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## How did Theodore Weld Smith learn quantitative finance?

Let’s start with a short story on how I learned about what quant finance is and what quants do. (Also let me make it clear that I have not in any way whatsoever mastered quant finance at all—have not gotten near that, so “How did Theodore Weld Smith learn quant finance” is a bit difficult to address as it isn’t a done-deal at all, rather a continuous process, but I’ll describe here how I’ve accomplished this task thus far).I was sitting in a frozen yogurt shop on Euclid talking with my dad about the professions people with math or physics degrees pursue outside of academia, and he mentioned that you could become a quant at a hedge fund—and he spoke of the famous quantitative hedge fund Renaissance Technologies and how their employee base consists of Princeton physics PhDs. This happened approximately three years ago.After hearing of this I looked into Renaissance Technologies and learned as much about them as I could on the internet, much of it here on Quora from people such as Vladimir Novakovski. Then I opened up a brokerage account and started doing some trading on my own, and was pretty successful.I continued to fully immerse myself in the subject, as I do with anything that I become interested in. My original interest was in algorithmic trading, which quantitative finance and the jobs of quants plays into. Quantitative finance is really just applied math—but it implies the programming implementation as well in 2019 (most quants know how to code too—and not just R or Excel).I started with looking through the internet for general information on the topic, here are the mediums that came up frequently:Quorar/algotrading (I’d recommend some caution on this subreddit now as its quality has declined severely, it used to be good but unfortunately now is filled with questions about how to use cryptocurrency APIs).Quantitative Finance Stack ExchangeNuclear PhynanceQuantopian I used extensively before I decided to invest in creating my own environment for developing and testing trading algorithms. I’d recommend it for any beginner looking to get into the field.QuantConnect I also used a bit for the same reasons.various news articles on algorithmic trading and HFT from places such as Forbes or Bloomberg.Then, I did something that is the largest distinction by far with any other of the subjects I have had intense interests in (physics and aerospace engineering as examples): I talked to people! I initiated conversations with tons of people on the internet. When you’re a fourteen year old asking questions about the significance of the efficient market hypothesis and how log normal returns are represented by geometric Brownian motion and how that plays into pricing derivatives… you tend to get people’s attention. Sometimes in a negative way, but overwhelmingly it has been positive. My success rate was (and still is) astoundingly high! Here were some of the places where I found most of these people:QuoraFacebook (often it was friends of someone who was a quant that I had already been interacting with; a lot of my relationships with people in the finance field can be traced back to 4 or so people).RedditLinkedIn (mostly Citadel, Jump Trading, and Jane Street people, I sent many of them connection requests and started talking with them).Quantitative Finance StackExchangeI then explored the topics that exist inside of quantitative finance, i.e., the subjects that apply to quant finance. Here are some of those topics and the sub-topics within them.Probability TheoryStochastic ProcessesStochastic calculus (lots of Ito’s Lemma[1])Markov Chains (yes, a kind of stochastic process)Brownian motion (same case as iii)Expectation value & confidence intervalsLinear AlgebraHessian MatrixHamiltonian Matrices (good stuff on this in the MCMC book).Stochastic Matrices (covered well in chapter six of the second book mentioned below).C++Concurrency & parallelismMemory ManagementTemplate meta-programmingdealing with large matrices and linear algebra computationsdealing with trading APIs (most prominently Interactive Brokers)The QuantLib C++ library for derivatives pricing.Pythonimplementing the various aforementioned math concepts programmaticallyvarious libraries within scipy and numpy, e.g., numpy.fft[2] , scipy.signal[3], etc.machine learning libraries in Python (mostly sklearn[4]), I plan on trying to learn how to use Tensorflow, though.Machine learning (covered a bit in the Python section, but here’s more)Recurrent neural networksLSTM models, (a sect of i)Sequence to sequence (commonly reffered to as Seq2Seq) learning with neural networksThere are probably more things that I’ll edit and include later, this is currently all in my mind.Here are some of the books I used along this process, starting with probability theory and statistics. I must thank my dad yet again for this as approximately 86% of the books mentioned (in all sections—not just probability) are his, many of which I “temporarily borrowed”. Also don’t think that just by virtue of these texts being mentioned that I understand everything from them, as this is not necessarily the case. I am merely putting them here as I have / am consulting them for my learning process of the quant field.Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists: Sheldon M. Ross: BooksIntroduction to Stochastic Models: Second Edition (Dover Books on Mathematics) : Roe Goodman, MathematicsStatistical Learning with Sparsity: The Lasso and Generalizations (Chapman & Hall/CRC Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability) : Trevor Hastie, Robert Tibshirani, Martin WainwrightStatistical Decision Theory and Bayesian Analysis (Springer Series in Statistics): James O. BergerHandbook of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (Chapman & Hall/CRC Handbooks of Modern Statistical Methods): Steve Brooks, Andrew Gelman, Galin Jones, Xiao-Li MengProbability, Random Processes, and Estimation Theory for Engineers by Stark, Henry, Woods, John W.(February 23, 1994)Linear algebra.Numerical Linear Algebra: Lloyd N. Trefethen, David Bau IIIMatrix Computations (Johns Hopkins Studies in Mathematical Sciences)(3rd Edition): Gene H. Golub, Charles F. Van LoanApplied Matrix Algebra in the Statistical Sciences (Dover Books on Mathematics): Alexander BasilevskyC++.C++ Primer (5th Edition): Stanley B. Lippman, Josée Lajoie, Barbara E. MooThe C++ Programming Language (hardcover) (4th Edition): Bjarne StroustrupC++ Concurrency in Action: Practical Multithreading: Anthony Williams (all based on stuff from the C++11 standard, a newer version came out just four days ago that covers content from the C++14 and C++17 standards).I do not have any books on templates at the moment and various other important topics, I may purchase some soon but a great deal of my learning with those topics has been just all over the internet, a favorite spot of mine is cppreference.com.Math (other)Ordinary Differential Equations (The MIT Press): V.I. Arnold, Richard A. SilvermanA First Course in Partial Differential Equations: with Complex Variables and Transform Methods (Dover Books on Mathematics): H. F. Weinberger:Applied Multivariate Analysis (Springer Texts in Statistics): Neil H. TimmProgramming (other)Real World OCamlI think the main reason I have been successful with this has actually nothing to do with programming or math skills at the moment: it’s about taking social risks. Creating these various internet accounts, interacting with adults, venturing into professional adult-dominated spaces, etc. you really stand out as someone my age and it’s a good thing. “and don't be afraid of taking social risks - they dont matter in the long run” to quote Alex K. Chen. It is one of the keys to success.After I did all this exploration (which I continue everyday), I started writing about it here on Quora and various other mediums (mostly the Quantitative Finance StackExchange and the r/highfreqtrading subreddit I made and moderate).Hopefully this is interesting / useful for some.ALSO: If anyone has any recommendation for further reading in the math (specifically stochastic processes section), I’d appreciate some books. Preferably unrelated to finance, actually.Footnotes[1] Itô's lemma - Wikipedia[2] Discrete Fourier Transform ([3] Signal processing ([4] scikit-learn: machine learning in Python

## How can I start preparing for GATE CSE 2018?

Even though you can crack the GATE in 100 Days. To qualify the GATE Exam, you should have high concentration, dedication, and hard work continuously.As the GATE is an India Level Entrance test, the competition for the GATE is very High. So, to score good mark, you must have proper preparation time table and hard work throughout the 3 Months. Here I will help you to prepare your perfect 100 Days Plan.I promise you if you prepare for GATE Exam as per 90 days plan, it will be good enough to crack GATE Exam.Remember :-“If you have a dream, don’t just sit there. Gather courage to believe that you can succeed and leave no stone unturned to make it a reality.”Nothing is impossible when there is a way to achieve it. Stay patient during preparation and trust the journey of these 90 days of GATE preparation.Now , You must be thinking that i will give you Day 1 to Day 90 , Subjects Schedule. Topic Schedules and Revision plans and other things. Yes you are right , But I will go beyond that.So Let’s start :-First You have to believe yourself that You can crack the GATE. You have the capability, passionI suggest Before reading further , Please watch these five videos on Youtube.Ok , Now you have watched all the videos. I also recommend daily watch these videos, whenever you are free or unmotivated or tired.Now I am going to tell you major tectices . If you have a very big task , then divide it into multiple smaller milestones. For example if someone told you that Build a Building in 100 Days, What the strategy would be first 20 Day Build the base , Next 40 Day Build the walls , 20 Day Build the Roof , Last 20 Days Interiors and Beautification.In the sameway we have divided the your whole “100 Days Study Plan” in multiple and small- small Milestones. You can celebrate each milestone after achieving it :)So before starting the first milestone you should be ready with the following question :-How Much time daily i can devote for GATE Exam ? (Suggestion 4 to 8 hours)Did i have the GATE 2018 Syllabus printout ready and i pasted this at my study room ?What are my strong and weak subjects?Ready with two Notebook - 1. Making Notes 2. Writing Mistakes done in Test ?After completion of particular topic, what gift i will give my self ? ( Why i am asking this ? The reason is to keep you focused , for example you love playing a video game/talking to your GF or BF or watch youtube videos . Now you can keep yourself motivated once i finish this chapter and solve ten problems i will play my favorite video Game or talk to my girl friend).Do i have all books/materials/online course ready to start preparation?Do you have core group of 4 or 5 students , who are also preparing for GATE ? If you don't have any group join Facebook Group or join our facebook group here.Do i know the GATE Exam Pattern ?Do I have subjectwise weightage of GATE Exam ?Do i have pasted some motivational quote and poster in my study room and at my mobile wallpaper ?Once You are Ready with above ten points let's dig into Milestone 1 -Milestone 1 - Complete Engg Maths - Target Days - 20 DaysMathematics subject can help you for scoring good in GATE. You just require practicing all types of problems and remember formulas and definitions. If you practice well in this subject, your attempting time for mathematics will take less time to answer. Good mathematician always do well in engineering.Basically it doesn’t matter what book you read or how many you read it matters that given a particular topic you should clearly with the concepts from one book or more than one book or taking reference from online or watching video lectures and being able to solve previous years question papers for that particular topic.Target Days - 20 DaysRecommended Book - Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications with Combinatorics and Graph Theory, Author’s Name: Kenneth H. Rosen, Edition: 7Higher Engineering Mathematics, Author’s Name: B. S. Grewal, Edition: 43Weightage in the Exam - 15 MarksKey topics of Engineering Mathematics :- Functions, Relations, Counting, Propositional Logic, Predicate Logic, Graph Connectivity, Matching, Matrix Algebra, Probability.Syllabus - Discrete Mathematics: Propositional and first order logic. Sets, relations, functions, partial orders and lattices. Groups. Graphs: connectivity, matching, coloring. Combinatorics: counting, recurrence relations, generating functions.Linear Algebra: Matrices, determinants, system of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, LU decomposition.Calculus: Limits, continuity and differentiability. Maxima and minima. Mean value theorem. Integration.Probability: Random variables. Uniform, normal, exponential, poisson and binomial distributions. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation. Conditional probability and Bayes theorem.5 Points Checklist for “Engg Maths”Did your Notes Ready ?Did you revise once at 20th Day ?How many questions you have solved ? is it enough ?Give 2 Subject Test after revision and prepare a note of the wrong answers with reason.If in above 4 Points are not completed please complete is as soon as possible.Then only move to Next Milestone.Congratulations you Achieved Milestone 1 successfully. Now you are one more steps closer to cracking GATE Exam. Tap you Back.Milestone 2 - Aptitude - Target Days - 5 DaysIt’s very easy to score good marks in aptitude . Question are also very easy. That is the reason most of the students ignore this. They think they will score well. You know generally GATE cutoff’s are 25 Marks , If you do Maths and Aptitude very well , you can easily lear the GATE cutoff .Hence I strongly say pls don’t ignore Aptitude. Aptitude can be prepared in less time compared to other subjects. Focus only on GATE Syllabus and read all important topics.Target Days - 5 DaysRecommended Book - A Modern Approach to Verbal & Non-Verbal Reasoning, Author’s Name: R.S. Aggarwal, Edition: RevisedQuantitative Aptitude For Competitive Examinations, Author’s Name: R.S. Aggarwal, Edition: 7Weightage in the Exam - 15 MarksSyllabus - Verbal Ability: English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups, instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.Numerical Ability: Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and data interpretation.5 Points Checklist for “Aptitude”Did your Notes Ready ?Did you revise once at 20th Day ?How many Numerical questions you have solved ? is it enough ?Give 2 Subject Test after revision and prepare a note of the wrong answers with reason.If in above 4 Points are not completed please complete is as soon as possible.Then only move to Next Milestone.Congratulations you Achieved Milestone 2 successfully. Now you are one more steps closer to cracking GATE Exam. Tap you Back.Milestone 3 - Programming and Data Structures - Target Days - 7 DaysProgramming & Data Structure is the easiest part of GATE Syllabus and very important for GATE exam. If you love programming it will be a piece of Cake for you. You should try to score as much as possible.Target Days - 7 DaysRecommended Book - The C Programming language, Author’s Name: Brian W. Kernighan , Dennis M. Ritchie, Edition: 2Classic Data Structures, Author’s Name: Debasis Samanta, Edition: 2Weightage in the Exam - 9 MarksKey topics of Engineering Mathematics Recursion, Stack, Queue, Binary Search Trees, Tree traversals, Stack Applications, and Linked Lists.Syllabus- Programming in C. Recursion. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps, graphs.5 Points Checklist for “Programming and Data Structure”Did your Notes Ready ?Did you revise once at 27th Day ?How many Numerical questions you have solved ? is it enough ?Give 2 Subject Test after revision and prepare a note of the wrong answers with reason.If in above 4 Points are not completed please complete is as soon as possible.Then only move to Next Milestone.Congratulations you Achieved Milestone 3 successfully. Now you are one more steps closer to cracking GATE Exam.Milestone 4 - Algorithms - Target Days - 10 DaysFirst concentrate on finding time complexity for analysis of programs/algorithms. Then go to algorithm techniques: Divide & Conquer, Greedy, Dynamic programming. Mostly questions are on sorting, searching, and shortest path algorithms, and traversals.Target Days - 10 DaysRecommended Book - Introduction to Algorithms, Author’s Name: Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, and Clifford Stein, Edition: 3Weightage in the Exam - 10 MarksKey topics of Engineering Mathematics- Recursive algorithms analysis, Merge sort, Quick Sort, Insertion Sort, Binary Search, Dijkstra’s Algorithm, Longest common subsequence, and Huffman coding.Syllabus- Searching, sorting, hashing. Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity. Algorithm design techniques: greedy, dynamic programming and divide‐and‐conquer. Graph search, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths.5 Points Checklist for “Algorithm”Did your Notes Ready ?Did you revise once at 42th Day ?How many Numerical questions you have solved ? is it enough ?Give 2 Subject Test after revision and prepare a note of the wrong answers with reason.If in above 4 Points are not completed please complete is as soon as possible.Then only move to Next Milestone.Congratulations you Achieved Milestone 4 successfully. Now you are one more steps closer to cracking GATE Exam.Milestone 5 - STOP- CHECK- MOVE - Target Days - 3 DaysI call Milestone 5 as “Stop - Check - Move”Today you are at 43rd Day of 100 Day.It is time to take one Day Break. Have a rest Enjoy !! Watch Movies ! Relax yourself completely .44th & 45th Day - Gear Up -Collect Notes of All 4 Subjects Till now you have prepared. And Open Your Mistake Note-Book, in which you have captured all the mistakes from the subject tests.Now Go through both notes and revise it properly.Now You have to give 8 More Subject Test. Analyze your all answers.Write down in the Mistake Note book all your mistakes with correct answers and why you did the Mistake ?Congratulations you Achieved Milestone 5 successfully. Now you are one more steps closer to cracking GATE Exam.Milestone 6 - Operating System -Target Days-8 DaysWith Proper focus and attention you can answers all the questions related to the OS in GATE.Galvin book is best for GATE preparation which covers all concepts and GATE Syllabus. Topics like process management, deadlocks, semaphores, memory management and disk scheduling are covered in detail. This is only book you will read operating system in less time and covers all important concepts.Target Days - 8 DaysRecommended Book - Operating System Concepts, Author’s Name: Silberschatz, Galvin, Gagne, Edition: 8Weightage in the Exam - 9 MarksKey topics of Engineering Mathematics-Threads, CPU Scheduling, Semaphores, Page Replacement Algorithms, Paging and Segmentations, Dead-lock avoidance algorithm, and Disk scheduling.Syllabus- Processes, threads, inter‐process communication, concurrency and synchronization. Deadlock. CPU scheduling. Memory management and virtual memory. File systems.5 Points Checklist for “Operating System”Did your Notes Ready ?Did you revise once at 53rd Day ?How many Numerical questions you have solved ? is it enough ?Give 2 Subject Test after revision and prepare a note of the wrong answers with reason.If in above 4 Points are not completed please complete is as soon as possible.Then only move to Next Milestone.Congratulations you Achieved Milestone 6 successfully. Now you are one more steps closer to cracking GATE Exam.Milestone 7 - Computer Networks -Target Days-8 DaysThis subject is a bit time consuming but important. To some people it may be boring but remember your consistency is the key to success.Target Days - 8 DaysRecommended Book - Operating Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, Author’s Name: James F. Kurose, Keith W. Ross, Edition: 6Weightage in the Exam - 8 MarksKey topics of Engineering Mathematics-IP Addressing, Congestion control, TCP, UDP, Routing Algorithms, Public Key and Private key encryptions.Syllabus- Concept of layering. LAN technologies (Ethernet). Flow and error control techniques, switching. IPv4/IPv6, routers and routing algorithms (distance vector, link state). TCP/UDP and sockets, congestion control. Application layer protocols (DNS, SMTP, POP, FTP, HTTP). Basics of Wi-Fi. Network security: authentication, basics of public key and private key cryptography, digital signatures and certificates, firewalls.5 Points Checklist for “Computer Network”Did your Notes Ready ?Did you revise once at 61th Day ?How many Numerical questions you have solved ? is it enough ?Give 2 Subject Test after revision and prepare a note of the wrong answers with reason.If in above 4 Points are not completed please complete is as soon as possible.Then only move to Next Milestone.Congratulations you Achieved Milestone 7 successfully. Now you are one more steps closer to cracking GATE Exam.Milestone 8 - Database Management System -Target Days-7 DaysToday is 62nd Day. Well Done you are doing great. Data base system is easiest part in GATE syllabus. If you give proper attention, it is very easy to score good marks in this section of the gate exam.Target Days - 7 DaysRecommended Book - Database System Concepts, Author’s Name: Silberschatz, Sudarshan, Korth, Edition: 6Weightage in the Exam - 7 MarksKey topics of Engineering Mathematics- Normal forms, Integrity constraints, Relational algebra, tuple calculus, and SQL.Syllabus- ER‐model. Relational model: relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL. Integrity constraints, normal forms. File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees). Transactions and concurrency control.5 Points Checklist for “Database”Did your Notes Ready ?Did you revise once at 68th Day ?How many Numerical questions you have solved ? is it enough ?Give 2 Subject Test after revision and prepare a note of the wrong answers with reason.If in above 4 Points are not completed please complete is as soon as possible.Then only move to Next Milestone.Congratulations you Achieved Milestone 8 successfully. Now you are one more steps closer to cracking GATE Exam.Milestone 9 - Theory of Computation -Target Days-7 DaysAutomata Theory is a branch of computer science that deals with designing abstract self propelled computing devices that follow a predetermined sequence of operations automatically. Go through the book mentioned and important topics covered in the book and get the good marks in this subject.Target Days - 7 DaysRecommended Book - An Introduction to Formal Languages and Automata, Author’s Name: Peter Linz, Edition: 5Weightage in the Exam - 7 MarksKey topics of Engineering Mathematics- Finite Automata, regular expression, grammars, pumping lemma, context free languages, and undecidability.Syllabus- Regular expressions and finite automata. Context-free grammars and push-down automata. Regular and context-free languages, pumping lemma. Turing machines and undecidability.5 Points Checklist for “Theory of Computation”Did your Notes Ready ?Did you revise once at 75th Day ?How many Numerical questions you have solved ? is it enough ?Give 2 Subject Test after revision and prepare a note of the wrong answers with reason.If in above 4 Points are not completed please complete is as soon as possible.Then only move to Next Milestone.Congratulations you Achieved Milestone 9 successfully. Now you are one more steps closer to cracking GATE Exam.Milestone 10 - STOP- CHECK- MOVE - Target Days - 3 DaysToday you are at 76th Day of 100 Day.Remember the Milestone 5. :)It is time to take one Day Break. Have a rest Enjoy !! Watch Movies ! Relax yourself completely .77th & 78th Day - Gear Up -Collect Notes of All 8 Subjects Till now you have prepared. And Open Your Mistake Note-Book, in which you have captured all the mistakes from the subject tests.Now Go through both notes and revise it properly.Give 8 More Subject Test from each subject. . Analyze your all answers.Write down in the Mistake Note book all your mistakes with correct answers and why you did the Mistake ?Congratulations you Achieved Milestone 10 successfully. Now you are one more steps closer to cracking GATE Exam.Milestone 11 - Digital Logic- Target Days - 6 DaysAll questions from digital logic are easier in GATE Exam. You should be clear about basics and practice the questions as much as you can.Target Days - 6 DaysRecommended Book - Digital Logic & Computer Design, Author’s Name: M. Morris Mano, Edition: 1Weightage in the Exam - 5 MarksKey topics of Engineering Mathematics- Simplification, Combinational Circuits, Registers, Counters and Floating point representation.Syllabus- Boolean algebra. Combinational and sequential circuits. Minimization. Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).5 Points Checklist for “Digital Logic”Did your Notes Ready ?Did you revise once at 84th Day ?How many Numerical questions you have solved ? is it enough ?Give 2 Subject Test after revision and prepare a note of the wrong answers with reason.If in above 4 Points are not completed please complete is as soon as possible.Then only move to Next Milestone.Congratulations you Achieved Milestone 11 successfully. Now you are one more steps closer to cracking GATE Exam.Milestone 12 - Compiler Design- Target Days - 4 DaysParsing : there is always a question related to parsing. You need to practice all parsing technique because there is also chances for linked questions. finding first and follow, LL(1)-LR(1)-SLR-LALR-CLR.Precedence and Associativity of operators.Finding value from expression tree.Ambiguous grammar. Are very important one.Target Days - 4 DaysRecommended Book - Compilers: Principles, Techniques and Tools, Author’s Name: Alfred V. Aho , Ravi Sethi , D. Jeffrey Ulman, Edition: 2Weightage in the Exam - 4 MarksKey topics- Lexical Analysis, Phases of compiler, LL(1) Parser, LR Parsers, First set computation, Follow set computation. SDTs.Syllabus- Lexical analysis, parsing, syntax-directed translation. Runtime environments. Intermediate code generation.5 Points Checklist for “Compiler Design”Did your Notes Ready ?Did you revise once at 88th Day ?How many Numerical questions you have solved ? is it enough ?Give 2 Subject Test after revision and prepare a note of the wrong answers with reason.If in above 4 Points are not completed please complete is as soon as possible.Then only move to Next Milestone.Congratulations you Achieved Milestone 12 successfully. Now you are one more steps closer to cracking GATE Exam.Milestone 13 - Computer Organization- Target Days - 5 DaysImportant Points to note downAddressing Modes : Theory and questionsNumerical related to program counter after some instruction, no of one address-two address instructions, Values after shift and rotate instructions, horizontal and vertical programming related questions.Numerical Problems on Speed up of pipeline, time taken to complete instruction in pipeline and non-pipeline architectures, Hazards in pipeline, hazards removal, branch penalty etc.Numerical Problems on cache memory organization, mapping technique, multilevel caches, write through and write back techniqueQuestions are more tricky in this subject. So you need to practice more on different types of Numerical Questions.Target Days - 5 DaysRecommended Book - Computer Organization and Architecture, Author’s Name: Hamacher, Vranesic, Zaky, Edition: 7Weightage in the Exam - 4 MarksKey topics- Addressing modes, Pipelining, and cache organization.Syllabus- Machine instructions and addressing modes. ALU, data‐path and control unit. Instruction pipelining. Memory hierarchy: cache, main memory and secondary storage; I/O interface (interrupt and DMA mode).5 Points Checklist for “Computer organization”Did your Notes Ready ?Did you revise once at 93rd Day ?How many Numerical questions you have solved ? is it enough ?Give 2 Subject Test after revision and prepare a note of the wrong answers with reason.If in above 4 Points are not completed please complete is as soon as possible.Then only move to Next Milestone.Congratulations you Achieved Milestone 13 successfully. Now you are one more steps closer to cracking GATE Exam.Milestone 14 - STOP- CHECK- MOVE - Target Days - 2 DaysToday you are at 94th Day of 100 Day.Remember the Milestone 5.and 10 :)Collect Notes of last 3 subjects DL ,CD and CO.And Open Your Mistake Note-Book, in which you have captured all the mistakes from the subject tests.Now Go through both notes and revise it properly.Give 6 More Subject Test 2 from each subjects. Analyze your all answers.Write down in the Mistake Note book all your mistakes with correct answers and why you did the Mistake ?Congratulations you Achieved Milestone 14 successfully. Now you are one more steps closer to cracking GATE Exam.Milestone 15 - Solve Previous 10 Year GATE - Target Days - 5 DaysIf you see you have almost completed 20 subject test ( 2 from each subjects). Now there is no need to give subject tests anymore. The purpose of the subject test was , how effectively you implement the concept to problems. And learn from the mistakes.Now the most important thing is to give SOLVE GATE PREVIOUS YEAR PAPERS.But you know , most of the students do SINGLE MISTAKE , They Solve previous year paper topic wise or subject wise , not giving as a real Exam. This is the biggest mistake. Solve GATE Papers as you are really giving Exam.It will help you real GATE feeling that you have literally solving GATE Papers and check your position.Please Solve GATE Paper as you are giving Exam in the Exam center.Solve 2 Paper Each Day.Paper 1 :- 9 am 12 am.Rest :- 12 am to 1 pmAnalysis answers :- 1 pm to 4 pmRest :- 4 pm to 5 pmPaper 2:- 5 pm to 8 pmRest : - 8 pm to 9 pmAnalysis Answers :- 9 pm to 12 amMilestone 16 - Solve 9 Complete Test - Target Days - 3 DaysRevise all your notes and mistakes which you have already captured.Daily give three full test :-Mock Test 1- 6 am to 9 amMock Test 2- 11 am to 2 pmMock Test 3- 4 pm to 7 pmAnalysis of all 3 Mock test - 8 pm to 12 am--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 Important thing to Announce :-Please share this documents to your friends . Who really needs this.If you want all GATE CS-IT - Videos (Cheapest Online Course at 999 ). or anyone who is in need .Please see and share http://www.mymirror.in/learn/Computer-Science . Please note price may increase later.If you need 20 subjects mock tests as mentioned in the document. Then fill the form here.OR10 previous year GATE Paper real time Test. Basically we will Prepare the test with all question of the GATE of that particular year. You have to give test only. This feels that you are giving real GATE Exam.ORIf you need 9 full length GATE tests as mentioned in the document.Daily Progress Tracker Template of your 100 Day study plan.Click on the link given below and fill the form, we will intimate you via email once all tests are ready and your Daily Progress Tracker is ready.https://anamitra.typeform.com/to/hSp52O-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

## What scientific evidence exists for abiogenesis?

Here is a good review for starters: How life began on Earth: a status reportRemember that the DNA/RNA genetic system we have today is just what things have evolved into, don't assume they are required to kick start the process. What scientists generally believe happened was that there was a boot strapping process leading up to that first strand of self-replicating material (be it RNA/DNA or something else).Peptide chains are simply "shorter" chains of amino acids (aka proteins). These naturally formed chains can perform functions, they can "store information", they change over time, and they can reproduce (e.g., see prion research). Those are all the things required for "evolutionary" processes to work over time.(1) First of all, Jeffrey Bada's experiment showed once again that a wealth of organic chemistry and amino acids are generated naturally in the early Earth environment. There is also the later Miller experiment about organic chemistry in icy conditions (so it could be that an ebbing between warmer and colder conditions are required). The original Miller-Urey experiment was validly criticised for an inaccurate starting mixture, but even later versions of that experiment had corrected those problems.See Discover Magazine: Did Life Evolve In Ice(2) We are now also aware of a large number of exogenous sources of organic precursors (IDPs, Meteorites, Asteroids, Comets)See Meteorite Crammed With 'Millions' Of Organic CompoundsMurchison meteorite: 14,000 specific compounds, including 70 amino acids, were identified...tip of the iceberg(3) This soup can include shorter fatty-acid chains (created in geothermal vents on the clay walls) which under certain Ph conditions naturally form into protective vesicles, these vesicles can also divide under mechanical conditions AND they tend to combine with smaller vesicles into larger ones such that the contents are merged as well -- but tend to only grow so large before undergoing mechanical division.See Autopoietic Self-Reproduction of Fatty Acid Vesicles,Genetics Times: Researchers Build Model Protocell Capable of Copying DNA(4) Unlike modern cell walls, these primitive vesicles are porous which allows building blocks in, which combine with other components and then are too large to escapeSee Dr Jack Szostak's work(5) Eventually, some of the peptide chains prove beneficial to the fatty-acid vesicle structures.See Dr Jack Szostak's work(6) We know that some peptide chains are self-replicating -- by setting up even a simple peptide chain which can self-replicate we set the stage for evolutionary processes over time to work. And we know that some single RNA strands have been found to be capable of replication as well.See A self-replicating peptide, Peptide Self-Replication Via Template-Directed Ligation(7) We also know that the Qb virus can reproduce without a cell if the chemical environment is available.See The Fifth Miracle by Paul Davies (excerpt)(8) Finally, we're just now at the stage where we can start building complex life from scratch directly in the lab:See Chemical Synthesis of Poliovirus cDNA: Generation of Infectious Virus in the Absence of Natural TemplateThere are, of course, many open questions, nobody is denying that -- but they are just questions and there is absolutely no indication that any of these problems are intractable (including ribose and chirality). Try Google Scholar: abiogenesis riboseFrom New York times article on Dr. Sutherland's research::the chemicals naturally formed a compound that is half-sugar and half-base. When another half-sugar and half-base are added, the RNA nucleotide called ribocytidine phosphate emerges. A second nucleotide is created if ultraviolet light is shined on the mixture. Dr. Sutherland said he had not yet found natural ways to generate the other two types of nucleotides found in RNA molecules, but synthesis of the first two was thought to be harder to achieve. If all four nucleotides formed naturally, they would zip together easily to form an RNA molecule with a backbone of alternating sugar and phosphate groups.ReferencesNOTE: some items are paywalled, some links may not work, but these are my notes. [Feel free to use Suggested Edits to clean up & noramalize the formatting!]New Studies on the Murchison Meteorite Shed Light on the Pre-RNA WorldOn the origin of primitive cells: from nutrient intake to elongation of encapsulated nucleotidesMeierhenrich UJ, Filippi JJ, Meinert C, Vierling P, Dworkin JP.Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2010 May 17;49(22):3738-50.Reconstructing the emergence of cellular life through the synthesis of model protocells.Mansy SS, Szostak JW.Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2009;74:47-54. Epub 2009 Sep 4.Template-directed Synthesis of a Genetic Polymer in a Model ProtocellSheref S. Mansy, Jason P. Schrum, Mathangi Krishnamurthy, Slvia Tobé, Douglas A. Treco, and Jack W. SzostakNature. 2008 July 3; 454(7200): 122–125.Szostak Lab: PublicationsOrigins of Life on the Earth and in the Cosmos, By Geoffrey L. Zubay, 2000Complete Course in Astrobiology, By Gerda Horneck, Petra Rettberg, 2007The RNA World: the nature of modern RNA suggests a prebiotic RNA world By Raymond F. Gesteland, Thomas Cech, John F. Atkins, 2006Progress in Biological Chirality, By Gyula Pályi, Claudia Zucchi, Luciano Caglioti, 2004Abiogenesis seminar notes (by Ahmad Kanaan): Seminar: Artificial cell design and the origin of life (by Dr. Jack Szostak, 2009 Nobel Laureate of Physiology or Medicine)Exploring the New RNA World: Page on Nobelprize (by Thomas R. Cech)Synthesis of activated pyrimidine ribonucleotides in prebiotically plausible conditions: Page on Ceab and Popular Article:Life's First Spark Re-Created in the Laboratory - Wired ScienceRibozyme-Catalyzed Transcription of an Active Ribozyme, the story of: tC19ZBiologists create self-replicating RNA moleculeRibozyme-Catalyzed Transcription of an Active RibozymeScienceDaily:'Ancestral Eve' crystal may explain origin of life's left-handednessStudy builds on plausible scenario for origin of life on EarthTu Lee, Yu Kun Lin. The Origin of Life and the Crystallization of Aspartic Acid in Water. Crystal Growth & Design, 2010; 10 (4): 1652 DOI: 10.1021/cg901219fJason E. Hein, Eric Tse, Donna G. Blackmond. A route to enantiopure RNA precursors from nearly racemic starting materials. Nature Chemistry, 2011; DOI: 10.1038/NCHEM.1108Novel chromatin particle halfway between DNA and a nucleosomeTalk.Origins: Abiogenesis FAQOnly ~12% of bacterial genome essential for complex bacterial lifeOrigin of Life: Generating RNA Molecules in WaterStudy Builds On Plausible Scenario for Origin of Life On EarthScientists Discover New Clue to Chemical Origins of LifeCould Adenine From Interstellar Dust Have Triggered Life On Earth? Elsewhere?How Did Chemical Constituents Essential To Life Arise On Primitive Earth?Ribonucleotides: β-ribonucleosides, SutherlandNature Chemistry, 2012. DOI: 10.1038/NCHEM.1467 "Prebiotic synthesis of simple sugars by photoredox systems chemistry"Possible evidence of a protein-first development, using just 10 amino acids believed to exist on Earth around 4 billion years ago: Origins of life? Discovery could help explain how first organisms emerged on EarthAbiotic Self-Replication

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