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What is the IES syllabus? Which branch students are eligible for the exam, and what is the process of the examination?

What is ESE/ IES ?Indian Engineering Services comprise of engineers who work under the government of India and designated as Class – 1 officer. They administer a large segment of the public sector economy, which constitutes of Indian Railways, Power, Telecommunications, Central Water engineering, Defence service of Engineers, Central Engineering Service, etc. The nature of work performed by these bureaucrats largely depends on their engineering branch and the service or cadre they are recruited in. The career progression goes smoothly attaining high esteem. The first position offered is that of Asst. Executive engineer and the hierarchy ends at the position of Chairman/ Managing Director.A combined competitive examination is conducted by the Union Public Services Commission (UPSC) for recruitment to the Indian Engineering Services. The Examination constitutes of a written examination followed by an interview for the personality test. The recruitment of qualified candidates is made under the following categories:Electronics & Telecommunication EngineeringElectrical EngineeringMechanical EngineeringCivil EngineeringESE eligibility:(I) Nationality:A candidate must be either:(a) A citizen of India or(b) A subject of Nepal or A subject of Bhutan or(c) A Tibetan refugee who came over to Indian before the 1st January, 1962 with the intention of permanentlysettling in India or(d) A person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka or East African countries ofKenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire and Ethiopia or from Vietnam withthe intention of permanently settling in India.Provided that a candidate belonging to categories (b), (c) and (d) above shall be a person in whose favor acertificate of eligibility has been issued by the Government of India.(II) Age Limits:A candidate for this examination must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained the age of 30 years on the 1st January, of the exam year.The upper age-limit of 30 years will be relaxable up to 35 years in the case of Government servants of the following categories, if they are employed in a Department/Office under the control of any of the authorities mentioned in column 1 below and apply for admission to the examination for all or any of the Service(s)/Posts mentioned in column 2, for which they are otherwise eligible.The upper age-limit prescribed above will be further relaxable:(i) Upto a maximum of five years if a candidate belongs to a scheduled caste or a scheduled tribe.(ii) Upto a maximum of three years in the case of candidates belonging to OBC category.(iii) Upto a maximum of five years if a candidate had ordinarily been domiciled in the state of Jammu & Kashmir during the period from 1st January, 1980 to the 31st day of December, 1989.(iv) Upto a maximum of three years in the case of defence service personnel disabled in operations during hostilities with any foreign country or in a disturbed area, and released as a consequence thereof.(v) Upto a maximum of five years in the case of ex-servicemen including Commissioned Officers and ECOs/SSCOs who have rendered at least five years Military Service as on 1st August, and have been released (i) on completion of assignment (including those whose assignment is due to be completed within one year from 1st August) otherwise than by way of dismissal or discharge on account of misconduct or inefficiency, or (ii) on account of physical disability attributable to Military Service or (iii) on invalidment; (vi) Upto a maximum of five years in the case of ECOs/SSCOs who have completed an initial period of assignment of five years of Military Services as on 1st August, and whose assignment has been extended beyond five years and in whose case the Ministry of Defence issues a certificate that they can apply for civil employment and they will be released on three months notice on selection from the date of receipt of offer of appointment.(vii) Upto a maximum of 10 years in the case of blind, deaf-mute and Orthopaedically handicapped persons.(III) Minimum Educational Qualifications:Obtained a degree in Engineering from a university incorporated by an act of the central or state legislature in India or other educational institutions established by an act of Parliament or declared to be deemed as universities under section-3 of the university grants commission act, 1956 orPassed Section A and B of the Institution Examinations of the Institution of Engineers (India) orObtained a degree/diploma in Engineering from such foreign University/College/Institution and under such conditions as may be recognised by the Government for the purpose from time to time orPassed Graduate Membership Examination of the Institute of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers (India) orPassed Associate Membership Examination Parts II and III/Sections A and B of the Aeronautical Society of India orPassed Graduate Membership Examination of the Institution of Electronics and Radio Engineers, London held after November 1959Provided that a candidate for the post of Indian Naval Armament Service (Electronics Engineering Posts and Engineer Group 'A' in Wireless Planning and Coordination Wing/Monitoring Organization) may possess any of the above qualifications or the qualification mentioned below namely: M.Sc degree or its equivalent with Wireless Communication, Electronics, Radio Physics or Radio Engineering as a special subject.ESE 2018 SyllabusBROAD CONTENTS OF THE GENERAL STUDIES AND ENGINEERING APTITUDE PAPER( Stage-I, Paper-I).General Studies and Engineering Aptitude(Stage I - Paper I, Objective type, Common to all Candidates, 2 hours duration, 200 Marks maximum)The questions from the following Topics will be set in Paper-I of Stage-ICurrent issues of national and international importance relating to social, economic and industrial developmentEngineering Aptitude covering Logical reasoning and Analytical abilityEngineering Mathematics and Numerical AnalysisGeneral Principles of Design, Drawing, Importance of SafetyStandards and Quality practices in production, construction, maintenance and servicesBasics of Energy and Environment : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, Climate Change, Environmental impact assessmentBasics of Project ManagementBasics of Material Science and EngineeringInformation and Communication Technologies (ICT) based tools and their applications in Engineering such as networking, e-governance and technology based education.Ethics and values in Engineering professionNote:The paper in General Studies and Engineering Aptitude will include Knowledge of relevant topics as may be expected from an engineering graduate, without special study.Questions from all the 10 topics mentioned above shall be set. Marks for each Topic may range from 5% to 15% of the total marks in the paper.REVISED SYLLABI OF FOUR ENGINEERING DISCIPLINESUNION PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION, NEW DELHIENGINEERING SERVICES EXAMINATION (ESE) SYLLABIBranch/Discipline: Civil Engineering(Contents for syllabi of both the Papers together for Stage-I objective type Paper–II and separately for Stage-II Conventional type Paper-I and Paper – II)PAPER – I1. Building Materials:Stone, Lime, Glass, Plastics, Steel, FRP, Ceramics, Aluminum, Fly Ash, Basic Admixtures, Timber, Bricks and Aggregates: Classification, properties and selection criteria;Cement: Types, Composition, Properties, Uses, Specifications and various Tests; Lime & Cement Mortars and Concrete: Properties and various Tests; Design of Concrete Mixes: Proportioning of aggregates and methods of mix design.2. Solid Mechanics:Elastic constants, Stress, plane stress, Strains, plane strain, Mohr’s circle of stress and strain, Elastic theories of failure, Principal Stresses, Bending, Shear and Torsion.3. Structural Analysis:Basics of strength of materials, Types of stresses and strains, Bending moments and shear force, concept of bending and shear stresses; Analysis of determinate and indeterminate structures; Trusses, beams, plane frames; Rolling loads, Influence Lines, Unit load method & other methods; Free and Forced vibrations of single degree and multi degree freedom system; Suspended Cables; Concepts and use of Computer Aided Design.4. Design of Steel Structures:Principles of Working Stress methods, Design of tension and compression members, Design of beams and beam column connections, built-up sections, Girders, Industrial roofs, Principles of Ultimate load design.5. Design of Concrete and Masonry structures:Limit state design for bending, shear, axial compression and combined forces; Design of beams, Slabs, Lintels, Foundations, Retaining walls, Tanks, Staircases; Principles of pre-stressed concrete design including materials and methods; Earthquake resistant design of structures; Design of Masonry Structure.6. Construction Practice, Planning and Management:Construction - Planning, Equipment, Site investigation and Management including Estimation with latest project management tools and network analysis for different Types of works; Analysis of Rates of various types of works; Tendering Process and Contract Management, Quality Control, Productivity, Operation Cost; Land acquisition; Labour safety and welfare.PAPER – II1. Flow of Fluids, Hydraulic Machines and Hydro Power:(a) Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow, Pipe Flow:Fluid properties; Dimensional Analysis and Modeling; Fluid dynamics including flow kinematics and measurements; Flow net; Viscosity, Boundary layer and control, Drag, Lift, Principles in open channel flow, Flow controls. Hydraulic jump; Surges; Pipe networks.(b) Hydraulic Machines and Hydro power -Various pumps, Air vessels, Hydraulic turbines – types, classifications & performance parameters; Power house – classification and layout, storage, pondage, control of supply.2. Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering:Hydrological cycle, Ground water hydrology, Well hydrology and related data analysis; Streams and their gauging; River morphology; Flood, drought and their management; Capacity of Reservoirs.Water Resources Engineering : Multipurpose uses of Water, River basins and their potential; Irrigation systems, water demand assessment; Resources - storages and their yields; Water logging, canal and drainage design, Gravity dams, falls, weirs, Energy dissipaters, barrage Distribution works, Cross drainage works and head-works and their design; Concepts in canal design, construction & maintenance; River training, measurement and analysis of rainfall.3. Environmental Engineering:(a) Water Supply Engineering:Sources, Estimation, quality standards and testing of water and their treatment; Rural, Institutional and industrial water supply; Physical, chemical and biological characteristics and sources of water, Pollutants in water and its effects, Estimation of water demand; Drinking water Standards, Water Treatment Plants, Water distribution networks.(b) Waste Water Engineering:Planning & design of domestic waste water, sewage collection and disposal; Plumbing Systems. Components and layout of sewerage system; Planning & design of Domestic Waste-water disposal system; Sludge management including treatment, disposal and re-use of treated effluents; Industrial waste waters and Effluent Treatment Plants including institutional and industrial sewage management.(c) Solid Waste Management:Sources & classification of solid wastes along with planning & design of its management system; Disposal system, Beneficial aspects of wastes and Utilization by Civil Engineers.(d) Air, Noise pollution and Ecology:Concepts & general methodology.4. Geo-technical Engineering and Foundation Engineering :(a) Geo-technical Engineering : Soil exploration - planning & methods, Properties of soil, classification, various tests and inter-relationships; Permeability & Seepage, Compressibility, consolidation and Shearing resistance, Earth pressure theories and stress distribution in soil; Properties and uses of geo-synthetics.(b) Foundation Engineering: Types of foundations & selection criteria, bearing capacity, settlement analysis, design and testing of shallow & deep foundations; Slope stability analysis, Earthen embankments, Dams and Earth retaining structures: types, analysis and design, Principles of ground modifications.5. Surveying and Geology:(a) Surveying: Classification of surveys, various methodologies, instruments & analysis of measurement of distances, elevation and directions; Field astronomy, Global Positioning System; Map preparation; Photogrammetry; Remote sensing concepts; Survey Layout for culverts, canals, bridges, road/railway alignment and buildings, Setting out of Curves.(b) Geology : Basic knowledge of Engineering geology & its application in projects.6. Transportation Engineering:Highways - Planning & construction methodology, Alignment and geometric design; Traffic Surveys and Controls; Principles of Flexible and Rigid pavements design.Tunneling - Alignment, methods of construction, disposal of muck, drainage, lighting and ventilation.Railways Systems – Terminology, Planning, designs and maintenance practices; track modernization.Harbours – Terminology, layouts and planning. Airports – Layout, planning & design.UNION PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION, NEW DELHIENGINEERING SERVICES EXAMINATION (ESE) SYLLABIBranch/Discipline: Mechanical Engineering(Contents for syllabi of both the Papers together for Stage-I objective type Paper–II and separately for Stage-II Conventional type Paper-I and Paper – II)PAPER – I1. Fluid Mechanics:Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids, Manometry, Fluid Statics, Buoyancy, Equations of Motion, Bernoulli’s equation and applications, Viscous flow of incompressible fluids, Laminar and Turbulent flows, Flow through pipes and head losses in pipes.2. Thermodynamics and Heat transfer:Thermodynamic systems and processes; properties of pure substance; Zeroth, First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics; Entropy, Irreversibility and availability; analysis of thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion: Rankine, Otto, Diesel and Dual Cycles; ideal and real gases; compressibility factor; Gas mixtures.Modes of heat transfer, Steady and unsteady heat conduction, Thermal resistance, Fins, Free and forced convection, Correlations for convective heat transfer, Radiative heat transfer – Radiation heat transfer co-efficient; boiling and condensation, Heat exchanger performance analysis3. IC Engines, Refrigeration and Air conditioning:SI and CI Engines, Engine Systems and Components, Performance characteristics and testing of IC Engines; Fuels; Emissions and Emission Control. Vapour compression refrigeration, Refrigerants and Working cycles, Compressors, Condensers, Evaporators and Expansion devices, Other types of refrigeration systems like Vapour Absorption, Vapour jet, thermo electric and Vortex tube refrigeration. Psychometric properties and processes, Comfort chart, Comfort and industrial air conditioning, Load calculations and Heat pumps.4. Turbo Machinery:Reciprocating and Rotary pumps, Pelton wheel, Kaplan and Francis Turbines, velocity diagrams, Impulse and Reaction principles, Steam and Gas Turbines, Theory of Jet Propulsion – Pulse jet and Ram Jet Engines, Reciprocating and Rotary Compressors – Theory and Applications5. Power Plant Engineering:Rankine and Brayton cycles with regeneration and reheat, Fuels and their properties, Flue gas analysis, Boilers, steam turbines and other power plant components like condensers, air ejectors, electrostatic precipitators and cooling towers – their theory and design, types and applications;6. Renewable Sources of Energy:Solar Radiation, Solar Thermal Energy collection - Flat Plate and focusing collectors their materials and performance. Solar Thermal Energy Storage, Applications – heating, cooling and Power Generation; Solar Photovoltaic Conversion; Harnessing of Wind Energy, Bio-mass and Tidal Energy – Methods and Applications, Working principles of Fuel Cells.PAPER – II7. Engineering Mechanics:Analysis of System of Forces, Friction, Centroid and Centre of Gravity, Dynamics; Stresses and Strains-Compound Stresses and Strains, Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagrams, Theory of Bending Stresses- Slope and deflection-Torsion, Thin and thick Cylinders, Spheres.8. Engineering Materials:Basic Crystallography, Alloys and Phase diagrams, Heat Treatment, Ferrous and Non Ferrous Metals, Non metallic materials, Basics of Nano-materials, Mechanical Properties and Testing, Corrosion prevention and control9. Mechanisms and Machines:Types of Kinematics Pair, Mobility, Inversions, Kinematic Analysis, Velocity and Acceleration Analysis of Planar Mechanisms, CAMs with uniform acceleration and retardation, cycloidal motion, oscillating followers; Vibrations –Free and forced vibration of undamped and damped SDOF systems, Transmissibility Ratio, Vibration Isolation, Critical Speed of Shafts. Gears – Geometry of tooth profiles, Law of gearing, Involute profile, Interference, Helical, Spiral and Worm Gears, Gear Trains- Simple, compound and Epicyclic; Dynamic Analysis – Slider – crank mechanisms, turning moment computations, balancing of Revolving & Reciprocating masses, Gyroscopes –Effect of Gyroscopic couple on automobiles, ships and aircrafts, Governors.10. Design of Machine Elements:Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the S-N diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as riveted, welded and bolted joints. Shafts, Spur gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, Brakes and clutches, flywheels.11. Manufacturing ,Industrial and Maintenance Engineering:Metal casting-Metal forming, Metal Joining, Machining and machine tool operations, Limits, fits and tolerances, Metrology and inspection, computer Integrated manufacturing, FMS, Production planning and Control, Inventory control and operations research - CPM-PERT. Failure concepts and characteristics-Reliability, Failure analysis, Machine Vibration, Data acquisition, Fault Detection, Vibration Monitoring, Field Balancing of Rotors, Noise Monitoring, Wear and Debris Analysis, Signature Analysis, NDT Techniques in Condition Monitoring.12. Mechatronics and Robotics:Microprocessors and Microcontrollers: Architecture, programming, I/O, Computer interfacing, Programmable logic controller. Sensors and actuators, Piezoelectric accelerometer, Hall effect sensor, Optical Encoder, Resolver, Inductosyn, Pneumatic and Hydraulic actuators, stepper motor, Control Systems- Mathematical modeling of Physical systems, control signals, controllability and observability. Robotics, Robot Classification, Robot Specification, notation; Direct and Inverse Kinematics; Homogeneous Coordinates and Arm Equation of four Axis SCARA RobotUNION PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION, NEW DELHIENGINEERING SERVICES EXAMINATION (ESE) SYLLABIBranch/Discipline: Electrical Engineering(Contents for syllabi of both the Papers together for Stage-I objective type Paper–II and separately for Stage-II Conventional type Paper-I and Paper – II)PAPER – I1. Engineering MathematicsMatrix theory, Eigen values & Eigen vectors, system of linear equations, Numerical methods for solution of non-linear algebraic equations and differential equations, integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, Line, Surface and Volume Integrals. Fourier series, linear, non-linear and partial differential equations, initial and boundary value problems, complex variables, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem, probability and statistics fundamentals, Sampling theorem, random variables, Normal and Poisson distributions, correlation and regression analysis.2. Electrical MaterialsElectrical Engineering Materials, crystal structures and defects, ceramic materials, insulating materials, magnetic materials – basics, properties and applications; ferrities, ferro-magnetic materials and components; basics of solid state physics, conductors; Photo-conductivity; Basics of Nano materials and Superconductors.3. Electric Circuits and FieldsCircuit elements, network graph, KCL, KVL, Node and Mesh analysis, ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin’s, Norton’s, Superposition and Maximum Power Transfer theorems, transient response of DC and AC networks, Sinusoidal steady state analysis, basic filter concepts, two-port networks, three phase circuits, Magnetically coupled circuits, Gauss Theorem, electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Ampere’s and Biot-Savart’s laws; inductance, dielectrics, capacitance; Maxwell’s equations.4. Electrical and Electronic Measurements:Principles of measurement, accuracy, precision and standards; Bridges and potentiometers; moving coil, moving iron, dynamometer and induction type instruments, measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor, instrument transformers, digital voltmeters and multi-meters, phase, time and frequency measurement, Q-meters, oscilloscopes, potentiometric recorders, error analysis, Basics of sensors, Transducers, basics of data acquisition systems5. Computer Fundamentals:Number systems, Boolean algebra, arithmetic functions, Basic Architecture, Central Processing Unit, I/O and Memory Organisation; peripheral devices, data represenation and programming, basics of Operating system and networking, virtual memory, file systems; Elements of programming languages, typical examples.6. Basic Electronics Engineering:Basics of Semiconductor diodes and transistors and characteristics, Junction and field effect transistors (BJT, FET and MOSFETS), different types of transistor amplifiers, equivalent circuits and frequency response; oscillators and other circuits, feedback amplifiers.PAPER – II1. Analog and Digital Electronics:Operational amplifiers – characteristics and applications, combinational and sequential logic circuits, multiplexers, multi-vibrators, sample and hold circuits, A/D and D/A converters, basics of filter circuits and applications, simple active filters; Microprocessor basics- interfaces and applications, basics of linear integrated circuits; Analog communication basics, Modulation and de-modulation, noise and bandwidth, transmitters and receivers, signal to noise ratio, digital communication basics, sampling, quantizing, coding, frequency and time domain multiplexing, power line carrier communication systems.2. Systems and Signal Processing :Representation of continuous and discrete-time signals, shifting and scaling operations, linear, time-invariant and causal systems, Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals, sampling theorem, Fourier and Laplace transforms, Z transforms, Discrete Fourier transform, FFT, linear convolution, discrete cosine transform, FIR filter, IIR filter, bilinear transformation.3. Control Systems:Principles of feedback, transfer function, block diagrams and signal flow graphs, steady-state errors, transforms and their applications; Routh-hurwitz criterion, Nyquist techniques, Bode plots, root loci, lag, lead and lead-lag compensation, stability analysis, transient and frequency response analysis, state space model, state transition matrix, controllability and observability, linear state variable feedback, PID and industrial controllers.4. Electrical Machines :Single phase transformers, three phase transformers - connections, parallel operation, auto-transformer, energy conversion principles, DC machines - types, windings, generator characteristics, armature reaction and commutation, starting and speed control of motors, Induction motors - principles, types, performance characteristics, starting and speed control, Synchronous machines - performance, regulation, parallel operation of generators, motor starting, characteristics and applications, servo and stepper motors.5. Power Systems :Basic power generation concepts, steam, gas and water turbines, transmission line models and performance, cable performance, insulation, corona and radio interference, power factor correction, symmetrical components, fault analysis, principles of protection systems, basics of solid state relays and digital protection; Circuit breakers, Radial and ring-main distribution systems, Matrix representation of power systems, load flow analysis, voltage control and economic operation, System stability concepts, Swing curves and equal area criterion. HVDC transmission and FACTS concepts, Concepts of power system dynamics, distributed generation, solar and wind power, smart grid concepts, environmental implications, fundamentals of power economics.6. Power Electronics and Drives :Semiconductor power diodes, transistors, thyristors, triacs, GTOs, MOSFETs and IGBTs - static characteristics and principles of operation, triggering circuits, phase control rectifiers, bridge converters - fully controlled and half controlled, principles of choppers and inverters, basis concepts of adjustable speed dc and ac drives, DC-DC switched mode converters, DC-AC switched mode converters, resonant converters, high frequency inductors and transformers, power supplies.UNION PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION, NEW DELHIENGINEERING SERVICES EXAMINATION (ESE) SYLLABIBranch/Discipline: Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering(Contents for syllabi of both the Papers together for Stage-I objective type Paper–II and separately for Stage-II Conventional type Paper-I and Paper – II)PAPER – I1. Basic Electronics Engineering:Basics of semiconductors; Diode/Transistor basics and characteristics; Diodes for different uses; Junction & Field Effect Transistors (BJTs, JFETs, MOSFETs); Transistor amplifiers of different types, oscillators and other circuits; Basics of Integrated Circuits (ICs); Bipolar, MOS and CMOS ICs; Basics of linear ICs, operational amplifiers and their applications-linear/non-linear; Optical sources/detectors; Basics of Opto electronics and its applications.2. Basic Electrical Engineering:DC circuits-Ohm’s & Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal analysis, circuit theorems; Electro-magnetism, Faraday’s & Lenz’s laws, induced EMF and its uses; Single-phase AC circuits; Transformers, efficiency; Basics-DC machines, induction machines, and synchronous machines; Electrical power sources- basics: hydroelectric, thermal, nuclear, wind, solar; Basics of batteries and their uses.3. Materials Science:Electrical Engineering materials; Crystal structure & defects; Ceramic materials-structures, composites, processing and uses; Insulating laminates for electronics, structures, properties and uses; Magnetic materials, basics, classification, ferrites, ferro/para-magnetic materials and components; Nano materials-basics, preparation, purification, sintering, nano particles and uses; Nano-optical/magnetic/electronic materials and uses; Superconductivity, uses.4. Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation:Principles of measurement, accuracy, precision and standards; Analog and Digital systems for measurement, measuring instruments for different applications; Static/dynamic characteristics of measurement systems, errors, statistical analysis and curve fitting; Measurement systems for non-electrical quantities; Basics of telemetry; Different types of transducers and displays; Data acquisition system basics.5. Network Theory:Network graphs & matrices; Wye-Delta transformation; Linear constant coefficient differential equations- time domain analysis of RLC circuits; Solution of network equations using Laplace transforms- frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits; 2-port network parameters-driving point & transfer functions; State equations for networks; Steady state sinusoidal analysis.6. Analog and Digital Circuits:Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTS and FETs; Diode circuits for different uses; Biasing & stability of BJT & JFET amplifier circuits; Analysis/design of amplifier- single/multi-stage; Feedback& uses; Active filters, timers, multipliers, wave shaping, A/D-D/A converters; Boolean Algebra& uses; Logic gates, Digital IC families, Combinatorial/sequential circuits; Basics of multiplexers, counters/registers/ memories /microprocessors, design& applications.PAPER – II1. Analog and Digital Communication Systems:Random signals, noise, probability theory, information theory; Analog versus digital communication & applications: Systems- AM, FM, transmitters/receivers, theory/practice/ standards, SNR comparison; Digital communication basics: Sampling, quantizing, coding, PCM, DPCM, multiplexing-audio/video; Digital modulation: ASK, FSK, PSK; Multiple access: TDMA, FDMA, CDMA; Optical communication: fibre optics, theory, practice/standards.2. Control Systems:Classification of signals and systems; Application of signal and system theory; System realization; Transforms& their applications; Signal flow graphs, Routh-Hurwitz criteria, root loci, Nyquist/Bode plots; Feedback systems-open &close loop types, stability analysis, steady state, transient and frequency response analysis; Design of control systems, compensators, elements of lead/lag compensation, PID and industrial controllers.3. Computer Organization and Architecture:Basic architecture, CPU, I/O organisation, memory organisation, peripheral devices, trends; Hardware /software issues; Data representation& Programming; Operating systems-basics, processes, characteristics, applications; Memory management, virtual memory, file systems, protection & security; Data bases, different types, characteristics and design; Transactions and concurrency control; Elements of programming languages, typical examples.4. Electro Magnetics:Elements of vector calculus, Maxwell’s equations-basic concepts; Gauss’, Stokes’ theorems; Wave propagation through different media; Transmission Lines-different types, basics, Smith’s chart, impedance matching/transformation, S-parameters, pulse excitation, uses; Waveguides-basics, rectangular types, modes, cut-off frequency, dispersion, dielectric types; Antennas-radiation pattern, monopoles/dipoles, gain, arrays-active/passive, theory, uses.5. Advanced Electronics Topics:VLSI technology: Processing, lithography, interconnects, packaging, testing; VLSI design: Principles, MUX/ROM/PLA-based design, Moore & Mealy circuit design; Pipeline concepts & functions; Design for testability, examples; DSP: Discrete time signals/systems, uses; Digital filters: FIR/IIR types, design, speech/audio/radar signal processing uses; Microprocessors & microcontrollers, basics, interrupts, DMA, instruction sets, interfacing; Controllers & uses; Embedded systems.6. Advanced Communication Topics:Communication networks: Principles /practices /technologies /uses /OSI model/security; Basic packet multiplexed streams/scheduling; Cellular networks, types, analysis, protocols (TCP/TCPIP); Microwave & satellite communication: Terrestrial/space type LOS systems, block schematics link calculations, system design; Communication satellites, orbits, characteristics, systems, uses; Fibre-optic communication systems, block schematics, link calculations, system design.Sourse UPSC website

What is the role and function of cortical oscillations (gamma, beta, alpha, theta)?

What is oscillating? The electromagnetic field caused by (1) certain types of nerve cells(neurons) that can generate rhythmic firing/spiking on their own without any input or by (2) dynamically assembled groups of connected neurons that individually spike irregularly in response to input, but collectively generate an oscillating field due to synchronization mechanisms driven largely by their connectivity.[ 20 , 25 , 30, 37,38 , 40]Oscillations have been observed at different frequency ranges and have been given different names such as delta (1-4Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12Hz), beta (12-30Hz), gamma (>30 Hz) etc. Figures 1 and 2 [30]Understanding these oscillatory patterns particularly by correlating with animal behavior, including humans, is serving as a valuable tool to reverse engineer mechanisms of brain function.[30]Several basic questions regarding oscillations remain unanswered requiring further study such as the details of their role, the neuronal mechanisms of their sources, how to interpret them, how to standardize measuring them etc.[44,46]What brain functions do these oscillations correlate with?Neurons fire in the backdrop of neighboring neurons, some of which may also be firing while the others listening, and they influence each other with excitatory and inhibitory connections. Figures 3,4 and 5. [20 , 25 ,30]The firing activity of neurons can be measured at different population scales - (1) individual neuron spiking, (2) activity of tens of thousands of neurons, (3) several millions and (4) the consolidated activity of multiple brain areas. The measurements can range from electric voltage recordings done inside neurons or outside in the space between them, to noninvasive measurement of the magnetic field registered outside the head. [ 26, 43]By measuring individual neuron firing spikes along with the background voltage oscillations in healthy/impaired humans and animals, oscillatory patterns with characteristic properties of frequency, modulation/coupling type etc. (Figure 6, 7 and 8) are beginning to emerge that correlate with different information/memory related activities such asCommunication across anatomically different regions of the brain.[7]Transient encoding, maintenance, and manipulation of memory (volatile/working memory, processing) [ 27, 35 ,42]Consolidating memory into long term storage (persistent memory) [41]Recall/Retrieval of memory from long term storage [41]What is an example of oscillations correlating with real life experience?Even though oscillations are present in all states of the brain, the example below highlights individual aspects where oscillations with different characteristics correlate with cognition,behavior, and memory.[14,7,8]Imagine the first time perception of a Ferrari sports car. The information about its color (red), the stimulus category (car) and its motion (moving fast) is processed in anatomically different regions in the brain, but simultaneously perceived together.These representations need to be linked by some mechanism to ensure that the brain assigns them to the same object. This binding function is made possible by communication across these different regions through coherent wave patterns.If this experience seemed so fantastic(novel experience), then we may also remember other details such as where we saw it (location) and even the minute detail of the aroma of a cheeseburger (smell) from a nearby restaurant as the Ferrari zips by.We may then immediately recall the experience internally (processing,working memory) reliving the experience or talk about it others.If the experience was so novel, the experience may be played in “fast forward” mode while we are asleep and consolidated into long term memory. Our recalling the experience to others over the course of next few days aids this consolidation and strengthening of this long term memory even further.A few months/years later, we may still recall that experience with all the minute detail including the aroma of cheeseburgers wafting in the air as the Ferrari zipped by.Of course, if one had little to no interest in cars, the memory would be transiently held, if at all it is, only to fade away soon or during the course of the day.Oscillations with characteristic properties of frequency, modulation and coupling type(multiple frequencies coupled in phase, amplitude etc.) correlate with each of the key aspects of this example – communication, processing,volatile memory, consolidation into persistent memory, and retrieval.What do we know so far about the role of oscillations?The firing of a neuron is driven by its input except for those special neurons that have intrinsic mechanisms to generate firing on their own.[30,37,38 ]Certain physical,electrical and chemical properties of a neuron dictate the time length of the sampling window of its input from other neurons, to be in the range of 10-30 msecs. A neuron will fire based on the input it samples in this time window. If an input spike to a neuron comes slightly later than this 10-30 msec time window, it will be sampled in the next time window - so it will be part of the next "event" as far as this neuron is concerned. Figure 2 [30, 34 ,45]Memory of events is encoded in the connection strengths between neurons. The altering of connection strengths between a pair of neurons also requires the participating neuron pair to be in certain activity states within a time window of 10-30 msecs.[30, 35 ,39]The 10-30 msec time constraint for the input sampling window and the same time constraint for the encoding of memory mandates a synchronization mechanism to make neurons fire in this short time window to constitute an event and to potentially store it, despite the individual irregular spiking behavior. [ 27, 32]For example, while information can be encoded quite sparsely in a small set of connected neurons for an aspect of sensory stimulus (e.g. the concept of a celebrity like Jennifer Aniston evoked by a photograph of her), it still requires sufficient number of neurons in this sparse set to fire synchronously to both constitute that information and subsequently recall that information. [ 17 , 18 , 21 , 35 , 41]This synchronous firing is made possible largely by the inhibitory actions of intermediate neurons that connect this sparse set, generating a local oscillating field. These inhibitory neurons help collectively time the spiking of these neurons to millisecond precision within certain phases of the oscillation field. Inhibitory neurons appear to also play a key role in containing the size of oscillating sparse group of neurons. This containment avoids an explosive growth in the group size of spiking neurons due to connectivity with other neurons Figure 11.[50, 20 ,40]The field oscillations that emerge from the synchronizing action of inhibitory neurons on the collective firing of the excitatory neurons satisfy the 10-30 msec constraint and hence have a frequency greater than 30 Hz ( 1000/30 = 33). Each oscillation conceptually frames spikes into time window slots with slot widths determined by the frequency. The spiking group of neurons that fire within a time slot may vary with each slot creating a temporal sequence of events [ 19] Figure 14The power in these high frequency oscillations ( > 30 Hz) is not much, given only a sparse set of neurons are typically involved. So these oscillations, on their own cannot transmit information across different anatomical regions of the brain, other than rare instances where direct wiring between distant regions have enabled synchronous oscillations across those regions Figure 13.[ 2 ,6 ,8]There are slower frequency oscillations involving larger number of neurons and hence with more power in their oscillations. The lower power high frequency oscillations that encapsulate information spikes "ride on" these higher power lower frequency oscillations by different modulation schemes. The longer time windows of these low frequency oscillations serve to nest and temporally serialize the higher frequency oscillations that encapsulate episodic events Figures 13 and 14.[11, 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 19 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 28 , 29 ,36 , 42,8]This appears to be the general mechanism behind communication of information between different parts of the brain. The saving of Ferrari sports car into persistent memory appears to be facilitated by similar coupling between higher and slower frequency oscillations. [ 43, 47, 48, 49 ,50]Humans and other mammals have a working memory store that is anatomically distinct from a long term memory store. While sleeping, a high frequency oscillating wave form ( ~ 200 Hz) has been observed in the working memory region that appears to perform a fast replay of memories encoded during the day and this replay is coordinated by a slower oscillation to consolidate some of those memories into the long term memory store. Figures 9,10 and 15. [31, 33 , 52 , 53]In the Ferrari car example, the simultaneous perception of different aspects of the car stored in different anatomical regions appear to be made possible by phase synchronized oscillations across these regions- communication through coherence. Figure 7 (image Ba) and Figure 12 [7, 13]FiguresFigure 1. Oscillatory classes in the cortex. State of the art Buzsaki Lab [Open]Figure 2. a, Location of the recording electrodes. b, c, Raster plots of 25 pyramidal cells that were active during a 1-s period of spatial exploration out of 68 simultaneously recorded neurons. b, Neurons are arranged in order of physical position in the CA1 pyramidal layer (colour-code refers to locations in a). Vertical lines indicate troughs of theta waves (bottom trace). Location-specific synchrony is not apparent in the population activity. c, The same spike rasters shown in b, reordered by stochastic search over all possible orderings to highlight synchrony between anatomically distributed populations. 'Cell assembly' organization is now visible, with repeatedly synchronous firing of some subpopulations (circled). Organization of cell assemblies in the hippocampus, Nature 2003Figure 3. Pacemaker neuron network that drives breathing. The top left figure shows a collection of pacemaker neurons in brainstem that drive breathing under normal conditions. The red and the blue circles are excitatory pacemaker neurons - the grey circles are the inhibitory non-pacemaker neurons.These red and blue pacemaker neurons generate spikes without any input. The figure to its right shows a red pacemaker neuron functioning alone under low oxygen conditions (hypoxia) generating the gasping response - the other pacemakers ( white circles labeled E) and inhibitory neurons (white circles labeled I) have gone silent. Pacemaker neurons and neuronal network: an integrative view, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 2004Figure 4. Central pattern generators. (a) Early work suggested two hypotheses for the generation of rhythmic and alternating movements. In the reflex chain model (left) sensory neurons innervating a muscle fire and excite interneurons that activate motor neurons to the antagonist muscle. Right, in a central pattern generator (CPG) model a central circuit generates rhythmic patterns of activity in the motor neurons to antagonist muscles. (b) Fictive motor patterns resemble those recorded in vivo. Top left, picture of a lobster with electromyographic recording (EMG) wires implanted to measure stomach motor patterns in the behaving animal. Top right, EMG recordings showing that triphasic motor pattern generated by the LP, PY, and PD neurons. Modified from [34]. Bottom left, in vitro preparation, showing the dissected stomatogastric nervous system in a saline-filled dish with extracellular recording electrodes on the motor nerves and intracellular recordings from the somata of the stomatogastric ganglion motor neurons. Bottom right, unpublished recordings by V. Thirumalai made in vitro from the stomatogastric ganglion of the lobster, Homarus americanus. The top three traces are simultaneous intracellular recordings from the somata of the LP, PY, and PD neurons, and the bottom trace is an extracellular recording from the motor nerve that carries the axons of these neurons. Note the similarity of the in vivo recordings and the fictive motor patterns produced in vitro in the absence of sensory inputs. STG, stomatogastric ganglion; OG, esophageal ganglion; CoG, commissural ganglion; lvn, lateral ventricular nerve. Central pattern generators and the control of rhythmic movements, Cell 2001Figure 5. Cellular mechanisms underlying pattern generation. (a) Neurons have different intrinsic properties. Some neurons fire bursts of action potentials endogenously (panel 1). In some neurons depolarizing current pulses trigger plateau potentials that outlast the duration of the depolarization but that can be terminated by hyperpolarizing current pulses (panel 2). Some neurons respond to inhibition with rebound firing (panel 3), and others show spike frequency adaptation (panel 4). (b)Rhythms can be generated by endogenous bursters, or can be an emergent property of synaptic coupling between non-bursting neurons. In pacemaker driven networks a pacemaker neuron or neuron (red) can synaptically drive an antagonist (green) to fire in alternation. The simplest example of a network oscillator is one formed between two neurons that fire non-rhythmically in isolation, but fire in alternating bursts as a consequence of reciprocal inhibition.Central pattern generators and the control of rhythmic movements, Cell 2001Figure 6. Oscillatory coupling mechanisms. (a) Schematic view of the human brain showing hot spots of transient gamma oscillations (i–iv) andtheta oscillation in the hippocampus (HI); entorhinal cortex (EC). Oscillators of the same and different kind (e.g., theta, gamma) caninfluence each other in the same and different structures, thereby modulating the phase, amplitude, or both. (b) Phase-phase coupling ofgamma oscillations between two areas. Synthetic data used for illustration purposes. Coherence spectrum (or other, more specific,phase-specific measures) between the two signals can determine the strength of phase coupling. (c) Cross-frequency phase-amplitudecoupling. Although phase coupling between gamma waves is absent, the envelope of gamma waves at the two cortical sites is modulatedby the common theta rhythm. This can be revealed by the power-power correlation (comodugram; right). (d) Gamma phase-phasecoupling between two cortical sites, whose powers are modulated by the common theta rhythm. Both gamma coherence and gammapower-power coupling are high. (e) Cross-frequency phase-phase coupling. Phases of theta and gamma oscillations are correlated, asshown by the phase-phase plot of the two frequencies. (f) Hippocampal theta oscillation can modulate gamma power by its duty cycleat multiple neocortical areas so that the results of the local computations are returned to the hippocampus during the accrual(‘‘readiness’’) phase of the slow oscillation. Mechanisms of gamma oscillations, Annual review Neurosciance 2012 [Open]Figure 7.Putative functions of phase synchronization. A | Neural oscillations may show phase synchronization (left; stable phase relationships) or may show no phase synchronization (right; variable phase relationships). Methods for the quantification of phase synchronization have been described extensively elsewhere116, 142. B | Potential roles of phase synchronization in neural processing. Blue curves represent oscillations of neural assemblies in two brain regions, arrows denote interregional information transfer. Ba | Phase synchronization of neural assemblies coordinates the timing of synaptic inputs to a common target region. Coincident activity (indicated by the box surrounding two coinciding spikes) thus reliably induces action potentials. Bb | Phase synchronization between multiple brain regions allows for efficient information transfer (indicated by the arrows) during excitable periods (the box indicates the first such period). Bc | Precise timing of action potentials resulting from phase synchronization between two regions can induce spike timing-dependent plasticity of the synaptic connections (depicted on the right) between these regions. Consequently, communication is facilitated further (indicated by thicker arrows). Bd | The putative function of theta phase synchronization between two regions. The propensity of action potentials that are propagated from region 2 to region 1 (indicated by the arrows) to induce synaptic plasticity in region 1 depends on the theta phase in region 1 during which the action potentials arrive. Therefore, phase synchronization in the theta range may serve to recruit memory-related regions (for example, the hippocampus) during periods of high susceptibility to synaptic potentiation (solid arrows). LTD, long-term depression; LTP, long-term potentiation. The role of phase synchronization in memory processes, Nature reviews 2011Figure 8. Phase amplitude Cross Frequency Coupling (CFC) occurs between distinct brain rhythms, but varies as a function of cortical area and task demands... The functional role of cross-frequency coupling, Cell, 2010 [Open]Figure 9. Reactivation of spike sequences. This figure shows a schematic illustration of how CA1 pyramidal cells tend to fire in the same order during sleep as during a prior track running session [37,38]. Upper panel: firing probability of six hippocampal pyramidal cells A–F as a function of the location of the rat as it traverses the linear track.Bottom panels: spike times of the same cells during sleep before and after the track running. Note that in the first sleep (the sleep before track running), cells fire in an order that is unrelated to ensemble firing patterns during subsequent track running. However, in sleep after exploration, the order of cell firing during an SWR reflects the order in which the cells fired during track running.Play it again:reactivation of waking experience and memory, Cell 2010 [Open]Figure 10. Proposed roles of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the formation and recall of remote memories. Initially, memories are encoded in hippocampal–neocortical networks (A, thick lines). At this early time point, the hippocampus is crucial for integrating information from distributed cortical modules, each representing individual components of a memory. However, over time direct projections from the hippocampus are thought to transfer a high-order representation of the memory to the PFC (B), which then uses this information to facilitate the transfer of information from the hippocampus to the neocortex, via the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices. As initially proposed for the hippocampus, the PFC may also use this version of the memory to strengthen the connections between the distributed cortical modules involved in the memory (thick lines), and to integrate the memory within related preexisting memories. Later, the PFC may also use this memory to identify and recall context-relevant information from remote memory stores. Finally, during recall of remote memories, the PFC appears to inhibit hippocampal activity (blue line), thereby preventing the encoding of redundant information. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Frankland & Bontempi, 2005. Hippocampal memory consolidation during sleep: a comparison of mammals and birds. biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2011[Open]Figure 11. Segregation of cell assemblies by inhibition. A. A ring of pyramidal neurons (1–6), mutually innervating an interneuron (i). The synaptic strength between the interneuron and pyramidal cell 4 is stronger than between other pairs. When pyramidal cell one receives an input (arrow), cells 1 to 3 are activiated while 4 to 6 remain silent (segregated).... Neural syntax: cell assemblies, synapsembles, and Readers[Open]Figure 12. Individual subdural recording sites from the patients studied by Watrous et al.1 (blue, prefrontal; green, parietal; orange, precuneus; yellow, parahippocampal).The red oscillation (1–4 Hz) represents coherence between brain regions during spatial memory. The orange oscillation (7–10 Hz) represents coherence between these regions during temporal memory. Multiplexed memories:a view from human cortex, Nature Neuroscience 2013[Open]Figure 13. Power spectrum of EEG from the right temporal lobe in a sleeping human subject. Subdural recording. Note the near-linear decrease of log power with increasing log frequency from .5 to 100 Hz. Neuronal oscillations in cortical networks, Science 2004[Open]Figure 14. Schematic of a neural code. The ovals at top represent states of the same network during two gamma cycles (active cells are black and constitute the ensemble that codes for a particular item). Different ensembles are active in different gamma cycles. The Theta-Gamma Neural Code, Neuron 2013Figure 15. Three phenomena that occur during sleep have been linked to memory enhancement—slow-wave oscillations in brain electrical activity, reactivation of recent experiences, and changes in synaptic connectivity but the strength of the evidence (indicated by arrow thickness) varies. As shown in red, Yang et al. link both reactivation and slow-wave sleep to changes in synaptic connectivity that enhance learning. Memories-getting wired during sleep, Science 6, June 2014ReferencesSome of the references below require subscription for viewing while others have open access. The ones that have open access are marked "[Open]".State of the art, Buzsaki lab [Open]Neuronal oscillations in cortical networks - Science, 2004 [Open]Organization of cell assemblies in hippocampus, Nature 2003Pacemaker neurons and neuronal network: an integrative view, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 2004Central pattern generators and the control of rhythmic movements, Cell 2001 [Open]Mechanisms of gamma oscillations, Annual review Neuroscience 2012 [Open]The role of phase synchronization in memory processes, Nature reviews 2011The functional role of cross-frequency coupling, Cell, 2010 [Open]Play it again:reactivation of waking experience and memory, Cell 2010 [Open]Hippocampal memory consolidation during sleep: a comparison of mammals and birds. biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2011[Open]Membrane Resonance Enables Stable and Robust Gamma Oscillations,Cerebral cortex, 2012Multifaceted roles for low-frequency oscillations in bottom-up and top-down processing during navigation and memory, NeuroImage 2014Multiplexed memories: a view from human cortex, Nature Neuroscience 2013 [Open] This is a review of the paper cited below [14]. A hypothesis called the 'spectral fingerprint' proposes that frequency band-specific inter-regional coherence subserves many cognitive processes. This hypothesis does not state that information is being encoded in low frequency oscillations. Rather, the idea is that setting two or more regions in phase coherence facilitates information transfer in single-unit volleys by local adjustments in likelihood of spiking.Frequency-specific network connectivity increases underlie accurate spatiotemporal memory retrieval, Nature Neuroscience, 2013 [Open]Gamma Oscillatory Firing Reveals Distinct Populations of Pyramidal Cells in the CA1 Region of the Hippocampus, Journal of Neuroscience, 2008 [Open]Recognition memory and theta-gamma interactions in the hippocampus, Hippocampus 2013Modulation of theta phase sync during a recognition memory task, Cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, 2012[Open]Phase-dependent neuronal coding of objects in short-term memory, PNAS 2009 [Open]Segmentation of spatial experience by hippocampal theta sequences, Nature Neuroscience 2012 [Open] This paper suggests based on encoding of spatial paths in rats, a mechanism for cognitive chunking of experience. When a rat navigates its environment, ongoing experiences are compressed into theta sequences. The spatial paths represented by theta sequences extend ahead of the animal while accelerating and begin farther behind the animal during deceleration.Spontaneous synchronization in nature IEEE 1997 [ Open] Discusses the prevalence of mutual synchronization of oscillators in nature such as the synchronized flashing on an off by Southeast Asian fireflies. When they begin to congregate in the early hours of night, their flickerings are uncoordinated. But as the night goes on, they build up synchrony and eventually whole treefuls pulsate in silent concert. Steven Strogatz, the author of this paper also mentioned Winfree's work on the nonlinear dynamics of large systems of coupled oscillators. Coupled oscillators are one of models used to explain the the emergence of synchronized oscillations among neurons.Concept cells: the building blocks of declarative memory functions, Nature reviews 2012 [Open]The Theta-Gamma Neural Code, Neuron 2013. This paper proposes a “neural code” of information processing/memory storage in the brain of rats though it remains to be seen if this code or a variant of it is ubiquitous across speciesFast Global Oscillations in Networks of Integrate-and-Fire Neurons with Low Firing Rates, Neural computation 1999 [ Open]The theta/gamma discrete phase code occuring during the hippocampal phase precession may be a more general brain coding scheme, Hippocampus 2005Layer and frequency dependencies of phase response properties of pyramidal neurons in rat motor cortex, European Journal of Neuroscience 2007Local field potentials, BOLD and spiking activity - relationships and physiological mechanisms, Nature 2010Theta-alpha cross-frequency synchronization facilitates working memory control - a modeling study, SpringerPlus 2013Analytical Insights on Theta-Gamma Coupled Neural Oscillators, Journal of mathematicl Neuroscience, 2013The principle of coherence in multi-level brain information processing, Progress in Biophysics and molecular biology 2013Neurophysiological and computational principles of cortical rhythms in cognition, Physiol Rev 2010 [Open] This review paper discusses a framework that goes beyond the conventional theory of coupled oscillators to explain field oscillations and reconciles the apparent dichotomy between irregular single neuron activity and field potential oscillations.Why there are compliementary learning systems in the hippocampus and neocortex:Insights from the successes and failures of connectionist models of learning and memory,Pshcological review 1995 [Open]A Synaptically Controlled, Associative Signal for Hebbian Plasticity in Hippocampal Neurons, Science 1997Hippocampal-cortical interaction during periods of subcortical silence, Nature 2012Reliability of spike timing in neocortical neurons, Science 1995 [Open] This paper offers evidence for a possible role for spike timing in the processing of information. A constant stimulus to a neuron leads to spike trains which become imprecise over time, whereas stimuli with fluctuations resembling synaptic activity (constant input along with computer generated filtered Gaussian white noise) produces spike trains with timings reproducible to less than 1 millisecond. Even though this experiment has no physiological significance since it does not factor in actual delays present in real life scenario (such as synaptic transmission delays) it is consistent with theories of cortical information processing where spike timing is important.Oscillatory correlates of memory in non-human primates, NeuroImage 2014Theta oscillations orchestrate medial temporal lobe and neocortex in remembering autobiographical memories, NeuroImage 2014[ Open]Principles of rhythmic motor pattern generation Phys. Review 1996Central pattern generators for bipedal locomotion, J. Math. Biol 2006[Open]The spike timing dependence of plasticity, Neuron 2012[Open] This paper reviews the cellular mechanisms for spike time dependent plasticity. When neuron A spikes ~0 to 20 msecs before neuron B, which it connects to fires, long term potentiation (connection strengthening) occurs. If neuron B precedes the spiking of neuron A by ~0 to 20-100 msecs, long term depression (connection weakening) occurs.Phase locking control in the Circle Map, Nonlinear dynamics 2007 This paper discusses how phase-locking between two oscillators happens when the ratio of their frequencies become locked in a ratio of p/q of integer numbers over some finite domain of parameter values.Brain oscillations and memory, Current opinion in neurobiology 2010 [Open]Working memory and neural oscillations: alpha-gamma versus theta-gamma codes for distinct working memory information? Cell 2014[Open]Detection of n:m phase locking from noisy data: application to magnetoencephalography, Physical review letters, 1998 [Open]Assessment of cross-frequency coupling with confidence using generalized linear models, NeuroImage 2013 [Open]Role of experience and oscillations in transforming a rate code into a temporal code, Nature 2002[Open]A Method for Event-related Phase/Amplitude Coupling, NeuroImage 2013[Open] The first author of this paper, Bradley Voytek is here on Quora.A θ-γ Oscillation Code for Neuronal Coordination during Motor Behavior, Journal of Neuroscience 2013Phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling in the human nucleus accumbens tracks action monitoring during cognitive control, Frontiers in human neuroscience, 2013[Open]Cross-Frequency Phase-Phase Coupling between Theta and Gamma Oscillations in the Hippocampus, Journal of Neuroscience, 2013[Open]Neural syntax: cell assemblies, synapsembles and readers, Neuron 2010[Open]High-order synchronization, transitions, and competition among Arnold tongues in a rotor using harmonic forcing, Physical Review 2008 [Open] Discusses the possibility of two or more coupled oscillators becoming synchronized when their autonomous frequencies are different but close, where the synchronization occurs as adjustment of those frequencies due to coupling. This form of coupling is in contrast to weak coupling where the frequencies of the individual oscillators do not change but oscillations still emerge due to coupling.Memories-getting wired during sleep, Science 6, June 2014Sleep promotes branch-specific formation of dendritic spines after learning Science, 6 June 2014Updated additional referencesA recent video lecture (Feb 2017) on the neuroscience of consciousness. Has references embedded in video related to oscillations. One particular mention of a paper (after 30 mins) examines how the brain perhaps reduces it prediction errors by adjusting its prediction in concert with sensory input - all within a single oscillatory cycle. The paper mentioned in video Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience - 28(9):1318 - Full Text (not open access)30 Sept 2019An informative talk on how the brain computes. It offers an explanation of how different sensory inputs (vision, auditory) that occur simultaneously can form associations when the inputs are projected randomly to a downstream region. This can happen not just across inputs but within a sensory stream. For instance, an experiment of former President Obama’s face shown along with an Eiffel tower makes a neuron that only fired for Eiffel tower later fires when shown just the face of the former President. Even if only a model, it is biologically grounded (for the most part) and the primitives for computation are fairly simple. The paper

How do I start preparing for the SSC SC Assistant (IMD)? In the 2nd part, will questions be on 1 subject or combined? Are BE/B.Tech students eligible?

To prepare for SSC IMD Scientific Assistant, you should firstly know about the exam pattern and its syllabus. Make notes of the formulas. it is easier to remember and find them later on. Study from only limited books only. Take online test or mock test to check your performance. Exam Pattern for SSC Scientific Assistant (IMD) is as follows: The examination will comprise of 200 questions carrying 200 marks for 2 hours duration. The question paper will have two parts i.e., Part – I & Part – II. In Part-II, there will be three separate papers on (i) Physics, (ii) Computer Science and Information Technology, and (iii) Electronics and Telecommunications. Candidates will have the option to choose any one of the above three question papers in Part-II. Syllabus for SSC IMD SC Recruitmenr Part-I (i) Ge(more)

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