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Why do some people claim the loss of the Thirteen Colonies was no big deal to Britain even though it meant over 35% of all British people suddenly became citizens of a new country called the US?

Great Britain is one of many countries who fought in the Revolutionary War in the late 18th century.Great Britain was once a part of the powerful and expansive British Empire, which ruled numerous continents during the 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th centuries before it was eventually dismantled due to the lack of resources necessary to keep the vast empire intact.Great Britain Before the American Revolution:The British Empire was one of the most extensive empires in world history and was a product of the European Age of Discovery in the late 15th century.The British Empire can be divided into two categories: the first British Empire in the 17th and 18th century and the second much larger British Empire in the 18th, 19th and early 20th century.During the first British Empire, the British began colonizing other countries due to the need for trade and raw materials. It established thirteen colonies in North America, as well as colonies in the Caribbean and India.During the early to mid-1700s, Great Britain adopted the policy of Salutary Neglect, in which it left the thirteen colonies alone to self-govern in the hopes that they would flourish and that Britain would reap the benefits in increased trade, tax revenue and profits.In 1756, the Seven Years’ War (aka the French and Indian War) broke out, which was a global conflict between Great Britain and France for control of North America.Both countries had colonies in North America and were trying to expand those colonies into the Ohio River Valley, which they both claimed as their own.Great Britain defeated the French in 1763 and the region known as New France became a part of the British North American colonies. This land included French Canada and all the land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River.In order to protect this new land, Great Britain sent a large number of British troops to the newly conquered land to prevent the French colonists from revolting against the British. This was expensive and required a lot of troops and resources.In addition, the Seven Years’ War had left Great Britain deeply in debt. In 1763, George Grenville, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, stated that Britain’s budget deficit was in excess of £122 million.Great Britain needed to find a way to generate revenue to pay for the British troops in North America and to pay off its debt from the Seven Years’ War.Great Britain During the American Revolution:The American Revolution began after Great Britain passed a series of new taxes designed to generate revenue from the colonies in 1763. These new taxes were highly unpopular and were met with a lot of resistance in the colonies in the form of protests and riots.In response to this resistance, in 1768, the British government sent a large number of troops to the colonies to enforce these new laws. The presence of the troops in the colonies only escalated the conflict.The situation finally came to a head on April 18-19, 1775, when British troops stationed in Boston were sent to Concord to search for the colonist’s hidden ammunition supplies.During the mission, the troops encountered hundreds of minutemen and militiamen in Concord who feared that the troops were there to set fire to the town. The two sides collided, which resulted in the Battle of Concord, during which the “Shot Heard Round the World” was fired.On August 23, 1775, the British government issued the Proclamation of Rebellion, which declared that the American colonies were in an “open and avowed rebellion” and ordered officials of the British Empire to “use their utmost endeavours to withstand and suppress such rebellion.”On October 27, 1775, the British government expanded on the proclamation with King George’s speech to Parliament in which he indicated that he intended to deal with the rebellion with armed force and asked for “friendly offers of foreign assistance” to help the British army suppress the rebellion.The proclamation further damaged relations between the colonists and the British government and made it clear that the king was not interested in finding a way to resolve the dispute peacefully.On July 4, 1776, the 13 colonies officially declared their independence from Great Britain.Over the next few years, many other countries, including France, Spain, the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of Mysore in India, joined the war as American allies, causing it to become a vast global conflict.In February of 1782, after a long and costly war, the House of Commons voted to concede American independence.A committee of appointed negotiators, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and John Jay, began peace negotiations with British officials shortly after. The preliminary articles of the treaty were signed on November 30, 1782.When the peace preliminaries were published in London in 1782, they caused considerable controversy in Parliament and in the press.Three successive British governments were involved in the negotiations in 1782-83 and a fourth one was established by December of 1783.On September 3, 1783, the United States, France, Spain and Great Britain signed the the Peace of Paris of 1783, which were a set of three treaties known as the Treaty of Paris and the Treaties of Versailles, officially ending the American Revolutionary War.According to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the United States were granted:Independence under the name “United States of America”Expansion of their territory westward to Mississippi, as well as ownership of “Indian territory”A clearly defined border with Canada and the equal partition of the Great Lakes, except for Lake Michigan, which was granted to the Americans in fullFishing rights off the banks of Newfoundland and Nova ScotiaGreat Britain obtained:The recognition of debts it contracted before, during, and after the conflict (to be repaid in pounds sterling)Amnesty for the Loyalists and permission for them to resettle in other British colonies (Québec, Nova Scotia, Bermuda, the British West Indies, etc.)The Treaty of Paris was ratified by the Continental Congress on January 14, 1784.The only parts of Great Britain’s North American land that it was allowed to keep were the colonies of Nova Scotia, Quebec and Newfoundland as well as its colonies in the Caribbean.The loss of the thirteen British colonies marked the end of the First British Empire.Great Britain After the American Revolution:In 1785, John Adams was designated as the American Minister to London. King George III told him that although he was the last to consent the separation, now that it was made, he always said that he would be “the first to meet the friendship of the United States as an independent power.”According to The Oxford Handbook of the American Revolution, the war had a profound effect on Great Britain:“The American War had promoted significant, thought not revolutionary, political changes in Britain. It had brought down a powerful government that still retained the full support of the king. It brought to power three short-lived administrations that were willing to concede American independence, to sue for peace, and to promote legislation to reduce Crown influence over Parliament. Outside Parliament, it created in Britain a popular reform movement demanding parliamentary reform, and in Ireland it brought about a popular movement that weakened Britain’s influence over the constitutional position and political behavior of the Irish Parliament.”Great Britain may have lost the thirteen colonies in America, but it still had Canada and land in the Caribbean, Africa, and India.Great Britain began to expand in these regions, building up what has been called the Second British Empire, which eventually became the largest dominion in world history.Although losing the thirteen colonies was difficult for Great Britain, many historians argue that, in the end, it actually made the country stronger, according to an article, titled British Revival, on the British Library’s website:“The loss of the colonies rocked the ship of state, but did not cause it to capsize, despite hyperbolic talk of civil war or rebellion at home and a growth in radical agitation. Indeed, some historians argue that support for the crown grew. Political life quickly settled into much the same patterns as before the war, albeit with a greater emphasis placed on public opinion, a stronger sense of political parties and more concern with economic reform and corruption. Demobilisation caused temporary difficulties, but low tariffs helped to stimulate trade and the economy recovered rapidly: by the 1790s, Americans were purchasing twice as much from Britain as they had as colonists in the 1760s.”Great Britain’s attitude toward how to build its empire changed as well. Britons began to think of colonization more in terms of conquest and annexation and, as a result, it governed its colonies in a more authoritarian manner.The loss of the American colonies also led to the colonization of Australia as well. Since Great Britain could no longer send British convicts to the American colonies, they needed to find a new place to send them and decided to build a convict camp in Botany Bay in 1787.In the end, although Great Britain suffered temporarily due to the American Revolution, it eventually became an even more powerful and expansive empire as a result of it.Britain’s refusal to send more troops to the American theatre resulted in the British being outnumbered almost 4 to 1, even with such a massive numerical disadvantage, it shouldn’t be forgotten that the British almost won the war on several occasions, (ironically, these victories more than likely only demonstrated to the king that he was correct).Of course, the Americans won their freedom from British rule. However, what started in 1775, as an American rebellion against British rule in the thirteen colonies evolved into a far-reaching global war among world’s most powerful nations. Fighting between Britain and American allies including France, Spain and The Dutch Republic spread to the Caribbean, Africa, Europe and Asia.Britain fared well in many of the conflicts waged outside the thirteen colonies, especially those fought after 1781. Consequently, there were significant favorable outcomes of the American Revolution for Britain, especially when viewed in context of the late 18th century state of affairs.On June 17, 1778, when Jean Isaac Timothée Chadeau, Sieur de la Clocheterie French commander of the frigate Belle-Poule formally touched off the global conflict by refusing the customary “presenting his ship” to a 20 ship British fleet, commanded by Adm. Augustus Keppel while sailing off the southern coast of England. Admiral Keppel responded to this affronting slight by opening fire on the Belle-Poule,which suffered a 40 percent casualty rate. The French had a causus belli (an act which justifies war) to openly support the Americans, which it had been covertly doing with increasing intensity. With the French intervening in the American rebellion, the North American war became a global conflict.France’s principal goal was to gain equal status with Britain as a world mercantilist power with substantial colonies throughout the world providing economic and trade advantages. France sought to expand its fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland, increase its holdings in the Caribbean, and to reestablish its commercial relations with North America. Other commercial goals were freedom of trade in India and Africa and the implementation of trade provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) that ended the War of Spanish Succession that Britain had not been honoring. In addition, as a way to cement its standing in the world, France sought to gain a measure of retribution for its loss in the Seven Years War (known in North America as the French and Indian War). France even sought to invade Britain to compel the attainment of these goals.French foreign minister Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes realized that control of the seas and trade routes were critical to successfully prosecuting the war with Britain. However, the British possessed a stronger navy and more ships of the line than France. To counter this deficit, Vergennes sought to bring Spain along with its navy into the war to take on Britain’s navy, the largest in the world. Since 1733, the Bourbon kings of France and Spain periodically renewed a military alliance called the Pacte de Famille(Family Compact or Bourbon Alliance). Vergennes negotiated with the Spanish chief minister José Moñino y Redondo, conde de Floridablanca to renew this alliance Under Vergennes’ and Floridablanca’s direction, a renewal of the third compact called the Convention of Aranjuez was signed on April 12, 1779, which paved the way for the Spanish to declare war on Britain in June 1779. In the exchange for the Spanish entry into the war, the French agreed to militarily support the Spain’s principle war objective of capturing the vitally strategic fortress of Gibraltar. Gibraltar is the southern most part of the Iberian Peninsula and guards the western entrance to the Mediterranean Sea.In addition, the Spanish war aims included the re-capture from Britain of both East and West Florida that it lost in the Seven Years War (1763) and the return of the western Mediterranean island of Minorca that Spain lost during the War of Spanish Succession (1713). Further, the Spanish sought to remove the British from South America including settlements on the Bay of Honduras and timber cutting on the coast of Campeche, located in the southeast coast of today’s Mexico. There is no mention of the United States in the Treaty of Aranjuez, further demonstrating the importance of the conflict outside the thirteen colonies.As the conflict spread throughout the world, each side sought to deny armaments and naval supplies to their opponents by disrupting normal commerce and trade. Neutral countries became incensed when belligerents detained or captured commercial merchantmen. Under the leadership of Catherine the Great, Russia formed a League of Armed Neutrality that included Denmark-Norway, Sweden, Prussia and the Ottoman Empire. The alliance goals were to protect the neutrals’ ships and commercial trading rights. As neutral trade was more important to Britain’s enemies, the United States and France officially recognized and respected the League’s rights.Britain tacitly agreed and did not interfere with neutral shipping with one exception. The Dutch Republic was tied by treaty to support the French. Dutch merchants provided critical naval stores that under previous treaties were not classified as military contraband and could legally be transported unimpeded to French ports. The British government was concerned that the Dutch would join the League of Armed Neutrality and therefore, any attempt to confiscate Dutch ships would bring all members of the league into the war against Britain. To counter this threat, on December 20, 1780 the British declared war on the Dutch and unilaterally re-classified naval stores as contraband.In addition to European powers, the Indian Kingdom of Mysore, which is located on the southwest coast of the Indian subcontinent, declared war on Britain in 1780. Mysore a French ally, sought to reclaim the French trading port of Mabé captured by the British. Arms and munitions critical to supply Mysore’s army flowed through Mabé. Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore made it clear to the British that the French presence in this port was under his protection and by assaulting the French forces, Britain waged war on Mysore.Therefore, Britain stood alone fighting a vast global land and naval conflict. It faced many threats including potential invasion of the homeland, loss of valuable colonies and associated lucrative commercial trade and mounting debts to finance a long, intensive conflict. The need to protect British interests on numerous fronts and in many military theaters thoroughly stretched army and naval assets. Difficult strategic decisions had to be made to re-position limited military assets to counter emerging threats in multiple theaters of operation.Each belligerent sought to gain tactical advantage in one theater without exposing other theaters to peril. In many cases, the most valuable colonies received the first claim on military assets at the expense of less valuable colonies. For example, British army and naval resources were diverted from North America to counter expected new French and Spanish threats in the Caribbean.British NadirAs 1782 began, the war was not going well for the British and they were on the defensive. The Duke of Chandos, a member of the House of Lords referred to the October 1781 Yorktown defeat as a “calamity” and a ”disaster.” It was clear to British leaders that the British Southern strategy failed and that they could not forcibly compel the American colonialists to end their rebellion.News on the other fronts was not encouraging, either. The French were on the verge of taking control of the lucrative Caribbean sugar trade by capturing islands in the eastern region of the Caribbean called the Lesser Antilles and threatening Jamaica. Earlier in the war, French forces captured the British held islands of Dominica (1778), St. Vincent and Grenada (1779) and Tobago (1781).After Yorktown, French Admiral de Grasse and his fleet left the Chesapeake Bay region for the eastern Caribbean and established naval superiority there. In February 1782, Admiral de Grasse attacked and captured the vital islands of St. Kitts, Montserrat and Nevis. The loss of these islands was “disagreeable news” and sent shock waves among London merchants.The British government viewed the Caribbean islands as more commercially important than North America. British leaders even discussed withdrawing from North America to protect the more economically important sugar islands in the Caribbean. The Caribbean islands provided the funding to continue the war and King George III was willing to even risk French invasion of the British homeland to protect these vital territories. (King George was literally insane).The British also faced a deteriorating strategic position guarding the trade routes in the western Mediterranean region. In August 1781, a combined French and Spanish invasion fleet descended upon the British held western Mediterranean Sea island of Minorca. Re-conquest of Minorca, annexed by the British in 1713, was a key Spanish war goal. The island’s deep-water port at Mahón was strategically important as a naval base and convenient port for British privateers which were ravishing Spanish and allied shipping. The French and Spanish invaders completely surprised the widely dispersed British garrison and on February 6, 1782, the last British soldiers laid down their arms. The loss of Minorca increased Spanish pressure on the British fortress at Gibraltar.In the North American, the Caribbean and European theaters, the British were losing significant battles, its forces stretched to the breaking point and popular domestic opinion was turning against continuing the war. There were calls in the press for the British to end the war in America.The whole history of the American War was, from one End to the other, one continued Proof that Systems and Abilities were not to be found in the Management of our Force in the Colonies; An Army was marched from Canada, and captured at Saratoga; another from Charles-town, and surrendered at York-Town. Revenue was the first Object of the War, but that was long since renounced.Further, opposition members introduced a motion in Parliament to end the war in America:… it only asserted a Fact, that among the Operations of the War, America should not be a theater.Reacting to losses at Yorktown, Minorca and in the Caribbean, political displeasure with the conduct of the war intensified. The Prime Minister, Lord North, lost the majority in Parliament and resigned on March 20, 1782. However, there was much more at stake and the British could not simply recognize American independence and end the war. The British situation looked bleak.British TurnaroundHowever, the winter of 1782 turned out to be the British low point in the global war against its European foes. A dramatic turnaround for the British started in the economically vital Caribbean region, continued in Europe and later spread to Asia.In the Caribbean, the Spanish and French planned a large-scale invasion of Jamaica, the largest of the British held sugar producing islands and vital to the British economy. They assembled a 150-ship invasion fleet to transport 15,000 French and Spanish soldiers for the assault. A 35-ship French fleet under the command of Adm. Francois-Joseph Paul, Comte de Grasse provided escort ships.On April 9, 1782 a 36-ship British fleet under the command of Adm. Sir George Rodney intercepted the Franco-Spanish invasion force in the waters between the windward islands of Dominica and Guadeloupe in the Eastern Caribbean. Over the next four days, the two fleets fought a destructive and bloody engagement later referred to as the Battle of the Saintes.Using superior speed and maneuverability, the British captains cut the French fleet into three groups with an effective “breaking of the line,” an innovative naval tactic designed to concentrate firepower without exposing oneself to counter fire. While controversial as to whether it was intentional by Admiral Rodney, this highly successful maneuver led to the defeat of the French fleet. While there is retrospective controversy that Admiral Rodney could have more thoroughly defeated the French Caribbean fleet, it was largely degraded as an offensive fighting force. The balance of power shifted to the British.Given the strategic and economic importance of Jamaica, the British press lauded Admiral Rodney’s victory and he received the title of baron and was recognized by the House of Lords:… thanks of the House to Sir George Rodney, and the officers and the seaman, who gained the glorious and compleat victory on the 12thof April last, in the West-Indies; a victory which his Lordship allowed to be the most brilliant of any which the naval history of this country …The victory greatly improved the British negotiating position in the peace talks as the French and Spanish lost the military initiative and realised that they could not defeat the British in the Caribbean and capture Jamaica.The British military turnaround continued in the European theater. In September 1782 a joint Franco-Spanish force of over 35,000 troops escalated a siege of the British fortress at Gibraltar held by 7500 men. However, Gibraltar’s natural defenses made a land assault very difficult without disabling key waterfront gun batteries. Chevalier d’Arcon, a French military engineer and Colonel devised and built a new floating gun battery to assault these gun batteries.However, anxious Spanish commanders rushed the new vessels into action without adequate testing and crew training. As a result of unfavorable winds, poor seamanship and a lack of coordination with the Spanish fleet, the British destroyed all of the unprotected floating gun batteries. With no other way to blast a route into Gibraltar, the French and Spanish called off their attack.The next month Adm. Richard Howe led a fleet of 35 ships of the line and a large convoy of merchantmen to re-supply Gibraltar. The blockading Spanish fleet under the command of Adm. Luis de Córdova sailed out to engage the British fleet. The two fleets fought an inconclusive battle off the coast of modern day Morocco (the Battle of Cape Spartel). While the two fleets maneuvered for a fighting edge, Admiral Howe’s transports slipped into Gibraltar with needed food and military supplies. As a result of the floating gun battery debacle and a successful resupply, the Franco-Spanish force lifted the siege and the British gained a vital victory by holding the Spanish coveted Gibraltar.On a second front in the European theater, the British effectively blockaded the Dutch Navy at its principal navy base on Texcel Island preventing any offensive operations. The one attempt by the Dutch Navy to engage the British Navy resulted in a 3 hour and 40 minute encounter called the Battle of the Dogger Bank. Each side suffered the same level of battle damage and the engagement was a bloody, tactical draw.After this ineffective attempt, Dutch naval forces remained in their anchorages unable or unwilling to sortie with Franco-Spanish fleets and leaving their merchant shipping fleet unprotected. The Dutch were ready for peace, but continued the conflict due to alliance obligations to France. Dutch military forces contributed little to the anti-British alliance other than tying up valuable British ships of the line that could have been deployed in other military theaters.Finally, the British successfully thwarted the French and their Indian Mysore allies’ attempts to seize British held territories in southeastern India. Starting on February 17, 1782 French and British Naval Forces fought a series of inconclusive naval engagements off India’s eastern shore. The French did land 3000 troops to assist Mysore. However, without clear naval superiority, the French/Mysore alliance could not recapture the British held territories.Entering peace negotiations in the fall of 1782, the global strategic situation for the British was significantly more favorable than the situation right after Yorktown. While the British could not quell the American rebellion, in North America they held the valuable port cities of New York, Savannah, Charleston, Penobscot, St. Augustine and all of the territory of Canada. Against its European enemies, Britain controlled the balance of naval and commercial power in the West Indies, Europe and Asia. Further the United States, France and Spain were all running out of money and resources to further prosecute the war.The Treaty of Paris and its ImpactTo maximize leverage, the British insisted on negotiating a separate treaty with the Americans and each of its European allies. This allowed the British to “give up” American independence while preserving maximum advantage over the French, Spanish and Dutch. The allies realized that only by coordinating their treaties and staying together, could they keep a strategic balance to maximize leverage during the negotiations.Therefore, negotiations proceeded in parallel and final separate treaties were not signed until there was an agreement with all parties. Britain signed final individual peace treaties with America, France and Spain on September 3, 1783. War with the Dutch formally continued until a fourth Treaty of Paris was signed on May 20, 1784. Mysore concluded a peace agreement with the British on March 11, 1784.British newspapers heralded the peace treaties as containing terms more favorable than expected.The Definitive Treaty having been signed by the French, Spaniards and Americans, peace may be said to be fairly established, and to the honor of the present Ministers, upon terms greatly more advantageous to this country than could have been hoped for from some Preliminary articles settled by the late Administration.After fighting the world’s most powerful nations with no military allies, the British only lost the 13 colonies to independence and Florida and Minorca to the Spanish. The resulting peace agreement preserved British control of its most valuable colonial assets, the sugar producing islands in the West Indies, some of which had been captured by the French. Colonial control of most West Indies islands largely reverted to pre-war status. The British regained the French held islands of Grenada, St. Vincent, Dominica, St. Kitts, Nevis and Montserrat. Only the small island of Tobago was transferred from British to French control. Spain also returned the Bahamas to the British, which it captured in May 1782.With respect to North America, Britain maintained its Canadian colony and in conflict with the final peace treaty, retained military forts in American territory to protect valuable trade with Native Americans. These northwest frontier forts of Oswego, Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac were not turned over to the Americans until 1798. Britain further benefited by no longer funding military security for the thirteen colonies and continued to impress American sailors at will.The subsequent rise in commercial relations with America further validated the British strategy of pursuing international trade dominance. The United States became extremely valuable to British manufacturing and trading industries. In the ten year period following the war, Britain exported over £25 million of goods to the new United States while importing £8 million of principally raw materials and food. This large balance of trade surplus financed commerce with other trading partners and was vital to the Britain’s economic prosperity.In Africa and India, the pre-war situation was restored with a minor exchange of a few territories. The British protected and expanded trade in India and Asia, a key wartime goal. The British gained valuable trading rights in the Dutch East Indies and employed Indian ports to illicitly trade valuable goods with Dutch holdings on Ceylon.Although a “victor,” France gained almost nothing from its considerable war investment. The French monarchy received a modicum of retribution for losses during the Seven Years War and gained pride in assisting the thirteen colonies become independent from its archenemy. However, France did not unseat Britain as the preeminent commercial and naval power and did not gain equal geopolitical status with Britain, its principle war objective.The final treaty granted France minor territorial concessions. Britain returned Saint Lucia to France and surrendered the small island of Tobago in the Caribbean. France re-affirmed its rights gained in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 to fish off North America and reconfirmed its ownership of two small islands south of Newfoundland in the Atlantic Ocean. Also, France won the right to re-fortify the English Channel port of Dunkirk that it lost in the peace treaty ending the Seven Years War. These small gains came at a huge financial cost. War cost estimates range from 772 million to 1250 million livres. This financial burden almost bankrupted the French government and severely weakened its monarchy. And the King of Great Britain could continue to call himself King of France; a claim that dated back to the 14th Century and one that the Britain would not relinquish until 1800.Although almost bankrupt at the end of the war, Spain fared better in the final peace terms than France and at a much lower military and financial cost. The Spanish negotiated to keep their military conquest of East and West Florida that it lost in the peace agreement ending the Seven Years War and maintained the valuable port city of New Orleans, thereby controlling trade on the Mississippi River. They kept possession of Minorca, which they captured, from the British. However, they did not gain Gibraltar, their principal wartime goal.The Dutch yielded nothing from their participation and suffered significant economic losses due to capture of their merchant ships and loss of trade. Fortunately, the French pressed the British to principally return Dutch holdings in Asia and the Caribbean to the pre-war status. However, the British forced the Dutch to provide access to trade in the Dutch East Indies. Never again would a Dutch fleet represent a meaningful threat to the British Navy and their economy would require many years to recover. Symbolically, Dutch ships were required to salute the British flag when they met in the open ocean.The Indian Kingdom of Mysore also did not gain any advantages from its alliance with France and its participation in the American Revolution. The resulting peace treaty restored the pre-war territorial ownership and control. Over the next few years, Mysore and Britain would go on to fight two more wars.So from a European and global view, the aftermath of the American Revolution was relatively positive for the British. In fact, some British political observers believed that American independence was a good development for Britain.I say, I am glad, that America had declared herself independent of us, though the Reasons very opposite to theirs. America, I have proved beyond the Possibility of a Confutation, ever was a Millstone hanging around the Neck of this Country, to weigh it down: And as we ourselves had not the Wisdom to cut the Rope, and to let the Burden fall off, the Americans have kindly done it for us.The British were not the big losers as depicted in American historical accounts and may have “won” as much as they could and made the best of a difficult geo-political situation. Their European opponents did not achieve their war objectives: France did not become a geo-political equal of Britain, Spain did not win Gibraltar and the Dutch economy was severely injured. Victories over its European foes preserved Britain as a global trading colonial empire, which strengthened, and endured through the 19th Century. Lastly, Britain turned the United States into a major trading partner and a central component of its commercial empire.Sources:[1] As a result of this service to the King, de la Clocheterie was promoted to Captain and given command of several ships of the line. He died in the pivotal Battle of the Saintes in 1782.[2] Jonathan R. Dull, The French Navy and American Independence (Princeton, NJ: The Princeton University Press, 1975), 118-9.[3] Spain’s ambassador to France Conde de Aranda and the French ambassador to Spain Armand-Marc Comte de Montmorin-Saint-Hérem also played key roles.[4] Treaty of Alliance between France and Spain, concluded at Aranjuez, April 12, 1779, Ratification by Spain, May12, 1779, and Ratification by France, April 28, 1779, full text Charles Oscar Paullin, European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies (Clark, NJ: The Lawbook Exchange, LTD., 2004), Vol. IV, 145-6.[5] David Syrett, The Royal Navy in European Waters during the American Revolutionary War (Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina Press, 1998), 128.[6] Indian sources spell Hyder, Haider.[7] In March 1778, Britain moved 5000 soldiers from New York to the West Indies. They were employed to capture the Caribbean island of St. Lucia on December 13, 1778.[8] Salisbury and Winchester Journal, February 11, 1782, 2.[9] Hampshire Chronicle, February 4, 1782.[10] Derby Mercury, March 21, 1782, 4.[11] Andrew Jackson O’Shaughnessy, The Men Who Lost America (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 2013), 294-5.[12] Andrew Jackson O’Shaughnessy, “Empire Divided: The American Revolution and the British Caribbean” (Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000), 208.[13] Northampton Mercury, December 17, 1781, 2.[14] Northampton Mercury, December 17, 1781, 2.[15] Jamaica’s population was estimated at 219,600 in 1775 surpassing Cuba at 172,000 as the next most populace. Granville W. and N.C. Hough, Spanish, French, Dutch and American Patriots of the West Indies During the American Revolution Part 7 Spanish Borderland Studies (Midway, CA: Society of Hispanic Historical Ancestral Research, 2001), 4.[16] Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Major Operations of the Navies in the War of American Independence (London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, 1913), 207.[17] For a complete description of the “Breaking of the Line” naval tactic, see Bob Ruppert, Who really crossed the T in the Battle of the Saintes?, Journal of the American Revolution, Who Really “Crossed the T” in the Battle of the Saintes? - Journal of the American Revolution, accessed June 5, 2015.[18] Stamford Mercury, May 30, 1782, 4.[19] René Chartrand, Gibraltar 1779-83: The Great Siege (Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, LTD., 2006), 62-3.[20] David Syrett, The Royal Navy in European Waters during the American Revolutionary War, 130-1.[21] Piers Mackesy, The War for America 1775-1783 (Lincoln and London: The University of Nebraska Press, 1964), 497.[22] Stamford Mercury, Reprinted from the London Gazette, September 9, 1783, 1.[23] For an overview of the West Indies region and a graphical depiction of the change of control of the West Indies islands see a web page:, accessed June 7, 2015.[24] Antonio de Alcedo and George Alexander Thompson, The Geographical and Historical Dictionary of America and the West Indies (London: Carpenter & Son, 1815), xvi-xvii.[25]James Breck Perkins, France in the American Revolution (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1911), 498.[26]Jonathan R. Dull, “France and the American Revolution: Questioning the Myths,” Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the Western Society for French History (1974): 110-119.[27] Samuel Flagg Bemis, The Diplomacy of the American Revolution (Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1935), 254.[28] Samuel Flagg Bemis, The Diplomacy of the American Revolution, 254.[29] Mysore and Britain fought two more wars, the first of which Lord Cornwallis personally commanded the British forces. Although a loser at Yorktown, Cornwallis was a successful Governor General and Commander in Chief in India.[30] Josiah Tucker, Four Letters on Important National Subjects, ed. Max Beloff, The Debate on the American Revolution, 1761-1783 (New York: The British Book Centre, 1949), 297.

Which came first, Israel or Palestine?

SUMMARY OF ISRAEL'S LEGAL RIGHTS TO JUDEA AND SAMARIAby Ted BelmanBackground:The Middle East was a part of the Ottoman Empire, which had ruled it some 400 years when World War I broke out. The Ottomans allied themselves with Germany. And so it was that, when the war ended, the Ottomans had lost their land. As part of the readjustments, the map of the huge area we call the Middle East was reconfigured. The original plan was to create a Jewish state in what the British called Mandatory Palestine (some 45,000 square miles on both sides of the Jordan river) and an Arab state in the rest of the region. In 1922, the British put the Hashemite family in charge of "administering" the area on the east side of the Jordan -- some 78% of the land destined to be the Jewish state -- leaving the Jews with some 8,840 square miles, 1/10 of 1% of the area of the Middle East, for a future homeland. The land holdings of the 22 Arab League countries, in contrast, is 6,145,389 square miles.1. According to international law, the Jewish people are the sole beneficiary of Self-Determination in the land that was Mandatory Palestine. The rights of the Jewish People to Palestine are enshrined in three legally binding international treaties. These rights have notexpired and are still in full force and effect. [1]The process began at San Remo, Italy, when the four Principal Allied Powers of World War I — Great Britain, France, Italy and Japan — agreed to create a Jewish national home [*] in what is now the Land of Israel.The 1920 San Remo ResolutionThis was passed by the San Remo Supreme Council. This council was given the power of disposition by the Great Powers and was convened for the purpose of dividing what was the Ottoman Empire, i.e, redrawing the borders of the Middle East and giving its land to its original inhabitants.The relevant resolution reads as follows:"The High Contracting Parties agree to entrust... the administration of Palestine, within such boundaries as may be determined by the Principal Allied Powers, to a Mandatory [authority that] will be responsible for putting into effect the [Balfour] declaration... in favor of the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people."The San Remo Resolution also bases itself on Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, which declares that it is "a sacred trust of civilization" to provide for the well-being and development of colonies and territories whose inhabitants are "not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world." Specifically, a resolution was formulated to create a Mandate to form a Jewish national home in Palestine.Professor Jacques Gauthier wrote that the San Remo treaty specifically notes that "nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine" - but says nothing about any "political" rights of the Arabs living there.[2]The 1922 Mandate for PalestineThe League of Nations' resolution creating the Palestine Mandate included the following significant clause: "Whereas recognition has thereby been given to the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine and to the grounds for reconstituting their national home in that country." No such recognition of Arab rights in Palestine was granted.The 1924 Anglo-American Convention on Palestine.The United States of America ratified a treaty with the British Government known as the Anglo-American Treaty of 1924, which included by reference the aforementioned Balfour Declaration and includes, verbatim, the full text of the Mandate for Palestine."Whereas the Principal Allied Powers have also agreed that the Mandatory should be responsible for putting into effect the declaration originally made on the 2nd of November 1917, by the Government of His Britannic Majesty, and adopted by the said Powers, in favour of the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people..."The United States of America is legally bound to the principles contained in the "Balfour Declaration" and the "Mandate for Palestine."2. The British Mandatory was not a sovereign. All its rights and obligations relating to Palestine, emanated from the Mandate of Palestine. The Mandatory was a trustee for the League of Nations, and it was not given the power to take any steps which violated the terms of the Mandate. It could not change the terms of the Mandate at its pleasure, as it did in the following two cases:Ceding 77.5 % of Palestine to Trans Jordan (in 1922)Ceding the Golan to Syria (in 1923)3. The Mandatory violated article 5 & article 27 of the Mandate when it ceded 77.5% of Palestine to TransJordan and the Golan to Syria:ART. 5. "The Mandatory shall be responsible for seeing that no Palestine territory shall be ceded or leased to, or in any way placed under the control of the Government of any foreign Power."ART. 27: The Mandatory had no right to amend the Mandate terms without the full consent of the League of Nations or its Mandates Commission.4. In the 1924 Anglo American Convention the U.S. agreed to support Great Britain as a Mandatory so long as the Mandatory abided by the San Remo Resolution. The sole purpose of the Resolution regarding Palestine was:Drawing the borders of PalestineReconstituting Palestine as a National Homeland for the Jewish People worldwideRecognizing the Jewish People's historical connection to the landThere was not even one word in the Mandate or the Anglo American convention about creating an Arab land in Palestine.In November 2009, the Office for Israeli Constitutional Law (OFICL), a non-governmental legal action organization, sent a letter to US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, warning that by labeling Jewish settlements in the West Bank illegal, she is violating international law, as well as American law. OFICL directer Mark Kaplan said:"The mandate expired in 1948 when Israel got its independence, but the American-Anglo convention was a treaty that was connected to the mandate. Treaties themselves have no statute of limitations, so their rights go on ad infinitum."5. The Lodge-Fish Resolution of September 21, 1922, was a Joint Resolution passed by both houses of the U.S. Congress and signed by President Warren Harding, endorsing the Balfour Declaration with slight variations. This made the text of the Joint Resolution part of the law of the United States until this very day."Resolved by the Senate and House of representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that the United states of America favors the establishment in Palestine of a national Home for the Jewish people..."confirming the irrevocable right of Jews to settle in the area of Palestine — anywhere between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea:6. Under American Law when a joint resolution is passed by both the Senate and the House of Representatives in an identical form and then signed by the President, it becomes the Law of the U.S.7. Both the Lodge-Fish Resolution and the Anglo American Convention underwent the above noted process (see point 6). Therefore reconstituting Palestine as a National Homeland for the Jewish People worldwide and recognizing their historical connection to the land became part of US LAW.Any attempt to negate the Jewish people's right to Palestine — Eretz-Israel — and to deny them access and control in the area designated for the Jewish people by the League of Nations is an actionable infringement of both international law and the Supremacy Clause (Article VI, paragraph 2 of the United States Constitution), which dictates that Treaties "shall be the supreme Law of the Land".8. The 1924 Anglo American Convention on Palestine included the whole text of the Palestine Mandate. The Palestine Mandate included the Balfour declaration preamble committing to reconstitute Palestine as a National homeland for the Jewish People worldwide and to recognize their historical connection to the land. It did not mention anything about creating an Arab State in Palestine. The Mandate explicitly prohibited ceding any land in Palestine to any foreign powers or changing the terms of the Mandate without the League's expressed permission. That permission had to be unanimously passed by all members. That never occurred.[3]9. The significance of the above (see #8) is that no decision made by the US or Britain, may be in conflict with the terms of the Mandate or the Anglo American Convention. France, Italy and Japan sat on the San Remo Supreme Council - along with the US and Britain - approving the San Remo decision. After the Supreme Council approved the San Remo decision, the resolution was further approved by the League of Nations and its 51 members. This resolution became a binding international Treaty. The Treaty became Res Judicata. Consequently all the above noted countries are bound by their own approval. Thus they are prevented from changing their approval without Israel's consent.10. No decision, policy or measure taken by subsequent American administrations may be in conflict with the Terms of the Palestine Mandate. (The sole purpose of the Mandate was-to reconstitute Palestine as a national homeland for the Jewish People world-wide and recognize their historical connection with the land.) Under the Doctrine of Estoppels the US is estopped from making policies, taking any steps, measures, spending any monies on policies, which run contrary to its covenants and undertaking under the Anglo-American Convention of 1924, because among other things they are violating US Law.11. Both their Excellencies, the Emir Faisal and Abdullah approved the League of Nations decisions. At different points in history, Emir Faisal, in an agreement with Weitzman, agreed to support the Zionist claim on both sides of the Jordan river and later Abdullah, agreed with Churchill to support the Zionist claim to the territory from the Jordan river to the Mediterranean, including Judea and Samaria and Gaza, and the Golan Heights. The Supreme Council did not want to approve the final borders of Palestine on both sides of the Jordan until they had the approval of Emir Feisal.[4]12. All rights emanating from the three international treaties were approved by the League of Nations and inherited by the United Nations. They did not expire. The United Nations had no right to vary them.The UN has no right to pass a resolution which ran contrary to an existing earlier decision/ resolution on its books.The UN or Britain are not sovereigns and had no right to change borders at its pleasure.The same Supreme Council that drew the borders for Iraq Syria and Lebanon, gave Israel the right to its borders from the Jordan to the Mediterranean. This was approved by the League, and its members: Britain, France, Japan and Italy. They have no right to vary that which they had approved.13. The General Assembly does not have the right to create enforceable resolutions or borders. So even if the Arabs had accepted the Green Line [the armistice lines after the 1948 Arab-Israeli war], these borders would not have been legally enforceable.14. The Partition Plan of 1947 only demarcated the cease fire lines. It had no binding legal force.It was not approved by the Arabs. In order for the Green Line to have had any sort of legal significance that approval would have been necessary at the very least;The General Assembly has no power to change borders. Therefore its decision or advice was insignificant from a legal perspective.The UN has no power to vary an existing valid international treaty which the League of Nations - its predecessor - had approved. (Res Judicata). The UN inherited from the League of Nations the granting to Israel of the lands between the Mediterranean and the Jordan River.The UN has no power to draw new agreements which run contrary to existing valid International Agreements or treaties which it had inherited from its predecessor, the League of Nations.No borders decided by the San Remo Conference and approved by the League of Nations, save those of Israel, were ever challenged or changed;In 1923 Britain - the Mandatory and Trustee of the Palestine Mandate of 1922, and of the British American Convention of 1924 - contrary to the explicit terms of the Mandate, ceded the Golan to Syria.[5]"This treaty which was concluded by the principal powers, in effect, as representative of the League of Nations, is binding on the League, particularly after it approved it. The League cannot therefore change the mandate provisions. (Nor, of course, does the Mandatory have that right)"[6]OFICL chairman Michael Snidecor has stated, "The General Assembly has no authority to create countries or change borders. The UN partition plan [1967] was just that -- a plan."Significant precedents:1. The Vienna decision on treaties: According to Howard Grief:Rights gained from Mandates don't cease at the expiration of the MandateThe principle of law that rights once granted or recognized under a treaty or other legal instrument do not expire with the expiration of that treaty or instrument is now codified in article 70(1)(b) of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (the Treaty on Treaties). This article states that "unless the treaty otherwise provides or the parties otherwise agree, the termination of a treaty... does not affect any right, obligation or legal situation of the parties created through the execution of the treaty prior to its termination".As a result, Jewish rights to Palestine and the Land of Israel remain in full force today under international law.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"The Palestinian people does not exist. The creation of a Palestinian state is only a means for continuing our struggle against the state of Israel for our Arab unity. In reality today there is no difference between Jordanians, Palestinians, Syrians and Lebanese. Only for political and tactical reasons do we speak today about the existence of a Palestinian people, since Arab national interests demand that we posit the existence of a distinct 'Palestinian people' to oppose Zionism."For tactical reasons, Jordan, which is a sovereign state with defined borders, cannot raise claims to Haifa and Jaffa. While as a Palestinian, I can undoubtedly demand Haifa, Jaffa, Beer-Sheva and Jerusalem. However, the moment we reclaim our right to all of Palestine, we will not wait even a minute to unite Palestine and Jordan." (PLO executive committee member Zahir Muhsein, March 31, 1977, interview with the Dutch newspaper Trouw.) The Palestinian leadership, including Ahmed Shukar and Yasir Arafat, has openly admitted Palestinian "peoplehood" is a fraud; Read This"It should be remembered that in 1918, with the fall of the Ottoman Empire, Britain and France were handed more than 5,000,000 square miles to divvy up and 99% was given to the Arabs to create countries that did not exist previously. Less than 1% was given as a Mandate for the re-establishment of a state for the Jews on both banks of the Jordan River. In 1921, to appease the Arabs once again, another three quarters of that less than 1% was given to a fictitious state called Trans-Jordan." (Jack Berger, May 31, 2004.)The total for all the 22 Arab League countries is 6,145,389 square miles (SM). By comparison, all 50 states of the United States have a total of 3,787,318 SM. Israel has 8,463 SM, about one-sixth of that of the State of Michigan. Iran, Turkey, Pakistan and Afghanistan are Muslim but not Arab and are not included.World Arab population: 300 million; World Jewish population: 13.6 million; Israel's Jewish population: 5.4 million."... during the late 1940s, more than 40 million refuges around the world were resettled, except for one people. They [Palestinian arabs] remain defined as refugees, wallowing 60 years later in 59 UNRWA refugee camps, financed by $400 million contributed annually by nations of the world to nurture the promise of the "right of return" to Arab neighborhoods and Arab villages from 1948 that no longer exist."Some 900,000 Jews left behind $300 billion in assets when they were forced to flee for their lives from the Arab countries in the 1940s. They hold deeds for five times Israel's size.Re Israel's irrevocable ownership of Israel, Golan, Samaria, Judea and Gaza: "Nothing that Israel's legal system says can change the facts that: (1) the legal binding document is the Mandate of the League of Nations and (2) the obligations of the Mandate are valid in perpetuity." (Professor Julius Stone)"By 1920 the Ottoman Empire had exercised undisputed sovereignty over Palestine for 400 years. In Article 95 of the treaty of Sevres, that sovereignty was transferred to England in trust for a national homeland for the jews. The local Arabs had never exercised sovereignty over Palestine and so they lost nothing. Their rights were fully protected by a provisio in the grant: ' being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine...' The proviso has been fully observed by the Israelis. Since 1950 the Arabs have built some 261 new settlements in Judea and Samaria — more than twice as many as the Jews, but you never hear of them. They fill them with Arabs from Lebanon, Egypt and Jordan and by the grace of God they become Palestinians. Allahu Akbar! The Arabs call Judea "the West Bank' because they would look silly claiming that Jews are illegally living in Judea."source: Think-Israel

What exactly are Indian courts (Native American)?

It is very, very complex. There are hundreds of tribes with courts and each is a little different.The general rule is that States have no jurisdiction over the activities of Indians and tribes in Indian country. Basically the principal is the land and jurisdiction was before the existence of the states or territories, in many cases. What they have is the land remaining after the ceded the rest by forced treaty or land given ins compensation of what they ceded. The tribal courts cover some laws and then the federal courts cover the rest. The land is held in trust for the tribes by the federal government so they have the responsibility of administering justice. The tribal lands are NOT state lands. But, it depends a great deal on what state and what reservation you are on. Just as is true in the rest of the US, most law and courts are is different from place to place. General Rules Criminal Jurisdiction in Indian CountryGenerally, tribal courts have civil jurisdiction over Indians and non-Indians who either reside or do business on federal Indian reservations. They also have criminal jurisdiction over violations of tribal laws committed by tribal members residing or doing business on the reservation. It depends a lot on who the victim and perpetrator are (tribal or not) and on what tribal land it happened. The latest numbers of enrolled triabl members who might be under a courts jurisdiction is they were living on the reservation is 12 years out of date. In 2005 the total number of enrolled members of the (then) 561 federally recognized tribes was shown to be less than half the Census number, or 1,978,099. There are now 567 tribes and the population has grown, probably above 2.1 million. Most, however, do not live on Indian lands and thus would only be effected by this when they visit. About 60–70% don’t live on reservation lands.Tribal courts are responsible for appointing guardians, determining competency, awarding child support from Individual Indian Money (IIM) accounts, determining paternity, sanctioning adoptions, marriages, and divorces, making presumptions of death, and adjudicating claims involving trust assets. There are approximately 225 tribes that contract or compact with the BIA to perform the Secretary’s adjudicatory function and 23 Courts of Indian Offenses (also known as CFR courts) which exercise federal authority. The Indian Tribal Justice Act of 1993 (P.L. 103-176, 107 Stat. 2005) supports tribal courts in becoming, along with federal and state courts, well-established dispensers of justice in Indian Country.There are Also CFR courts (Code of Federal Regulations).After the reservations in Oklahoma were opened by land runs to non-Indian homesteading, and federal Indian policy sought to weaken tribal governments and break up tribal land holdings, the courts over time lost their funding and consequently ceased to function. With the void in the enforcement of tribal law, the state began to assert its authority over the remaining tribal and allotted Indian lands even though no jurisdiction properly existed. In recent decades, the Indian tribes have regained the jurisdiction over these lands and have re-established tribal court systems.The State of Oklahoma once contended that tribal governments had no authority to operate their own justice systems, arguing that the Indian nations had no land remaining under their jurisdictions. Much confusion arose because many thought that tribes only asserted jurisdiction over “reservation” lands. Many people in Oklahoma incorrectly assumed that reservations were terminated at statehood. Recent court decisions have made it clear that tribes assert jurisdiction over all lands that are “Indian country”, including reservations, dependent Indian communities, and Indian allotments. These Indian country lands from the basis of tribal jurisdiction today. Since few Indian tribes had operating judicial systems in place in the late 1970's. When tribal jurisdiction was re-affirmed, the Court of Indian Offenses for the Anadarko Area Tribes now the Southern Plains Region Tribes was created. Courts of Indian Offenses are established throughout the U.S. under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), providing the commonly used name — the “CFR” Court”. Until such time as a particular Indian tribe establishes their own tribal court, the Court of Indian Offenses will act as a tribe’s judicial system. The only difference between CFR Courts and Tribal Courts is the form of laws they enforce.When the court was re-established in western Oklahoma in 1979, there were four CFR Courts covering eighteen Indian nations. A number of tribes have since established their own systems of justice. Accordingly, the CFR Courts for these tribes have been deactivated. In 1991, a separate CFR Court system was established for Eastern Oklahoma Region Tribes covering eastern Oklahoma, which is headquartered in Muskogee, Oklahoma.One big difference between Tribal courts and other types of state or local courts, is that, as in many places on other lands that are controlled or held in trust by the Federal government, some serious crimes are not dealt with by the local, tribal or state authorities but by the FBI and the Federal courts. This is analogous to what happens with crime is a Federal Park or BLM or Forest land, or on a military base. What crimes on Indian reservations are dealt with by the FBI.“The FBI is responsible for investigating the most serious crimes in Indian Country— such as murder, child sexual and physical abuse, violent assaults, drug trafficking, gaming violations, and public corruption matters. Nationwide, the FBI has investigative responsibilities for some 200 federally recognized Indian reservations. More than 100 agents in 19 of the Bureau’s 56 field offices work Indian Country matters full time.” Indian Country Crime There are 566 federally recognized American Indian Tribes in the United States, and the FBI has federal law enforcement responsibility on nearly 200 Indian reservations. This federal jurisdiction is shared concurrently with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Office of Justice Services (BIA-OJS).Here is a map of the Indian Country Federal judicial districts. Indian Country in Judicial DistrictsHere is the General Crimes Act (18 USC 1152): This federal statue (enacted in 1817 and set forth below) provides that the federal courts have jurisdiction over interracial crimes committed in Indian country as set forth below:Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, the general laws of the United States as to the punishment of offenses committed in any place within the sole and exclusive jurisdiction of the United States, except in the District of Columbia, shall extend to the Indian Country.This section shall not extend to offenses committed by one Indian against the person or property of another Indian, nor to any Indian committing any offense in the Indian Country who has been punished by the local law of the tribe, or to any case where, by treaty stipulations, the exclusive jurisdiction over such offenses is or may be secured to the Indian tribes respectively.The Major Crimes Act : The Major Crimes Act (enacted following the U.S. Supreme Court’s 1883 Ex Parte Crow Dog decision) provides for federal criminal jurisdiction over seven major crimes when committed by Indians in Indian country. Over time, the original seven offenses have been increased to sixteen offenses currently. So, these crimes are usually prosecuted in Federal District courts.In 1953, Public law 280 was passed. It grants certain states criminal jurisdiction over American Indians on reservations and to allow civil litigation that had come under tribal or federal court jurisdiction to be handled by state courts. However, the law did not grant states regulatory power over tribes or lands held in trust by the United States; federally guaranteed tribal hunting, trapping, and fishing rights; basic tribal governmental functions such as enrollment and domestic relations; nor the power to impose state taxes. These states also may not regulate matters such as environmental control, land use, gambling, and licenses on federal Indian reservations.This changed things in Some states. The states required to assume civil and criminal jurisdiction over federal Indian lands were Alaska (except the Metlakatla Indian Community on the Annette Island Reserve, which maintains criminal jurisdiction), California, Minnesota (except the Red Lake Reservation), Nebraska, Oregon (except the Warm Springs Reservation), and Wisconsin. In addition, the federal government gave up all special criminal jurisdiction in these states over Indian offenders and victims. The states that elected to assume full or partial jurisdiction were Arizona (1967), Florida (1961), Idaho (1963, subject to tribal consent), Iowa (1967), Montana (1963), Nevada (1955), North Dakota (1963, subject to tribal consent), South Dakota (1957-1961), Utah (1971), and Washington (1957-1963).Subsequent acts of Congress, court decisions, and state actions to retrocede jurisdiction back to the Federal Government have muted some of the effects of the 1953 law, and strengthened the tribes’ jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters on their reservations.Here is a summary of who has what jurisdiction: 689. Jurisdictional SummarySummary of which government entity has jurisdiction in various types of scenarios.Where jurisdiction has not been conferred on the stateOffender Victim JurisdictionNon-Indian Non-Indian State jurisdiction is exclusive of federal and tribal jurisdiction.Non-Indian Indian Federal jurisdiction under 18 U.S.C. § 1152 is exclusive of state and tribal jurisdiction.Indian Non-Indian If listed in 18 U.S.C. § 1153, there is federal jurisdiction, exclusive of the state, but probably not of the tribe. If the listed offense is not otherwise defined and punished by federal law applicable in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, state law is assimilated. If not listed in 18 U.S.C. § 1153, there is federal jurisdiction, exclusive of the state, but not of the tribe, under 18 U.S.C. § 1152. If the offense is not defined and punished by a statute applicable within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, state law is assimilated under 18 U.S.C. § 13.Indian Indian If the offense is listed in 18 U.S.C. § 1153, there is federal jurisdiction, exclusive of the state, but probably not of the tribe. If the listed offense is not otherwise defined and punished by federal law applicable in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, state law is assimilated. See section 1153(b). If not listed in 18 U.S.C. § 1153, tribal jurisdiction is exclusive.Non-Indian Victimless State jurisdiction is exclusive, although federal jurisdiction may attach if an impact on individual Indian or tribal interest is clear.Indian Victimless There may be both federal and tribal jurisdiction. Under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, all state gaming laws, regulatory as well as criminal, are assimilated into federal law and exclusive jurisdiction is vested in the United States.Where jurisdiction has been conferred by Public Law 280, 18 U.S.C. § 1162Offender Victim JurisdictionNon-Indian Non-Indian State jurisdiction is exclusive of federal and tribal jurisdiction.Non-Indian Indian "Mandatory" state has jurisdiction exclusive of federal and tribal jurisdiction. "Option" state and federal government have jurisdiction. There is no tribal jurisdiction.Indian Non-Indian "Mandatory" state has jurisdiction exclusive of federal government but not necessarily of the tribe. "Option" state has concurrent jurisdiction with the federal courts.Indian Indian "Mandatory" state has jurisdiction exclusive of federal government but not necessarily of the tribe. "Option" state has concurrent jurisdiction with tribal courts for all offenses, and concurrent jurisdiction with the federal courts for those listed in 18 U.S.C. § 1153.Non-Indian Victimless State jurisdiction is exclusive, although federal jurisdiction may attach in an option state if impact on individual Indian or tribal interest is clear.Indian Victimless There may be concurrent state, tribal, and in an option state, federal jurisdiction. There is no state regulatory jurisdiction.Where jurisdiction has been conferred by another statute Offender Victim JurisdictionNon-Indian Non-Indian State jurisdiction is exclusive of federal and tribal jurisdiction.Non-Indian Indian Unless otherwise expressly provided, there is concurrent federal and state jurisdiction exclusive of tribal jurisdiction.Indian Non-Indian Unless otherwise expressly provided, state has concurrent jurisdiction with federal and tribal courts.Indian Indian State has concurrent jurisdiction with tribal courts for all offenses, and concurrent jurisdiction with the federal courts for those listed in 18 U.S.C. § 1153.Non-Indian Victimless State jurisdiction is exclusive, although federal jurisdiction may attach if impact on individual Indian or tribal interest is clear.Indian Victimless There may be concurrent state, federal and tribal jurisdiction. There is no state regulatory jurisdiction.Each tribe has it’s own tribal traditions; history on its own and with the Federal government; language, culture and philosophy; and resources. Most courts are directly based on American laws and traditions. But a few courts have been experimenting with a more tribal tradition based judicial philosophy.The Navajo Nation Peacemaker Courts are an example of this. They basically work the same as if two parties chose to submit to arbitration.People are not forced into these courts. They follow traditional idea of justice which are not revenge or compensation based as in Northern European traditions but which put a priority on balance and harmony and relationships (Hozho and K’e). The Navajo Nation Peacemaking Program. Here is a booklet on what they do. is a statement of how is works and the goals. It is very different than the Anglo-American legal tradition. There are twelve people who work as Peacemakers in these courts. The Navajo Nation has 300,000 enrolled members and is the size of Belgium and Holland combined so they have 11 districts.Hózhóji Naat’aah (Diné Traditional Peacemaking)Traditional Diné Peacemaking begins in a place of chaos, hóóchx̨o’/anáhóót’i’, whether within an individual or between human beings. Perhaps due to historical trauma, Navajos shy away from face-to-face confrontations. However, such confrontations are vital in order to dispel hóóchx̨o’/anáhóót’i’. The Peacemaker has the courage and skills to provide the groundwork for the person or group to confront hóóchx̨o’/anáhóót’i’ and move toward mastering harmonious existence. Life value engagement with the peacemaker provides the sense of identity and pride from our cultural foundations. Hóóchx̨o’/anáhóót’i’ can block and overwhelm clanship, k’é, which is normally what binds human beings together in mutual respect. Through engagement, the Peacemaker educates, persuades, pleads and cajoles the individual or group toward a readiness to open up, listen, share, and make decisions as a single unit using k’é. When hóóchx̨o’/anáhóót’i’ is confronted, people may learn there is a choice to leave it. When harmony, hózh̨̨ó, is self-realized, sustaining it will have clarity and permanent hózh̨̨ó will be self-attainable, hózh̨ǫ́ójí k’ehgo nįná’íldee’ iłhááhodidzaa ná’oodzíí’.Through stories and teachings, the Peacemaker dispenses knowledge, naat'áánii, in order to guide the whole toward a cathartic understanding of hózh̨̨ó that opens the door to transformative healing. The flow of hózh̨̨ó is a movement inwards toward the core issue or underlying truth. Recognition of this truth and the ending of denial provide the opportunity for healing or mutual mending. Realization of the truth occurs when individual feelings are fundamentally satisfied. The resolution of damaged feelings is the core material of peacemaking sessions, hózh̨óji naat’aah. Depending on the skill of the Peacemaker, hózh̨̨ó may be short or may take several peacemaking sessions.The Dynamics of Navajo PeacemakingLiving Traditional Justice Justice Systems and Tribal SocietyHere is a list of the different tribal courts in the US. They are in 31 of the 50 states. Justice Systems of Indian NationsAlabamaPoarch Band of Creek IndiansPoarch Band of Creek Indians Tribal Court5811 Jacksprings, Atmore, AL 36502AlaskaAlaska Tribal Judges AssociationThere are 79 Alaskan Native tribal villiage courts. There are more in development. This booklet has maps of where they are and lists of what issues they deal with. There are some that are not in this directory —- 2012 Alaska Tribal Court DirectoryCentral Council Tlingit & Haida Indian Tribes of AlaskaCentral Council Tlingit and Haida Judicial Branch320 W. Willoughby Ave., Ste. 300, Juneau, AK 99801Ninilchik Village TribeNinilchik Tribal CourtP.O. Box 39070, Ninilchik, AK 99639ArizonaAk-Chin Indian CommunityAk-Chin Indian Community Tribal Court47314 W. Farrell Road, Maricopa, AZ 85139Cocopah Indian TribeCocopah Tribal Court14515 S. Veteran’s Drive, Sommerton, AZ 85350Colorado River Indian TribesColorado River Indian Tribal CourtP.O. Box 3428, Parker, AZ 85344Fort McDowell Yavapai NationFort McDowell Tribal Court10755 North Fort McDowell Road, Ste. 1, Fort McDowell, AZ 85264Fort Mojave Indian TribeFort Mojave TribeS. Highway 95, Mojave Valley, AZ 86440Gila River Indian CommunityGila River Indian Community Judicial Branch721 W. Seed Farm Rd., P.O. Box 368, Sacaton, AZ 85147Havasupai TribeHavasupai Tribal CourtP.O. Box 94, Supai, AZ 86435Hopi TribeHopi Judicial BranchP.O. Box 156, Keams Canyon, AZ 86034Hualapai TribeHualapai Tribal Court960 Rodeo Way, P.O. Box 275, Peach Springs, AZ 86434Kaibab Band of Paiute IndiansKaibab-Paiute Tribe CourtHC65, Box 328, Fredonia, AZ 86022Navajo NationNavajo Nation Judicial BranchNavajo Nation – Chinle District CourtP.O. Box 547 Chinle, AZ 86503Navajo NationNavajo Nation Judicial BranchNavajo Nation – Dilkon District/Family CourtHC63, Box 787, Winslow, AZ 86047Navajo NationNavajo Nation Judicial BranchNavajo Nation – Kayenta District/Family CourtP.O. Box 2700, Kayenta, AZ 86033Navajo NationNavajo Nation Judicial BranchNavajo Nation Supreme CourtP.O. Box 520, Window Rock, AZ 86515Navajo NationNavajo Nation Judicial BranchNavajo Nation – Tuba City District/Family CourtP.O. Box 275, Tuba City, AZ 86045Navajo NationNavajo Nation Judicial BranchNavajo Nation – Window Rock District/Family CourtP.O. Box 5520, Window Rock, AZ 86515Pascua Yaqui TribePascua Yaqui Tribe of Arizona4781 W. Calle Torim, Tucson, AZ 85757Quechan Indian TribeQuechan Tribal CourtP.O. Box 1899, Yuma, AZ 85366Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian CommunitySalt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Court10005 East Osborn Rd. Scottsdale, AZ 85256San Carlos Apache – Ndeh NationSan Carlos Apache Tribal CourtP.O. Box 6, San Carlos, AZ 85550Tohono O’odham NationTohono O’odham Nation Tribal CourtP.O. Box 761, Sells, AZ 85634Tonto Apache TribeTonto Apache Tribal CourtReservation 30, Payson, AZ 85541White Mountain Apache TribeWhite Mountain Apache Tribal CourtP.O. Box 598, Whiteriver, AZ 85941Yavapai-Apache NationYavapai-Apache Nation Tribal CourtP.O. Box 3500, Camp Verde, AZ 86322Yavapai Prescott Indian TribeYavapai-Prescott Tribal CourtCaliforniaBishop Paiute TribeBishop Paiute Tribal Court50 Tu Su Lane, Bishop, CA 93514Blue Lake Rancheria TribeBlue Lake Rancheria Tribal CourtP.O. Box 426, Blue Lake, CA 95525Chemehuevi Indian TribeChemehuevi Tribal CourtP.O. Box 1976, Havasu Lake, CA 92363Cher-Ae Heights Indian Community of the Trinidad RancheriaCher-Ae Heights Indian Community Tribal CourtP.O. Box 630, Trinidad, CA 95570Hoopa Valley TribeHoopa Valley Tribal CourtP.O. Box 1389, Hoopa, CA 95546Hopland Band of Pomo IndiansHopland Band of Pomo Indians Tribal Court3000 Shanel Road, Hopland, CA 95449Intertribal Court of Northern California5250 Aero Drive, Santa Rosa, CA 95403Intertribal Court of Southern California49002 Golsh Road, Rincon Indian Reservation, Valley Center, CA 92082Jamul Indian VillageJamul Tribal Court - Intertribal Court of Southern CaliforniaP.O. Box 612 Jamul, CA 91935Karuk TribeKaruk Tribal Court1836 Apsum, P.O. Box 629, Yreka, CA 96097La Jolla Band of Luiseno IndiansLa Jolla Tribal Court - Intertribal Court of Southern California22000 Highway 76, Pauma Valley, CA 92061Los Coyotes Band of IndiansLos Coyotes Tribal Court - Intertribal Court of Southern CaliforniaP.O. Box 189 Warner Springs, CA 92086Manzanita Band of the Kumeyaay NationManzanita Tribal Court - Intertribal Court of Southern CaliforniaP.O. Box 1302 Boulevard, CA 91905Mesa Grande Band of Diegueno Mission Indians Mesa Grande Tribal Court - Intertribal Court of Southern CaliforniaP.O. Box 270 Santa Ysabel CA 92070Morongo Band of Mission IndiansMorongo Tribal Court, 11581 Potrero Road, Banning, CA 92220Northern California Tribal Courts Coalition1517 S. Oregon St., Ste. B, Yreka, CA 96097Pala Band of Luiseno Mission IndiansPala Band of Luiseno Mission Indians Tribal Court35008 Pala Temecula PMB 348, Pala, CA 92059Pauma Band of Luiseno IndiansPauma Tribal Court - Intertribal Court of Southern CaliforniaP.O. Box 369, Pauma Valley CA 92061Redding RancheriaRedding Rancheria Tribal Court2000 Redding Rancheria Road, Redding, CA 96001Rincon Nation of Luiseno IndiansRincon Tribal Court - Intertribal Court of Southern California1 West Tribal Road, Valley Center, CA 92082San Manuel Band of Mission IndiansSan Manuel Band of Mission Indians Tribal Court3214 Victoria Ave. Highland, CA 92346San Pasqual Band of IndiansSan Pasqual Tribal Court - Intertribal Court of Southern CaliforniaP.O. Box 365 Valley Center, CA 92082Shingle Springs Band of Miwok IndiansShingle Springs Tribal CourtP.O. Box 531, Single Springs, CA 95682Smith River RancheriaSmith River Rancheria Tribal CourtP.O. Box 992, Smith River, CA 95567Sycuan Band of the Kumeyaay NationSycuan Tribal Court, 5523 Sycuan Road, El Cajo, CA 92019Yurok TribeYurok Tribal CourtP.O. Box 1027, Klamath, CA 95548Viejas Band of Kumeyaay IndiansViejas Tribal Court - Intertribal Court of Southern California1 Viejas Grade Rd. Alpine, CA 91901ColoradoSouthern Ute Indian TribeSouthern Ute Indian Tribal CourtP.O. Box 737, #18, Ignacio, CO 81137Ute Mountain Ute TribeUte Mountain Ute Tribe – Court of Indian OffensesBureau of Indian Affairs Ute Mountain Ute AgencyP.O. Box KK, Towaoc, CO 91334ConnecticutMashantucket (Western) Pequot Tribal NationMashantucket Pequot Tribal CourtP.O. Box 3126, Mashantucket, CT 06338Mohegan TribeMohegan Tribal CourtP.O. Box 549, Uncasville, CT 06382FloridaMiccosukee Tribe of Indians of FloridaMiccosukee Tribal Court, P.O. Box 440021, Miami, FL 33144IdahoCoeur d’Alene TribeCoeur d’Alene Tribal Court29 Route 22, Plummer, ID 83851Kootenai Tribe of IdahoKootenai Tribe of Idaho Tribal Court, P.O. Box 1269, Bonners Ferry, ID 83805Nez Perce TribeNez Perce Tribal Court P.O. Box 305, Lapwai, ID 83540Shoshone-Bannock TribesShoshone-Bannock Tribal Court, P.O. Box 306, Fort Hall, ID 83203IowaSac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa/MeskwakiSac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa Tribal Court307 Meskwaki Rd., Tama, IA 52339KansasIowa Tribe of Kansas and NebraskaIowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska Tribal Court3313 Thrasher Road, White Cloud, KS 660947Kickapoo Tribe in KansasKickapoo District Court822 K-20 Highway, Ste. E, Horton, KS 66439Prairie Band of Potawatomi NationPrairie Band Potawatomi Nation Judicial Council11444 158 Road, Mayetta, KS 66509Sac & Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and NebraskaSac & Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska305 North Main St, Reserve, KS 66434LouisianaSovereign Nation of the ChitimachaChitimacha Tribal CourtP.O. Box 610, Charenton, LA 70523Coushatta Tribe of LouisianaCoushatta Tribal CourtP.O. Box 819, Elton, LA 70532Tunica-Biloxi Tribe of LouisianaTunica-Biloxi Tribal CourtP.O. Box 1589, Marksville, LA 71351MaineHoulton Band of Maliseet IndiansHoulton Band of Maliseet Indians88 Bell Road, Littleton, ME 04730Passamaquoddy TribePassamaquoddy Tribal CourtP.O. Box 343, Perry, ME 04667Penobscot Indian NationPenobscot Indian Nation Tribal Court12 Wabanaki Way, Indian Island, ME 04468MassachusettsMashpee Wampanoag TribeMashpee Wampanoag Tribal Court483 Great Neck Road, South, Mashpee, MA 02649Wampanoag Tribe of Gay HeadWampanoag Tribal Court20 Black Brook Road, Aquinnah, MA 02535-1546MichiganBay Mills Indian CommunityBay Mills Indian Community Tribal Court12140 W. Lakeshore Drive, Brimley, MI 49715Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa IndiansGrand Traverse Band Tribal Judiciary2605 N.W. Bayshore Drive, Peshabestown, MI 49682Hannahville Indian CommunityHannahville Community CourtN14911 Hannahville B-1 Road, Wilson, MI 49896Keweenaw Bay Indian CommunityKeweenaw Bay Indian Community Tribal Court16429 Bear Town Road, Baraga, MI 49908Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa IndiansLac Vieux Tribal CourtP.O. Box 249, Watersmeet, MI 49969Little River Band of Ottawa IndiansLittle River Band of Ottawa Indians Tribal Court3031 Domres Road, Manistee, MI 49660Little Traverse Bay Band of Odawa IndiansLittle Traverse Bay Band of Odawa Indians Tribal Court7500 Odawa Circle, Harbor Springs, MI 49740Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish band of Pottawatomi Gun Lake TribeMatch-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Tribal Court1743 142nd Ave., Ste. 8, Dorr, MI 49323Nottawaseppi Huron Band of PotawatomiNottawaseppi Huron Band of Potawatomi Tribal Court2221 1-1/2 Mile Road, Fulton, MI 49052Pokagon Band of Potawatomi IndiansPokagon Tribal CourtP.O. Box 355, Dowagiac, MI 49047Saginaw Chippewa Indian TribeSaginaw Chippewa Tribal Court6954 East BroadwayMount Pleasant, MI 48858Sault Tribe of Chippewa IndiansSault Ste. Marie Tribal CourtP.O. Box 932Sault Ste. Marie, MI 49783MinnesotaBois Forte Band of ChippewaBois Forte Band of Chippewa Tribal CourtP.O. Box 25Nett Lake, MN 55772Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior ChippewaFond du Lac Band of Chippewa Tribal Court1720 Big Lake Road-Cloquet, MN 55270Grand Portage Band of Chippewa IndiansGrand Portage Band of Chippewa Tribal CourtP.O. Box 428-Grand Portage, MN 55605Leech Lake Band of OjibweLeech Lake Tribal Court115 6th Street, N.W., Ste. E, Cass Lake, MN 56633Lower Sioux Indian CommunityLower Sioux Indian Community Tribal CourtP.O. Box 308, Morton, MN 56270Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe TribeMille Lacs Band of Ojibwe Tribal Court43408 Oodena Drive-Onamia, MN 56359Prairie Island Indian CommunityPrairie Island Indian Community Tribal Court5636 Sturgeon Lake Road, Welch, MN 55089Red Lake Band of Chippewa IndiansRed Lake Band of Chippewa Indians Tribal CourtP.O. Box 572, Red Lake, MN 56671Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux CommunityShakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Tribal Court335 Atrium Office Building, 12985 Bandana Blvd.St. Paul, MN 55108Upper Sioux CommunityUpper Sioux Community Tribal CourtP.O. Box 155-Granite Falls, MN 56241White Earth NationWhite Earth Nation Tribal CourtP.O. Box 289, White Earth, MN 56591MississippiMississippi Band of Choctaw IndiansMississippi Band of Choctaw Indians Tribal CourtP.O. Box 6010, Philadelphia, MS 39350MontanaBlackfeet NationBlackfeet Tribal CourtP.O. Box 1170, Browning, MT 59417Chippewa Cree Tribe of Rocky Boy MontanaChippewa Cree Tribal Court31 Agency Square, Box Elder, MT 59521Confederated Salish and Kootenai TribesConfederated Salish and Kootenai Tribal CourtP.O. Box 278, Pablo, MT 59855Crow TribeCrow Tribal CourtP.O. Box 489, Crow Agency, MT 59022Fort Peck Assiniboine & Sioux TribesFort Peck Tribal Court807 Court Ave., P.O. Box 1027, Popular, MT 59255Fort Belknap Indian CommunityFort Belknap Tribal Court253 Court Housing Loop, Harlem, MT 59526Northern Cheyenne TribeNorthern Cheyenne Judicial BranchP.O. Box 1199, Lame Deer, MT 59043NebraskaOmaha Tribe of NebraskaOmaha Tribal CourtP.O. Box 508 Macy, NE 68039Ponca Tribe of NebraskaPonca Tribe of Nebraska Tribal Court1800 Syracuse Ave. Norfolk, NE 68701Santee Sioux Tribe of NebraskaSantee Sioux Tribal CourtRR 2, Box 5172, Niobrara, NE 68760Winnebago Tribe of NebraskaWinnebago Tribal CourtP.O. Box 626, Winnebago, NE 68071New MexicoJicarilla Apache NationJicarilla Apache Nation Tribal CourtP.O. Box 128, Dulce, NM 87528Kewa Pueblo (formally the Pueblo of Santa Domingo)Kewa Pueblo Tribal CourtP.O. Box 279, Santo Domingo, NM 87052Mescalero Apache TribeMescalero Apache Tribal CourtP.O. Box 227, Mescalero, NM 88340Navajo NationNavajo Nation Judicial BranchNavajo Nation Alamo District/Family CourtP.O. Box 163, Magalena, NM 87825Navajo NationNavajo Nation Judicial BranchNavajo Nation – Crownpoint District/Family CourtP.O. Box 6, Crownpoint, NM 87313Navajo NationNavajo Nation Judicial BranchNavajo Nation – Ramah District/Family CourtP.O. Box 309, Ramah, NM 87321Navajo NationNavajo Nation Judicial BranchNavajo Nation – Shiprock District/Family CourtP.O. Box 1168, Shiprock, NM 87420Navajo NationNavajo Nation Judicial BranchNavajo Nation – Tó’hajiilee District/Family CourtP.O. Box 3101-A, Canoncito, NM 87026Ohkay Owingeh PuebloOhkay Owingeh Tribal CourtP.O. Box 1128, San Juan Pueblo, NM 87566Pueblo of AcomaPueblo of Acoma Tribal CourtP.O. Box 347, Acoma, NM 87034Pueblo de CochitiPueblo of Cochiti Tribal CourtP.O. Box 70, Cochiti Pueblo, NM 87072Isleta PuebloPueblo of Isleta Tribal CourtP.O. Box 729, Isleta, NM 87022Pueblo of JemezPueblo of Jemez Tribal CourtP.O. Box 100, Jemez Pueblo, NM 87024Pueblo of LagunaPueblo of Laguna Tribal CourtP.O. Box 194, Laguna, NM 87026Pueblo of NambePueblo of Nambe Tribal CourtRoute 1, Box 117-BB, Nambe Pueblo, NM 8750+Pueblo of PicurisPueblo of Picuris Tribal CourtP.O. Box 127, Penasco, NM 87553Pueblo of PojoaquePueblo of Pojoaque Tribal Court58 Cities of Gold Road, Santa Fe, NM 87506Pueblo of San FelipePueblo of San Felipe Tribal CourtP.O. Box 4339, San Felipe, NM 87001Pueblo of San IldefonsoPueblo of San Ildefonso Tribal CourtRoute 5, Box 315-A, Santa Fe, NM 87506Pueblo of SandiaPueblo of Sandia Tribal Court481 Sandia Loop Road, Bernalillo, NM 87004Pueblo of Santa Ana Tamaya Indian ReservationPueblo of Santa Ana Tribal CourtTamaya Pueblo2 Dove Rd.Pueblo of Santa Ana, NM 87004Pueblo of Santa ClaraPueblo of Santa Clara Tribal CourtP.O. Box 580, Espanola, NM 87532Pueblo of TaosPueblo of Taos Tribal CourtP.O. Box 1846, Taos, NM 87571Pueblo of TesuquePueblo of Tesuque Tribal CourtRoute 42, Box 360-T, Santa Fe, NM 87506Pueblo of ZiaPueblo of Zia Tribal Court135 Capital Square Drive, Zia Pueblo, Nm 87053Pueblo of ZuniPueblo of Zuni Tribal CourtP.O. Box 339, Zuni, NM 87327New YorkOneida Indian NationOneida Nation Court1256 Union Street, Oneida, NY 13421Saint Regis Mohawk TribeSaint Regis Mohawk Tribal Court412 State Route 37, Akwesasne, NY 13655Seneca Nation of New YorkSeneca Nation of New York – Allegany Reservation Court of AppealsSeneca Nation of New York – Allegany Reservation Peacemaker’s CourtSeneca Nation of New York – Allegany Reservation Surrogate CourtP.O. Box 231, Salamanca, NY 14779Seneca Nation of New YorkSeneca Nation of New York – Cattaraugus Reservation Court of AppealsSeneca Nation of New York – Cattaraugus Reservation Peacemaker’s CourtSeneca Nation of New York – Cattaraugus Reservation Surrogate Court2 Thomas Indian School Drive, 1508 Route 438, Irving, NY 14081NevadaDuckwater Shoshone TribeDuckwater Shoshone Tribal CourtP.O. Box 140005, Duckwater, NV 89314Ely Shoshone TribeEly Shoshone Judicial Center16 Shoshone Circle, Ely, NV 89301Fallon Paiute Shoshone TribeFallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribal Court987 Rio Vista Drive, Fallon, NV 89406Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone TribesFort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribal CourtP.O. Box 391, McDermitt, NV 89421Inter-Tribal Court of Appeals of NevadaP.O. Box 7440, Reno, NV 89510680 Greenbrae Dr., Ste. 265Sparks, NV 89431Moapa Band of PaiutesMoapa Paiute Tribal CourtP.O. Box 187, Moapa, NV 89025Pyramid Lake Paiute TribePyramid Lake Paiute Tribe Judicial Services221 State Route 447, Nixon, NV 89424Reno-Sparks Indian ColonyReno-Sparks Indian Colony Tribal Court1900 Prosperity Street, Reno, NV 89502Shoshone Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Indian ReservationShoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Tribal CourtP.O. Box 219, Owyhee, NV 89832Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone Indians of NevadaTe-Moak Bands Tribal Court1523 Shoshone Circle, Elko, NV 89801Walker River Paiute – Agai-Dicutta NumuWalker River Paiute Tribe Civil CourtP.O. Box 220, Shurz, NV 89427Washoe Tribe of Nevada & CaliforniaWashoe Tribal Court919 U.S. Highway 395 South, Gardnerville, NV 89410Yerington Paiute TribeYerington Paiute Tribal Court171 Campbell Lane, Yerington, NV 89447Yomba Shoshone TribeYomba Shoshone Tribal CourtHC-61 Box 6275, Austin, NV 89310North CarolinaEastern Band of CherokeeEastern Band of Cherokee Tribal CourtP.O. Box 1629, Cherokee, NC 28719North DakotaSisseton Wahpeton Oyate of the Lake Traverse ReservationSisseton-Wahpeton Oyate Tribal CourtP.O. Box 568, Agency Village, ND 57262Spirit Lake TribeSpirit Lake Tribal CourtP.O. Box 30, Fort Trotten, ND 58335Standing Rock Sioux TribeStanding Rock Sioux Tribal CourtP.O. Box D, Fort Yates, ND 58538Three Affiliated Tribes: Mandan, Hidatsa & Arikara NationThree Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Tribal CourtP.O. Box 969, New Town, ND 58763Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa IndiansTurtle Mountain Chippewa Tribal CourtP.O. Box 900, Belcourt, ND 58316OklahomaAbsentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of OklahomaAbsentee-Shawnee Tribal Court2025 S. Gordon Copper Drive, Shawnee, OK 74802Alabama-Quassarte Tribal TownAlabama-Quassarte Tribal Court323 West Broadway, Ste. 300 Muskogee, OK 74401Apache Tribe of OklahomaApache Tribal Court - CFR CourtBureau of Indian Affairs Anadarko OfficeP.O. Box 1220, Anadarko, OK 73305-1220Caddo Nation of OklahomaCaddo Nation Tribal CourtCaddo Nation - Anadarko CFR CourtBureau of Indian Affairs Anadarko OfficeP.O. Box 368, Anadarko, OK 73005Cherokee NationCherokee Nation Judicial Branch101 S. Muskogee Ave., P.O> Box 1097, Tahlequah, OK 74465Cheyenne and Arapaho TribesCheyenne and Arapaho Tribes Judicial BranchP.O. Box 102 Concho, OK 73022Chickasaw NationChickasaw Nation Judicial Branch821 N. Mississippi, Ada, OK 74820Choctaw Nation of OklahomaChoctaw Nation of Oklahoma Tribal CourtP.O. Box 702, Talihina, OK 74571Citizen Potawatomi NationCitizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Court1601 S. Gordon Cooper Dr. Shawnee, OK 74801Comanche Nation of OklahomaComanche Nation Tribal CourtP.O. Box 908, Lawton, OK 73502Delaware Tribe of IndiansDelaware Tribal Court170 NE Barbara, Bartlesville, OK 74006Eastern Shawnee Tribe of OklahomaEastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma Court of Indian OffensesBureau of Indian Affairs Miami OfficeP.O. Box 391, Miami, OK 74355Iowa Tribe of OklahomaIowa Tribe of Oklahoma Tribal CourtRt. 1, Box 721, Perkins, OK 74059Kaw NationKaw Nation Judicial BranchP.O. Box 50, Kaw City, OK 74641Kickapoo Tribe of OklahomaKickapoo Tribe of OklahomaP.O. Box 1310, McLoud, OK 74851Sovereign Miami Tribe of OklahomaMiami Tribe of Oklahoma Tribal CourtP.O. Box 1326-Miami, OK 74355Modoc Tribe of OklahomaModoc Tribal Court of Indian OffensesBureau of Indian Affairs Miami OfficeP.O. Box 391, Miami, OK 74355Muscogee (Creek) NationMuscogee Creek District CourtP.O. Box 652, Okmulgee, OK 74447Muscogee (Creek) NationMuscogee Creek Supreme CourtP.O. Box 546, Okmulgee, OK 74447Osage NationOsage Nation Judicial Branch1333 Grandview, Pawhuska, OK 74056Otoe Missouria TribeOtoe-Missouria Tribal Court (CFR)22915 Otoe Cemetery Rd.Red Rock, OK 74651Ottawa Tribe of OklahomaOttawa Tribe of Oklahoma (Miami Agency CFR Court)Bureau of Indian Affairs Miami OfficeP.O. Box 391, Miami, OK 74355Pawnee Nation of OklahomaPawnee Tribal CourtP.O. Box 28 Pawnee, OK 74058Peoria Tribe of Indians of OklahomaPeoria Tribal Court (Miami Agency CFR Court)Bureau of Indian Affairs Miami OfficeP.O. Box 1527 Miami, OK 74355Ponca Tribe of OklahomaPonca Tribe of Oklahoma Tribal Court20 White Eagle Drive Ponca City, OK 74101Quapaw Tribe of OklahomaQuapaw Tribal CourtP.O. Box 765, Quapaw, OK 74363Sac & Fox Nation of OklahomaSac & Fox Nation of Oklahoma Judicial System920883 S. Hwy 99 Bldg. A, Stroud, OK 74079Seminole Nation of OklahomaSeminole Nation Tribal CourtP.O. Box 2307, Seminole, OK 74818Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of OklahomaSeneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma (Miama Agency CFR Court)Bureau of Indian Affairs Miami OfficeP.O. Box 391, Miami, OK 74355Shawnee TribeShawnee Tribal Court (Miami Agency CFR Court)Bureau of Indian Affairs Miami OfficeP.O. Box 391 Miami, OK 74355Tonkawa TribeTonkawa Tribal Court1 Rush Buffalo Road Tonkawa, OK 74653United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in OklahomaUnited Keetoowah Band Tribal Court18263 W. Keetoowah Circle, Tahlequah, OK 74464Wyandotte NationWyandotte Nation Tribal Court (Miami Agency CFR Court)Bureau of Indian Affairs Miami OfficeP.O. Box 391, Miami, OK 74355OregonBurns Paiute TribeBurns Paiute Tribal Court100 Pasigo Street, Burns, OR 97720Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua, and Siuslaw IndiansConfederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umqua, Siuslaw Indians Tribal Court1245 Fulton Avenue, Coos Bay, OR 97420Confederated Tribes of Grand RondeConfederated Tribes of Grand Ronde Tribal Court9615 Grand Ronde Rd. Grand Ronde, OR 97347Confederated Tribes of Siletz IndiansConfederated Tribes of Siletz Tribal CourtP.O. Box 549, Siletz, OR 97380Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian ReservationConfederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Tribal Court46411 Timine Way, Pendleton, OR 97801Coquille Indian TribeCoquille Indian Tribal Court3050 Tremont St. North Bend, OR 97459Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of IndiansCow Creek Tribal Court2371 NE Stephens St. Roseburg, OR 97470Klamath TribesKlamath Tribes JudiciaryP.O. Box 1260 Chiloquin, OR 97624The Confederated Tribes of Warm SpringsWarm Springs Tribal CourtP.O. Box 850, Warm Springs, OR 97761South DakotaCheyenne River Sioux TribeCheyenne River Sioux Tribal CourtP.O. Box 120, Eagle Butte, SD 57625Crow Creek Sioux TribeCrow Creek Sioux Tribal CourtP.O. Box 247, Ft. Thompson, SD 57339Flandreau Santee Sioux TribeFlandreau Santee Sioux Tribal Court104 W. Ross Ave, Flandreau, SD 57028Lower Brule Sioux Tribe – Kul Wicasa OyateLower Brule Sioux Tribal CourtP.O. Box 122, Lower Brule, SD 57548Oglala Sioux TribeOglala Sioux JudiciaryP.O. box 280, Pine Ridge, SD 57770Rosebud Sioux Tribe of the Sicangu OyateRosebud Sioux Tribal CourtSicangu Oyate Bar Association provides an Appellate Digest of cases decided by the Rosebud Sioux Tribal Court of Appeals.P.O. Box 129, Rosebud, SD 57570Yankton Sioux TribeYankton Sioux Tribal CourtP.O. Box 980, Wagner, SD 57380TexasAlabama-Coushatta Tribe of TexasAlabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas Tribal Court571 State Park Road, 56, Livingston, TX 77351Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of TexasKickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas Tribal CourtHC1 Box 1099, Eagle Pass, TX 78852Ysleta del Sur PuebloYsleta Del Sur Pueblo Tribal Court, El Paso, TX 79907UtahConfederated Tribes of the Goshute ReservationConfederated Tribes of the Goshute Reservation Tribal CourtP.O. Box 6104, Ibapah, UT 84034Navajo NationNavajo Nation Judicial BranchNavajo Nation – Aneth District/Family CourtP.O. Box 320, Montezuma Creek, UT 84534Ute Indian Tribe Uintah & Ouray ReservationUte Tribal CourtP.O. Box 190, Fort Duchesne, UT 84026WashingtonChehalis TribeChehalis Tribal CourtP.O. Box 536, Oakville, WA 98568Confederated Tribes of the Colville ReservationConfederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation Tribal CourtP.O. Box 150, Nespelem, WA 99155-0150Hoh TribeHoh Tribal CourtP.O. Box 2156, Forks, WA 98331Jamestown S’Klallam TribeJamestown S’Klallam Tribal Court1033 Old Blyn Highway, Sequim, WA 89382Kalispel Tribe of IndiansKalispel Tribal CourtP.O. Box 96, Usk, WA 99180Lower Elwha Klallam TribeLower Elwha Klallam Tribal Court4821 Dry Creek Road, Port Angeles, WA 98363Lummi NationLummi Tribal Court2616 Kwina Road, Bldg. K, Bellingham, WA 98226Makah NationMakah Tribal CourtP.O. Box 117, Neah Bay, WA 98357Muckleshoot Indian TribeMuckleshoot Tribal Court39015 172nd Ave. SE, Auburn, WA 98092Nisqually Indian TribeNisqually Tribal Court4820 She-Nah-Num Dr. SE, Olympia, WA 98513Nooksack Indian TribeNooksack Tribal CourtP.O. Box 157, Deming, WA 98244Port Gamble S’Klallam TribePort Gamble S’Klallam Court Services31912 Little Boston Road NE, Kingston, WA 98346Puyallup Tribe of IndiansPuyallup Tribal Court1638 E. 29th St. Tacoma, WA 98404Quileute NationQuileute Tribal CourtP.O. Box 69, La Push, WA 98350Quinault Indian NationQuinault Tribal CourtPO Box 99, Taholah, WA 98587Samish Indian NationSamish Indian Tribal CourtP.O. Box 217, Anacortes, WA 98221Sauk-Suiattle Indian TribeSauk-Suiattle Tribal Court5318 Chief Brown Lane, Darrington, WA 98241Shoalwater Bay TribeShoalwater Bay Tribal CourtP.O. Box 130, Tokeland, WA 98590Skokomish Tribal NationSkokomish Tribal Court, North 80 Tribal Center Rd. Shelton, WA 98584Snoqualmie TribeSnoqualmie Tribal Court8150 Railroad Avenue S.E., Ste. B, Snoqualmie, WA 98065Spokane Tribe of IndiansSpokane Tribal CourtP.O. Box 225, Wellpinit, WA 99040Squaxin Island TribeSquaxin Island Tribal Court10 SE Squaxin Lane, Shelton, WA 98584Stillaguamish Tribe of IndiansStillaguamish Tribal CourtP.O. Box 3067, Arlington, WA 98223Suquamish TribeSuquamish Tribal Court18490 Sandy hook Road, #105, Suquamish, WA 98392Swinomish Indian Tribal CommunitySwinomish Tribal Court17337 Reservation Rd. La Conner, WA 98257Tulalip TribesTulalip Tribes Tribal CourtTulalip Tribal Code6103 31st Ave. NE, Tulalip, WA 98271Upper Skagit Indian TribeUpper Skagit Tribal Court25944 Community Plaza Way, Sedro Woolley, WA 98284Confederated Tribes and Bands of Yakama NationYakama Nation Tribal CourtP.O. Box 151, Toppenish, WA 98948-0151WisconsinBad River Band of Lake Superior Chippewa TribeBad River Reservation Tribal CourtP.O. Box 39, Odanah, WI 54861Forest County PotawatomiForest County Potawatomi Tribal Court5416 Everybody’s Road, P.O. Box 340, Crandon, WI 54520Ho-Chunk NationHo-Chunk Nation JudiciaryP.O. Box 70, Black River Falls, WI 54615Lac Courte Oreilles Band of OjibweLac Courte Oreilles Tribal Court13394 W. Trepania Road, Hayward, WI 54843Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa IndiansLac du Flambeau Band Tribal CourtP.O. Box 217, Lac du Flambeau, WI 54538Menominee Indian Tribe of WisconsinMenominee Indian Tribal CourtP.O. Box 429, Keshena, WI 54135Oneida Nation of WisconsinOneida Nation of Wisconsin Judiciary2630 West Mason Street, Green Bay, WI 54303Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior ChippewaRed Cliff Tribal Court88358 Pike Road, Highway 13, Bayfield, WI 54814Sokaogon Chippewa (Mole Lake) CommunitySokaogon Chippewa Tribal Court3051 Sandlake Road, Crandon, WI 54520St. Croix Chippewa Indians of WisconsinSt. Croix Chippewa Tribal Court24663 Angeline Avenue, Webster, WI 54893Stockbridge-Munsee Community band of Mohican IndiansStockbridge-Munsee Tribal CourtP.O. Box 70, Bowler, WI 54416WyomingShoshone Indians and Northern Arapaho TribeShoshone & Arapaho Tribal CourtP.O. Box 608, Fort Washakie, WY 82514

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