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What are some mind-blowing computer tools that exist that most people don't know about?
There many to name , but a few very useful are named below.A Keyboard Made Of GlassBastron Transparent Touch Glass Keyboard with Mouse&gesture Function Biggest Technological InnovationTransparent Smart Touch Aera,Material Aluminum frame+all tempered glassBlue LED backlight with gesture control,More gesture recognition support.Touch Sensitive key controls,wonderful high qualitySurface waterproof, suitable for disinfection treatment.Let you have a keyboard without bacteria.You can buy it at : Amazon.com: Bastron Transparent Touch Glass Keyboard with Mouse&gesture Function Biggest Technological Innovation New Ver.3(Silver): Computers & AccessoriesTo watch an in depth video :Laser KeyboardGeneric Portable Virtual Laser Projection Bluetooth Keyboard and Mouse for iPad iPhone Tablet Android Smart Phones with Mini Speaker Voice BroadcastLaser virtual keyboard: stable and smartMicro USB port.MULTIFUNCTIONAL: this keyboard has been equipped with mini Bluetooth speakers, which support voice reporting and music playing1000 mAh.You can buy it at : Amazon.com: Generic Portable Virtual Laser Projection Bluetooth Keyboard and Mouse for iPad iPhone Tablet Android Smart Phones with Mini Speaker Voice Broadcast: Computers & AccessoriesTo watch an in depth video :Glove Gest has gesture control on handsGest is a wearable that brings interaction to a whole new level.When it comes to interacting with a computer, your options are either two-dimensional like the mouse, or binary like the keys on your keyboard. But your hands are three-dimensional and non-binary, so your tools should be too.Gest lets you map hand gestures to keyboard shortcuts, so you can control almost any app. Change the song? Flick your finger to the right. Increase the volume? Twist your hand. The best part is that you get to decide which gestures map to which actions.The coolest part is that Gest is extremely versatile. You can program custom gestures into actions on your devices. Just make a movement with your hand, then tie it to any action you want.It has not yet come into the market.To watch an In depth video :To know more about the gadget : GestProject SoliProject soli is an idea of google which has not yet come into existence.Project Soli is developing a new interaction sensor using radar technology.Soli sensor technology works by emitting electromagnetic waves in a broad beam.Soli tracks and recognizes dynamic gestures expressed by fine motions of the fingers and hand. In order to accomplish this with a single chip sensor.The sensor can track sub-millimeter motions at high speed and accuracy. It fits onto a chip, can be produced at scale and built into small devices and everyday objects.To watch an in depth video :To know more about the gadget : Project SoliThe Leap MotionThe leap Motion is same as the Google’s Project SoliThe Leap Motion controller is a small USB peripheral device which is designed to be placed on a physical desktop, facing upward. It can also be mounted onto a virtual reality headset. Using two monochromatic IR cameras and three infrared LED’s, the device observes a roughly hemispherical area, to a distance of about 1 meter.The LED’s generate pattern-less IR light and the cameras generate almost 200 frames per second of reflected data.This is then sent through a USB cable to the host computer, where it is analyzed by the Leap Motion software using "complex maths" in a way that has not been disclosed by the company, in some way synthesizing 3D position data by comparing the 2D frames generated by the two cameras.In a 2013 study, the overall average accuracy of the controller was shown to be 0.7 millimetersYou can buy it at : Leap Motion Controller Gesture Motion Control for PC or MACTo watch an in depth video :The World's Weirdest MouseRollerMouse Red plusControlled by a fully open rollerbar, which encourages the use of both handsUnparalleled precision with tracking technology inside the rollerbar - up to 2400 dpiAluminum body with detachable extended, leatherette palm support.Eight key functions made for productivity and ergonomics, including the "one touch" double click, copy and pasteKeyboard risers make it possible to customize keyboard height and angle to ensure optimal comfort and working positionYou can buy it at : Amazon.com: RollerMouse Red plus: Home Audio & TheaterTo watch an in depth video :The Mouse That ScansZCAN wireless mouse which scans any text .Zcan Wireless is THE must-have gadget for anyone with an iPad, MacBook, tablet or laptop.Imagine being able to easily back up your receipts, contracts, documents and photos anywhere, anytime.Edit scanned table in Excel is much faster than typing it entirely from original documents.Zcan Wireless supports over 199 OCR (Optical Character Recognition) languages. 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The world’s first laser projection mouse redefines your daily user habits for designing, gaming, work, and everything.Odin Aurora Projection Mouse Transformer Black/Green Colors Intutive Design Change The Way of Using Mouse Reduce Wrist Pain.ODiN Aurora supports multipoint controlsODiN Aurora only weighs 40 gramsIntutive design and responsiveYou can buy it at : Amazon.com: Odin Aurora Projection Mouse Transformer Black/Green Colors Intutive Design Change The Way of Using Mouse Reduce Wrist Pain From Kickstarter: Computers & AccessoriesTo watch it’s unboxing and review :Sliden'Joy : the world's first triple screen for your laptopUltra-thin, light, portable and free-standing. Users can easily unfold it, adding one to two extra screens to their computer.Once your additional screens slided, simply turn them up to 180° to share what you see with people seating around the table. From now, you can share to 1 single person, 2, 3, or even 10 people at the same time. 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Which ancient societies developed treatments for mental illness?
The skeleton of a man with an amputated leg who lived in Mesopotamia. Photo credit: A. SołtysiakDespite intensive research over many decades on one of the most famous kingdoms of the ancient world, researchers remain unsure about the depth of Mesopotamian knowledge about the diseases that plagued their city-states and empires. An analysis of thousands of cuneiform texts has only revealed 44 publications mentioning traces of disease. This either suggests that the population was incredibly healthy, or that the study of diseases was very poorly developed in comparison with Egypt and Europe.Arkadiusz Sołtysiak of the Institute of Archaeology, University of Warsaw decided to fill this gap and collected all previously published reports of anthropologists who examined human remains in the area of Mesopotamia. Focused on excavations in towns and settlements, as well as on the analysis of ancient texts, Sołtysiak found that information about disease in the ancient kingdom was scarce for a number of reasons. First, human remains in the area are poorly preserved due to the moist winters and hot summers, making the bones fragile and unsuitable for detailed analysis. In addition, the unstable political situation in the region has discouraged scientists from travelling to the area. But the absence of references to disease in ancient text is surprising, considering that so much was recorded about the civilisations of the Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians, and Babylonians.The oldest preserved and studied Mesopotamian remains, apart from Neanderthals discovered in Shanidar cave in Kurdistan, come from the Neolithic period, i.e. from about 9000 years ago. Analysis conducted by the University of Warsaw, which concerned the skeletal remains from all eras, enabled the researchers to capture an overall view of the health status of residents of Mesopotamia at different times.Early farmers often suffered from osteoarthritis, probably associated with the frequent lifting of heavy weights and grinding. Probably, with the introduction of draft animals, the problem became smaller - in fact in the Bronze Age, the “heyday of farming communities” that followed the Neolithic period, scientists reported fewer such cases on the bones. In the Neolithic period, in turn, there were fewer cases of dental disease, including tooth decay.After the relatively favourable conditions for human societies during the Bronze Age, at the beginning of the Iron Age there was an economic and agricultural collapse, possibly caused by climate change and continued conflicts. This is the most difficult time in the history of the region, as evidenced by both written sources and archaeological finds. During this period, there was evidence of a gradual increase in tooth disease, which persisted all the way up until the Middle Ages, probably associated with the spread of date palms growing and changing eating habits. Nevertheless, there is little evidence of significant health concerns in the region and the communities of Mesopotamia were relatively healthy.Tablet 46 ( BM 47753, obverse & reverse). London, The British Museum, (Introductory Chapter: Epilepsy—The Long Journey of the Sacred Disease | IntechOpen)Surviving Mesopotamian medical records consist of roughly 1000 cuneiform tablets. The bulk of cuneiform tablets that mention medical practices (660) have survived from cuneiform texts in the library of Asshurbanipal at Nineveh (668 BC) Assyria. About 420 tablets from other sites also survived, including the library excavated from the private house of a medical practitioner (an asipu from Neo-Assyrian Assur, and some Middle Assyrian and Middle Babylonia texts.The vast majority of these tablets are prescriptions, but there are a few series of tablets that have been labelled "treatises". One of the oldest and the largest collections is known as "Treatise of Medical Diagnoses and Prognoses."  Although the oldest surviving copy of this treatise dates to around 1600 BC, the information contained in the text is an amalgamation of several centuries of Mesopotamian medical knowledge. The diagnostic treatise is organized in head to toe order with separate subsections covering convulsive disorders, gynaecology and paediatrics. To the non-specialist they sound like magic and sorcery. However, the descriptions of diseases demonstrate professional-grade observation skills.Two major cuneiform texts known as Maqlû and Shurpu, respectively provide the main but not exclusive sources of Babylonian psychiatry. The Hamurabbi code (1790 B.C.) includes regulations related to psychiatry, with an emphasis on epilepsy. The code states that a slave could be returned and the money refunded, if bennu, another word for epilepsy, appeared within the month after the purchase.Codex of Hammurabi ([PDF] Neurology and psychiatry in Babylon. | Semantic Scholar)The Sakikku ( “All Diseases”), one of the oldest Babylonian medical texts (1067-1046 B.C.) consisting of 40 tablets, refers to epilepsy with the terms ‘antasubba’ and ‘miqtu’ . The translated Babylonian text describes unilateral and bilateral epileptic fits, the epileptic cry, the incontinence of feces, the description of simple and complex epileptic seizures, the epileptic aura and narcolepsy. The scribe explains the subtleties of the neurological disease’s presentation in great detail, provides basic prognoses for the ashipu or doctor- scholars, and ascribes different kinds of seizures to particular malevolent spirits.The Babylonian word for the falling sickness or epilepsy is miqtu. In ancient texts such as these, patients with symptoms resembling epilepsy were described as follows:his neck turns left, his hands and feet are tense and his eyes wide open, and from his mouth froth is flowing without having any conciousness.This parallels concisely with modern descriptions of epilepsy as “a neurological disorder with recurrent sensory disturbances, loss of consciousness or convulsions; associated with abnormal electrical activity in the brain.”Supplementing the search for textual evidence of Mesopotamian medical practices, Danish Assyriologist Troels Pank Arbøll was studying cuneiform tablets in a Berlin museum when he stumbled across a peculiar image. The epilepsy tablet was unearthed in Kisir-Ashur’s private library, along with an ivory lap desk. He and his family lived in the city of Assur, located in what is now northern Iraq, around 650 B.C., though the bennu text in question was likely copied from a far older tablet. The tablets tell the story of a doctor in training describing a combination of medical practices (potentially handed down to the Greeks) and magical rituals. It is thought to be one of the most detailed accounts of ancient medical education and practice ever recorded. Kisir-Aššur recorded what he learnt in chronological order, allowing a timeline of his training. Kisir-Ashur may have learnt his skills by practising on animals and progressed to treating babies as he approached finishing his studies. It's likely he did not treat human adults on his own before he was trained. This shows a relatively clear chronology in his training, where he takes on more and more responsibility.Kisir-Ashur and others like him are often described as exorcists, but this title is a mistranslation, as these individuals also handled non-spiritual issues. The apsu/ ancient healer was expected to exorcise demons, ward off witchcraft, and appease the gods – all while staying up to date on the latest medical-magical healing strategies. The apsu's skills were not isolated to religious rituals, but also with plant-based medical treatments, poultices and bandages. Kisir-Aššur studied the effects of venom from scorpions and snakes on the human body and it appears that he tried to draw parallels between the physical manifestation of epilepsy and reactions to deadly toxins. Previously, it was assumed that medical treatments for scorpion stings and snakebites, were most often treated by magic, as they are absent from the medical treatises.Researcher discovers terrifying epilepsy demon on 2,700-year-old clay tabletEtched on the corner of one of the tablets (measuring 6.4cm and 2.6cm wide) is a small horned demon with curvy horns, a serpent's tongue and possibly a reptile-like eye. It has the head of a musbussu-dragon, an Assyrian snake-dragon hybrid that was thought to have dragon horns and the same long neck and forked tongue as a snake. Its hands are surprisingly human for a creature that usually appeared with a lion’s forelegs and back legs flashing vicious talons. The left hand appears claw- or paw-like, and the right hand is lumpy with a pointy thumb.The entity appears to be covered with badly preserved scales or hair. Drawings of supernatural powers are very rare on cuneiform tablets with magical and medical treatments. When there is a drawing, it usually depicts one of the figures that the healers used in their rituals, not the demon itself. The bennu was drawn as the face of evil imagined not only by the healer, but also the patient.According to the adjoining cuneiform text, the demon was the cause of epilepsy, or what the Assyrians and Babylonians called “Bennu”.[Ifan epilepsy demon has fallen once(?) upon him] and he cries, "It is he again!", an encircling bennu-demon  has possessed him. His life will be spared.Bennu-epilepsy was regarded as a dreaded disease whose symptoms included seizures, loss of consciousness or sanity, and peculiar behavior — in some cases, the text describes patients who cried out like goats.If he cries "u'āyi!" or utters a sound (like an animal), saliva flows from his mouth and his neck is pressed down to the left, it is miqtu.The epilepsy demon is depicted on an ancient Mesopotamian tablet (Demon with Forked Tongue Found on Clay Tablet in Library of Assyrian Exorcists)The tablet claims that the exorciser diagnosed the condition as ‘antasubbû’ (the hand of Sin) brought about by the epilepsy demon was acting on behalf of Sîn, the lunar god. Assyrians and Babylonians believed that there was a connection between the moon, epilepsy, and insanity. Hippocrates labelled it the “Sacred Disease,” and in the ancient past, people who had it were either known as “divine and religiously inspired” or more commonly as “demon, devil or unclean spirit possessed”. For instance, the Jewish Talmud refers to a person with epilepsy as “nikhpe”, meaning “one of writhes”. The English word ‘lunacy’, for instance, is a remnant of this interpretation.In ancient times, disease was seen as the result of punishment for sins or inappropriate behavior, or witchcraft, and were often blamed on pre-existing spirits: gods, ghosts, demons and witchcraft. Each spirit was held responsible for only one disease in any one part of the body. Ancient mythologies tell stories of diseases that were put in the world by supernatural forces. Many types of seizure are described as to the influence or “hand” of name-given evil spirits (Lilû, Urtilli, Ishtar etc).[If an epilepsy demon has fallen once(?) upon him and] his eyes are red and yellow (from suffusion or ecchymosis)-hand of ardat Lili.Intended to be hung over the patient's bed, this plaque afforded protection from the terrible female demon Lamashtu, who appears on the front. She was believed to cause many illnesses. Her husband Pazuzu, shown on the back, is invoked to persuade her to go away and thus speed the patient's recovery. (Plaque for protection against the female demon Lamashtu)One such figure was Lamashtu, the daughter of the supreme god Anu, a terrible she-demon of disease. If his seizure (or, possession) always takes place in the evening, it is the seizure of a ghost (nocturnal epilepsy). It is the first known connection of one of the very rare illustrations of demons in the medical texts with the specific disease epilepsy. Ancient Mesopotamian healers had to be ready with a variety of tools and rituals, even to perform exorcisms, in their treatments. Doctors at the time would have attempted to treat epilepsy by placing a jasper amulet around the neck of the patient. They may have also attempted to direct smoke from a variety of ingredients towards the patient. Assyrian texts refer to the hand of the ghost ( responsible for epilepsy) being driven out with the assistance of cannabis. Ancient Assyrian cures for driving out the epilepsy demon include hanging “a mouse and a shoot of a thornbush” on the patient’s door; an exorcist dressed in a red garment and cloak; a raven, and a falcon”. Ancient Greeks believed a person got epilepsy by offending the moon goddess Selene; one purported cure was eating mistletoe that was picked without a sickle or blade during the time the moon is smallest in the sky. The mistletoe, which grows clinging to the high branches of trees, could not be allowed to fall on the ground because then it would not be effective against the falling sickness.Despite the advances in the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy, accusations of demonic possession or divine retribution continue. People with seizures look like everyone else when they are not having a seizure, and seizures are not contagious. Yet, as far back in history as we know, people with seizure disorders have been viewed with fear and revulsion. In many civilizations, they have been shunned; in others, they have been thought to have a special ability and be in communication with higher powers—good gods in the case of the Romans, the devil in the case of early Christianity. Basic concepts surrounding epilepsy in ancient Indian medicine were refined and developed during the Vedic period of 4500–1500 BC. In the Ayurvedic literature of Charaka Samhita (which dates to 400 BC—the oldest existing description of the complete Ayurvedic medical system), epilepsy is described as ‘apasmara’ which means ‘loss of consciousness’. The Charaka Samhita contains abundant references to all aspects of epilepsy including symptomatology, aetiology, diagnosis and treatment. Renowned scientific scholars like Al Razi (Rhazes 850-923) and Ibn Sinaa (Avicenna 980-1036) adopted the Galenic postulate on epilepsy as a disease of the brain caused by abnormally viscous humor. Though these Muslims scientists did not advocate Jinn possession as a cause of epilepsy, it is interesting to know that they did advocate the use of superstitious remedies like amulets of peony and stones for its treatment. What this demonstrates, is that despite advancements in medicine and psychiatry, those afflicted with epilepsy today may still find themselves subject to prejudices rooted in the spiritual cosmos of Mesopotamia, through no fault of their own. The healing crystals and herbal inhalations of the Assyrian apsu, are used in conjunction with modern surgical and medical prescriptions.Footnotes Mystery of diseases of ancient Mesopotamians Arkadiusz Soltysiak https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://www.antropologia.uw.edu.pl/SHA/sha-04-07.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwjWxez4m5TtAhVUCc0KHSU1BVUQFjADegQIBBAB&usg=AOvVaw2KYUMhvxj8VJw1M6_COrRL The Skeletons of Shanidar Cave Neolithic - an overview Tooth wear and the "design" of the human dentition: a perspective from evolutionary medicine - PubMed How Disease Affected the End of the Bronze Age Microbiology of Dental Decay and Periodontal Disease Library of Ashurbanipal: 2,600 Years of Mesopotamian History The Largest Surviving Medical Treatise from Ancient Mesopotamia The Largest Surviving Medical Treatise from Ancient Mesopotamia Medicine in ancient Nineveh - Hektoen International Neurology and psychiatry in Babylon epilepsy and the Code of Hammurabi – windowthroughtime Epilepsy—from the Sakikku to hughlings Jackson History of Status Epilepticus Neurology and psychiatry in Babylon Hallmarks in the History of Epilepsy: From Antiquity Till the Twentieth Century A Revised Definition of Epilepsy Researcher discovers terrifying epilepsy demon on 2,700-year-old clay tablet This Demon, Immortalized in 2,700-Year-Old Assyrian Tablet, Was Thought to Cause Epilepsy Stefan Maul: Tracing Assyrian Scholarship Clay tablets from the cradle of civilisation provide new insight to the history of medicine Mixing Magic and Medicine: New Study Shows Mesopotamian Doctors Had to Battle Demons In Mesopotamia, ancient doctors mixed medicine, magic • Earth.com Clay tablets from the cradle of civilisation provide new insight to the history of medicine Demon with Forked Tongue Found on Clay Tablet in Library of Assyrian Exorcists The 'demon' haunting an ancient exorcist library is proof we’ve always believed in possession https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://researchportal.helsinki.fi/files/115626046/Konstantopoulos_They_are_Seven_Sebettu.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwj5htjd5ZTtAhXwTTABHe77C8EQFjACegQIBBAB&usg=AOvVaw0LBz7yDItAbr5dmGY6uZA5 A Babylonian treatise on epilepsy https://journals.lww.com/neurotodayonline/Fulltext/2005/10000/The__Falling_Down_Disease____Epilepsy_First.10.aspx Hallmarks in the History of Epilepsy: From Antiquity Till the Twentieth Century Psychoses of epilepsy in Babylon: the oldest account of the disorder - PubMed Epilepsy: The Sacred Disease and Demon Possession Origin and meaning of lunacy by Online Etymology Dictionary Depression and anxiety in Babylon - Edward H Reynolds, James V Kinnier Wilson, 2013 Psychoses of epilepsy in Babylon: The oldest account of the disorder Texts and documents. Translation and analysis of a cuneiform text forming part of a Babylonian treatise on epilepsy. Demons & Demonology Texts and documents. Translation and analysis of a cuneiform text forming part of a Babylonian treatise on epilepsy. https://journals.lww.com/neurotodayonline/Fulltext/2005/01000/Epilepsy__Contemplating__the_Sacred_Disease_.6.aspx Epilepsy in Mesopotamia reconsidered --- Hector Avalos Cannabis and epilepsy: An ancient treatment returns to the fore - PubMed Arbøll 2019, A Newly Discovered Drawing of a Neo-Assyrian Demon in BAM 202 Connected to Psychological and Neurological Disorders, JMC 33, pp. 1-31 Epilepsy in ancient Greek medicine—the vital step Neither Gods nor Demons But Misfiring Brains | Dana Foundation DISEASE ONCE SACRED. A HISTORY OF THE MEDICAL UNDERSTANDING OF EPILEPSY Possession by ‘Jinn’ as a cause of epilepsy (Saraa): A study from Saudi Arabia Religious beliefs about causes and treatment of epilepsy
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