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How did Henry VIII receive the leg wound that would plague him his entire life?

Here are excerpts from The Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine:“Henry's prowess at jousting, tilting, hunting and tennis was legendary: ‘not only very expert in arms, and of great valour, and most excellent in his personal endowments, but … likewise so gifted and adorned with mental accomplishments of every sort that we believe him to have few equals in the world’. However, his propensity for vigorous sport led to a variety of injuries of varying severity. In 1527 Henry injured his left foot playing tennis, and the resultant swelling led him to adopt a single loose black velvet slipper, rapidly prompting a new fashion among his courtiers.”“In the same year Henry was laid up at Canterbury with a ‘sorre legge’, the first record of a wound thought to be an ulcer, possibly on the thigh. Thomas Vicary was summoned to his aid and the ulcer healed, with the King's gratitude earning Vicary the post of sergeant-surgeon and an annual salary of 20 shillings.”“Henry remained relatively healthy throughout the following decade (1527–1536), despite tumultuous religious and political upheaval. The absence of a male heir and the presence of Anne Boleyn, a pretty young consort to the Queen, prompted his break with the Catholic Church in Rome, a divorce from Catherine of Aragon and the dissolution of the monasteries. Henry, the self-appointed head of both the Church and the State was released from any constraints upon his behaviour. Life at court remained one of spectacular excess. A bon-viveur renowned for his appetite, Henry's weight gradually increased despite his early athleticism. In 1526 Henry drew up the Ordinances of Eltham ( Figure 2), a detailed set of instructions as to what he should be served with each day, clearly documenting a massive appetite for meat, pastries and wine. His expanding girth is easily pictured by comparison between his personal suits of armour. Henry was tall at over six feet, and in his 20s weighed about 15 stone with a 32″ waist and 39″ chest but by his 50s his waist had increased to 52″ and, by the time of his death in 1547 at the age of 56 years, he is thought to have weighed about 28 stone“ (Figure 3).Figure 2The Ordinances at Eltham. Henry dictated his requirements for the King's table on a ‘flesh’ dayFigure 3“The King's Armour. Henry's appetite and reduced capacity for exercise took its toll on his waistline. His mounted armour (a) dates from 1515 whereas the later suit (b) was forged around 1540”“By the age of 44 years, Henry was already significantly obese, reportedly requiring a hoist in order to mount his horse, but in good enough health to continue with his favourite sporting pursuits. However, in January 1536, while jousting at Greenwich, the King was unseated from his horse, crashing to the ground with the fully-armoured horse landing on top of him. He remained unconscious (‘without speech’) for two hours, a head injury that would certainly have warranted a CT scan to exclude intracranial haemorrhage by the criteria of today. His legs were crushed in the fall and he may have sustained fractures to one or more of his long bones. There was such concern over the potential severity of his injuries that the Queen (Anne Boleyn) is said to have miscarried a male child shortly after hearing of the accident. Several authors attribute a further acute deterioration in Henry's subsequent mood and behaviour to the head injuries sustained in this fall.”“ He suffered from headaches, and although the wounds Henry sustained to his legs initially healed, ulceration reappeared shortly afterwards, being particularly unpleasant and difficult to manage during 1536–1538. The year of 1536 has been described as an ‘annus horribilis’ for the King:”“ his injuries, the loss of his potential heir, the death of his illegitimate son (the Duke of Richmond) and accusations of Anne's adultery made him increasingly unpredictable, irascible and cruel, and prompted him to brutally rid himself of another wife.”“By now his ulcers appear to have been bilateral, purulent and seeping, and Henry himself wrote to the Duke of Norfolk, excusing himself from travelling and confessing: ‘to be frank with you, which you must keep to yourself, a humour has fallen into our legs and our physicians advise us not to go far in the heat of the day’. Transient superficial healing of the fistulous communications between abscess cavities and skin inevitably led to episodes of sepsis and bouts of fever: ‘and for ten to twelve days the humours which had no outlet were like to have stifled him, so that he was sometime without speaking, black in the face and in great danger’ (Castillon to Montmorency from the English Court). Henry's physicians attempted to keep these fistulae open to allow drainage of the ‘humours’, often lancing the ulcers with red-hot pokers; a therapy unlikely to have improved the King's ill-temper. Courtiers and ambassadors alike were aware of the King's problems. Witnesses called at the 1537 trial of the Marquis of Exeter and Lord Montagu (who were accused of treason and plotting to replace Henry with a Yorkist monarch) alleged that the traitors had disrespectfully discussed Henry's health saying of the King: ‘he has a sorre legge that no pore man would be glad off, and that he should not lyve long for all his auctoryte next God’ and ‘he will die suddenly, his legge will kill him, and then we shall have jolly stirring’. After such treacherous sentiments both men were, unsurprisingly, beheaded. Execution for treason (by hanging, eviscerating, beheading, burning at the stake or boiling alive) had become increasingly commonplace in the latter part of Henry's reign. This king was responsible for more deaths than any monarch before or since. In a brutal age, Henry was known and feared for his cruelty. Indeed, in 1558, a French physician commenting upon the fate meted out to those who had aroused the King's wrath wrote: ‘in this country you will not meet with any great nobles whose relations have not had their heads cut off …’.““Henry's legs remained persistently and badly ulcerated, but his overwhelming desire was to safeguard the succession of the Tudor dynasty and the stench did not curtail his quest for an heir. His spirits were eventually buoyed by the birth of his son, Edward VI, and then dashed by the death of his wife, Jane Seymour, 12 days later from puerperal sepsis. Two further marriages followed in quick succession; a political match with the plain Anne of Cleves and a fateful liason with the pretty young Katherine Howard. Both were rapidly despatched, Anne divorced to the country and Katherine to the Tower. Despite his ulcerated legs and ignoring the advice of his physicians to rest, fearful of a rumoured alliance between Rome, France and Spain with the threat of invasion, Henry personally travelled to the coast to oversee fortification of the harbours, often spending many hours on horseback. His ulcers failed to heal and in March 1541 he was again laid low with fever: ‘one of his legs, formerly opened and kept open to maintain his health, suddenly closed to his great alarm, for, five or six years ago, in the like case, he thought to have died. This time prompt remedy was applied and he is now well and the fever gone’ (Marillac, French Ambassador from the English Court). Now unable to take any exercise at all, and refusing to curb his daily intake, Henry's weight climbed steadily: ‘the King is very stout and marvellously excessive in eating and drinking, so that people worth credit say he is often of a different opinion in the morning than after dinner’. His marriage in 1543 to the kindly Katherine Parr has been interpreted by some as acquiring a convenient nursemaid in the final years of his life. His legs deteriorated further and the stench from his infected ulcers could be identified three rooms away, often heralding the monarch's arrival. He was in constant pain but Henry, ever mindful of the threats facing England from her immediate neighbour, France, refused to rest, extensively visiting ports and cities around his kingdom and even personally travelling to wage war overseas at the Battle of Boulogne. His sudden and terrible rages would send his courtiers fleeing and none but his wife could calm him. By 1546, his activities had been seriously limited although he continued to travel to his estates in the south of England and even to hunt in between periods of ill-health, refusing to rest despite the advice of his physicians. Towards the end of this year Henry was forced to return to Westminster and, unable to walk due to his grossly swollen legs and morbid obesity, he was carried around his palace in a chair. Further bouts of fever and cautery to his leg ulcers followed and he deteriorated rapidly, dying in the early hours of 28 January 1547.”The aetiology of Henry's ulceration“As a young man, Henry was inordinately proud of his fine calves, displaying them by use of a garter fastened around his leg just below the knee (Figure 1). The same legs were to torture him for the last two decades of his life, described by Chapuys, the Spanish Ambassador as: ‘… the worst legs in the world’. The aetiology of the King's ulceration may encompass a range of different potential diagnoses, making Henry an interesting and educational case study. The first reports of the King's ulcer refer to an area on the thigh when Henry was still a relatively young man. Many authors have attributed this to the chancre of primary syphilis but there is little evidence to support this diagnosis. Tudor physicians were familiar with syphilis, ‘the great pox’, and treated Treponema pallidum infection with mercury until ‘the gums were sore and the saliva [one of the four ‘humours’ described by Galen whose works were translated by Henry's physician Thomas Linacre, and on whose teaching Tudor medicine was still firmly anchored] ran freely’. There is no evidence that Henry was ever treated for syphilis and his apothecaries' accounts do not record any purchases of mercury.““Neither Henry nor his wives developed any other manifestations of untreated secondary or tertiary syphilis. Henry was a great sportsman in his youth and no stranger to the injuries that accompanied the joust or the tilt and it is possible that this lesion represents an infected wound, slow to heal.““Subsequent ulceration affected Henry's legs bilaterally below the knee and may have been due to venous disease. The wearing of a garter (Figure 1) and the references to the King's shapely calf make it unlikely that Henry had prominent primary varicose veins. However, he may have acquired venous hypertension as a result of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). History does not record how tightly the garter was bound around his upper calf and he had several injuries to his legs as a result of his sporting activities, both of which represent risk factors for DVT. The most severe injuries were sustained during the fall from his horse that rendered him unconscious and crushed his legs in 1536. Crush injury with or without associated fracture of one or more long bones with obesity and relative immobility would increase the risk of DVT, damage to the deep venous system and subsequent venous insufficiency.““ Severe venous hypertension may therefore have resulted in ulceration. An untreated compound fracture may also result in diffuse infection with cellulitis, osteomyelitis, deep abscess formation and a persistently discharging sinus.”“ A compound fracture may well have rendered Henry unable to walk and such a suggestion is absent in the records of the time. It is therefore much more likely that Henry suffered an extensive DVT as a result of his injuries and subsequent immobility resulting in the classical pattern of venous ulceration.”“As Henry's weight increased and he became morbidly obese, his risk of hypertension and Type II diabetes must also have been high. His doctors repeatedly exhorted him to reduce his tremendous consumption of meat and wine, his penchant for high cholesterol foodstuffs clearly documented in the Ordinances of Eltham (Figure 2). Hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and Type II diabetes are known to accelerate peripheral vascular disease and, more recently, abdominal obesity has been identified as a marker of arterial insufficiency.”“ The onset of peripheral vascular disease would seriously exacerbate venous ulceration, reducing the capacity for healing and causing difficulties in the fight against distal infection. Additionally, the grossly swollen legs that Henry suffered towards the end of his life may represent congestive cardiac failure in an arteriopath.”“Clearly, we are unlikely ever now to know the truth.”“Persistent chronic leg ulcers have been shown to seriously adversely affect quality of life even in the age of modern medical treatment and analgesia.”” For Henry, racked with pain and repetitive infection, his ulcers regularly cauterized with red-hot irons, the situation must have been intolerable. The effect of chronic pain on the temperament is well recognized and the actions of many a historical figure have been linked to their personal physical misery. Judge Jeffries (1645–1689), widely known as the ‘Hanging Judge’ for his merciless punishment of King James II's enemies after the Monmouth Rebellion, was reputed to be in such a foul temper because of the bladder stones bouncing up and down on his trigone while travelling to the Bloody Assizes in a poorly-sprung carriage over potholed roads; and Napoleon Bonaparte's painful haemorrhoids left him sullen and quick to anger, unable to survey his troops by horseback at the Battle of Waterloo.”” Henry's vile temper was undoubtedly influenced by his clinical situation. Although he did not bear his suffering with fortitude, and his latter years were characterized by frequent tempestuous rages and cruelty, viciously turning on those that he had once patronised, he was courageous in his refusal to lie a-bed, allowing a fleeting glimpse of the valiant prince he used to be.”500 years later: Henry VIII, leg ulcers and the course of history

What is your cancer story?

When I was 16 years old I began using hormonal contraceptives (available for free at my progressive high school) as becoming pregnant was a worst fear for me at that age. My slender body was rapidly transformed into a more voluptuous one and I experienced some of the other known side effects of the pill, such as changes in my monthly cycle.That summer I traveled around in Europe and became aware than my lower belly seemed to be protruding abnormally and started to become ashamed of my body, typical for a teenaged girl. I also became violently ill from food poisoning in Belgium, although my friend who got sick alongside me seemed to recover much more quickly than I did.When I returned to the States that Fall I went back to training with my school's rowing team and became one of the strongest girls in my crew, despite the fact that I often had digestive upsets, which I attributed to the sickness I had had in Europe. I also grew some odd hairs on my upper lip which I felt sure were related to the hormones I was taking.Within a few months I had some inexplicable pains in my pelvic area. They came and went and were never so severe than I felt I should see a doctor. I continued to feel sensitive about my protruding belly and began to alter my diet out of self-consciousness. I seemed to be voraciously hungry all the time but I was sure this was to do with my 6 day per week training schedule on the crew team.On the Sunday before Thanksgiving I went out for breakfast with my boyfriend. I had some discomfort in my lower abdomen and by the time we ordered our food I felt quite sick. I went to the bathroom and felt dizzy and sweaty and scared. I returned to the table and could barely eat. The pain I was experiencing began to overwhelm me and I asked that we pack up our food and go home.Back at my house I began to vomit bile and I was floored by the pain in my lower right abdominal/pelvic area. I thought that perhaps my appendix had ruptured.I had already called to make a same day appointment to see a doctor but we decided to go ahead and go in early. After lying, screaming in pain, in the doctor's office for what felt like an eternity I was moved to the ER and advanced in front of dozens of waiting patients. It was so crowded I was put on a stretcher in a hallway and given an intravenous painkiller.Several pelvic exams and a CAT scan later and after significant confusion I was told that I was pregnant and that there was some complication with it. I was also informed that there was a mass in my pelvis and I was transferred to another hospital where they operated that evening.I awoke in great pain as I had been cut across my pelvis (like a Caesarean section) so that a four-pound, fifteen centimeter tumor could be removed. I was sent home the next day but called back within two days once the biopsy was complete.I had a rare cancer, a dysgerminoma, that originates in the germ cells or the eggs inside my ovary. This is the same cancer that Lance Armstrong is famous for (in his case testicular) and is one that occurs in young people of child-rearing age. It is unrelated to other ovarian cancers.Still barely mobile from the invasive surgery, I began to visit the hospital almost daily while every inch of my body was scanned and tested to see if the cancer had spread. Bone scans, x-rays, CT scans, blood tests, and finally a PET scan revealed that it had all been removed in the surgery. I spent the next five years routinely monitoring my blood for any sign that the tumor had returned.Of course I had not been pregnant at all. This tumor produces the hormone betaHcG and depending on its size the patient appears to be that much pregnant. Thus, a simple pregnancy test can reveal if a tumor is present in the body. Or so they said.Fast forward to age 27. I had long since removed hormonal contraceptives from my life and over the years had gone to incredible lengths to improve and optimize my health. I had overcome leaky gut syndrome through diet and had used herbs to achieve a regular and comfortable monthly cycle. In many ways I was feeling great.Over ten years had passed since my original diagnosis and I had been informed that the likelihood that my tumor would come back was essentially the same as any other person my age. I had also been told that my remaining ovary (the first one was removed with the tumor) would be functional and that I would be able to conceive children.When I started to feel some minor discomfort in my abdomen and notice changes in my menstrual cycle my mind didn't go to the cancer. I was under significant stress during that time period and felt that I simply had lost my rhythm. My boyfriend and I were also traveling within the US at that time for my work and my insurance would not cover doctor's visits when I was out of the area. I was scheduled to travel to South America with my boyfriend (he is from there) and I went despite not feeling like myself.I took various pregnancy tests, all negative, and felt reassured that at least my betaHcG was normal.Once in Argentina I did have an ultrasound and it revealed a small mass on the left side of my pelvis. I spoke with a doctor who expressed mild concern but was unable to do much unless I was able to afford to pay out of pocket which I wasn't. Feeling worried, I returned earlier than planned to the States. I began the lengthy process of transferring my insurance to the new region where we planned to stay. In all honesty we were completely broke and were distracted by issues to do with my boyfriend returning to the States so quickly (he wanted to stay with me because of these health concerns). He was threatened with deportation at the airport and we decided to marry and pursue a green card. My health concerns were shelved temporarily while we addressed the subject of his immigration status and what to do about work in the interim.Once we finally settled down I began to feel better, suggesting that the stress of so much travel and uncertainty was affecting my hormones. By then a doctor had offered the diagnosis of a benign fibroid tumor and I latched onto the idea as it seemed manageable and relatively normal for my age and symptoms.I began to go to lengths to resolve imbalances in my health, refining my diet, committing to a regular yoga and meditation practice and working with an Ayurvedic doctor. At one appointment she felt my pulses and suggested I might be pregnant. I took a home test and it was positive. I felt overjoyed as I had always wondered if I'd be able to conceive. My now husband and I both greatly desired to have children together, despite our uncertain circumstances at that time.I went to see a medical doctor and they tested me again for pregnancy to be sure. My test was negative so they ordered blood tests. My betaHcG (the only known marker for my former tumor) was completely normal. I made follow up appointments and expressed concern about the small fibroid that I thought I had. My new doctor checked me out and concluded that the tumor was not a concern and that I had likely had a normal, early miscarriage. So I went home, bewildered, and continued to commit myself to improving my health.For awhile I felt better, even normal. I saw a therapist to work through the stresses than had accumulated over the last few years and I did a gentle cleansing diet than seemed to help regulate my wacky hormones. I achieved a yoga teaching certification and continued with a daily practice. My body looked better than I ever remember and I seemed to be sleeping better than ever too. I thought perhaps I was improving.But there was doubt in my mind. Still financially unstable I hesitated to seek specialized care. But then my periods stopped completely. I tracked this for a few months and sought relief through acupuncture. It worked. When my period came roaring back it was so painful I was bed-ridden.I went back to my doctor. She did some tests and concluded that this time I was pregnant, for real. I felt a glimmer of hope and a weight of doubt. How could it be possible if I had finally gotten my period back?Luckily she ordered an ultrasound to check what she thought was a pregnancy. I took her all of my records (I was in a new town with a new insurer so she wasn't seeing my files). When she got the results she called and apologized for putting my off. There was a significant mass in my left pelvic region, the same one she had declared to have shrunk to "marble" size during our last appointment.She immediately got me to an MRI and ordered blood tests. I waited for the results on tenterhooks. Before they even called me I checked into the ER with extreme pain in my left kidney area. The ER doctor looked at my file and informed me that I had cancer. My betaHcG was ridiculously high and other tumor markers were now present. I went home and my other doctor called to say she had referred me for surgery the next day in the San Francisco area (we live about 130 miles away).We packed up and drove down. I met the surgeon for the first time the next day and was amazed that she planned to operate based on one MRI. She promised me a lacrascopic procedure and suggested I could go home that night as an outpatient. She suggested she'd be doing a full hysterectomy and I begged her to leave my uterus if it was not diseased. She responded saying that "IVF is very expensive" but agreed to let it be.I woke up screaming. I had been cut across my pelvis and then vertically up past my belly button. I was informed that my tumor had been attached to my colon and could not be removed as they had planned. Luckily she had heard me mention that I felt pain near my kidney and had manually checked there for more tumors. She found three infected lymph nodes and cut me upwards to remove them.I stayed in the hospital for almost a week and was sent home to my parents to recover. The pain was excruciating and I could barely get myself out of bed unassisted. When I noticed swelling and redness in the incision I called the doctor who said it was normal and I should wait until my appointment when she would remove my staples.When I went in she saw the obvious infection and reopened the wound so it could drain. I was furious to have been left to suffer the pain and to be set back in my healing.I was finally allowed to go home and finish healing before starting chemotherapy at a small clinic in my town. I am now going into my forth and final 3-week cycle of treatment. It has been a journey through every imaginable side effect. I am managing quite well with the attentive assistance of my husband (now a legal resident of the USA) and my parents who are with us about half the time. My amazing community surrounds us with love and support and home cooked meals.Looking back it is 20/20 hindsight. I should have known, right!? It all looks so obvious and I seem so negligent when my symptoms and side effects are all presented this way. But when you are in it you don't see it that way. Why would a sixteen year old athlete, pulling top of the team racing times and glowing with good health assuming that they have cancer? Why would a 28 year old woman, who has been told repeatedly that her cancer wouldn't reoccur after so much time, who has been told that it grows so aggressively that it can be fatal within a few months, assume it to be there after 18 months of subtle symptoms?Women's gynecological health is tricky. Irregular periods can mean dozens of things. Fibroids and cysts are common. We are used to the pain of cramps. So many of us suffer. Only a tiny percentage of us have this unusual cancer. Doctors just don't assume it is there, especially when they meet a vibrant 28 year old yogi who seems to be in perfect health.The hardest part of this is loosing my fertility. My ovaries are gone forever and I'm now dependent on hormone replacement therapy to moderate my surgical menopause. My husband and I were so happy in the moments when we thought I could truly be pregnant and that my strange symptoms were merely a side effect of a baby on the way.The chemotherapy is nasty. The surgery has dashed my plans to teach yoga workshops and retreats this year. I am not able to work full-time and continue to deal with financial uncertainty. But the truth is I am fine. I am great. I have so much appreciation for my life and my overall good health.I go outside every day and walk under the trees or on the beach. I give and receive love in a more genuine way than I ever have in my life. I have amazing perspective on the challenges I've gone through in my 20s. Everything seems superficial in relation to this cancer experience. I know I will be fine when this treatment is over. Despite having been committed to natural therapies for almost a decade I decided to accept this with the best possible attitude and trust that it will work. That is how I know that it will. I'll be on the other side of this soon.This is the longest and most heartfelt post I've ever written for Quora and the first time I have written down my cancer story. Thanks for reading to the end.Edit: 1/19/21Today is the 5th anniversary of the big surgery that I described as part of this story. Since completing the chemotherapy in May, 2016 I have had no further complications relating to these cancers. These days I am blessed once again with good health, although I suffer with some chronic symptoms related to the chemo (tinitus, neuropathy in my fingers) and still struggle with discomfort around the physical surgery scars and the mental/emotional challenges related to the experience. I want to thank everyone who continues to read this story and to vote it up. Every time I get a notification I am reminded on the love in the comment thread and of my own strength at the time that I originally wrote this post. Thank you!

Which one has a stronger QR code scanning capability, Huawei or Zxing?

Zxing is a common third-party open-source SDK. However, Zxing has the following defect: It only implements basic operations of scanning the QR code and does not support more complex scanning environments such as strong light, bending, and deformation. Currently, the mainstream practice is to optimize the source code based on Zxing. However, the optimization effect is still not ideal, and many people will spend a lot of time on the optimization.The Huawei Scan Kit provides convenient bar code and QR code scanning, parsing, and generation capabilities, helping developers quickly build the QR code scanning function in apps. Thanks to Huawei's long-term accumulation in the computer vision field, Huawei's unified barcode scanning service (Scan Kit) can detect and automatically amplify long-distance or small-sized codes, and optimize the identification of common complex barcode scanning scenarios (such as reflection, dark light, smudge, blur, and cylinder). Improves the QR code scanning success rate and user experience.Now, let's compare the capabilities of Zxing and Huawei HMS Scan Kit from the following aspects:Remote code scanningScan QR codes in complex scenariosScan the barcode at any angle.Multicode recognitionIntegration difficultySDK Package SizeCross-platform supportComparison of long-distance code scanningThe success of long-distance QR code scanning depends on the QR code specifications (the more information is, the more difficult it is to identify) and the distance between the camera and the QR code. Due to the lack of automatic zoom-in optimization for Zxing, it is difficult to recognize the code when the code is less than 1/5 of the screen. The HMS Scan Kit has a pre-detection function, which can automatically amplify the QR code at a long distance even if the QR code cannot be identified by naked eyes.Huawei Scan Kit:Zxing:[math]Comparison Conclusion: Huawei Scan Kit Wins[/math]Comparison by Scanning Codes in Complex ScenariosIn complex scenarios, code scanning can be classified into reflection, dark light, smudge, blur, and cylinder scanning. In complex scenarios, the recognition effect of Zxing is poor. Complex scenarios are as follows:These scenarios are common in daily life. For example, outdoor scenarios such as reflection, dark light, and smudge may occur. When a QR code is attached to a product, curved surfaces or even edges and corners may occur. When you walk and scan the QR code, you will also encounter the challenge of motion blur. The following figure shows the test comparison in these scenarios.Huawei Scan Kit: Zxing: [math]Comparison Conclusion: Scan Kit Wins[/math]Scan the QR code at any angle for comparison.Currently, Zxing supports only forward scanning, that is, Zxing cannot identify the code with a certain angle. Scan Kit can easily achieve this. When the code deflection is within 10 degrees, Zxing can still have high recognition accuracy. However, when the code deflection exceeds 10 degrees, the recognition accuracy of Zxing decreases sharply. However, Scan Kit is not affected by the clip angle, and the recognition accuracy does not decrease.Huawei Scan Kit:Zxing:[math]Comparison Conclusion: Scan Kit Wins[/math]Multi-code identification comparisonMulti-code identification helps identify multiple codes at a time in scenarios such as express delivery and supermarket checkout, improving service processing efficiency. In multi-code identification mode, the Scan Kit can identify five types of codes on the screen at the same time and return the corresponding types and values of all codes at a time.Huawei Scan Kit:Zxing:[math]Comparison Conclusion: Scan Kit Wins[/math]SDK Package Size ComparisonThe size of the Zxing package is about 500 KB, which is a satisfactory size. Scan Kit has two modes: Lite and Pro. In Lite mode, the package size is 700 KB. In Pro mode, the package size is 3.3 MB. If you use the table, you will have a clearer understanding.These two modes are slightly different on non-Huawei phones. Therefore, if you are not sensitive to the package size on non-Huawei phones, try to select the Pro version. I have also performed tests on non-Huawei Lite versions, but the test results are slightly lower than those of the Pro version.[math]Comparison Conclusion: Zxing has advantages[/math]Platform Support ComparisonZxing and Scan Kit support both iOS and Android platforms.[math]Comparison Conclusion: [/math][math]The[/math][math] score is even.[/math]Comparison of Integration ModesThe integration mode of Zxing is relatively simple. It can be quickly integrated with SDK by only a few lines of code. However, in the actual product development process, the development of the product interface and auxiliary functions is also involved. However, Zxing does not provide the corresponding quick integration mode. The integration guide is available on the live network for a long time. Therefore, the development difficulty can be reduced. In summary, the first point in Zxing integration is that no default interface is available. Second, you need to achieve their own automatic amplification, flash and other functions.Huawei Scan Kit provides multiple access modes, including single-code access, multi-code access, and customized access. The differences between the two integration modes are as follows. The default layout is provided for the single-code access of Scan Kit cameras. In addition, functions such as automatic amplification and flash are preset. Developers do not need to manually configure these functions. The code integration volume is 5 lines, which is especially suitable for scenarios where quick integration and quick replacement of the QR code scanning function are required. The customized access of Scan Kit allows users to design the layout by themselves. Only the basic functions and blank layout of scanning and decoding are provided. Users can design the layout based on their app style. However, they need to implement functions such as automatic zoom and flash. The corresponding technical documents can be found on the optical network of Huawei developers. However, compared with the single-code access, this access mode is more complicated.Zxing integration process:1. Create a project and import the Zxing module.2. Add rights and dynamically apply for rights.3. Copy the onActivity method.4. Invoking the Decoding Function5. Compile the UI and ensure that the UI is correctly displayed.Huawei Scan Kit:The default view mode provides two functions: camera QR code scanning and image-based QR code scanning. In this mode, developers do not need to develop the UI for QR code scanning. The process is almost the same as that of Zxing.1. Create a project and import the Scan Kit module.2. Add permissions and dynamically apply for permissions.3. Copy the onActivity method.4. Invoke the decoding function.The following uses the Default View Mode as an example to describe the integration procedure.1. Create a project and add online dependency in the app/build.gradle file.implementation'com.huawei.hms:scan:{version}' 2. Declare the QR code scanning page in the AndroidManifest.xml file of the calling module.<!-Camera permission--> <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.CAMERA" /> <!--Reading the file permission--> <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE" /> <!--Features--> <uses-feature android:name="" /> <uses-feature android:name="" /> 3. Create QR code scanning options based on the site requirements.HmsScanAnalyzerOptions options = new HmsScanAnalyzerOptions.Creator().setHmsScanTypes(HmsScan.QRCODE_SCAN_TYPE, HmsScan.DATAMATRIX_SCAN_TYPE).create(); 4. Invoke the static method startScan of ScanUtil to start the Default View QR code scanning page.ScanUtil.startScan(this, REQUEST_CODE_SCAN_ONE, options); The comparison shows that Scan Kit and Zxing have the same dependency and permission application methods. However, Scan Kit can use the UI by default (with built-in flash, automatic focal length, and QR code import). Zxing needs to implement the UI by itself, then, manually complete these functions.[math]Comparison Conclusion: Huawei Scan Kit Wins[/math]Technical AnalysisWhy is Huawei Scan Kit better than Zxing? The following describes the technical analysis of Zxing and Scan Kit from the perspective of technical implementation principles.Zxing Technology AnalysisZxing uses the traditional recognition algorithm. It can detect codes by analyzing the codes from a certain angle. This algorithm allows only a certain degree of deformation, for example, the square code can be slightly skewed by less than 10 degrees, his pixels still fit the pattern, but if they're deformed too much or angularly too large, they can't detect the position of the code. The detection process of ZXing is classified into two types: one-dimensional code detection and two-dimensional code serial detection.In one-dimensional code detection, Zxing uses a progressive scanning mechanism for feature recognition. Because one-dimensional code features are black-and-white crossover, when the black-and-white sequence with equal spacing of the class is identified, it is considered as a potential code. The length of the potential code is determined by finding the start bit and the end bit. Then, the sequence is sent to different one-dimensional code decoding modules for serial decoding, which takes a long time. When serial decoding fails, a failure message is displayed, and the failure time is also long. In addition, once the one-dimensional code has a wrinkle, rotation, or deformation, a sequence that meets a specific requirement cannot be found through progressive scanning, that is, the one-dimensional code cannot be detected in a complex condition.In two-dimensional code detection, Zxing uses different detection algorithms for different two-dimensional codes. For example, the most common QR code has three location detection patterns. Therefore, Zxing still uses the interlaced scanning mode to find the features of the location detection pattern. Once the features whose black-and-white ratio is 1:1:3:1:1 are found, that is, a central point of the position detection graph is used as a reference point to perform affine transformation, so that the corrected picture is sent to the QR decoding module. The positioning point of the QR code has a function of correcting rotation, and therefore can be well adapted to a rotation situation. However, Zxing is completely unable to process cases such as partial blocking, deformation, and contaminating and reflecting of the positioning point. As shown in the figure, the detection position detection graph is the most important step for detecting whether the two-dimensional code is successfully detected. Once a location fails to be detected, the two-dimensional code cannot be detected.Technical Analysis of Huawei Scan KitScan Kit uses the deep learning algorithm, which is spatially invariant. By training detectors of corresponding code types, Scan Kit can quickly find all required codes.Actual process:The bar code detection module and angle prediction module use the deep learning model.Barcode detection: The serial process of separate detection of two-dimensional codes of one-dimensional codes in Zxing is no longer restricted. A trained detector can be used to directly obtain the code pattern and corresponding position. The bar code can be accurately sent to the corresponding decoding module through one detection, and a separate serial decoding process is no longer required. Because decoding includes a series of operations with high overheads such as skipping scanning, and information of different codes cannot be shared, this operation greatly reduces an end-to-end delay, and avoids a lot of repeated and unnecessary calculation overheads.Angle prediction: The corresponding three-bit angle of the code is returned for radiographic transformation. In practice, the core of barcode detection is to accurately obtain boundary points. After being converted into binary images, the images are sent to the decoding module, but the decoding effect is still poor. This is also the most important step to solve the bar code identification in complex scenarios.To sum up, the deep learning changes the serial detection and decoding process of the barcode of Zxing to a parallel process. In addition, the three-digit angle value of the barcode is returned. After the affine change, the aligned standard front barcode is obtained. This greatly improves the barcode detection success rate and greatly reduces the latency.Demos, sample codes, and development documents are available on the Huawei developer official website.Demo and sample code: DocumentationDevelopment guide: DocumentationAPI reference: DocumentationHope to be able to answer your doubts!

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