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When will Israel withdraw from the occupied territories (West Bank, Gaza, Golan Heights, East Jerusalem)?

I am shocked to learn that East Jerusalem is considered one of the “occupied territories.” I’m assuming that means that some people think it should be “returned” to the Palestinians. The problem is, they NEVER “owned” it.East Jerusalem was occupied by Jordan (not the Palestinians) from 1948 (after Jordan and 4 other countries attacked the newly formed state of Israel) until 1967 (when Israel won the 6-Day War). That is only 19 years out of the city’s 5,000 year old history!!! Before that, Jerusalem was ruled by the British and before that the Ottoman Empire.Jerusalem is one of the oldest cities in the world. According to Wikipedia History of Jerusalem - Wikipedia (History of Jerusalem - Wikipedia). Jerusalem has been attacked **52 times**, captured and recaptured **44 times**, besieged **23 times**, and destroyed twice.Israel has occupied East Jerusalem for the past 51 years. Since Jerusalem has been “captured and recaptured 44 times”, would you not agree that it should currently be ruled by the latest entity to “capture” it??? In the entire history of the world, traditionally the victor of a war keeps the conquered territory.To refer to East Jerusalem as “occupied” makes it sound like it should be returned to the Arabs. However, Judaism and Christianity (not just Islam) consider Jerusalem one of their holiest cities.The word “Jerusalem” is in the Biblical Old Testament 660 times and in the Biblical New Testament 146 times. The synonym Zion is in the Biblical Old Testament 158 times and in the Biblical New Testament 7 times. In contrast, it is not listed once in the Koran.In 1,000 B.C. King David conquered Jerusalem and made it the capital of the Jewish kingdom. He wanted to build a temple for God since the Ark of the Covenant was being kept in a tent. (II Samuel 7:1-2)His son King Solomon built the First Temple in 957 B.C. on Mount Moriah. According to Genesis 22:1-8 (which is part of the Jewish Torah and the Christian Bible), this is the place where Abraham was tested by God to sacrifice his only son Isaac. The word “Isaac” is specifically listed six times in Genesis 22:1-8.However, Muslims believe that Abraham was challenged to sacrifice his first son Ishmael (whose mother was Hagar, the servant of Abraham’s wife Sara) not Isaac.The Koran does not name the child that Abraham was challenged to sacrifice, but Muslims believe that a case for Ishmael is supported by the Koran. Ishmael or Isaac? The Koran or the Bible?In 586 B.C., the Babylonians occupied Jerusalem, destroyed the Temple, and sent the Jews into exile. When the Jewish exiles returned from exile 60 years later they constructed a modest structure. (Ezra 3:8-13) Around 20 B.C. King Herod fully renovated and massively enlarged the second temple.In response to a Jewish revolt, Roman soldiers destroyed the temple in A.D. 70. They left the Western Wall of the temple. It was located near the most sacred part of the temple “the Holy of Holies” where the Old Testament/Torah says the Lord’s presence shall never depart. The wall is now considered the most sacred structure of the Jewish people. Each year over 1 million notes containing prayer requests are placed in its crevices, which staff collect to make space for other visitors.All 4 Gospels tell of Jesus teaching in the Temple in Jerusalem. On Palm Sunday Jesus rode a donkey on his triumphal entry to Jerusalem while the crowds shouted “Hosanna”, which means “God save us.” (Luke 19:29-44). The Last Super took place in Jerusalem. (Matthew 26:17-30) Jesus was betrayed at the Garden of Gethsemane. (Matthew 26:36-50)Jesus ascended into heaven 40 days after his death from Bethany, which is located on the Mount of Olives. (Luke 24:50–51)According to Zechariah 14:4-5 and Acts 1:11, Jesus is going to return on the Mount of Olives (the mountain is going to split) and enter through the Eastern Gate. To prevent this, in 1541 the Muslim Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent sealed the Eastern Gate. This fulfilled the Biblical prophecy found in Ezekiel 44:1-3. Israel Prophecies - The Golden Gate or Eastern GateAccording to Biblical prophecy, Jesus cannot return until the temple is rebuilt. (II Thessalonians 2:4) However, Muslims have built the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque right smack on top of the temple mount.Jerusalem is the third holiest city in the Islamic faith (after Mecca and Medina). Muslims believe that Muhammed ascended into heaven from the spot where the Al-Aqsa (which means “the farthest”) Mosque is currently located on the Temple Mount.The Night Journey is considered an Islamic miracle, where the angel Gabriel transported Muhammed from Mecca to Jerusalem on an angelic beast named Buraq for several hours to ascend into heaven to spend some time with Allah.However, the Koranic passage that talks about the “night journey” of Muhammad to the “farthest mosque” took place sometime in the year 621 while the mosque in Jerusalem was not built until 705 A.D.The Dome on the Rock is a shrine that contains the Foundation Stone. Muslims believe the stone marks the spot where Muhammad ascended into heaven. Jews believe it marks the location of either the Holy of Holies or of the Outer Altar. If it is the location of the Holy of Holies, then it is the most sacred spot in Judaism.Non-Muslims are not allowed to enter Mecca and Medina. Similarly, after the Jordanians took control of East Jerusalem in 1948, they did not allow Jewish people to enter. So for 19 years Jewish people were not able to worship at the religious sites in Jerusalem, which are the holiest sites in Judaism.While the Temple Mount (which houses the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque) is currently under Israeli sovereignty, it is administered by the Jerusalem Islamic Waqf. A waqf is a charitable trust recognized by Islamic law.Non-Muslims currently are not allowed to enter the Dome of the Rock or the Al-Aqsa Mosque The Temple Mount is only open to non-Muslims for four hours each day - 3 hours in the morning and 1 hour after lunch. Visitors are required to cover their arms and legs. (If a visitor does not have their arms and legs covered, waqf workers provide clothing to slip on over their clothes).Jewish prayer is forbidden on the Temple Mount. Back in April I saw a Jewish man get taken away by security for trying to pray on the mount, and I was politely asked to hide my cross necklace under my shirt.In 2015, rumors that Israel was going to impose changes at the site led to a “stabbing intifada,” meaning there were several knife attacks against Israeli civilians.In September 2000 right-wing Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon led a group of Israeli legislators onto the Temple Mount, which led to an intifada and thousands of deaths.On July 14, 2017 3 Arab Israelis killed 2 police officers near the Lion’s Gate with weapons they stashed at the Al-Aqsba Mosque. In response, Israel installed metal detectors, scaffolding, railings, and cameras. Arabs protested and they were removed on July 27, 2017. One year later on July 27, 2018 Arabs celebrated with a parade and fireworks.I will close with this. Christians believe that Jesus cannot come back until the temple is rebuilt. Since it is considered one of the holiest sites in Islam, it would take a miracle for that to happen.

What is the significance of Gulikan Theyyam? Why does north Kerala worship theyyams and prefer kavus than temples?

What is the significance of Gulikan Theyyam? Why does north Kerala worship theyyams and prefer kavus than temples?Ans: The question carries two questions. So the below is the answer to the first oneWhat is the significance of Gulikan Theyyam?A pacified form of Gulikan hearing prayers of devoteesGulikan is a form of Lord Shiva as per myths popular in Kerala. Don’t be confused with the Guligan/Kuligan who is an abstract form in the astrological calculation as present in one’s natal chart/horoscope etc. The latter is regarded as son of Lord Shani which has a minor planet concept and always regarded as similar to Rahu, Ketu etc.The Gulikan which we refer here is Lord Shiva, unrelated to Guligan of Astrology, even though the name and pronunciation are similar. Gulikan is heavily worshiped in Kerala, particularly in North Malabar. Even in Central Kerala, Gulikan worship exists, though not as strong as North Malabar and practically unheard in Travancore side.Originally Gulikan is one among traditional gods of a very old Dravidian tribe community called Paniya Community which now listed as a Scheduled tribe. The community had its base in Wayanad, Kozhikode, Kannur, Malappuram, Palakkad and hence Gulikan worship cult was strong in these regions which slowly got adopted among other castes and communities.As per Paniyan belief, Gulikan is one among 6 forms of Odiyan (spirits) that can affect and control human behavior and psyche. The other forms are Kali, Kooli, Chattan, Ankamalan, and Kochikiri whom they used to worship traditionally. Out of this, Kali and Gulikan were adopted by other communities and assigned a Hindu equivalent deity concept where Kali became as synonymous to the fierce form of Bhadrakali and Gulikan as similarly an extremely fierce form of Lord Shiva.The myth of Gulikan is that when Lord Shiva’s most devoted devotee -Markandeya clung to Shivalinga to save himself from Yama- the God of death who threw Yamapasham (ropes of death) over him, Lord Shiva got extremely furious. In his extreme fury, the entire anger of Lord Shiva came out from his thumb and assumed a terrible form to kill Yama. This extremely frightening form- Gulikan is described as high as the Himalayas, as wide as Earth, as Round fiery eyes like coconut, teeth resembling chisel, hands as tough as an arecanut tree, legs as strong as coconut tree trunk. Seeing this extreme frightening form, Lord Indra and other gods fell at the feet of Gulikan and sought redemption for Yama as, without him, there won’t be death and without death, the creation will suffer. To appease him, Indra offered blood and after drinking it, the form got pacified as Lord Shiva and restored the life of YamaAs the form appeared to kill the death (Yama) and protect devotees. people pray to this deity for long life, to ward off negative energies around them and seek divine protection.Traditional performance of Gulikan as part of Thottam invocationAs a traditional Dravidian belief which has no concept of temples as such then, the worship is done thro’ ritualistic performance when the dancer of a specific community (Paniyar) performs by donning the robes of Gulikan. When he does so, its believed, he gets tranced as Gulikan and he performs an extreme furious dance form which the priest (again from the same community) try to pacify by offering Guruthi. Guruthi originally means bloody sacrifice, which now replaced to the lime-turmeric mix which gives a blood-like liquid. However in many places, along with Guruthi, the sacrifice of cock and blood of the cock also offered to the Gulikan apart from palm toddy and tender meat. Upon drinking blood, the form pacifies and blesses all.The elaborate form of Gulikan in form of TheyyamGulikan performances are part of the much larger Theyyam-Thira culture of Malabar. Gulikan as such worshipped in small shrines called Gulikan Kavus (Kavu means Groves and normally temples-Kshetram is more associated with Brahminical Hinduism while Kavus are associated with non-Brahminical worship)Malayalam movie song- Moonam Thrikkanil from the movie- Varnakkazchchakal showcases Gulikan Thira in bit cinematic style. The lyrics of this music highlights how Gulikan is worshiped in Kerala, praising the greatness of Lord Shiva and seeking divine protection.The largest of Gulikan Kavu in Kerala is at Nileswaram in Kasargod, the north end of the state near Mangalore at Benkanakavu. The place itself derives its name from Lord Shiva in form of Nilaeswara or the Blue godThe following is the answer to the second question,Why does north Kerala worship theyyams and prefer kavus than temples?Theyyam is a uniquely Malabari variant of a universal Shamanic worldview, in which transcendental expressions of higher dimensional entities are conveyed to a believer through a flesh and blood template, i.e. the “performer,” who for the designated period of time becomes a living deity from whom blessings are sought. It posits the notion of a parallel, co-existing universe and that a human being after appropriate metaphysical initiation, can mount the physical or external effects of a specific entity, deity or being and then “become” that entity. In this exalted state, he takes on divine powers and is able to bless and heal as a God or Goddess.To understand a bit more, Theyyams are remnants of Pre-Brahminical Hindu culture in Kerala.The Brahminical form of Hinduism originates in the Vedic era which was based in and around North West India and Gangetic plains. The concept of temples as such came towards the end of the Vedic era and gained prominence by 1st AD period across India. Prior to that, there wasn’t much concept of Temples as such as Vedas itself do not have such a concept of worshipping idols at a physical structure.Karamel Sri Muchilottu Kavu which stands within a natural environment with less constructed bldgs unlike the typical temples elsewhere in KeralaBhagavati Theyyam coming out of Kammadam Kavu, one of Kerala’s largest Kavu, crucial for the region’s ecology. even in Kerala, much of the early forms of worship were associated with nature like Banyan trees, cornerstones etc which called as KAVU (the english equivalent word is GROVES).The concept of the temple as such came when Nampoothiris migrated into Kerala which should have happened post 2nd AD period. Even so, Nampoothiris community were mostly followers of Śrauta tradition which still continues, where the focus is more on Yajnas and fire sacrifices rather a temple worship cult.Kavus traditionally were patronized by other communities like Thiyyas and similar in Kerala. And in that period, Thiyas were a forward upper strata community (caste system came much later in Kerala), thus these Kavus etc had official royal patronages of that era. This was common across Kerala, not just Malabar as every community had their own Kavus or similar worship groves. Even Nairs had their groves which later we identify as Sarpakavus (Snake Groves) or Yakshi/Gandharva/Rakshas Kavus etc.For Srautha tradition following Nampoothiris, any place where they invoke divine energy thro’ sacrificial fires, is defined as a Kshetra or field which soon became the concept of templeIn this period, the temple as such concept was limited among Nampoothiri and they call their place of worship as Kshetram, not Kavu. Kshetram in Sanskrit means FIELD, not temple. This is because as Srauta Brahmins, they are into tantric and Yajna practices, where the focus is harnessing the divine energy and keeping themselves within a sphere of energy. And an energy field is called Kshetram as such which differs from congregational public worship concept of Kavus.The Nampoothiris traditionally was based in Central Kerala, primarily on the banks of River Nila (today’s Bharathapuzha). They almost recreated a Vedic River valley concept as like Gangetic concept on the banks of Nila, which explains why one sees a huge number of historic and ancient temples in and around Nila valley (modern districts of Malappuram, Palakkad, Thrissur, lower regions of Kozhikode etc)And its from here, they branched out to other regions of Kerala.What differs Nampoothiris from many Brahmin communities of India, especially the neighboring Tamil Brahmins, is their ability to absorb and accommodate local cultures while retaining their traditional and amalgamating local culture within their concepts. If we look neighboring TN, Tamil Brahmins always remained exclusive. They never accepted local myths, traditions, and beliefs of other communities as theirs which resulted in the existence of multiple concepts of temples, from traditional Tamil Brahmin ones to ordinary village folk temples.Nampoothiris on other hand were inclusive. They went on marrying people of other communities, mingling with them, absorbing their concept of gods and deities and reshaping and reassigning that to a Vedic narrative. In this way, they ensured the supremacy of them over it, while not offending other’s beliefs.It's in this way, a primarily Odiyan (Spirit) god, like Gulikan, got a Vedic myth cover of Shiva. It's not just case of Gulikan, rather every other traditional art forms, including Theyyam etc.One way of placing Nampoothiri hegemony over others is to absorb these deities within Hindu concept and defining new rituals and customs while retaining these as secondary or ritualistic performances. So the interest of Nampoothiris, as well as others, being served in an equal way.Nampoothiri influence or the concept of Brahminical Hindu faith started spreading mostly after 8th century AD, especially by 9th-10th Century when Chera Empire started weakening and the rise of other powers aligned to Nampoothiri interests (read Nair dominance).Its this time, the North Malabar came under the control of a non-Dravidian royal house linked to Nampoothiri culture- the Kolathiris of Chirakkal (regions in and around Kannur and North Malabar). Kolathiri much like any other later Malayalee Kingdoms were under influence of Nampoothiri and a huge number of shrines came up in this region which we can call as Temples in today’s context, primarily with Nampoothiri form of worship.But things went out of control by 11th-12th century when Kolathiris started questioning the Nampoothiri Hegemony and ended up in a major feud between Kolathiri and Nampoothiris over rights of Perinchellur/Taliparamba temple. This incident lead Kolathiris to invite Tulu Brahmins (Embranthiris) to Kerala under the leadership of Madhavacharya and they started worshiping many temples under Kolathiris.The bitter feuds between Kolathiri and Nampoothiris had another side effect. Nampoothiri temples and their worship culture rarely got Royal patronage. This helped many traditional Kavus and non-brahminical forms of worship from amalgamating with Nampoothiri culture.Every other major community like Thiyyas etc strongly preserved their native culture and refused to accept Nampoothiri hegemony over them.This was a contrast when compared to temples of Central Kerala, where Cochin Kings officially patronized Nampoothiris so well, that native culture got well amalgamated into Nampoothiri cult, hard to distinguish between original and later versions today during the period of 9th century-12th century. So as in Travancore side too, though they still had many traditional forms of worship due to the lesser number of Nampoothiri families in the region and prevailing of Tamil culture from down south.In areas related to Chirakkal, many Nair held Kavus became temples as Nairs accepted Nampoothiri hegemony and their form of worship changed to Nampoothiri style. The better example could be Lokanarkkavu or Thirumandhamkunnu etc which became temples…By 14th century, Chirakkal almost came under Nampoothiri influence completely. By then the political and spiritual contexts were changing in Kerala. Malabar as the whole became a major war zone between various feuding Kings like Zamorin, Polathiri, Chirakkal, Arakkal etc thus less time for patronizing temples. So as in the spiritual arena, Bhakti movement started, where concepts of multiple forms of divinity etc got a rapid public acceptance.So much of Nampoothiri families lost their zealous interest in amalgamating the remaining Kavus and other shrines into the Brahminical fold, rather they accepted with what they had.This lead allowing traditional kavus to remain as like it used to remain. Nampoothiris when introduced Caste system, relegated Thiyas and many other communities who didn’t accept their hegemony as lower castes and hence much later they found hard to perform poojas or even visit shrines of such communities which they believed as inferior communities.As there was little effort to absorb the existing culture of Theyyams and rituals associated with these Kavus into the Brahminical fold, they got preserved well.There are many famous Non-Brahminical forms of worship cult in North Malabar, hard to see in other parts of Kerala (due to absorption of multiple cults into brahminical Hinduism and standardizing worship procedure)Theyyam, Thira and similar art forms are classical examples of old-style worship culture contrary to Tantric worship culture of remaining temples of Kerala.The ritualistic dance as a mode of worshipping as common in Non-Brahminical temples of North MalabarMany famous temples in Malabar still continue the non-Brahminical/Dravidian form of worship, which includes the famous Parassinikadavu Muthappan temple etc.In all these temples, its non-Brahmins who performs the rites which are generally simple in nature (contrary to the highly complex tantric worship in other parts of Kerala). So as Theyyams, Thiras form the key way to worship the deity. At the same time, there are indeed larger Brahminical temples in the region too. Both of them have a strong symbiotic relationship due to many cultural exchanges while remaining in their independent identity.

Was Alexander the Great scared of the Magadha King Dhana Nanda and thus failed to conquer India?

Due to some unknown reason, you all seem to have been foxed and wish to remain complacent while being foxed over the notion and reality of Archetype India. It is simply beyond our comprehension why you have been equating Archetype India (Micro-India) with Modern India (Macro-India) and taking these two as synonyms. The historian in you should have had leaped up to his toes to take note of the fact that Archetype India has been the theme of all ancient books viz. Puranas, Tales of Ancient Geographers (Indika et al). The synonym Bharat (of India) always referred to the Original Aryavarta (Archetype Aryavarta, Micro-India) which is different from its expanded form of later times. How could you reap true Indian history with this basic ignorance?Let’s get down to a serious discussion on this matter.We have with us quite a few notes on India ascribed to such alien and ancient personages as Megasthenes, Arrian, Strabo and many others. We have, after all, with us the Puranas and other local ancient works that teem with multifarious historical hints.What do the ancient seers speak? Here is a glimpse of Megasthenes :Quote-1: Segment of Megasthenes’s INDIKA(Section 37/ Fragment I/ Diod.II.35-42/AnEpitome of Megasthenes)“India, again, possesses many rivers both large and navigable, which, having their sources in the mountains which stretch along the northern frontier, traverse the level country, and not a few of these, after uniting with each other, fall into the river called the Ganges. Now this river,which at its source is 30 stadia broad,flows from north to south, and empties its waters into the ocean forming the eastern boundary of the Gangaridai, a nation which possesses a vast force of the largest-sized elephants. Owing to this, their country has never been conquered by any foreign king : for all other nations dread the overwhelming number and strength of these animals.Thus Alexander the Macedonian, after conquering all Asia, did not make war upon the Gangaridai, as he did on all others; for when he had arrived with all his troops at the river Ganges, and had subdued all the other Indians, he abandoned as hopeless an invasion of the Gangaridai when he learned that they possessed four thousand elephants well trained and equipped for war.“What could be the implications of this segment of Megasthenes’s narrative? Implications of this passage are many. The major and minor statements incorporated in this passage are : (1) Most of India’s numerous rivers primarily stretch along country’s northern border. (2) Most of the Indian rivers unite with one another and finally fall into Ganges. (3) Ganges flows from north to south. (4) It forms the eastern boundary of the country of Gangaridai. (5) The chief constituent of the military might of the Gangaridai was a very large number of large-sized trained and equipped war-elephants. (6) The country of Gangaridai had never been conquered by any foreign king. (7) Alexander did not wage war against Gangaridai even after conquering rest of India and rest of Asia, because such a military mission against this country would be hopeless. (8) Alexander had arrived on the bank of Ganges with troops.Let’shave another glimpse of Megasthenes.Quote-2: Segment of Megasthenes’s INDIKA (Fragment XX.B/Plin.Hist.Nat.VI.21.9-22/ Of the Indus and the Ganges)“The Prinas and the Cainas (each a tributary of Ganges) are both navigable rivers. The tribes which dwell by the Ganges are the Calingae, nearest the sea and higher up the Mandai, also the Malli, among whom is Mount Mallus, the boundary of all that region being the Ganges.”In this segment of Megasthenes’s write-up, we find reference to a firm connection between Ganges and Kalinga (Calingae). Megasthenes-pronounced Ganges couldn’t be different from Puranic Ganga or the Original Ganga. Similarly, Megasthenes-pronounced Calingae (Kalinga) couldn’t be different from Puranic/Original Kalinga.Incase there is any doubt about ascribing the names Calingae and Kalingai to oneand the same territory, let’s read the following segment of Megasthenes’s narrations.Quote-3: Segment of Megasthenes’s INDIKA (Sec-18/Fragment XX.B)“The island, then, in the great sea, which they call Taprobane, has palm-groves, where the trees are planted with wonderful regularity all in a row, in the way we see the keepers of pleasure parks plant out shady trees in the choicest spots. It has also herds of elephants, which are there very numerous and of the largest size. These island elephants are more powerful than those of the mainland, and in appearance larger, and may be pronounced to be in every possible way more intelligent. The islanders export them to the mainland opposite in boats, which they construct expressly for this traffic from wood supplied by the thickets of the island, and they dispose of their cargoes to the king of the Kalingai.”This passage about Taprobane (erstwhile Srilanka) manifests the identity of Kalingai and equates it with that of Gangetic Calingae in terms of geographical location(being situated on the other shore of the sea that separates Taprobane and Kalingai) and elephantine ambition and prowess.Whoare the Gangaridai of Quote-1? Aren’t they to be identified with the Calingae of Quote-2? Yes, Gangaridai and Calingae ought to be identical and they are. This inference is further strengthened by the following segment of Megasthenes’s narrative on Ganges and Indus.Quote-4: Segment of Megasthenes’s INDIKA (Fragment LVI.B/ Solin.52.6-17/Catalogue of Indian Races)“The greatest rivers of India are the Ganges and Indus and of these some assert that the Ganges rises from uncertain sources and inundates the country in the manner of the Nile, while others incline to think that it rises in the Scythian mountains. … The Hypanis is also there, a very noble river, which formed the limit of Alexander's march, as the altars erected on its banks prove. … The least breadth of the Ganges is eight miles, and its greatest twenty. Its depth where it is shallowest is fully a hundred feet. The people who live in the furthest-off part are the Gangarides, whose king possesses 1,000 horse, 700 elephants, and 60,000 foot in apparatus of war.”We must be aware of the contingencies of a protracted time-travel of an ancient document like INDIKA. Marginal decay,mutation or metamorphosis of the document is possible, even obvious. On the other hand, quite probable is continuance of at least the unique skeletal essence of the decayed, mutated or metamorphosed document.We ought to concentrate on the skeletal essence. Details are likely to be inconsistent within the document itself and may vary with contemporary reality.Irrespective of the inconsistent description of military might of the Gangarides of Quote-4 and Gangaridai of Quote-1, the essence of the above quote in the context of Ganges and Gangaridai/ Calingae/ Gangarides is that the latter are indeed the denizens of Gangetic basin closer to coast.The Kalinga clue emerges here out of multifarious confirmation of Kalinga’s persistent location and consistent identity respectively in terms of proximity to sea, large river and Taprobane and its proximality (centrality) in elephantine prowess.While deciphering historicity of these quoted passages, we shall take into account ‘historical parallax’ that creep into time-vision and ‘historical attenuation’ that creep into sequential recording. The consequence of such parallax and attenuation would naturally be insinuation of conflict, confusion and inconsistency into apparent/interpreted meanings of these passages, albeit these passages could be ascribed to one and the same source.So our hermeneutical approach (meaning-seeking and meaning-fetching endeavors)would be best served by the ‘median’ across the zigzag of multi-faceted historical information. The disposition of the ‘story median’ could be foreshadowed even by a single historical pointer and determined/ confirmed by multiple historical pointers after requisite and repeated readjustment, if necessary.The Kalinga-pointer is applied to narrations of Ganges-Calingae connections in the given quotes firstly to reap confirmation of Ganges-Kalinga Proximity and then to heuristically superimpose modern Mahanadi upon erstwhile Ganges/ Puranic Ganga to reap the Mahanadi-Ganges Identity.Now let’s look for evidences of intimate association between Ganges and Kalinga. Here are some relevant segments gleaned from INDIKA’s other passages.Quote-5: Segment of Megasthenes’s INDIKA (Fragment LVI/Plin.Hist.Nat.VI.21.8-23.11/ List of Indian Races)“The races which we may enumerate without being tedious, from the chain of Emodus, of which a spur is called Imaus (meaning in the native tongue snowy), are the Isari, Cosyri, Izgi, and on the hills the Chisiotosagi, and the Brachmauae, a name comprising many tribes, among which are the Maccocalingae. The river Prinas and the Cainas (which flows into the Ganges) are both navigable. The tribes called Calingae are nearest the sea, and higher up are the Mandei, and the Malli in whose, country is Mount Mallus, the boundary of all that district being the Ganges.”Quote-6: Segment of Megasthenes’s INDIKA (Fragment LVI/ Plin.Hist.Nat.VI.21.8-23.11/List of Indian Races)“This river (Ganges), according to some, rises from uncertain sources, like the Nile, and inundates similarly the countries lying along its course; others say that it rises on the Skythian mountains, and has nineteen tributaries, of which, besides those already mentioned, the Condochates, Erannoboas, Cosoagus, and Sonus are navigable. Others again assert that it issues forth at once with loud roar from its fountain, and after tumbling down a steep and rocky channel is received immediately on reaching the level plains into a lake, whence it flows out with a gentle current, being atthe narrowest eight miles, and on the average a hundred stadia in breadth, andnever of less depth than twenty paces (one hundred feet) in the final part of its course, which is through the country of the Gangarides. The royal city of the Calingae is called Parthalis.”Quote-7: Segment of Megasthenes’s INDIKA (Fragment LVI/Plin.Hist.Nat.VI.21.8-23.11/ List of Indian Races)“There is a very large island in the Ganges which is inhabited by a single tribe Modogalingae.”The issue of identity of Calingae and Gangaridai/ Gangarides has been broadly settled. The remaining ruffled concern could be ironed out by inspecting these potential synonyms more closely. What does Gangaridai or Gangarides really mean? Are these two terms synonyms, pointing to identical meanings?The Latin Dictionary answers these questions adequately. Surprisingly, both Gangaridai and Gangarides are mentioned in the Latin Dictionary along with Ganges. Incidence of Gangarides and Gangaridai in Greek/ Latin dictionary speaks of the then global fame of Kalinga and Kalingans. Both terms viz. Gangaridai and Gangarides mean one and the same thing : ‘a people in India, on the Ganges’.What do Modogalingae and MaccoCalingae mean? The Latin Dictionary offers partial help in understanding the former term insofar as it explains ‘modo’ and leaves the probable meaning of the composite term to our imagination and discretion. ‘Modo’ is used in various ways in Latin/ Greek Language to imply ‘only, early, just’. Could thus this prefix of Calingae refer to exclusiveness of their habitation on the banks of Ganges? The overall feeling is that Calingae, ModoGalingae, MaccoCalingae could be referring to the one and the same people.It now seems quite importunate that Ganges of the ancient Greeks/ Macedonians and Kalinga are inextricably connected. This reinforces Ganges-Kalinga proximity.The next historical matter that comes into view is Mahanadi-Ganges identity which arises out of imminence of identity between ancient Ganges/ Ganga and modern Mahanadi flowing in the middle of modern Odisha. Mahanadi is thus to be the modern apparition of the Greek Ganges and Puranic Ganga. To wit, Mahanadi is Ganga proper.Could this finding really be news to us? It wouldn’t be a news, had we been perusing carefully the innumerable related tidings upon the pages of ancient books and documents including the ancient Indian records viz. Puranas, Mahabharata,Ramayana etc.Forexample, we open up this page of Ramayana to see what it has to say or imply aboutthe connection between Mahanadi and Ganga :Quote-8: Segment of Srimad Valmiki Ramayanam (77thSarga/ Part II/ Ayodhya Kandam)“nireekshyanugataan senaan taan cha GANGAAnshivodakaam /Bharatah sachivaan sarbaanabrabeedvaakyakobidah /nibeshyaata me sainyambhiprayenasarvashah /bibhrantah pratorisyaamah shvaidaaneem MAHANADEEm /daatum cha tavadichhaami svargatasyamaheepateh /aurdhadehanimittarthamateeryodakamnadeem /tasyaivam brubatoamaatyahtatheityuktvaa samaahitaah /nyaveshayan taan shabdena svena svenapruthak pruthak /niveshya GANGAAmanu taan MAHANADEEM/chamuun vidhaanaih parivarhashobhineem/uvaasa Raamasya tadaa mahatmano /vichintayaano Bharato nivartanam”Meaning abstract : On the banks of the sacred river GANGA, Bharata said thus to the officers of his army, “We shall be crossing the MAHANADI tomorrow morning. Letthem rest well tonight. Also, I wish to perform the river ritual for the late Emperor.”The ministers consented to this proposal and deployed the soldiers inrespective camps. Thus Bharata spent the night there as the army of large retinue was being systematically harbored on the bank of MAHANADI GANGA.The message of this quote is quite clear. In ancient India, Mahanadi was probably the second name or synonym of erstwhile Ganga. This conjecture would deepen into inference as the number of evidences would rise. And we could quote numerous references from pages of Puranas to reinforce Mahanadi-Ganga identity.Immense historical potentiality of the names of Mahanadi and Ganga and their frequent incidence in ancient accounts would underscore the Mahanadi Ganges identity.Let’s return to the meaning of terms Gangaridai and Gangarides given in the Latin Dictionary: ‘a people in India, on the Ganges’. You may note how Ganga and India are inextricably connected.So where was Original India, the Original Bharat?Ancient India geographically superposed Kalinga which was one of the constituent of the then India’s heartland. India was situated on the eastern coast, hugging the Eastern Sea (Prachi Samudra) of Paradip on its east and the Southern Sea (Dakshina Samudra) of Puri on its south. Because India was the Odishan Promontory, the erstwhile Jambudvipa that cradled Mahanadi Ganga and its labyrinthine tributaries. That’s the surreal land under whose spell came the rest of India by and by. That was the surreal land that was known to the Chinese as ‘Indu’, meaning ‘the heavenly land’ in reference to Buddha’s birthplace and earliest seat of Buddhism. It is this heavenly land that became the destination of the ambitious Alexander, the Great. It is this heavenly land that kept him tantalized until his death. However, he did serve his dream byway of sending Nearchus, his Principal General on a Deep Sea Mission to find asea route from India to Babylon, so that two civilized ends of the then world enjoy eternal friendship. Nearchus’s large fleet left Indian coast emerging throughof the mouths of the great Mahanadi-Vaitarani-Brahmani-Chillika Delta.This is only the beginning of the great tale of Ancient India. The details of this great tale can, to a large extent, be redeemed from the pages of the ancient books. Unfortunately most of us have been foxed by the fake.

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