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Do you think that, if the Mexican government allowed Spetsnaz to operate in Mexico, it can beat Los Zetas (and other drug cartels)?
It is getting more possible to do.1. The 1st thing that would have to be done is to get their special forces into Mexico without any satellites from the U.S. or their allies even knowing that their presence is in Mexico, in other words infiltration.2. Than the next step is to possess the military technology for your armed forces to keep a low profile and the right tools for the job to deal with cartels as one example.3. killing too many people will create a lot of noise and the last thing you would want to happen is to have other world powers accuse you of violating international law or trying to get involved.4. The last difficult step would be to get every government official taken as hostage without them trying to contact other world powers that something is going down.InfiltrationI believe that the easiest way without this country knowing your presence or other world countries to be aware that you are there is to travel underwater at sea and than using the sea to gain access to river pathways that flow throughout the country its not just Mexico this can also be done in Brazil like travelling through the amazon and the trees can help obstruct the prying eyes from satellites. Than whenever their is a less crowded area around river banks during the day or night will be right time to start your operations.There is also a midget submarine called the Piranha-M(very few details). But based on the endurance and speed of these submarines it is quite obvious they would not want to cross the Atlantic ocean with just these submarines. However these midget submarines can be carried by a big submarine across the Atlantic ocean such as the Belgorod.The Russians are also progressing very rapidly in a lot of self-autonomous technology for their military equipment. They are developing artificial intelligence technology in pantsir systems, control stations like the polyana, and the Burevestnik and Poseidon weapons. So it wont come as a surprise if there is a submarine that created a oceanographic map of where their mission would take place. Use a pre-programmed map of what path for the submarine to take to drop off the entire crew, head to the Belgorod, get refueled and even dispatch more soldiers from the Belgorod to the mission site.It would be alot more difficult to infiltrate the U.S. because they have SONAR arrays. The disadvantage seen here is that I have heard that the network cables can easily be damaged or broken.While the Russians have a similar network map called HARMONY which is powered with nuclear reactors called SHELF and they are simply next to the SONAR arrays underwater which is another job that has to be done by the Belgorod.And the Piranha submarines has 4 533mm torpedo tubes which can utilize 4 Sirena-UMs which each of those can carry 2 Spetsnaz soldiers. They have like 8 mile ranges I would say its pretty convenient to use to go the extra distance with your equipment.Tools Needed On LandYou have now dispatched a lot of Spetsnaz soldiers through different regions throughout Mexico making your infiltration a success, each with the purpose to assassinate or take hostages of top cartel members or government officials from either contacting world powers or the CIA that there is a coup going on in Mexico. Now the next process is what necessary equipment and firepower is needed for your tasks?ExoskeletonsRussia tests ‘Iron Man’ exoskeleton armor“The skeleton hangs over the soldiers’ shoulders and around their waist, supporting backpack weight of up to 110 pounds. Its metal arm supports heavy weapons. Earlier this year, we revealed Russia’s deadly arsenal of futuristic weapons which are way ahead of the rest of the world. The Red Army also unveiled its deadly army of robot killers, including the dreaded gunslinger model.”The ratnik-2 is a passive exoskeleton suit while the ratnik-3 is more of a active exoskeleton suit. I am sure this equipment can be carried underwater in a sealed tight bag inside something like the Sirena-UM where after they dismount and climb up on land start getting the equipment out from underwater. Now they are able to carry equipment above 100lbs without feeling any fatigue.CamouflageRussia's new military material makes troops and tanks "invisible"Sergey Chemezov, CEO of Russian state corporation Rostec, said Tuesday that his company has successfully developed a combat helmet covered in the advanced material, making it invisible to the human eye. The project, he claimed, could also be used to mask troops and tanks entirely."We are constantly improving the equipment of servicemen. The main goal is to make the soldier more protected, to strengthen his technical equipment. One of our latest developments is a coating that, like a chameleon, mimics the color of the environment. With the use of this technology, a helmet has been created, which will soon be demonstrated at an upcoming exhibition," Chemezov told the state-run Tass Russian News Agency."They are an ideal means of camouflage for personnel and equipment. With the help of this coating, it is possible to make tanks and other military equipment invisible," he added.The best camouflage is the type of camouflage that makes you a chameleon. You will be able to keep a low profile to your surroundings or satellites beaming down depending in what environment your in. Also the ratnik gear is already invisible in the infrared field but adding this technology will reduce visibility and the power requirements I have heard to power this is no different than powering a light bulb. So the next issue that might address power requirements for the suit and this technology is coming up next.The Requirements For PowerRussian troops to use solar panels to power their equipment"A portable individual electric power source has been accepted for service in the Russian engineering troops. This system is a mobile compact solar charger with a photovoltaic device in the form of a folding solar panel. The first batch of these sources has arrived at the central engineering storage facilities and is now being dispatched to engineering troops’ units," the ministry’s press office said.The engineering troops have received 30, 50 and 100 Wt autonomous electric power sources, it specified."As their innovative feature, the solar batteries use Russian-made photovoltaic converters manufactured under modern technology with an efficiency factor of over 20% in their design. These power sources are designed to accomplish tasks in the absence of centralized electric power supply," the press office noted.”I have also heard about nuclear batteries for phones among other projects that their companies are making.Taking Over The Country Without The World KnowingThis is now the most difficult task to accomplish but yet still not impossible to do if you are very lucky.Electronic Warfarehttps://www.aorti.ru/upload/catalog/rti_eng.pdfThe 1st thing you would want to do when trying to dispose of or take hostages of top cartel members or their government officials is to go block their communications. The best timing is when they are going home from work. You will get the necessary equipment to block them from the rest of the world or stopping them from communicating with anybody. Therefore the CIA or any other world power will know whats going on even if they are crying for help. It also depends on the exoskeletons and how much they can carry because the weight of food, supplies, weapons, batteries among other things have to be taken into account if for example you want bigger EW systems you would want to make sure you can carry that weight. I am sure they will not start to panic immediately like they are getting attacked yet, they will 1st believe that there might be a tower communication problem or something.Reconnaissance Of Planning Your AttackI think it would be a great idea to use a drone to scan around areas. See how many cartel members there are or soldiers guarding government officials if you are planning an attack.КРЭТ - Концерн Радиоэлектронные Технологии news 10249“Radio optical phased array antennas greatly expand the capabilities of modern-day communication tools and radars. The resolution will increase by a factor of tens. A modern radar gas a 10 GHz frequency (3 cm wavelength) and a 1…2 GHz bandwidth while a ROPAA radar uses the 1 Hz…100 GHz bandwidth concurrently. It means that a ROPAA radar generates a detailed 3D image of an object being hundreds of kilometers away. For instance, at a 400 km range we can not only see a person, but identify his or her face.”КРЭТ: новые радары смогут заглянуть в самолет на удалении 500 км"ROFAR will allow us to see the plane, located 500 kilometers away, as if we are standing 50 meters away from him at the airport, his portrait in the baseband. In addition, if needed, this technology will look in the aircraft itself, to know what kind of people and equipment it contains, as the signal can pass any obstacles, even lead meter wall, "- said Mikheyev told reporters.”https://itech.aorti.ru/upload/iblock/ac3/IT_23.pdfIn the framework of the ELIK projectdeveloped hardware and software complex, onepart of which is installed on board an airplane or helicopter, the other is stationaryis on the ground.The hardware part of the airborne radar consistsfrom several large building blocks. It is activephased array X- and P-bands.- In the X-band we reach a resolution of 30 cminclined rangeand in azimuth. In the P-bandwe achieve resolvingability of 2.5 m in azimuth and range, - clarifiesDeputy General Director of the Institute.Also in the side of the radar there are transmittingmodules, a device for transferring frequency to an intermediate frequency with subsequentdigitization of data, a device for recording holograms and the formation of radar images, blockrecording navigation information and digital signal processing unit.- We have right on boardit is possible to form a radio hologram and build radarimages, - says Anatoly Leukhin.On the ground is setcomplex simulationmodeling stand - high performance computing servers. It is used for computermodeling, testingall algorithms and the formation of model radar images.- The software part of the onboard radar isa large set of different procedures for the formation of radio holograms and radarimages, - reveals the details of Anatoly Leukhin. -Given two polarizations,excluding two polarizations,with the construction of a pseudo-color or monochromatic radar image, with different functionsdisplay dynamic alignmenton the screen, with a different set of autofocus algorithms, taking into account navigation information and without itaccounting, with adjustment of the horizontal componentspeed and the vertical component of speed, etc.That is, it is a very multifunctional program.Softwareworks in real time and allows you to create a radarimage and even video data stream right on the screenmonitor.This summer, onboardradar project "ELIK"passed tests at the Malino airport in the suburbs. He fully confirmedscientists' calculations: equallyclearly sees objects in the fog,in the rain, through dense foliage and tarpaulin, night and day.As experts noted,this is a great tool forborder controland air reconnaissance.- We counted on such results - theywere not news to us, -says Anatoly Leukhin. -But completely unexpectedin the radar pictures we saw large shields laid out by eachafter another. There was nothing on earth, so firstdid not even understand what it is.It turned out that we gotunderground vision results. These were stainless steel sheets. During World War II,as the head of the airdrome later said, they servedrunway.Runway timesWorld War II wascovered in 30 centimetersa layer of earth. Scientists continued the experiment and discovered cables of the same pore at a much greater depth.However, airborne radar systems are inferior to optical instrumentsremote sensing accuracy. Moreover, theyhave a number of obvious advantages. The first is the absolute correlation betweenradar images and humidity thatallows you to talk about the application in agriculture.Secondly, in the optical range it is difficult to buildthree-dimensional image, and in the radio range you can form a three-dimensional image with a very highresolutionin height, and much easier than in optics. Therefore, where you need three-dimensionalscanning, a radar is preferable to optical. Another major benefit: soundingland by airborne radar is much cheaper. It opens wideopportunities for civilian use. For example, in archaeologicalexpeditions.”So with the production of photonic integrated circuits which might happen in a few to five years. Airborne devices like portable drones for example might allow you to look through objects according to the sources I have received from KRET and RTI. You can carry either a radar or a drone and from a specific distance and see how many cartel members or soldiers there are in the building and even catch on to the habits they do. But bringing such a technology would introduce a possible compromise depending on your mission’s outcome.Fire PowerThis depends on many things and many factors which is why this is the most difficult step to apply in the end.Your troops have to be highly trained in combat and you would need the right amount of military personnel for the job. For example a huge Cartel building Facility might require 9 soldiers and each can carry half a ton of equipment all together. Do they have explosive rounds, weapons with penetration capabilities to go through the building.Cartel members or military soldiers guarding government officials might not have exoskeleton suits to protect them, aim better, detect mines with feet, etc, etc. or high end handheld weapons that are probably not released to the public. But if they see you make sure no one is alive and sadly this might apply to civilians as well where you do not want a certain incident to happen like the movie lone survivor.You would need a good amount of highly trained Spetsnaz soldiers(do not know if the amount of crew and equipment in the Belgorod would be sufficient) to each execute their missions fast and swiftly as possible. Such as if you killed a high ranking Government official can you within the next 6–12 hours go after a high ranking Cartel Member and take him as hostage. Also you need the right amount soldiers to take down the right amount of government officials or cartel members within a specific timeframe to not cause that much suspicion if Jose is trying to contact Edwardo with 1 hour, calls him back in 12 hours, than becomes concerned to dispatch soldiers or Cartel Members to where Edwardo is.There are a certain amount of people you have to kill or can’t kill which makes the mission requirements more difficult. Such as other world Governments need time to time updates with the President of Mexico as one example.Have you tapped in frequencies on phone calls or have done enough reconnaissance to know who to target? You would also need to last on food and supplies, survival skills and keeping a low profile before deciding to start your missions.The next final issue after all this is done (successfully or not) is to keep control of every high ranking official, maybe the Belgorod can dispatch more troops for better control but you still have to do this discretely without the world knowing.Right now it is not possible for Spetsnaz to get rid of the Cartel or Government officials associated with the Cartel. But as you can see the doors of opportunity continue to grow as mankind progresses. I hope everyone had fun reading this.
Do you think every work of art has an agenda?
ALL THE MAJOR ONES = YES.Even on the ceiling of the famed Sistine Chapel, Michael Angelo opted to relate the Genesis story literally and therefore painted both Adam & Eve without belly buttons which at the time created a mega stir among religious zealots but the reason behind him doing that was he was making the very real & serious point that THEY DID NOT BELIEVE THAT BIBLE STORY FOR THEMSELVES.If God did indeed form both of them with his hand from the dust/dirt of the ground, then they were NOT BORN and therefore had no umbilical cord to create a belly button.It was indeed a grand point but it nearly cost him his life as being charged as a HERETIC.In the 1980’s there was this spectacular work called PISS CHRIST and it debuted in Chicago and became a mega notorious thing for the same reasons = THE ARTIST WAS MAKING A VERY REAL POINT.He too yellow kool aid drink mix and made it up in a glass container and inserted into that a Roman Catholic Crucifix.The yellow kool aid symbolized URINE.His point was that as he had travelled America (THE USA) that was supposedly this ULTRA CHRISTIAN Evangelical stronghold in that Ronald Reagan/Pat Robertson era….everything was about JESUS in talk. However the reality was =when it really came down to WIDOWS & ORPHANS AND MILITARY VETS & HOMELESS and lets face it, anything that might cost a person $1….well then the whole JESUS mentality suddenly transformed into = PISS CHRIST aka PISS JESUS.And PISS IT DID as far as the entire pseudo Christian community in the US was concerned and they literally wanted to start BOOK BURNINGS LIKE THE NAZI’S DID.The point however was WELL MADE and that to this day is I think my personal favorite artwork of all time because I could grasp the message and why it was significant because the person who was Jesus aka CHRIST always had help and compassion for the unfortunate but this modern day pseudo Christian mega machine has none at all.The IMPRESSIONIST AGE was perhaps the single most notorious for making statements as a whole and therefore that entire age is regarded as THE PEOPLE’S ART because it was never intended for the ultra wealthy and/or ruling class but instead focused on real and everyday people struggling to survive in the bleakest of circumstances.20 years ago in order to fund raise for an new addition to the HIGH MUSEUM in Atlanta, they sponsored an exhibit called = PARIS IN THE AGE OF IMPRESSIONISM.Atlanta is not a mega city but that exhibit BROKE ALL ART EXHIBIT RECORDS IN THE WESTERN WORLD and was held over for around 10 years.I personally saw it maybe 40 times and was taking elderly people and disadvantaged kids to see it and they realized what I was doing and had me going to a back door where they would just pass me & my guests in.Some of the paintings were so austere in their message and I will post 1 example.At that time there was this semi toxic beverage called ABSINTHE which would kill you if you kept drinking it.The art works name is ABSINTHE.The scene is the back of a packed pub in the working man’s part of Paris and there sitting alone in the midst of a crowd was this woman. BUT NOT ANY WOMAN. No. In fact this was a portrait of the single most famous singer in all of FRANCE at that time.But was she at some rich party?NO.In reality she was LONELY AND TORMENTED and basically wanting to die which is why she chose that toxic beverage.The painting was a huge scandal in it’s day because the FAMED PEOPLE were supposed to always be happy and clearly she was not and so goes the saying = everyone has their personal demons.Edgar Degas = ABSINTHELook in her face. LIFELESS. HOPELESS. Devoid of happiness. She was famous and supposedly had it all but the reality was she hated herself and wanted to just die.That statement went against the grain of every know recruitment know to lure people into stage and music.That portrait is renown on every continent because the message of it resonates. WE ALL CAN FEEL EXACTLY LIKE HER and for the same exact reasons.This is why the MAJOR PIECES are such because they are LIVING THINGS CONVEYING TIMELESS MESSAGES ACROSS THE AGES.You may also note a famous trademark of absinthe = that PALE GREEN GREY COLOR OF DEATH. The fog in a cemetery is that exact same color so how dark is that?When you go to see an exhibit or when you regard a artwork, ALWAYS STUDY IT TO FIND EXACTLY WHAT THE ARTIST IS TRYING TO SAY.There at that same exhibit in Atlanta at the end was a newer American painting that was huge 12 x 14 maybe and it showed a child = a young boy asleep in his bed with the moon shining in and illuminating all these toys on the floor and on the surface it all was OH SO INNOCENT.But then WHAT WERE THOSE TOYS?A fife & druma sworda toy pistola toy riflea batch of toy soldiersAnd the message was clear: FROM THIS KIDS’ EARLIEST YEARS HE WAS BEING PROGRAMMED TO BE AN ARMY MAN AND DIE FOR HIS COUNTRY.HOW INNOCENT WAS THAT?I stared at that thing for like 20 minutes and just simply told all the viewers their interpretations were wrong and this was growing on people’s nerves to the point a curator was asked to come and run me off and just then it hit me what that thing was saying and as I described it, people suddenly stared and it was so.I was then paid by some people to give them the interpretation of several other pieces.BEING AN ARTIST MYSELF IT JUST COMES A BIT EASIER FOR ME TO GET IT. Just always know there is a message to all major pieces HOWEVER THESE MAY NOT BE SO OBVIOUS AS TO GET THEM BANNED for offending the wealthy ruling class.
How do you find a submarine and sink it?
The most current methods are classified, of course, and I have no knowledge of them . Anyone who discusses recent techniques is probably either talking theoretically or in the gaming world. The people who actually know won’t talk, because if they did, they would be putting themselves in danger. Submariners are not fools. The Walker Family spy ring did that to us in the ’70s and ’80s when they gave Secret, and above, info to the Soviet KGB. They’re still in prison, and I hope they rot there.All of my answers are based on 30-year-old technology and practices, and a little online research. I don’t think the basics have changed. Just the details.How do you find a submarine?The ocean is a big place (Texans think their state is big. BAH!). Over 3/4 of the world is covered by water! You need to know where to look.What place is a submarine guaranteed to be, at some time? A submarine base, depot, moored to a submarine tender, or moored in any port that is deep enough (some submarines have a very deep surfaced draft, just like most of an iceberg is submerged). What is the minimum a submarine needs? Food and replacement personnel. Any anchorage deep enough will do. Supplies can be ferried over in a small boat. You don’t even need to keep the reactor running. The emergency diesel engine can supply the minimum electricity needed for critical equipment ventilation and lighting. And it obviously has enough capacity to bring the reactor critical.For a long stay, what does a submarine need? Electricity, potable water, pressurized air, sewage discharge facilities, bilge/drain pump discharge facilities, external ventilation, perhaps high pressure steam, fuel oil (for the diesel fuel tanks), distilled water and telephone/Internet service (human messengers are a waste of man-power). For repair, you need industrial facilities, cranes, and either a dry-dock or a graving dock Any Navy base will do, especially if a submarine tender is present. Replacement weapons would be nice.So, you need to send a submarine to stake out the most likely egress routes The Strait of Juan de Fuca (on the American side of the US/Canada border) is the ONLY way out of the Trident submarine base in Washington State. If you look at an oceanographic chart of the coast, you may notice the continental shelf drops off fairly near to the shore (meaning the water is deep). The same type of thing happens around Guam, in the Mariana Islands. That’s one of the reasons we used to have a Polaris base there. During the cold war, the Soviets liked to put a Victor III or Akula SSN near Bangor, hoping to get a sniff of an Ohio SSBN going on patrol.Other places to look is in restricted waters (like the Strait of Gibraltar), known transit routes (like the Greenland-Iceland-UK gap) and known SSBN “bastions” (Like the Sea of Okhotsk). Bastions are guarded by enemy SSNs, of course.OK, HOW do you look for a submarine? First is either active or passive systems. Active systems are RADAR, SONAR, or LASER.RADAR only works if part of the submarine (broached VLF buoy, periscope/photonics mast, masts and antennas, sail or upper hull) are poking out of the water. Searching platforms include submarines, surface ships, aircraft and satellites. RORSATs (Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite) are/were the only active methods of detecting a submarine in the middle of nowhere.Active SONAR can detect a submerged submarine, but range (maximum detection distance) is limited. MF/HF (Medium Frequency/High Frequency) systems (the ones you hear pinging in submarine movies) max out at perhaps 65 miles (CZ — Convergence Zone — sound path). The new LF (Low Frequency) systems (the ones Greenpeace protests about) max out at around 300 miles (lower sound frequencies travel farther than higher frequencies). If you don’t know where to look (or aren’t “sanitizing” a specified area or travel corridor), it will be a long search.LASER detection is being worked on. The hope is for a system that can detect a submerged submarine regardless of sound conditions.How about passive systems? A passive system listens for any energy emitted or reflected by a submarine. There are many different energy sources, some are well-known and obvious, and others are only theoretical or proposed (to my knowledge).Light. Submerged military submarines don’t emit light (except for USOS Seaview on Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea). Surfaced submarines, in peace-time, display internationally-required running lights (port and starboard,red and green) running lights, a white masthead light, a white stern light, and a yellow flashing “submarine ID” strobe light (the small physical configuration of the visible lights at night, and small RADAR echo makes a submarine appear as a fishing boat. Maneuvering vessels may cross at what they think is a safe distance, and end up having a collision. The ID beacon tells them to stay clear. Unfortunately, some vessel masters don’t recognize what the beacon means, and get too close to satisfy their curiosity.), from sun-down to sun-up. In wartime, military vessels are fully darkened, and submarines may partially flood the ballast tanks, to minimize radar cross-section. The boat is relatively unstable when you do that, so it’s frowned upon.Submarines, surfaced or submerged, CAN be seen visually, as deep as 100–200 ft, In clear water on a bright tropical day, Detectors include the Mark 1, Mod 0 human eyeball on an aircraft, surface ship or submarine, and satellite.Electromagnetic non-ionizing radiation, AKA Radio Waves. If a submarine transmits on RADAR or radio, it can be detected by anyone near enough, with the proper intercept equipment. All vessels above a minimum displacement are internationally required to use a navigation radar in restricted waters, for reasons of safety. A submarine can be identified to class, by what they emit. Up through the ‘80s, American subs always used their normal radar for navigation. Somewhere along the line, some bright-eyed person realized that might be a bad idea, (and other rules also changed), so submarines use one or two off-the-shelf commercial radars for surfaced navigation.In my day, when the crew “rigged ship for Patrol” EVERY piece of equipment that could transmit would either be de-energized (by opening a circuit breaker or removing fuses) or the “transmit” switch verified “off” (most switches like that had a mechanical cover, so you couldn’t accidentally ping). Then, yellow “safety” tags would be hung on the breakers or switches (or the fuses would be taped, together, to the equipment, along with a safety tag). The comment on the tag would say “CO permission required to operate this device” or something similar.Sound. A submarine has a veritable plethora of possible sound emitters. Some are intentional, but most are not. The “sound silencing program” works to reduce or eliminate the unintentional sources.Intentional.Horns. Every vessel is internationally required to have, as a minimum, a horn or whistle. It is used to signal intentions to other vessels (such as "I am altering my course to starboard".), or danger signals (such as a collision danger). It is also used as a fog signal. Submarine whistles are operated by compressed air.SONAR, beacons, fathometers, measurements, and UWC.Sonar systems are used to detect and track other waterborne or submerged objects, and to communicate with other ships and submarines using Morse Code. “Objects” includes ships, submarines, mines, ice ridges and icebergs.Every submarine has a battery-operated emergency rescue beacon adjacent to every escape hatch. Rescue ships and subs listen for this beacon if you’re sunk on the bottom. The DSRV (Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle) uses this signal to assist in orienting the rescue seal over the escape hatch.Fathometers are used for navigation. They operate exactly as sonar systems, except the ping goes down to the bottom and is reflected back. This determines the distance from the keel to the bottom, measured in feet or fathoms.Every submarine has a device to continuously measure the water sound velocity, using an extremely high frequency, low-power signal. This information is used by sonar to develop a Sound Velocity Profile (SVP). Sonar uses that data to predict the path sound will take as it propagates through the water (sound refracts up, down, left and right when the sound velocity changes.) The Ship Control Party uses this information to estimate how much water needs to be added to or removed from the boat to maintain neutral buoyancy (Sound Velocity reflects changes in water density)UWC (Under Water Communications), AKA Underwater Telephone or “Gertrude”, is a device used to allow ships and submarines to communicate through the water (radio doesn’t work underwater more than a few inches from the surface), using voice and Morse Code. This is the same system that commercial divers use to talk to each other submerged, and with their dive boat. You can hear it, unaided, through the hull, but it sounds like “Donald Duck” talking. (It uses the same Single Sideband modulation used on CB radios). There is also a battery-operated emergency communications device near each escape trunk to allow escaping crew to communicate with the DSRV, other submarines, properly equipped surface ships (Destroyers and Cruisers) and the other escape trunk(s)Unintentional emitters. Anything that rotates, makes noise. Analyzing that noise can help identify what it is, what it’s rotational speed is, how many vanes (pumps and turbines), teeth (gears), poles and armatures (motors and generators) and blades (screws) it has. Some screws “sing” (resonate at certain RPMs). That noise is so strong, that it can be detected for thousand of miles (Literally! I have tracked cargo ships from the time they left Seattle, until they arrived at Yokohama, Japan! It took them 15 days) If the equipment has a failing bearing, it will “chirp” during each rotation. Poorly maintained cargo ships may chirp. If the equipment is a pump, the noise helps to identify how many cylinders it has. If it’s an engine, the noise can tell you if it’s a 2-stroke or 4-stroke engine. On one submarine I was on, we discovered that the ice cream machine in Crew’s Mess would sound different when a new batch of ice cream was ready (the density of the ice cream changes). The rest of the crew was always amazed that we would all show-up to get some, just before the “ready” light came on!In piping systems,when a liquid (like hydraulic fluid) or gas (like pressurized air) flows through a pipe, it might resonate. That is an identifiable noise. The flow of the water over the hull also makes noise.Any loose bracing or foreign objects in the boat;s superstructure can rattle when water flows over it. I once solved a rattle mystery (during sea trials before going on patrol) I discovered a wrench some shipyard worker had misplaced (probably dropped and too lazy to go get it) near a missile tube hatch. Rattles like that can be heard far away.All of this information is exactly the same used in the commercial industrial world for machinery diagnosis and maintenance. If your system can detect a failing bearing before causing severe damage, your maintenance costs go down. Businesses always like that.Crew noises. The crew can make all sorts of noises that can be detected a long way. Some people pooh-pooh that as a gross sonarman exaggeration. It’s not. I personally detected and tracked another US submarine during an exercise, by the noise of the door to the reactor tunnel being shut.. The crew was careless. I didn’t know the the submarine was there until I saw a tiny bright spot appear on my display. We went closer, and when it was loud enough to hear, I recorded it. Our Captain gave the other Captain a copy of the tape, for proof, and when he got back to his boat after the debriefing, there was hell to pay! (We heard about it later, from their sonar gang.) They warned their shipmates, but nobody believed them. They told us about it, later. Letting the toilet seat fall also makes a detectable noise (We posted signs above each toilet, as a reminder). Dropping a wrench into the bilges makes a detectable noise. If you put spoiled eggs in the trash without breaking them, first, when you dump the trash, they will implode on the way to the bottom, like miniature doomed submarines. It sounds like firecrackers going off. When that happens, our Chief tells the Chief cook, and he chastises the lazy mess-cranks (they’re all non-quals and don’t know any better)Chemistry. Submarines may discharge things that could possibly be detected. For example, when you make oxygen out of water, you have hydrogen left over, that you need to get rid of (it’s a dangerous element you don’t want sticking around), and that discharge could potentially be detected. The same possibility applies to the discharge of radioactive nucleotides during reactor maintenance.Radiation. Nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons all emit ionizing radiation (like gamma rays) and particles (alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons) that could theoretically leave the boat and be detected.Magnetism. The presence of ferrous material in the hull causes a distortion in the earth’s magnetic field, which can be detected by MAD (Magnetic Anomaly Detection) equipment used by ASW helicopters and patrol craft. I noticed that the replacement aircraft for the ancient P-3 Orion (P-8 Poseidon) does NOT have a MAD system (ostensibly to save 3,500 lbs and improve endurance and range. I also wonder if maybe a P-8 couldn’t fly slow enough and low enough to conduct a MAD sweep (P-7 has propellers, P-8 has turbofans, with a higher stall speed). A MAD-equipped drone launchable from the P-8 is in the worksHydrocarbons. Diesel submarines emit hydrocarbons in the engine exhaust while snorkeling. A hydrocarbon sensor can detect this.Wake. Shallow submarines may leave a wake detectable at the surface, depending on speed and depth. Platforms for that are aircraft and satellites.Infrared (IR). All machinery generates waste heat. Snorkeling diesel submarines leave a large infrared plume from the diesel exhaust.OK, we’ve figured out what needs to be searched for. WHO is going to be doing the searching? There are five possibilities: submarines, surface ships, aircraft, spacecraft and land.Submarines have always been the most versatile ASW platforms. (If you want to catch a burglar, hire a burglar.) They can, for the most part, go wherever the target can go, go as fast (more or less) as the target can, and can easily put themselves at whatever search/attack depth the tactical situation dictates.An attack submarine’s sensors are as good as, or better than, those in the opposition. This includes active sonars of various types, passive hull-mounted sonars, passive towed array sonar, Electronic intel system (detects radio and radar transmissions), radar and periscopes/photonic masts.Surface ship. There are two types of searching ships: Combatant and non-combatant. American non-combatant ships (T-AGOS) are civilian manned ships towing a miles long towed sonar array. (The longer an array is, the lower frequency can be detected and tracked. Low frequencies travel the farthest, and are the least affected by sound velocity).Combatant surface ships, currently, are Destroyers, Cruisers, and what may soon be called, Frigates. They have a powerful bow-mounted active sonar system, and may have passive sonars in the bow, and a towed array sonar system. They also carry one or two helicopters.The advantage of surface ships is in communications and command-and-control. All platforms are able to network and share data. That helps to fill holes in the overall area coverage.The disadvantage is visability. They may have stealth features, but there’s no cloaking device, and they can’t hide. They are also electronically noisy (sonar, radar, radios. You could turn everything off, but then, you’re just a single passive ship with no long range weapon capability, and team communications restricted to flashing light).Aircraft. These are the most mobile and large-area-covering platforms. They come in two varieties fixed-wing and helicopters. The large fixed wing aircraft are long-range, land based aircraft. Their sensors include active and passive sonobuoys, radar, IR (Infrared) and hydrocarbon sniffers. The smaller aircraft is carrier-based, shorter ranged and have the same sensors as the big ones, plus MAD.Helicopters have the same sensors, plus the larger, carrier-based ones have a dipping sonar that can be lowered on a cable to the best detection depth.Spacecraft (satellites). They cover the whole world, can actively search with radar, and passively search in all of the electromagnetic spectrum (including various wavelengths of light).Fixed. Many nations have hydrophone arrays on the bottom of the ocean, to detect any acoustic noise a submarine might make. The American system (SOSUS) was the largest, but many SOSUS arrays have been demilitarized and turned over to civilian research organizations, mostly to study whales. For example, they got new data on Blue Whales (the largest creature in the world). They communicate on frequencies so low, a human can’t hear it,The advantages of SOSUS are long range (thousands of miles, due to the low frequencies) and the ability to triangulate (detecting the same contact on three or more widely-spaced arrays gives you a small triangle that the submarine must be in). Remember I said you had to know where to look? You can send a P-8 to sniff around the area, and possibly have an SSN go there, too.Everybody makes noise at those low frequencies, but they only stand out at high ship speed (mechanical screw noise). In the ’70s and ‘80s, SSN Captains thought they were undetectable, and liked to hot-dog it around the ocean. SOSUS always detected them doing that, and eventually started to share this information with the boats. The COs learned that they needed to be a bit more discrete when transiting. (My sonar division once visited a SOSUS station, and they showed us a print-out of one).Now that we’ve detected the submarine, how do we attack it, and what weapons can we use? (This answer is for ASW, so I won’t talk about ASuW, AAW or ALW weapons) There are currently only two ASW weapon types in the inventory, torpedoes and depth charges. Only P-8s carry depth charges (so far).So.There are two kinds of torpedoes, heavy ones (21″ diameter) and light ones (12.75″ diameter) . Only submarines have 21″ torpedo tubes (26″ in Seawolf class).Lightweight torpedoes were designed specifically to attack submarines. They are all acoustical homing and triggering. Propulsion varies from battery/electric (obsolescent Mk 44), monopropellant (Otto II) fuel (MK 46/Mk 54) or chemical (hexafluoride/lithium) (Mk 50). These weapons are carried by surface ships and aircraft. Delivery methods include “over the side” from torpedo tubes, rocket-boosted (ASROC) and air-dropped. In all cases, these torpedoes are “launch and forget” weapons with no after-launch guidance.Mk 44 and Mk 46 torpedoes were developed in the ‘60s. When the Soviets developed the high-speed, deep diving “Alfa” submarine (41 kts!!), no torpedoes could keep up or go as deep. The MK 50 used a new, faster, propulsion system with no exhaust back-pressure issues, but it was very expensive (too expensive to waste on a slower target). The Mk 46 had poor performance in littoral waters, so a better weapon was developed. by essentially putting a Mk 50 guidance system on a Mk 46 propulsion system.The heavyweight 21″ submarine torpedo is multi-role, for ASW and ASuW missions. Currently, there’s just one, the Mk 48, using the same propellant as the Mk 46. After the “Alfa” came out, the Mk 48 was modified for higher performance, and is called the Mk 48 ADCAP (Advanced Capability). In addition to acoustic homing, the Mk 48 is wire-guided by a control wire from the submarine to the weapon. This allows the firing sub to maintain control, including changing homing modes and steering the weapon if the tactical situation changes (such as target zigs). I’ve heard that they replaced the metal wire with a fiber-optic one (higher data bandwidth). If they haven’t, they should!There are lots of earlier weapons, many of which are still in use by foreign navies.For surface ships (and aircraft, sometimes):Conventional depth charges. Large cannisters (look like kegs) loaded with explosives (seen in WWII-era submarine movies). They detonate at a preselected depth. Damage is caused by the explosion’s pressure wave, not by contact with the submarine’s hull. Most WWII submarine sinkings were not caused by depth charges, but by gunfire or bombs. The depth charges either damaged the sub, or kept it submerged so long that it exhausted it’s battery. Either way, it had to surface. The biiggest problem was that there was no way of knowing if the depth charge was anywhere near the submarine.Hedgehogs. Mortars fired in a circular pattern ahead or oblique of the ship, which were impact-triggered. If there was no explosion, it was a miss.Weapon Alfa (AKA Weapon Able). A rocket-launched stand-off depth charge with an 800 yard range, designed to eliminate the need for a ship to be above a submarine during an attack. A large anecdotal problem was what was called the “Quick-draw McGraw” reload fault. When reloading, the launcher rotated to a vertical position, then it would lower to firing position. It often got out of sync. (Load, shoot, load, shoot, load, shot, load, hang, load, oops).Mk 32 over-the-side torpedo tubes. Currently a 3-tube triangle mount that is either manually (if mounted on the weather-decks) or hydraulically (inside the superstructure, behind a hydraulic door) trained out an an angle to shoot. The muzzle cover is manually removed, and it is launched with high pressure air in a flask that also serves as the breech door. Knox-class Frigates had double over-under tubes permanently mounted in the superstructure (forward part of the helicopter hanger), with hydraulic muzzle doors. Knox-class frigates were originally designed to have a pair of 21″ torpedo tubes in the stern, under the fantail. This space was later used for the SQR-35 IVDS active sonar, the SQR-18 towed array, and such things as the electrician’s portable electric safety cage and the 1st Class Petty Officer;s Lounge (white-hat version of the CPO Goat Locker).ASROC (Anti-Submarine Rocket). A rocket-launched weapon with a 24,000 yard range. It carries either a MK 46 torpedo (retired), Mk 54 torpedo, or a nuclear depth bomb (retired).Air-dropped torpedo. Several aircraft can carry torpedoes.The first rotary-winged aircraft was DASH (Drone Anti-Submarine Helicopter). Using 1960s technology (AKA vacuum tubes), it wasn’t very successful. Problems included failure of remote control equipment, and weapon release problems.Anecdotal examples (All related to author by a PO1 involved with system testing and evaluation):Once airborne, unit would head towards target, and just kept going, over the horizon. Wreckage retrieved after it ran out of fuel.During retrieval, unit refused to stop at arrival. Ship maneuvered to keep unit above flight deck and waited for it to run out of fuel. It was repairable.DASH carried two torpedoes, one on each side. Frequently, only one torpedo would release. The weight imbalance caused the unit to flip over and crash.The failure of DASH caused the development of LAMPS (Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System) helicopters, which were small enough to be deployed on small ASW ships (Frigates and Destroyers). In addition to carrying torpedoes, they carry a veritable plethora of sensors, including MAD, FLIR, radar, active/passive sonobuoys, and the old-fashioned Mk 1, Mod 0 eyeballSubmarines also carries a wide variety of ASW weapons.MK 37 Torpedo. An electric, acoustic torpedo that was launched in swim-out mode. It was quiet (electric drive) and didn’t need to be expelled from the torpedo tube. With no launch transient sounds, the target submarine never knew a weapon was coming. It wass good on older, slower submarines, but marginal on 2nd-generation nuclear subs.Mk 45 Torpedo. Called ASTOR (Anti-Submarine Torpedo), was a wire-guide, non-homing, 19″torpedo with a 10,000 to 16,000 range, tipped with a nuclear warhead (nick-named the “kamikaze torpedo).Mk 48 torpedo. Fast, deep-diving, wire-guided, acoustically homing torpedo, with frequent electronics/programming updates. As of 2016, Lockheed-Martin is well along on new upgrades to propulsion, control and electronics.SUBROC (Submarine Rocket). A submerged-launch, 68,000 yard range rocket with a nuclear depth bomb payload (retired).That’s about it. Hope it was enough. Any errors are due to either unavailable (i.e. classified) information or fading memory.