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Why are people against the Congress manifesto 2019?

Ok First Let’s Discuss some of the Major Promises made by the Congress in their Election Manifesto 2019 to find the answer for this.However, I am taking only very Specific Main Points to Keep the Answer as short as Possible.NYAY: Congress has promised to introduce the Nyuntam Aay Yojana (NYAY) under which Rs. 72,000/year will be transferred to the poorest 20 per cent house-holds in India. It will be transferred to the woman in the householdSo Here Congress promises to Pay a Free-Bie from the money of Currently Approximate 6% of Tax Payers ( 7.5 Million ) For Just Sitting Idle at Home in Exchange for their Vote.Let’s take some Mathematical Calculations here :Every Taxpayer Pays an Approximate 12.5% to 14% of his Income (I am not Including the other Taxes here like Professional Tax and House Tax etc or else the Answer will become a Balance Sheet of the Indian Population :D Lol). On An average let’s Consider the Annual Salary for these Tax Payers at 5 Lac of Starting Taxable Income as per the new Norms.= 7.5 Million * 5,00,000 = 3,750,000 Million or in Simple 3,75,000 Crores.Add: Charges Incurring on Debit of Transaction, Salaries of the employees of Establishing NYAY , Acquisition of Premises and Assets for Head Offices, Divisional Offices etc etc etc, the List will go a lot long. Note :- If Mr. Pappu Gandhi has already thought of all these in his mind other than his recurring thoughts of Being the PM and watching Pokemon, Chota Bheem etc then Ignore it but it can’t be.So An Approximate Budget per year Considering the Capital Investments and Soft Loans required for Setting up NYAY would be near to 3,85,000 Million approximately (3,85,000 Crores).The Total expenditure for 2019-20 is budgeted at Rs 2,784,200 crore, which means a 13.82% of the Union Budget estimates would be offered by Our Pappu Gandhi to Vote him to Power in return for this Free-Bies.Considering he isn’t targeting the Union Budget for this NYAY Scheme, the Question arises is From Where will he Bring the Money to Fulfill this ? To Which he has already Answered.He is already Setting Up this Hypothetical Machine which can Convert Potatoes into Gold and using the Gold he will Like to Pay for this NYAY Scheme (If he has managed to make any Such Machine).So Overall, First one is Not Feasible.2. Jobs: Congress pledged to make jobs its no.1 priority, both in the public and private sector. It has promised to fill all 4 lakh central government vacancies before March 2020 and to persuade state governments to fill their 20 lakh vacancies. It plans to create an estimated 10 lakh new Seva Mitra positions in every gram panchayat and urban local body. The manifesto says businesses will be rewarded for job creation and employing more women and firms with over 100 employees will have to implement an apprenticeship programme.Now Before I Move Forward with this Let’s have a Look at some Reality Facts which we all see in Our Everyday Lives.I will be totally Frank here and it may sound rude for some readers but Where is the Skill and Quality required for doing the Job?What do the People Expect? Salary for Just showing Faces in the Offices and doing nothing except Chit-Chatting and Back-Bitching about He/She is having an Affair with the Boss?All in my 5 Years of Graduation and Post Graduation, the only thing What I have Noticed is Boys and Girls Just want to Live their Life to the Fullest, Ignoring their every duty towards their Education, on the name of saying “Ye Padhke Kuch Fayada Nahi, Industry me Ye Chiz Koi Kaam ki nahi hai ” and behave as if Uploading Videos on Tik-Tok or Flirting or Finding Hookups for Enjoying Sex (Especially Boys, even though I am a boy too but this disgusts me at this stage) or any Sort of timepass they undertake by Bunking Lectures is heavily appreciated in the Industry. A Company Incurs Expenditure on its employees by Paying Salaries, it is not you who is doing a favor to the company. Just Update your Skills and Open any Career Portal, thousands of Jobs are available. It is you who have to work on it rather than Crying to Government that Unemployment is rising. We as youth ignore our Basic Duties towards our Future then why to Cry now and Blame the Government for same? Students who Study and Excel do get Jobs because they work hard in the right direction rather than Following multiple Girls online and Sending Hello Gorgeous Messages in hope for finding dates and Casual Sex.So Final Interpretation:- Unless the Youth Himself doesn’t work in right Direction, it isn’t too Achievable.3. For Farmers: Congress says it will present a separate “Kisan Budget” every year. Also the party has promised to bring a permanent National Commission on Agricultural Development and Planning.Where Were You during the Previous 70 Years? It isn’t that INC is Newly Born only 3 years Ago due to agony by BJP. And First tell more About Kisan Budget and How will you Control the Intermediaries who eat away all the Allocated Budget before it reaches to the Kisan?Interpretation : On Hold4. Healthcare: Congress promises to enact the Right to Healthcare Act and guarantee every citizen free diagnostics, out-patient care, free medicines and hospitalisation, through a network of public hospitals and enlisted private hospitals. The party said it will double expenditure on healthcare to 3 per cent of GDP by 2023-24.Ok this seems to be good but already during their previous tenures we have seen this particular promise in almost every election manifesto since 20th Century. So I still doubt about their fulfillment of promise towards this.5. GST: Congress will simplify the GST regime with a single moderate rate of tax, zero rating of exports, and exemption for essential goods and services, added the manifesto. "We also promise panchayats and municipalities a share of GST revenues," said Congress in the manifesto.Now as an MBA Finance Student Studying an entire book about GST in this Particular Semester, I find the above Promise as Weird. It is Because GST is a tax which is levied on Supply of Goods on Destination and it’s rate Slabs are fixed by taking other taxes Subsumed in it like State VAT, Central Sales tax, Purchase Txx, Luxury tax, Entry Tax, Entertainment Tax and Excise Duties levied by different bodies as per the State. They Intend to bring a Single Moderate rate of tax and at the same time they will give Exemption for essential Goods and Services.This Clearly means here that under Single Moderate rate of tax, they will charge a new 15% For the Goods covered under 5% rate list as of now, making them more Expensive and Goods listed under 28% will get cheaper, which directly means the Basic Needs will get expensive and Luxury will become cheap. What sort of Calculation is this? Didn’t they consult any CA before promising this?Still more Points remain like Sedition Law , AFSPA, Reservations etc on which I will write when I will get time in 1–2 days but finally I will say that The Election Manifesto of Congress isn’t Achievable and any Smart Indian should not fell for this trap.Thank You, Stay Blessed.Read more at://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/68684073.cms?utm_source=contentofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppstEmployability Survey 2019: Jobs slip away from the ill-equipped Indian engineer

What is the worst mistake ever made in computer science and programming that proved to be painful for programmers for years?

I'm going to disagree with most of the answers here and present my own example.Here's two that in their historical context and I think it's hindsight to see as mistakes.The 'concept' of NullWithout doubt the notion of null is over-used and a potential minefield. In languages like C and C++ where de-referencing them is Undefined Behavior and usually catastrophic they're a nightmare. However there's a need for an uninitialized value or the ability to return 'not found'. At the very least we have to reject any proposal that would mean you can't implement a linked list (the second simplest container) without rolling your own 'sentinel' value!We need null; just not as much as it's used. If there's a mistake here it's to not provide mechanisms to differentiate between cases where null is allowed and not allowed. C++ has made things better with reference which at least works as a by reference parameter that the caller knows must not be null. Java has addressed this (since 1.8) with Class Optional<T>. OK so C++ has done it overhead free and Java with all the burden of a Java class. But let's face it, you paid your money and made your choice at the start when it came to execution overheads when it came to those two.So the invention certainly was not a mistake. What people are asking for is language and compiler support for pre- and post-conditions along with code diagnostics. That would have been beyond the imagination or potential of the platforms in the 1960s. A compiler in a few K is an achievement - there's not a lot of space for sugar.The mistake here is that subsequent language designers haven't done enough to provide support for type restriction or other static validations.Tony Hoare who is credited with introducing null to computing in ALGOL has called it his 'billion dollar mistake'. That's nothing but hyperbole and it is nothing of the kind. Null is an important and necessary invention and we still need it today.C's Null Terminated StringsI really hate C style strings but I don't think they quite qualify.On the face of it a small saving in memory (storing the length) made some common operations O(n) that could have been O(1) and programmers ever since have had to live with that or end up using that 'saved' memory anyway by passing round the length (or a pointer to the insertion point - this is C after all).It appears the right answer has always been:typedef struct {  const size_t capacity;  size_t length;  char chars[]; } qstring; /* Quick String */ However there are a couple of issues with that reading. Firstly C didn't start out with struct and even worse the 'flexible array member' wasn't added until C99. The flexible array member is the char chars[] at the end of the struct that indicates a (possibly empty) array of chars will appear in memory immediately after the structure.NB: Some suggest a structure where the chars are a pointer to an elsewhere held array. That certainly introduces too many overheads and too much housekeeping to fit such a low level language.I think the model was a reasonable design for C at the time it was implemented. It got real old real quick but it made enough sense at the time to not constitute a mistake.The mistake here is that in the intervening 45 years it hasn't been addressed by any standards effort.Here's three I think were clear and genuine mistakes.I'll present a largely mitigated problem in Java. An unfortunate triumph of purity over pragmatism in SQL and what I think is a basic and even slightly amateur misunderstanding in Java.NULL behavior in ANSI SQLWhen you add up a column in ANSI SQL if a single row holds NULL the result is NULL. But if you SUM it using the aggregate operator it ignores the NULLs and gives the answer you would probably expect.The arithmetic thing makes a sort of intellectually pure sense - if we interpret NULL as 'unknown' then if any part of a sum is not known then (clearly) the result is not known.However in practice NULL is often (more often) used to represent 'Not Applicable' in such cases the natural result of summing with NULL would ignore the NULL values and return the sum of the rest.The 'ignore NULL' principle is further reinforced by the pragmatic that in a business system giving no result due to a few gaps in data is almost never worthwhile. If you sum up the monthly sales for a corporation and get NULL because of one or two dodgy bits of data you are (without doubt) not helping. This is a day-in-day-out situation where even if you interpret NULL as Not Known the best thing to do is not propagate it.That said the 'is unknown' interpretation of NULL to comparison - that value of NULL compared to NULL is itself 'unknown' is equally unhelpful and typically incurs even greater overheads to fix.All sorts of identities you'd expect to work don't including NULL not comparing equal to NULL. This not only means that comparison for equality is not an equivalence relation but also differs from the (correct) handling of NULL in essentially ever other programming language. ever.E. F. Codd called for a clear and consistent treatment of NULL in the early 1980s as either unknown or not applicable. There is no question that for practical business system development (the mainstay of SQL in the wild) the ANSI SQL standard jumped the wrong way.I know this is one that animates people and I am expecting comments where someone provides a perfectly realistic scenario where the 'is unknown' interpretation is valid. Thanks, they're always interesting. However for each there's a 1000 cases where the preferred outcome was the other way.Java's Lack of Unsigned Integer Operations (Until Recently...)JDK 8 was the first Java version that provided Elastoplast for the shortage of unsigned integer types (Unsigned Integer Arithmetic API now in JDK 8).Lots of file formats and inter-operability and lots of algorithms including cryptography algorithms use unsigned data.I believe this was to 'simplify' the language. It was a mistake to simplify it quite so much. It was a mistake at the time and it's a mistake that has caused programmers pain.NB: If anything it's causing more pain! A side-effect is that the maximum size of a Java container is about 2 billion objects. In 'big data' we're starting to hit that ceiling on an increasing basis. If we had unsigned int at least we'd have 4 billion objects though the real answer is a transition to a 64-bit Java. That's not a native implementation of 32-bit Java on 64-bit platforms that we have today. But an actually 64-bit Java. Features include array size returns a 64-bit value not the 32-bit value we have today hanging over from the 32-bit platforms Java envisaged at its inception in the mid-90s.However the top of the shop mistake for me is:Synchronized as a Method Qualifier in Java... Along with the ability to code synchronized(ob) for any Object ob.It causes overhead (however small), causes problems and misunderstandings and to no good benefit.Let's get some myths out of the way:1. It helps identify synchronized methods.Nope. Methods that do some set up work and then enter their critical section won't be declared synchronized for performance reasons. It's totally unclear whether methods not declared synchronized are thread-safe or unsafe. So yes it tells you something but not enough to actually use the class thread safely. we still need an explanatory paragraph to understand thread security.2. It has no overheadOf course it has an overhead. The very fact that you can arbitrarily write synchronized(ob) means the implementation needs to provide for anything being locked at any time. It might provide a lock (i.e. some hidden mutex or spin-lock) for every object - quite an overhead and most never used or provide lazy initialization which itself incurs an overhead when locks are used.It is possible to optimize some of this away - but there was no need for it in the first place.Java isn't an aggressive performance platform but that doesn't mean it's OK to just throw it away.The best way to explain why this is a blunder is to explain what should have been done in the first place.Implement a locking interface:interface Lockable {public void lock();public boolean try_lock();public void unlock();/*.. monitor methods might go here but I'd implement another interface ..*/}And a helper class:class LockableObject extends Object implements Lockable {/*....*/}Why is this better? Because it's fucking object oriented programming (at least as envisaged by the Java language).java.lang.Object is quite unjustifiably bloated with methods that ought to be in interfaces like equals and hashCode and toString. But the most standout blunder is inviting the treatment of all objects as a monitor.Most OO systems end up with fat-class bloat where too many methods float up the hierarchy towards the root. The Java libraries gave you a head start!It avoids all unnecessary overhead of uncertainty that arbitrary objects might be locked at any time. It avoids any ambiguity as to whether objects are valid to lock in consumer code.That's how object oriented code is supposed to work! It should never have been this way and it has only done harm. It's a concrete example of exactly how NOT to do it.Anything you want to do with synchronization is cleaner, clearer and more efficient this way. If you want to advertise synchronization use an annotation - then you can actually be accurate about which methods synchronize rather only which methods synchronize for their duration.You can still have the inline synchronized(ob){} construct. You just specify that it will only work objects implementing Lockable.It's a blunder - no question. Why should we be slagging it as the worst blunder? Because Java is a great language an excellent tool and it's a great shame to have such a mess so deeply wired into it. In my mind the worst thing is Java is a great teaching language. It's almost perfectly well defined and very safe but still modern and powerful.However I would have 'concurrency' as the notion least understood by programmers and the way it was fumbled by Java helped to entrench not efface a lot of misconceptions.I put it to you that making a generation of programmers think the Java model for object synchronization is a good idea is the worst mistake in programming that has caused the most pain.Footnote: I forgot to mention Thread.stop() in my assault on concurrency in Java. If you check your documentation you'll find there is now a fiercely deprecated method on threads called [math]stop()[/math]. It's a totally invalid method that can have no safe implementation. Why? OK what happens to any monitors held by the thread being stopped? If they're left locked we invite deadlock. If we unlock them other threads are likely to see an inconsistent state as at the point we abandoned the thread (which was why locks were invoked). There is simply no generally useful guarantee that could ever be given about memory shared with a thread that might be arbitrarily stopped.It is a toxic feature and (I hope) proof if you still needed it that concurrency was (at best) implemented hastily and badly in Java. With good intentions to make it easy and consumable but sadly not successfully.

What are all the policies and schemes implemented by the Modi government?

Since Modi government has came into power, n number of schemes have been launched:Financial inclusion schemes:PM Jan Dhan Yojna: aims to provide basic bank account to every family with no minimum balance required. Also, to bring poor financially excluded people into banking system and to decrease corruption in govt. subsidy schemes. It also provides accidental insurance up to 1 lakh and medical Insurance cover of 30,000Social security related schemes:Pradhan Mantri Jeevan jyoti yojna: its a life Insurance scheme worth ₹ 2 lakh at just ₹ 330 per annum.Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojna: its an accidental Insurance scheme worth ₹ 2 lakh at just ₹ 12 per annum for accidental death its ₹ 2 lakh and for partial disability- 1 lakh rupeesAtal pension yojna: it guarantees a minimum pension amount at the age of 60 to subscribers depending upon their contributions per month. Amount may range from 1000 to 5000 per month. Minimum contribution period should be 20 years.Urban Reform schemes:Smart cities scheme: Smart city will b equipped with basic infrastructure to give a decent quality of life, a clean and sustainable environment throughout application of some smart solutions. Its for rise of neo middle class who wants better civic amenities.2. AMRUT (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation): In this 500 cities selected to develop civic infrastructure. Few capital cities, important cities loated in hilly areas and islands and tourist areas are selected.3. HRIDAY ( Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojna): to preserve and rejuvenate the rich cultural heritage of the country. 12 heritage cities had been identified. Aim is to bring urban planning, economic growth and heritage conservation for heritage cities.4. PRASAD (National Mission on Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual Augmentation Drive) : Aims to create spiritual centres for tourism development within the nation. 12 cities have been identified.5. Swadesh Darshan: Aim is to develop theme based tourist circuit. It should be insured that none of them are in same town, village or city but are not separated by a long distance too.6. Rurban Mission: seeks to develop smart village on the line of smart cities and reduce the burden of migration to the cities through adopting cluster approach.Farmer centric schemes:Deen Dyal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojna: To provide round the clock power supply in Rural areas.2. DD Kisan: India first television chanel dedicated to farmers have been launched to provide onputs new farming techniques water conservation and prganic farming .It will include quiz shows farmers , a bottoms up approach involving agriculturists .This will provide real time interaction with time and farm scientists.3. Soil health card scheme: it aims to help farmers to improve the productivity of farms by providing them basic information for use of nutrients or fertilizers .the card careies crop wise recommendations of fertilizer that are required for farm lands and it also help farmers identify health of soil and judiciously use soil nutrients4. Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojna: it is a proposed scheme by the government of India which envisages connecting the irrigation system’s three crucial components - the field application , water sources & distribution network for optimal usage. it also envisage interlinking of perennial rivers to avoid drought and flood situations.5. Pradhan mantri Fasal Bima yojna: it aims to reduce the premium rates to be paid by the farmers so as to enable more farmers avail insurance cover against crop loss on account of natural calamities.Education related shemes:DIKSHA portal: for providing digital platform to teachers to make their lifestyle more digital. This will provide online/offline training to teachers, students and teacher educatorsYUYA: it aims to connect with youth by upgrading their skill as per their competencies.JIGYASA: student-scientist connect programme. Under this programme CSIR (Council of Scientific and industrial Research ) has joined hands with Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan. The focus is on connecting schools students and scientists so as to extend student’s classroom learning with that of a very well planned research laboratory based learning. This programme will connect 1151 kendriya Vidyalayas with 38 national laboratories of CSIR and will target 10,000 students and teachers every year.SWAYAM: Its an indigenously designed massive open online course ( MOOC), it will host all the courses, taught in classrooms from 9th class till post graduation and can be accessed by anyone, anywhere at any time. It aims to bridge the digital divide for students in e-Education.SWAYAM PRABHA: it will provide high quality educational contents, developed by experts, through 32 DTH (direct to home) television channels with an aim to bring uniformity in standards of education. It will cover diverse topics of all levels of education in various languages.National Academic Depository: it will directly integrate with boards/ universities which issue certificates which will be verified, authenticated, accessed and retrieved in a digital depository for purpose of employment, higher education and loansNational Digital library: its a online library containing 6.5 million books in English and the Indian languages.Deen Dayal SPARSH Yojna: stands for Scholarship for promotion of aptitudes and research in stamps as a hobby. It is proposed to award 920 scholarships to students pursuing philately as a hobby. Amount of scholarship would be 6000 per annumEklavya schools will be established for schedule tribe students by 2022 on the lines of Navodhya schools. Though its an old scheme but the government has signalled in budget 2018 that it wants to expand the scope.RISE: Revitalising Infrastructure and Systems in Education scheme. It aims to lend low cost funds to government higher educational institutions.PMRF (Prime ministe’s Research Fellows scheme): This scheme will help tapping talent pool of country for carrying out research indigenously in cutting edge science and technology domains. Under this scheme, 1000 best students who have completed or in final year of B.tech or integrated M.tech or M. Sc in science and technology streams from IISc/ IITs/ NITs/ IISERs/IITs will be offered direct admission in PhD programme in the IITs/IISc. In this, govt. will provide fellowship of Rs. 70,000 per month fornthe first two years, Rs. 75,000 per month for 3rd year and Rs. 80,000 per month in 4th and 5th year.Beti Bachao Beti Padhao yojna: it aims at promoting gender equality and educating girl child.E-basta: created a framework to make school books accessible in digital form as e-books. Books can be read on laptops, tablets and mobiles. It will bring various publishers and schools together on one platform.Padho pradesh yojna: Its a scheme of interest subsidy on educational loan for overseas studies. It assists the students belonging to poor and minority community to acquire loan for subsidised interest rates.Flagship missions:Make In India: to make India a manufacturing hub and to create 100 million jobs and skill enhancement in 25 sectors of economy. Enhancing service sector is also covered under this mission.2. Digital India Mission: to transform the country into a digitally empowered knowledge economy. To create participative, transparent and responsive government. Digital india mission has 9 pilliars:Broadband highwaysInformation for allUniversal mobile accessPublic internet access programmeElectronics manufacturing: target net zero importsEarly harvest programmesE- kranti: electronic delivery of servicesIT for jobsE- Governance: reforming government through technology3. Swachh Bharat mission: its a massive mass movement that seeks to create a clean india by 2019. It aims atElimination of open defecationConversion of insanitary toilets to pour flush toiletsEradication of manual scavenging100 % collection and scientific processing/ disposal/reuse/recycling of municipal solid wasteA behavioral change in people regarding healthy sanitation practicesSupporting urban local bodies in designing, executing and operating waste disposal systems4. Namami Gange Project or Namami Ganga Yojana: is an ambitious Union Government project which integrates the efforts to clean and protect the Ganga river in a comprehensive manner. This will cover 8 states, 47 towns and 12 rivers. Rivers covered are: Ganga, Yamuna, Gomti, Damodar, Mahananda, Ramganga, Beehar, Chambal, Khan, Shipra, Betwa and Mandakini.Innovation and entrepreneurship schemes:Start up india: Through the Startup India initiative, Government of India promotes entrepreneurship by mentoring, nurturing and facilitating startups throughout their life cycle. Since its launch in January 2016, the initiative has successfully given a head start to numerous aspiring entrepreneurs. With a 360 degree approach to enable startups, the initiative provides a comprehensive four-week free online learning program, has set up research parks, incubators and startup centres across the country by creating a strong network of academia and industry bodies. More importantly, a ‘Fund of Funds’ has been created to help startups gain access to funding.2. Atal Innovation Mission: It is a Government of India’s endeavour to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship, and it serves as a platform for promotion of world-class Innovation Hubs, Grand Challenges, start-up businesses and other self-employment activities, particularly in technology driven areas. In order to foster curiosity, creativity and imagination right at the school, AIM recently launched Atal Tinkering Labs (ATL) across India. ATLs are workspaces where students can work with tools and equipment to gain hands-on training in the concepts of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math). Atal Incubation Centres (AICs) are another programme of AIM created to build innovative start-up businesses as scalable and sustainable enterprises. AICs provide world class incubation facilities with appropriate physical infrastructure in terms of capital equipment and operating facilities. These incubation centres, with a presence across India, provide access to sectoral experts, business planning support, seed capital, industry partners and trainings to encourage innovative start-ups.3. Stand Up India: to support entrepreneurship among women and SC and ST4. MUDRA - Micro Units Development and Refinance Agnecy: Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana (PMMY) is a scheme launched by the Hon’ble Prime Minister on April 8, 2015 for providing loans upto 10 lakh to the non-corporate, non-farm small/micro enterprises. These loans are classified as MUDRA loans under PMMY. These loans are given by Commercial Banks, RRBs, Small Finance Banks, Cooperative Banks, MFIs and NBFCs. The borrower can approach any of the lending institutions mentioned above or can apply online through this portal. Under the aegis of PMMY, MUDRA has created three products namely 'Shishu', 'Kishore' and 'Tarun' to signify the stage of growth / development and funding needs of the beneficiary micro unit / entrepreneur and also provide a reference point for the next phase of graduation / growth.Schemes under Skill India Mission :Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojna: aims to give training to rural youths for jobs. Minimum age for entry is 15 years. Its complementing PM’s Make in India campaign.PM Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY): aims to provide skills training to youth across the country. It includes class 10th and 12th drop outs.Nai Manzil scheme: to enable students of madrasas to cope up with the contemporary education system and provide them skill training so that they could earn their living once they move out of madrasahUSTTAD ( Upgrading Skill and Training in Traditional Arts/crafts for development) to conserve traditional arts/crafts and build capacity of artisans and craftsmen belonging to minority communities.Nai - roshni scheme: a leadership training program for womenManas: for upgrading entrepreneurial skills of minority youthsSeekho aur Kamao (Learn and Earn): central sector scheme for skill Development of minorities.Schemes related to women:Beti Bachao Beti Bhadao: discussed aboveSukanya samridhi yojna: Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana (SSY) is a small deposit scheme for the girl child launched as a part of the 'Beti Bachao Beti Padhao' campaign. It is currently 8.1 per cent and provides income-tax benefit.A Sukanya Samriddhi Account can be opened any time after the birth of a girl till she turns 10, with a minimum deposit of Rs 1,000. A maximum of Rs 1.5 lakh can be deposited during the ongoing financial year.The account can be opened in any post office or authorised branches of commercial banks.The account will remain operative for 21 years from the date of its opening or till the marriage of the girl after she turns 18.To meet the requirement of her higher education expenses, partial withdrawal of 50 per cent of the balance is allowed after she turns 18.3. One Stop Crisis Centre: Ministry of Women and Child Development has formulated a scheme for operationalization of minimum 100 pilot projects of One Stop Crisis Centres (OSCCs), a specialized facility for providing all necessary services for women victims/ survivors of violence, in urban areas having population of more than 5 lakh, identified by the States for implementation during the remaining years of the 12th Plan. These Centres will be attached to the District Hospitals of the State Governments.4. SWADHAR - A scheme for women in difficult circumstances: to provide primary need of shelter, food, clothing and care to the marginalised women/ girls living in difficult circumstances who are without any social and economic support. Also, to provide emotional support and counselling to such women.5. STEP - Support to Training and Employment Programme for Women:STEP was launched by the Government of India’s Ministry of Women and Child Development to train women with no access to formal skill training facilities, especially in rural India. The Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship and NITI Aayog recently redrafted the Guidelines of the 30-year-old initiative to adapt to present-day needs. The initiative reaches out to all Indian women above 16 years of age. The programme imparts skills in several sectors such as agriculture, horticulture, food processing, handlooms, traditional crafts like embroidery, travel and tourism, hospitality, computer and IT services.6. UJJAWALA scheme: to prevent trafficking of women and children for commercial sexual exploitation. It works on 4 R appoach :RescueRehabilitationReintegrationRepatriationInfrastructure related schemes:Sagarmala project: Sagar Mala project is a strategic and customer-oriented ₹8 trillion (US$120 billion or €100 billion) investment initiative of the Government of India entailing setting up of 6+ mega ports, modernization of several dozen more ports, development of 14+ Coastal Economic Zones and at least 29 Coastal Economic Units, development of mines, industrial corridors, rail, road and airport linkages with these water ports, resulting in US$110 billion export revenue growth, generation of 150,000 direct jobs and several times more indirect jobs. It aims to modernize India's Ports so that port-led development can be augmented and coastlines can be developed to contribute in India's growth. It also aims for "transforming the existing Ports into modern world class Ports and integrate the development of the Ports, the Industrial clusters and hinterland and efficient evacuation systems through road, rail, inland and coastal waterways resulting in Ports becoming the drivers of economic activity in coastal areas."Bharatmala project: is a centrally-sponsored and funded road and highways project of the Government of India. The project will build highways from Gujarat and Rajasthan, move to Punjab and then cover the entire string of Himalayan states - Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand - and then portions of borders of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar alongside Terai, and move to West Bengal , Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and right up to the Indo-Myanmar border in Manipur and Mizoram. Special emphasis will be given on providing connectivity to far-flung border and rural areas including the tribal and backward areas.Setu Bharatam Project: It aims to make all national highways free from railway level crossing by 2019 to ensure road safety.Green highways policy 2015 - to develop eco friendly National Highways with participation of the community, farmers, NGO’s, private sector, institutions, government agencies and the forest department.Gold schemes:Gold monetisation scheme: Gold monetisation scheme is like a gold savings account. You would generally keep your gold without any security at home or store it in bank lockers by paying a maintenance fee. But instead of that, you could keep your gold in any form in a Gold Monetisation Scheme account and earn interest as the price of the precious metal goes up. Also, You do not have to pay capital gains tax on the profits made through the gold monetisation scheme. The capital gains are also exempt from wealth tax and income tax.The Gold Monetisation Scheme is a great opportunity for big Indian households to make profits from the old jewellery lying in bank lockers and at the bottom of safe deposit boxes. Companies, trusts, jewelleries and individuals who have a hoard of gold can also use this scheme to monetise their precious metal. But do not forget that your jewellery will not come back to you in the same form as you put them in – you get the returns in the form of money or gold coins and bars that you can later encash.2. Sovereign Gold Bond : SGBs are government securities denominated in grams of gold. They are substitutes for holding physical gold. Investors have to pay the issue price in cash and the bonds will be redeemed in cash on maturity. The Bond is issued by Reserve Bank on behalf of Government of India.3. Indian gold coin: • The coin will be the 1st ever National gold coin minted in India and will have the National Emblem of Ashok Chakra engraved on one side and Mahatma Gandhi on the other side .• Initially the coins will be available in denominations of 5 and 10 grams; later a 20 gram bullion will also be available through MMTC outlets.Advantages• It would provide gold coins of maximum possible purity and check the supply of counterfeit or adulterated gold sold by jewelers.• While it may not address people looking forward to buy jewellery, but people who buy gold coins for investment purposes can buy these, if they are still reluctant about the Gold bond scheme.• Physical gold coins are more liquid resource compared to gold bonds, as perceived by many people in India.Labour reform schemes:5 labour reform schemes have been launched for the youth, workers and employers to improve ease of business for enterprises while expanding government support to impart skill training for workers.A. Shram suvidha portalB. Random Inspection SchemeC. Universal Account NumberD. Apprentice Protsahan YojnaE. Revamped Rashtriya Swasthya Bima YojnaSchemes for Banking Reforms:Indradhanush plan for Revamp of Public Sector Banks: The strategy, Indradhanush (rainbow), focuses on systemic changes in state-run lenders, including a fresh look at hiring, a comprehensive plan to de-stress bloated lenders, capital infusion, accountability incentives with higher rewards including Stock Options and cleaning up governance.The 7 Elements includes:a. Appointmentsb. Bank of Board Bureauc. Capitalizationd. De-Stressing Public Sector Bankse. Empowermentf. Framework of accountabilityg.Governance Reforms2. Gyan Sangam : Gyan Sangam is the meet of various banks, financial institutions and insurance companies in order to discuss for enhancing the digitisation of the banking system in India and ways to increase the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems and big data analytics in the banking & financial services industry in India.3. Bankruptcy and Insolvency Code: The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (IBC) is the bankruptcy law of India which seeks to consolidate the existing framework by creating a single law for insolvency and bankruptcy.The code could ensure quicker resolution of NPA (Non- performing Assets) problems, especially in PSU banks. In fact, the Financial Stability Report issued by RBI in 2015 indicates that corporate sector vulnerabilities and the impact of their weak balance sheets on the financial system needs closer monitoring. The time-bound insolvency resolution process would definitely help the financial services industry function better.Bankruptcy laws accept that business ventures can fail and allow entrepreneurs to make a new start. While facilitating failed firms to wind up painlessly, the code can pave the way to resurrection also.Schemes for sports:Revamped Khelo India: this marks a watershed moment in the history of Indian sports, as the programme aims at mainstreaming sport as a tool for individual development, community development and national development. Under this scheme, each selected athlete shall receive an annual scholarship worth ₹5 lakh for 8 consecutive years.National Sports Talent Search Portal: to unearth sporting talent from every nook and corner. The portal will be also available as smartphone application. Using this portal, a child or his parents, coaches or teachers can upload their biodata or video on the portal.Schemes for household:SAUBHAGYA: Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana: to ensure electrificationof all willing households in the country in rural as well as urban areas here today.National Nutrition Strategy: NITI AYOG has launched this scheme aiming at Kuposhan Mukt BharatNational Rural Drinking Water Program Continuation and Restructuring : aim is to provide every rural person with adequate safe water for drinking, cooking and other basic domestic needs on a sustainable basis, with a minimum water quality standard, which should be conveniently accessible at all times and in all situations. Though this was already under NRDWP Started in 2009, Union cabinet has accorded its approval for continuation and restructuring.KUSUM SCHEME: The scheme will work towards promoting solar power production a.k.a. solar farming up to 28,250 MW to help farmers.KEY FACTS ABOUT THE KUSUM SCHEMEKUSUM scheme will provide 1.75 million off-grid agricultural solar pumpsIt will build 10,000 MW solar plants on barren lands for solar farmingFarmers will be given a chance to earn extra income if they help produce additional power by setting up solar power project on their barren landThe energy produced by the farmers on their barren land will be bought by the state electricity distribution companies (DISCOMS)The scheme is likely to decrease the consumption of diesel in the agriculture sector (used in pumps)KUSUM scheme also includes the distribution of 17.5 lakh solar pumps for which 60 per cent subsidy will be given to the farmers.Scheme for Fisherman:Sagar Vani project: is an integrated information dissemination system that will serve the coastal community, especially the fisherman community with the advisories and alerts towards livelihood as well as their safety at seaHealth related schemes:Mission indradhanush and then Intensified Mission Indradhanush: “Let no child suffer from any vaccine-preventable disease". This was stated by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi as he launched the Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) at Vadnagar in Gujarat, today. Through this programme, Government of India aims to reach each and every child under two years of age and all those pregnant women who have been left uncovered under the routine immunisation programme. The special drive will focus on improving immunization coverage in select districts and cities to ensure full immunization to more than 90% by December 2018. The achievement of full immunisation under Mission Indradhanush to at least 90% coverage was to be achieved by 2020 earlier. With the launch of IMI, achievement of the target has now been advancedAyushman Bharat project: The Government today announced two major initiatives in health sector , as part of Ayushman Bharat programme. The Union Minister for Finance and Corporate Affairs, Shri Arun Jaitely while presenting the General Budget 2018-19 in Parliament here today said that this was aimed at making path breaking interventions to address health holistically, in primary, secondary and tertiary care systems, covering both prevention and health promotion.The initiatives are as follows:-(i) Health and Wellness Centre:- The National Health Policy, 2017 has envisioned Health and Wellness Centres as the foundation of India’s health system. Under this 1.5 lakh centres will bring health care system closer to the homes of people. These centres will provide comprehensive health care, including for non-communicable diseases and maternal and child health services. These centres will also provide free essential drugs and diagnostic services. The Budget has allocated Rs.1200 crore for this flagship programme. Contribution of private sector through CSR and philanthropic institutions in adopting these centres is also envisaged.(ii) National Health Protection Scheme:- The second flagship programme under Ayushman Bharat is National Health Protection Scheme, which will cover over 10 crore poor and vulnerable families (approximately 50 crore beneficiaries) providing coverage upto 5 lakh rupees per family per year for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization. This will be the world’s largest government funded health care programme. Adequate funds will be provided for smooth implementation of this programme.Other schemes:Ajeevika Grameen Express Yojna: to provide an alternative source of livelihood to members of Self Help Group (SHGs). This scheme has been launched under Deendayal Antyodaya Yojna - National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY - NRLM). This scheme will facilitate them to operate public transport services in background rural areas.PENCIL PORTAL - Platform for Effective Enforcement for No Child Labour: its an electronic platform that aims at involving Centre, State, District, Governments, civil society and general public in achieving the target of child labour free society.It encompasses various components- Child Tracking System, Complaint Corner, State Government, National Child Labour Project and Convergence. Each district will nominate District Nodal Officers (DNOs) who will receive the complaints. Within 48 hours of receiving complaints, DNOs will check genuineness of complaint and take rescue measures in coordination with police, if complaint is genuine. So far, 7 states have appointed DNOs.3. National Biopharma Mission: this is an Industry- Academia Mission to accelerate bio pharmaceutical development in India.4. VAJRA - Visiting Advanced Joint Research : this scheme enables NRIs and oversees scientific community to participate and contribute to research and development in India.5: Test and Treat Policy for HIV patients: Test-and-treat is an intervention strategy in which the population at risk is screened for HIV infection and diagnosed HIV infected individuals receive early treatment, aiming to eliminate HIV as it reduces the rate of spreading the virus to other people.6. DIGITAL POLICE PORTAL: will enable citizens to register FIRs online and the portal will initially offer seven public delivery services in all states and UTs like person and address verification e.g. of employees, tenants, nurses etc, permission for hosting Public Events, Lost and Found Articles and Vehicle theft etc.It will provide investigator the complete record history of any criminal from anywhere across the country.7. Nationwide campaign - Gaj yatra: A nationwide campaign to protect elephants on the occasion of World Elephant Day.8. SHE BOX portal: The Minister of Women & Child Development, Smt Maneka Sanjay Gandhi launched an online complaint management system titled Sexual Harassment electronic–Box (SHe-Box) for registering complaints related to sexual harassment at workplace in New Delhi today. The complaint management system has been developed to ensure the effective implementation of Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act (the SH Act), 2013.This portal is an initiative to provide a platform to women working or visiting any office of Central Government (Central Ministries, Departments, Public Sector Undertakings, Autonomous Bodies and Institutions etc.) to file complaints related to sexual harassment at workplace under the SH Act. Those who had already filed a written complaint with the concerned Internal Complaint Committee (ICC) constituted under the SH Act are also eligible to file their complaint through this portal. The SHe-Box portal can be accessed at the link given below:http://www.wcd-sh.nic.in9. Sankalp and strive schemes:STRIVE scheme: will incentivize ITIs to improve overall performance including apprenticeship by involving SMEs (Small Scale Enterprises), business association and industry clusters. It will develop robust mechanism for delivering quality skill development training by strengthening institutions- National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), State Skill Development Missions (SSDMs), Sector Skill Councils, ITIs and National Skill Development Agency (NSDA) etc.It will support universalization of National Skills Qualification Framework (NSQF) including National Quality Assurance Framework (NQAF) across skill development schemes. It will provide required push to National Skill Development Mission 2015 and its various sub missions. It is also aligned to flagship Government programs such as Make in India and Swachhta Abhiyan.SANKALP scheme : envisages setting up of Trainers and Assessors academies with self-sustainable models. Over 50 such academies are to be set up in priority sectors. It will leverage institutions for trainingtrainers in both long and short term VET thereby bringing about convergence. Additional trainer academies will also be set up.It will focus on greater decentralization in skill planning by institutional strengthening at State level which includes setting up of SSDMs and allow states to come up with State and District level Skill Development Plans (SSDPDSDP).It also aims at enhancement of inclusion of underprivileged and marginalized communities including women, Scheduled Castes (SCs)/Schedule Tribes (STs) and Persons with Disabilities (PWD). It will also develop a skilling ecosystem that will support the country’s rise in Ease of Doing Business index.10. Anti Narcotics Scheme: aims to combat illicit trafficking in drugs and psychotropic substance. The purpose is to assist state governments and UTs which are contributing in controlling the inter-state and cross border drug trafficking.11. Atal Bhujal Yojna: to tackle ever-deepening crisis of depleting groundwater level12. Gobar-Dhan yojna: the solid waste and cattle dung will be composed into useful elements such as Bio-CNG and Bio-gas.13. National Bamboo Mission: The Mission would ensure holistic development of the bamboo sector by addressing complete value chain and establishing effective linkage of producers (farmers) with industry.Beneficiaries:The scheme will benefit directly and indirectly the farmers as well as local artisans and associated personnels engaged in bamboo sector including associated industries. Since it is proposed to bring about one lakh ha area under plantation, it is expected that about one lakh farmers would be directly benefitted in terms of plantation.States/ districts covered:The Mission will focus on development of bamboo in limited States where it has social, commercial and economical advantage, particularly in the North Eastern region and States including Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Karnataka, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.The Mission is expected to establish about 4000 treatment/ product development units and bring more than 100000 ha area under plantation.Impact:Bamboo plantation will contribute to optimizing farm productivity and income thereby enhancing livelihood opportunities of small & marginal farmers including landless and women as well as provide quality material to industry. Thus, the Mission will not only serve as a potential instrument for enhancing income of farmers but also contributing towards climate resilience and environmental benefits. The Mission will also help in creating employment generation directly or indirectly in both skilled and unskilled segments.14. Secure Himalaya project:The Union Government had launched SECURE Himalaya, a six-year project to ensure conservation of locally and globally significant biodiversity, land and forest resources in high Himalayan ecosystem spread over four states viz. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Sikkim.Key FactsThe SECURE project aims at securing livelihoods, conservation, sustainable use and restoration of high range Himalayan ecosystems. It is meant for specific landscapes including Changthang (Jammu and Kasmir), Lahaul – Pangi and Kinnaur (Himachal Pradesh), Gangotri – Govind and Darma – Byans Valley in Pithoragarh (Uttarakhand) and Kanchenjunga – Upper Teesta Valley (Sikkim).The key focus areas of the project is protection of snow leopard and other endangered species and their habitats and also securing livelihoods of people in region and enhancing enforcement to reduce wildlife crime. Under it, enhanced enforcement efforts and monitoring will be undertaken to curb illegal trade in some medicinal and aromatic plants which are among most threatened species in these landscapes.15. Operation Greens: aims to promote farmer producers organisations, agri-logistics, processing facilities and professional management. The operation aims to aid farmers and help control and limit the erratic fluctuations in the prices of onions, potatoes and tomatoes.

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