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PDF Editor FAQ

How hard would it have been for the USSR to rapidly invade and hold all of Germany and France after conquering Berlin in the Second World War?

It would have been impossible. The Soviets had until August before:And they knew that. Stalin knew more about the Manhattan Project than Harry Truman did before becoming President.Could they have kept going for three months? No. Had they tried, they would have faced nearly as many Allied soldiers, who would have been reinforced by more Americans not being shipped to the Far East.The Soviets would have faced nearly as many Allied tanks, in better condition than theirs, including the latest M26 Pershings that wrought havoc on German panzer divisions.Allied aircraft in better condition, not to mention hundreds of bombers freed from urban destruction missions.The Maginot Line was still standing, and would have forced the Soviets northward through Belgium. The Soviets had advanced by pushing the Germans back along a massive front that was impossible to defend.In the meantime, Allied shipping would have stopped feeding the Soviet war machine, which could not keep up with the logistics of an invasion in the West.Nah, it wouldn’t have turned out very well.

How does induction heating work? Explain in detail please.

1 Principle of Induction HeatingInduction heating is used to heat electrically conductive material. The heat energy is transferred to the material in the induction furnace (called the charge) by electromagnetic induction. Refer to Figure 1. An electrically conductive material placed in a varying magnetic field will have eddy currents induced into it. These eddy currents will lead to joule heating (I^2.R heating) in the material. For magnetic materials, e.g. iron and steel, there is also hysteresis heating until the furnace charge reaches the curie temperature (around 750 degC) at which point the material loses its magnetic properties.Figure 1: Principle of Induction Heating2 Construction of an Induction FurnaceRefer to Figure 2.Figure 2: Construction of Induction Heating FurnaceThe electromagnetic energy is delivered by the power coil. It is carrying large current and needs to be cooled, from its own I^2.R losses and from the heat generated in the furnace. It is typically hollow copper tube with de-ionised water circulating inside.The power coil surrounds the ceramic crucible which carries the charge. It is separated by a refractory lining and a cooling water jacket. The crucible and lining must be non-conductive electrically and be able withstand the high charge temperatures - up to 1500 degC for steel.The outside of the coil is lined with a magnetic yoke made from laminated magnetic iron. This provides a low- loss low-reluctance return path for the magnetic flux. For higher frequency furnaces, this lining may be a material with lower hysteresis, such as a soft ferrite.Benefits of Induction Heating FurnaceHigh melt efficiency – typically 70% to 85%Good mixing of charge – the eddy currents help to circulate the charge to spread the heat evenly and mix the charge components..Clean process – the heat is transferred to the charge by electromagnetic waves. So there is no contact with flame and no product contamination.The furnace is fast to start and heating is rapid.3 Induction Coil EnergisationThe coil is placed in series or parallel with a capacitor to make a resonant circuit. A driver circuit is used to replace the energy lost in each cycle and to maintain oscillation. The resonant frequency will determine the frequency of the magnetic field. The higher the frequency, the higher the eddy currents. However the higher the frequency the less the eddy currents will penetrate the charge because of skin effect. So the best operating frequency is a compromise between these two effects. Smaller furnaces e.g. for precious metal or semiconductor smelting, may run at 3kHz or higher. Larger furnaces for iron and steel production run at 300Hz or less.Figure 3: Parallel and Series Resonant Circuits and DriversFor a parallel tank circuit, as shown in Figure 3(a), the driver power supply is subject to the full voltage across the tank. It supplies bursts of current at the correct time in each cycle to the tank circuit to maintain oscillation. Thus it is known as a current driver.For a series tank circuit, as shown in Figure 3(b), the driver power supply is subject to the full current circulating in the tank circuit. It supplies correctly timed bursts of voltage to the tank circuit to maintain oscillation, hence is known as a voltage driver.Typically the tank circuit runs at a Q factor of approximately 10. This means on every cycle the circulating current decays by 10% because of the energy absorbed by the charge, plus other losses. This needs to be made up by the power supply driver circuit. There are two types of driver in use, depending on whether it is a series resonant or parallel resonant circuit.3.1: Current Driver Circuit4: Current Driver with Parallel Tank CircuitThe current driver is shown in more detail in Figure 4. It uses a SCR controlled rectifier followed by an SCR controlled inverter bridge. The circulating current in the tank circuit is controlled by the firing angle of the rectifier SCRs. One diametrically opposite pair of inverter SCRs is fired to inject current into the tank circuit in one direction, and the other pair inject current in the opposite direction. The timing is controlled to sustain oscillation. A small degree of control over tank frequency is achievable by controlling the firing angle of the inverter SCRs.3.2: Voltage Driver CircuitFigure 5: Voltage Driver Circuit with Series Tank CircuitRefer to Figure 5. A simple 3-phase diode rectifier is filtered by an electrolytic capacitor to generate a fixed D.C. voltage. This voltage is added to or subtracted from the tank capacitor voltage by a single phase inverter bridge consisting of 4 IGBTs. The inverter switches can be force commutated which means we have full control over the tank current and oscillation frequency.The maximum voltage to be blocked by the inverter switches is the D.C. link voltage so required voltage ratings are low. However the inverter bridge is carrying the full tank current so the required switching current is high.3.3 Comparison of CircuitsIn general the circuit in Figure 5 (voltage driver) is preferred these days. It has the following benefits over the urrent driver circuit of Figure 4:Higher controllabilty of meltMore efficientLess notching and distortion of incoming mainsBetter mains power factor.The circuits shown are all for higher power induction furnaces. These may be scaled down for (e.g.) precious metal refining by using a single phase input power supply.

If the capacity is big, is there an induction billet heater harmonic problem?

The induction heater usually is a resonant inductor-capacitor circuit, with the core of the inductor being the furnace load. The circuit can be configured in two ways. The first (older) method is a parallel tank with a current driver, as shown in Figure 1(a). The second is a series tank with a voltage driver, as shown in Figure 1(b).Figure 1: Alternative Induction Furnace Driver ConfigurationsThe parallel tank driver uses a mains-operated full controlled SCR rectifier, followed by a single phase line-commutated SCR inverter bridge. This circuit can cause harmonic distortion in two ways. The first is the current distortion of the rectifier. This can be mitigated by a special transformer, as others have suggested. But there is also a problem with intermodulation distortion - the high tank voltage appearing at the DC link can couple back through the rectifier to the input mains. This can cause lighting flicker, and can screw up UPS static switch operation and cause VFD trips. It is quite difficult to get rid of.Figure 2: Current Driver Circuit DiagramThe series tank driver usually has a mains operated fixed rectifier, followed by a self-commutated IGBT inverter bridge. This is the preferred circuit for a number of reasons, with one of them being it is far less of a distortion problem. Intermodulation distortion does not happen with this circuit, and rectifier current distortion can be quite easily handled by using a 12 or 18 pulse rectifier.Figure 3: Voltage Driver Circuit Diagram

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