernays organized a contingent of women to smoke cigarettes at the 1929 Easter Sunday parade in New York. The event was carefully scripted to promote the intended message by having young women, who stand for feminism, to be seen smoking as they came down church steps to join in the Easter parade, all the while puffing away. In 1934, Bernays organized the Green Ball, a prestigious social event at the Waldorf Astoria. The pretext for the ball was that proceeds would go to charity. Famous society women would attend wearing green dresses. Intellectuals were enlisted to give highbrow talks on the theme of green. Bernays concealed the fact that he was working for the American Tobacco Company, and various notable people received payments to promote smoking publicly as if on their own initiative. Bernays didn’t smoke cigarettes himself and persistently but unsuccessfully tried to induce his wife Doris to quit smoking.The United Fruit Company (today's Chiquita Brands International) hired Bernays in the early 1940s for the purpose of promoting banana sales within the United States. Bernays placed them strategically in the hands of celebrities, in hotels, and other conspicuous places. Per Bernays’s strategy, United Fruit distributed favorable articles on Guatemala to every member of Congress and to national "opinion molders". They also published a weekly Guatemala Newsletter and sent it to 250 journalists, some of whom used it as a source for their reporting. Bernays formed close relationships with journalists including the New York Times and columnist Walter Winchell and in 1952 he brought a cohort of journalists on a tour of Guatemala, sponsored by the company. This technique was repeated four more times. In 1954, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency effected a coup d’état there installing a more economically favorable leader. During the coup, Bernays was the primary supplier of information for the international newswires. Following the coup, Bernays built up the image of Guatemala’s new president, giving advice for his public appearances both in Guatemala and in the U.S.Bernays argued that the covert use of third parties was morally legitimate because those parties were morally autonomous actors saying, "If you can influence the leaders, either with or without their conscious cooperation, you automatically influence the group which they sway." In order to promote sales of bacon, for example, he conducted research and found that the American public ate very light breakfast of coffee, maybe a roll and orange juice. He then asked his physician if he would be willing, at no cost, to write to 5,000 physicians and ask them whether their judgment was the same as his—that eating a hearty breakfast was healthier. About 4,500 answered back, all concurring that a more significant breakfast was better for the health of the American people than a light breakfast. He arranged for this finding to be published in newspapers throughout the country with headlines like '4,500 physicians urge bigger breakfast' while other articles stated that bacon and eggs should be a central part of breakfast and, as a result of these actions, the sale of bacon went up.Describing the response to one of his campaigns, Bernays wrote: "As if actuated by the pressure of a button, people began working for the client instead of the client begging people to buy." He also wrote, "If we understand the mechanism and motives of the group mind, is it not possible to control and regiment the masses according to our will without their knowing about it?"In "The Engineering of Consent" Bernays said:"But instead of a mind, universal literacy has given [the common man] a rubber stamp, a rubber stamp inked with advertising slogans, with editorials, with published scientific data, with the trivialities of tabloids and the profundities of history, but quite innocent of original thought. Each man’s rubber stamp is the twin of millions of others, so that when these millions are exposed to the same stimuli, all receive identical imprints. The amazing readiness with which large masses accept this process is probably accounted for by the fact that no attempt is made to convince them that black is white. Instead, their preconceived hazy ideas that a certain gray is almost black or almost white are brought into sharper focus. Their prejudices, notions, and convictions are used as a starting point, with the result that they are drawn by a thread into passionate adherence to a given mental picture."According to Bernays, The individual is "a cell organized into the social unit. Touch a nerve at a sensitive spot and you get an automatic response from certain specific members of the organism."Bernays touted the idea that the "masses" are driven by factors outside their conscious understanding, and therefore that their minds can and should be manipulated by the capable few. "Intelligent men must realize that propaganda is the modern instrument by which they can fight for productive ends and help to bring order out of chaos." The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. ...We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organized. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society. ...In almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons...who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses. It is they who pull the wires which control the public mind.” Propaganda (1928) pp. 9–10It is impossible to grasp the social and political developments of the past 100 years without understanding Bernays and his heirs. His success led a desperate Herbert Hoover to consult with Bernays a month before the 1932 presidential election. Bernays advised Hoover to create disunity within his opposition and to present an image of himself as an invincible leader. Sound familiar?

How do I find training in permanent makeup?

HOW TO BECOME A PERMANENT MAKEUP ARTISTThe UK Brow market alone is worth a staggering £20million according to NPD market research and Permanent Make Up, or cosmetic tattooing as it is more literally known, is one of the fastest growing and most lucrative sectors of the beauty industry. There has never been a better time to launch a career as a Permanent Make Up technician(1).As the market grows so do the opportunities for career progression, whether it’s working for yourself or seeking employment with an existing provider or salon. It is a profession appealing to many for its pioneering techniques and growing number of treatments to rival that of traditional makeup. It is also a great industry for flexible working, offering the option to travel abroad with your skills as well.The rise in celebrity fans has undoubtedly propelled this dramatic surge in popularity – with Katie Price, Andrea McClean, Charlotte Crosby and Binky Felstead to name but a few all sporting stunning Tracie Giles Brows, Eyeliners or Gloss & Go™ lips.However, establishing a career as a permanent makeup artist, or even knowing where to start can be daunting, as I myself experienced many years ago when I embarked on my brand new career. With a small suitcase containing my device and pigments, several weeks of hands-on training in the UK and America and a hefty £10,000 debt on my credit card, I will never forget the mixture of nerves, excitement and most notably empowerment on that first morning when I arrived at the local salon that had kindly (and somewhat bravely) agreed to rent a room to me. At this point, Permanent Make Up was still a relatively unknown treatment in the UK despite being massively popular in Eastern Europe and the States, and it was a much harder sell than it is today. I could never at that point have envisaged what I would achieve in this fantastic industry and what a blessing that risky decision to quit my job and invest in Permanent Make Up training would be.Fast forward to 2017 and I am the proud owner of the UK’s first ever 3-storey clinic solely dedicated to the art of Permanent Make Up based in the heart of London’s exclusive Knightsbridge. I head up a team of the worlds very best technicians and we have six rooms fully booked six days a week with clients in pursuit of the beautiful eyebrows, eyeliners and lip treatments that we have become globally renowned for. We are frequently featured in the press and media, and proudly count numerous celebrities, politicians and even royalty as our clients. I have been featured on ITN news discussing the ethics of SPMU, Channel 4’s Embarrassing Bodies performing an areola reconstruction and I was awarded Industry Professional of the Year 2016. Finding flaws in many of the professional products available on the market, I developed my dream range of PMU equipment and training alongside my daughter Charlotte who joined the company in 2013 after graduating from Exeter University, and we now sell the IndelibeLiner pigments, devices, cleansers, brow measures and pencils to technicians in countries all over the world. This industry has changed my life, and I have produced this guide to help anyone thinking about starting a career as a Permanent Make Up technician.What is Permanent Makeup?Permanent makeup is a form of cosmetic tattooing whereby tiny amounts of mineral pigment are inserted into the skin at high-speed using a needle. Trusted source WebMD describes the process as: “Using a needle to place pigmented granules beneath the upper layers of the skin.”(2)Microblading is another form of Permanent Make Up, but instead of using a needle, a blade is used to gently cut the skin before implanting the pigment. The effects of both are long-lasting but vary from person to person depending on skin characteristics, pigment choice, practitioner technique, sun exposure, skin type and medication (this list is non-exhaustive). The pigment will fade over time, as it is not inserted as deeply into the skin as a conventional tattoo but because we cannot name a date or time that the colour will leave the skin, it should be referred to as Permanent Make Up rather than Semi-Permanent Make Up (although many practitioners use both terms interchangeably to market their services). If carried out by a good and reputable technician, its benefits are well documented, notably providing smudge-free makeup that always looks flawless.Permanent makeup can also be described as ‘cosmetic makeup’, ‘dermapigmentation’, ‘micropigmentation’ and ‘cosmetic tattooing’.One of the great benefits of permanent makeup is that it can be used for aesthetic purposes – such as wanting to give the impression of fuller lips, or for medical reasons – such as creating an areola following breast surgery or to camouflage scars.This can be a rewarding career path by helping others improve confidence levels and overall wellbeing.How Much can a Permanent Makeup Artist Earn?The cosmetic makeup industry is a lucrative, growing market.Since many technicians are sole traders, this allows for flexible working, thus income can vary greatly.A successful technical can earn tens, if not hundreds of thousands of pounds depending on their marketability, client base, reputation, qualifications and experience, and whether they work independently or for a business. The cost of services can range from £75 (beauty spots for example) to £800, with some elite consultants even charging as much as £1,000 for work, which gives an indication of how profitable the market can be.While a successful technician could earn in excess of £100,000 a year, the average salary is estimated to range between £30,000 and £50,000 per year. This is significantly higher than a traditional makeup artist earning £20,158 annually in the UK (3). This possibly reflects cosmetic makeup being viewed as a highly specialised profession.Training CoursesIn the UK there are a number of accredited and respected permanent makeup courses providing specialist training for makeup artists.These can vary in structure and any reputable course would generally require individuals to be 18 years or over.There are some useful industry bodies to consult, including The British Association of Beauty Therapy and Cosmetology (BABTAC) and the Vocational Training Charitable Trust (VTCT).Before embarking on training, it is advisable to ensure your training provider has all the necessary qualifications and accreditations required. You should also check with your local council what is necessary for you to have in terms of qualification.Maintaining high standards through training is important in the industry, especially when rogue artists can give the profession a bad reputation.The popularity of treatments such as permanent eyeliner and fuller lips have given rise to some unqualified work taking place. Worryingly, ‘how to tattoo eyeliner’ is still one of the most popular searched terms on search engines in relation to permanent makeup.IndelibeLiner® training courses take place from our training studio in the Tracie Giles Knightsbridge clinic and are accredited by VTCT, one of the leading government-approved examining boards in the beauty industry. Our training courses are also free with the purchase of one of our starter kit bundles, a decision we took to prevent people choosing a quick-fix course and buying poor quality products, just to get a certificate to work. We offer courses for total beginners and advanced technicians as well as a VTCT Level 4 qualification which is becoming increasingly required by many counsels across the UK. For more info please visit the courses including our own have finance options and whilst they can appear to be expensive, an investment into a decent training course and products will generally be made back pretty quickly.We have had students of a all different ages training with us from so many different backgrounds. Some of our students are salon owners or beauty therapists whilst others have been city traders or financial directors looking for a complete career change. The freedom and flexibility of a career in Permanent Make Up is very attractive and whilst a beauty background may help in some ways, it absolutely is not essential.Getting InsuranceAs with all freelance beauty work, it is of paramount importance to get the right insurance. This is especially prudent if you are working for yourself – whether you have a fixed treatment room, work as a mobile agent or indeed any other environment.A number of well recognised insurance companies will provide a personalised quote for you. BABTAC can provide some guidance on this matter, and their website is worth taking a look at.Having a robust insurance policy will take away unnecessary stress and worry. A good policy should cover all key areas, including; liability cover, contents cover and legal expenses, among other points.Some insurance providers will also extend the policy to nail or hair treatments, which may be useful if you decide to expand your business.Getting a LicenceOnce you’ve completed your training and got insurance, your next step is to get a licence to work. You are only allowed to trade if you are working safely and compliantly, and your local council will require certain documents from you to ensure that you are. In many instances they will also want to come and see the premises that you are working from to see that all of their criteria are met (for example, you will need to a basin in the room that you are working from). They will typically need you to provide a copy of your clinical waste contract (a contract you should set up ensuring the professional collection of the contents of your clinical waste bin and sharps bins), a detailed description of the items you are using and their compliance with UK regulation. They may also ask to see your insurance policy, your training certificates, a PAT test certificate for your electrical equipment and a fire safety certificate. Requirements vary between boroughs and it is worth noting that some councils in the UK will only provide licences to those with a government approved qualification, such as a VTCT Level 4.The VTCT Level 4 Certification in Micropigmentation (QCF) is an advanced qualification created with beauty therapists in mind. One of the most valuable skills artists will acquire is the opportunity to gain experience in a realistic working environment, as well as the education and background required to set up as a confident consultant.Completing Model TreatmentsCentral to your permanent makeup artist training will be completing model treatments. This is where your practice becomes a reality. As they say, the best training is first-hand experience! As part of your in-house training you should have experience working on models alongside your trainer. However, the first time you work on a model alone and out of a controlled training environment can be daunting…I often liken it to that first time you drive alone after passing your driving test. This however is the time when you really will learn the most, putting everything you have read and been taught during your training course to practice.Before you start working on models (friends and family will usually be the first port of call) you should be very used to your device and handpiece/microblade, having spent many hours practising on your training mats. Whether you are a beginner or an advanced technician, there is always so much to be gained from mat practise and your technique can always be improved or brought more up-to-date with current trends, whatever level you are. There are other materials that cosmetic tattooists practise on, such as floor lino and banana skins. Due to its similarity to human skin, pig skin is championed by the worlds top tattooists as a realistic practise material to perfect technique. However, this isn’t for everyone and rubber mats can be just as useful.Once you feel ready to work on models, you can advertise your services locally or via social media, or alternatively to friends and family. The more models that you can work on the better. Take your time, work within your own capabilities and only accept work that you feel confident and comfortable with. I would avoid taking on any retouch work from another technician initially until you are very confident on your colour theory, and going over somebody else’s work. Don’t forget, whether the client is a model or a full paying client, once you touch somebody else’s work (whether good or bad), it becomes your work and therefore potentially your problem if it was previously sub-standard.A good training provider should always be there to support you during this stage, so if you have any questions or concerns don’t hesitate to contact them, rather than taking a risk. Regardless of who you are working with, they have entrusted you with their face and their safety and desired outcome of the treatment are paramount.It’s common to be nervous when you first start out working on models, so here are some other top tips:•Arrive in good time to set up. Organisation is key!•Read through your manual and notes that you made during your training before you begin•Take photos of every stage of the treatment. You will need these for insurance purposes, as well as confirmation as to what has been agreed by your client•Ensure that a full consultation is given to your client before you start and that all consent forms and medical history forms have been discussed, filled out and signed•Your client should have done a patch test before they come for their treatment. Your training provider will explain how this should be carried out•Keep calm, dress appropriately for a clinical environment and remain professional at all times•Is there an opportunity here also to ‘upsell’, by telling them about other products and services you offer?During treatments carried out in a training environment, you are usually observed to ensure that you are working safely. While this can be an anxious time, remember that feedback is purely to help improve your skills.Marketing Your ServicesTwo of the most important factors in beauty consulting are finding clients and keeping clients.Word-of-mouth is extremely important in this industry and creating a solid reputation is key.First of all, set up a website. It’s often easier to use your name as your own brand (e.g., unless you are setting up a business. Before you embark on this, it’s worth checking that you can ‘own’ these handles on social media and that the web domain exists (check with It’s good to be consistent, so that you can use one calling sign as your identity, such as @joebloggs. Keep it snappy and memorable!Unless you’re a whizz at wordpress and technically minded, it’s worth paying for someone to set your website up. Just provide them with information about yourself, this should include; your qualifications, your background, your price list, locations covered, your contact details and your social media handles. With your client’s permission, also include portfolio images, these are extremely important in selling your work.Your website just needs to cover the basics and show that you have an online presence. Get some business cards printed as well featuring your website and social media details. Likewise, flyers of your work with promotional offers could be circulated at salons where you work.Social media is hugely important and shouldn’t be underestimated in growing your reputation and buzz. Use your twitter and facebook accounts to share approved client photos and industry news and trends.Instagram and Pinterest are great for growing followers with an interest in beauty, and of course YouTube is the mecca for showcasing your talent via tutorials. If you can, share pictures of before and after photos using permanent makeup.Find your niche and follow celebrities and influencers in it. For example, Lou Teasdale (@Louteasdale), Anastasia Beverly Hills (@anastasiabeverlyhills) and Charlotte Tilbury (@CTilburyMakeup), as well as tattooist Bang Bang on Instagram (@bangbangnyc).Buying Reputable and Trustworthy ProductsYou’re only as good as the tools you use, so it’s worth investing in high-quality products that adhere to the highest safety standards.During your training as a permanent makeup artist, you will generally be taught how to use certain products from a specific brand and your trainer may be able to offer advice and insight. It’s also worth asking friends in the industry on their preferences.Again, refer back to the BABTAC for guidance on where to buy trade products.Make sure items purchased meet UK and EU requirements regarding product testing, so that they meet all health and safety requirements.Want your clients to be Indelibly Fabulous? Visit for Yourself VS Working for a BusinessIt’s the age-old question in the beauty industry – to work for yourself or for others? Both have benefits and drawbacks, the only decision that’s right is the one that works best for you.Working in a salon or rented space is extremely conducive to building relationships and long-term clients. It can also be suitable for those that prefer the regularity of routine and having an ‘office environment’, or at least others to socialise with. It can offer a regular income, as work tends to be more consistent, and it may mean that some of your insurance costs are covered, but that shouldn’t always be assumed. One of the downsides to this is not having the flexibility to work on ad-hoc projects or expand your client base.Most beauticians are self-employed. It can be extremely rewarding to be your own boss and have the flexibility to work the hours you want, where you want. However, being mobile comes at a cost, and requires you to have products and equipment that are always ‘on the go’ with you. Think about how you will get around (most likely you will need a car) and how many clients you will be able to service in a day. As you have less overheads, the pay tends to be better though.Of course, don’t forget that you will also need to find work. Whether that’s taking out adverts or relying on word-of-mouth. You will also have to do your own accounts, or employ an accountant to help you.Opportunities Once you are QualifiedOnce qualified, opportunities are endless in the industry. It all depends on how much you want to work, and what path you’d like to take.Once you’ve made the decision to work freelance or for a business, you can move forward. Think about what specialisms interest you, or if you’d rather be a generalist. There are of course opportunities as you progress to learn advanced medical tattooing techniques as well as for example, scalp tattooing. Do you want to work from many salons, or in one place? If travel is your thing, there are numerous conferences and masterclasses taking place all over the world every month, and these are great opportunities for networking and opening doors for international opportunities. Your main goal further down the line may be to become a trainer or a distributor. The world of Semi-Permanent Make Up really is your oyster.If you decide to work for a salon, create a CV or drop off your business card/flyer with local salons in your area, or desired area of working. You can also check adverts on noticeboards and websites such as Indeed and Gumtree, as well as through contacts.The decision to go freelance is an exciting one, but be prepared that it takes time to build a portfolio and client base. Word-of-mouth and reputation are important to build, and you may decide to launch in to the industry by offering promotional or discounted rates to get clients on board.Use your website and social media to build up your presence, speak to friends and contacts and connect with people on Linkedin.Working in the beauty industry can be hard work, but it’s rewarding and business is booming – I love my job and I am so grateful every day for this fabulous and fulfilling @traciegiles_official@indelibelinerTwitter: @tracie_gilesFacebook: Tracie Giles Bespoke Permanent Make UpSOURCES:1 – Cosmetics Business – WebMD – – –

What are the similarities and differences between NPD and BPD?

Hi,Questions about personality disorders are quite common on Quora, and I've answered quite a few. But people continue to be confused about this topic.And that's to be expected! Reading about personality disorders can only give people one perspective of PD's. PD's are very complex mental health conditions.I have found that most mental health workers also find it difficult to understand PD's and find it even more difficult to work with people diagnosed with PD's.So, I will try to include clinical examples of symptoms associated with BPD and NPD and the impact that they have on their sufferers.I will begin answering the question by writing briefly about PD's and how they are classified.I will then move on to describe BPD and then NPD.Finally, I will point out the main differences and similarities between BPD and NPD.If you would prefer a quick list of similarities and differences to glance at, please scroll down to the end of the answer.Both borderline personality disorder and narcissistic personality disorder are considered to be Low Prevalence disorders, meaning that less than 5% of the population have been diagnosed with these disorders. Prevalence rates may be slightly higher or lower depending on the country, state and area that you live in.Many people with PD diagnoses generally do not function at a very high level-well not for long anyway!Moreover, people have different and unique levels of BPD and NPD personality traits. The majority of people do not attract a PD diagnosis because they do not meet the DSM or ICD diagnostic criterion.The DSM-IV-TR system allowed an individual to be diagnosed on five domains or clusters. The DSM Multi-Axial diagnostic system group’s personality disorders into clusters: BPD and NPD are considered to be Axis 2 disorders.The APA changed the diagnostic system in the most recent version of the DSM. The DSM-5 diagnostic system is now based on a single axis.The DSM-5 attempts to explain why they decided to change the Multi-Axial system in various sections of the manual. It also states that the new system is better than the previous Multi-Axial system!I don't agree with the APA assessment. I think the Multi-Axial diagnostic system was very helpful.People diagnosed with Cluster B personality disorders are described as having the following traits:Dramatic,Overly emotional or unpredictable thinking or behaviour,Impulse control and emotional regulation difficulties.American Psychiatric Association (2013).The DSM-5 Cluster B Personality Disorder Subtypes are as follows:Antisocial personality disorder,Borderline personality disorder,Histrionic personality disorder andNarcissistic personality disorder.American Psychiatric Association (2013).I believe that it is important to note that a minority of people actually meet the criteria for an official BPD diagnosis. Instead, most people tend to have BPD traits.People with BPD/traits come from diverse backgrounds. However, the people with the disorder have a history associated with trauma and come from an unstable environment.Many people with BPD experience significant distress in adulthood including ongoing emotional instability. These symptoms can lead to a decline in cognitive functioning.People with few PD traits are better able to cope with life's challenges. However, many people with BPD traits experience prolonged periods of stress. Prolonged stress increases the frequency and intensity of BPD symptoms.People are not born with BPD or inherit it. The foundations of BPD can be traced back to the first few years of life (infancy and childhood). Most people with BPD were abandoned during their early years. These experiences result in significant trauma, disturbed attachment and inadequate bonding with the primary caregiver.Due to the above-mentioned experiences, people with BPD have to contend with trauma directly related to their psyche. They grow up feeling and believing that they are unlovable and unworthy. People with BPD fear attachment, abandonment and shame. The behaviours (acting out) that have famously characterized the disorder can be viewed as defensive in nature.Unfortunately, people diagnosed with BPD often have to endure trauma and other forms of abuse throughout their life. People with BPD have insecure attachment profiles that negatively impact their ability to form healthy relationships and interpret interactions. Attachment profiles or Internal Working Models of Attachment operate at an unconscious level making them very difficult to change.Although the diagnosis of BPD has a set of symptoms attributed to it, we cannot generalise and assume that everyone with BPD behaves the same way. Therefore, you can expect a vast array of behaviours to be associated with people diagnosed with BPD.On top of that very important point, many people that have been diagnosed with BPD also suffer from other co-morbid conditions. That is, someone with BPD can also suffer from an acute bout of depression or anxiety, drug and alcohol abuse and so on.Many clinicians confuse depression, anxiety and bipolar disorder with BPD. Differential and provisional diagnoses can be made by clinicians. Moreover, clinicians usually avoid making a BPD diagnosis in children and adolescents.According to the DSM-5 borderline PD is characterised by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, emotional regulation.Marked impulsivity begins by early adulthood and presents in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following:Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment,A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by extremes between idealization and devaluation (also known as "splitting"),Identity disturbance: Markedly or persistently unstable self-image or sense of self,Impulsive behaviour in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e.g., spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating),Recurrent suicidal behaviour, gestures, or threats, or self-harming behaviour,Emotional instability in reaction to day-to-day events (e.g., intense episodic sadness, irritability, or anxiety usually lasting a few hours and only rarely more than a few days),Chronic feelings of emptiness,Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger (e.g., frequent displays of temper, constant anger, recurrent physical fights),Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms”(American Psychiatric Association, 2013, pg.663).The following section of this answer will attempt to put the above-mentioned BPD criteria in context. I will provide examples of symptoms and behaviours linked to the BPD diagnostic criteria.ImpulsivityA person diagnosed with BPD may find themselves making snap impulsive decisions without stopping to consider the consequences (I.e. relationship failure, anger, self-harm). As a result of impulsive behaviour, many people with BPD place themselves at risk!Difficulty maintaining long term relationshipsPeople with BPD find it difficult to maintain stable, healthy long term relationships. One of the main reasons for this is because they tend to have a fear of abandonment. They may have been abandoned in the past, particularly during their early years.People with BPD often project and transfer their emotions from previous relationships onto people that they associate with. They interact & behave in a manner that people without BPD just cannot understand.Difficulty sitting with and expressing emotions/over-sensitivitySensitivity plays a big part when it comes to strained relationships and emotions. People with BPD tend to be empathically attuned individuals.They time I to other people’s strong emotions and have trouble regulating their own emotions. They tend to be overly sensitivity and most fear being abandoned by others.Idealising to devaluing people in their livesI have learnt that it is possible at any therapy session for a BPD client to move from idealization to devaluation very quickly (irrespective of what I say or do). That is, it’s common for BPD clients to idealize a therapist, friend, or partner (basically placing them on a pedestal).Depending on the individual and their circumstances, the BPD person will then suddenly change the way that they feel and devalue the said person. They can change and become angry/expressing rage towards the same person (devaluation). This behaviour is defensive in nature and seems to prevent the person with BPD from developing strong attachments.People with BPD have difficulty coping with stress and understanding and controlling their emotions. They also tend to self-sabotage their lives (consciously & unconsciously).When their stress and anxiety levels get too high, the above-mentioned emotional and behavioural patterns occur.Narcissistic Personality DisorderThe term narcissism has been around for almost two thousand years going back to Greek mythology.More recently, Freud wrote about narcissism in terms of his work with the ego and its relationship with the outside world.Like much of Freud's psychodynamic work and terms, the word narcissism is commonly used by our society. In fact, the term is used in the movies, beauty magazines and even politics.Narcissism is part of each person and in healthy individuals can be helpful in their interactions with others and for their self-esteem. In fact, for young people, narcissistic traits are quite common and natural (they are young, healthy, in their prime).According to the DSM-5, Narcissistic PD is characterised by the following criteria:a persistent manner of grandiosity,a continuous desire for admiration, along with a lack of empathy.The disorder presents during early adulthood and can occur in a variety of situations. An individual can be diagnosed with NPD if they meet 5 of the 9 following criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 2013, pp. 669–670).Moreover, in order for a person to meet the DSM-5 Narcissistic PD criteria they must meet 5 of the 9 criteria:“1. A grandiose logic of self-importance2. A fixation with fantasies of infinite success, control, brilliance, beauty, or idyllic love3. A credence that he or she is extraordinary and exceptional and can only be understood by, or should connect with, other extraordinary or important people or institutions4. A desire for unwarranted admiration5. A sense of entitlement6. Interpersonally oppressive behaviour7. No form of empathy8. Resentment of others or a conviction that others are resentful of him or her9. A display of egotistical and conceited behaviours or attitudes.”(American Psychiatric Association, 2013, pp. 669–670).When Does Narcissism Become ProblematicNarcissism becomes a problem when young people do not grow out of their strong narcissistic personality traits. Moreover, narcissists are created by a particular pattern of parenting whereby their caregivers only reinforce the child's accomplishments and significant achievements.Pathological narcissism develops when individuals require constant reinforcement, approval and confirmation from others about their self-worth and develop an unhealthy obsession.At the same time, the narcissist tends to show disregard and disrespect for other people’s feelings. In fact, they prey on others, enjoy it and show no remorse.Narcissists often come across as confident, excessively grand or ambitious to most people. Although this is really a cover for insecurity, most people are often attracted to these traits and desire to have them.A person with NPD can be triggered by others (they may become angry, depression or show rage) if they are denied narcissistic supply (if they do not get enough attention or reinforcement about how good they are!). If this happens to a narcissist for a prolonged period of time, they tend to decompensate. That is, they may abuse drugs and become depressed, distant and removed.Some narcissists get so infuriated that they have bouts of “narcissistic rage”. During this episode they abuse and belittle their target. Or they might demand and insist that they be treated differently to others (I.e. special VIP treatment).Hollywood stars, the rich and famous all proudly display narcissistic and hedonistic traits. In fact, when the media report about the rich and famous they always refer to the person’s wealth, lavish lifestyle, above average looks, very attractive partners, how skillful they are and so on. As a consequence, many people are attracted to this type of personality. In fact, people try to emulate their heroes and wish that they could be like them.In clinical populations, only about 2% to 16% of people are diagnosed with this disorder. Many more people have significant NPD traits! In fact, there is significant evidence that the incidence of narcissism in our society has increased substantially over the last two decades.Case study of Narcissistic RageA former work colleague of mine (Mr X) with significant NPD traits told me a story. He double parked outside an expensive and busy Asian restaurant in the middle of the CBD and went into the restaurant expecting to dine with his partner without having made a booking.Mr X requested a table of his choosing and told one of the workers that he wanted his car to be valet parked.The worker told him that they do not have valet parking and that the restaurant is fully booked. It was at this point that Mr X went into a narcissistic rage.Mr X screamed at the top of his lungs "don't you know who I am" and started banging the front counter with his fists and palms and insisted on speaking with the manger.Once the manger arrived, he abused her and her staff for their incompetence. Mr X insisted that he and his partner be seated at a table that was clearly marked as "booked" and that staff members park his car for him.The owner succumbed to his demands and seated him at the already booked table of his choice and parked his car for him. Within minutes he was laughing and in a victorious mood.By the time the entree had arrived Mr X was acting as if nothing had happened.According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) BPD and NPD actually have a rate of co-occurrence of about 25 percent (Greenstein, 2017).Similarities between BPD and NPD include:Both are considered to be a life-long disorders,Both disorders are characterised by a fear of abandonment, andA need for constant attention,People with BPD and NPD do not respond well to treatment using psychotropic medication,A lack of concern for how their behaviour impacts others,Both require long term psychotherapy with limited chances of change or success compared to other disorders like depression and anxiety,A constant struggle with work, family, and social relationships,Displaying overly emotional, erratic, or self-dramatizing behaviours.(Difference Between, 2018 & Greenstein, 2017).Differences between BPD and NPD include:More men tend to be narcissists, while more women tend to be diagnosed with BPD,People with NPD expect others’ lives to revolve around them, while those with BPD will devote their lives to another person,People with BPD will frantically try to avoid what they consider to be abandonment, while people with NPD are more likely to abandon others,Narcissists believe they are special and that they can only be understood by other high-status people. In contrast people with BPD feel misunderstood and mistreated.(Difference Between, 2018 & Greenstein, 2017).Empathy in people with NPD & BPDThe following section of this answer will focus on empathy. Many people struggle to understand empathy. I will define the process of empathy and clarify whether people with NPD and BPD have the ability to empathise with others.EmpathyEmpathy can simply be defined as having the ability to share and understand the emotions of others. The level of empathy a person feels towards others is influenced by their genes, the sum of their experiences and their brain. That is, certain areas of our brain have been associated with our ability to empathise with others.Narcissism and EmpathyThe commonly held belief that people with narcissistic personality disorder are not capable of empathy is incorrect. They have the ability to empathise and understand other people's emotional state. People with NPD cannot experience positive empathy or emotional attachment to others.In fact, people with NPD have good cognitive empathic abilities. They need empathic abilities to better understand what their potential victim is feeling so that they can take advantage of them.Borderline personality disorder and EmpathyIn his article, Fertuck (2009) suggests that people with BPD are capable of experiencing positive empathy. In fact, he states that when they are not experiencing significant emotional stress, they have an enhanced ability to tune into other people's emotions based on only eye contact.In contrast, clinician's and authors like Shari Schreiber state that people with BPD are incapable of impulse control, lack remorse and the capacity for empathy.I believe that some people with BPD are capable of empathy and indeed positive empathy. I also believe that other people with BPD are not capable of establishing positive empathy.I hope that my answer was not too lengthy and you found it informative. BPD and NPD are complex conditions.KamalReferences:American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Personality disorders. In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing Inc.Fertuck, E. (2009). Borderline “Empathy” Revisited. BPD and "Mind in the Eyes". Psychology Today. Viewed on 28/07/2019, at: Borderline “Empathy” RevisitedGreenstein, L. (2017). Understanding Borderline Personality Disorder. National Alliance on Mental Health. Viewed on 28/07/2019, at:, K. (2019). Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Criteria for Diagnosis. Very Well Mind, Viewed on 28/07/2019 at: Between, (2018). Difference between Borderline and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Viewed on 28/07/2019, at:

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