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How did French-speaking Canadians fight alongside the rest of English-speaking Canadians during WWII as they spoke different languages?

Ah ! This is something I can answer as I am precisely researching on francos in WW2. I can give more details for the Air Force as I am reading about that at the moment. I was planning to write a blog entry about this in a few months but well, let’s do that a bit earlier.Okay so first of all, you have to realize that in that time, French is clearly the subordinated language. It’s rarely if not never used in military operations.Land ArmyThe most friendly division of the Canadian Army at that time is the Land Army, especially the infantry, because there were for a long time, especially since WW1, francophone regiments. Example :22nd RegimentChaudière RegimentFusiliers du Mont-Royal…to name just a few.This was a major issue since a lot of francophones in the countryside did not know English at all, or those who did have classes still were not good enough to read a technical manual in English or take part to military operations in English.During the 1930’s, there were two infantry brigades : one francophone, the other bilingual.13th Infantry Bridage (francophone)Chaudière RegimentMontmagny RegimentSaguenay RegimentFusiliers du Saint-Laurent15th Infantry Brigade (“bilingual”) :Québec City RegimentRoyal Rifles (anglophones)Lévis RegimentVoltigeurs of Québec CityThere was another one :The Hull Regiment, “bilingual”, part of the 8th Brigade“Bilingual”, as usual, means that everything happens in English there.Until 1939, only the 22nd Regiment is partially trained in French. ALL the 102 instruction manuals are in English. All the orders are given in English and the internal correspondance is in English.Until 1936, those who had the ability to speak French and to serve as interpreter in that language had the mention “Foreign Languages”. Therefore French was regarded as no more significant than German would be in the context of Canada.Therefore, the francophones contribution was disproportionately in the infantry because it was the only part of the army that was a bit friendly to them, it was the only place an unilingual could go.« lorsque je me suis enrôlé dans l’ARC [Aviation royale du Canada], l’Aviation et la Marine étaient considérés au Québec comme une chasse gardée des anglophones. Rares, très rares même, étaient les Canadiens français qui croyaient avoir leur place dans l’Aviation ou la Marine, surtout à cause des barrières linguistiques. Dans le cas de l’Armée, c’était autre chose. »(Gilles Lamontagne, membre de la 425e escadrille Alouette)“when I enlisted in the RCAF [Royal Canadian Air Force], the Air Force and the Marine were regarded in Québec as the private turf of the anglophones. Rare, very rare in fact were the French Canadians that believed they had their place in the Air Force or the Marine, especially due to the linguistic barriers. In the case of the Army, it was something else.”(Gilles Lamontagne, member of the 425th Alouette Squadron)There were many francos that did heroic deeds in the Infantry : Paul Triquet (famous for his capture of the Casa Berardi, Moro River Campaign, in Italy) and Léo Major (the Quebecer real-life Rambo that fought alone an entire nazi garrison in the Dutch city of Zwolle while he only had one eye and a broken back) or Jacques Dextraze (a commander peculiarly liked by his men).Source : Les Canadiens-français et le bilinguisme dans les Forces armées canadiennes, tome I.Air ForceUntil 1942, there existed no specifically francophone squadron and even then, you would not be able to use French as language of the operations there. During the war, francos were only 10 % of the Air Force personnel.Before 1942, francophones would necessarily be incorporated into anglophone units in which they would be a tiny minority, and quite often it would be in the Royal Air Force in England. No francophone could not be bilingual.Air Force : Recruitment in QuébecAnd it was a HUGE logistic mess to recruit francophones for this reason, since the bar to enter the Air Force was too high, despite there were potential candidates that were interested. I have to detail how much of a mess the recruitment of the Air Force in Québec was.First of all, since both the Air Force and the Marine were so unfriendly to francophones, they had no visibility in Québec. Without a communication plan specifically targeted at francos, it’s as if they did not exist. And there was some interest to enlist in the Air Force. For example, the citizens of Granby asked their mayor how they could enlist in the Air Force…In the Air Force recruitment centre of Québec City, many of the candidates did not know English and would have been incapable of understanding the instructions of the sub-officers. Despite this, some unilinguals would be recruited anyway. In 1940, 108 recruits on 182 were francophone and 16 of them did not know English.All the forms used for the recruitment process were in English. The three most important forms would be translated.Sometimes, the zeal of the recruiters to get some francos in the Air Force was excessive and they misinformed the candidates. In Québec City, some people were told that they could attend their classes in French in the Technical School of St. Thomas, which was false.This is why the Air Force had no choice but to open English Schools. The No. 4 Manning Depot in Québec City taught English.According to Gilbert Boulanger, in Québec City :« Durant les quatre mois que je passe au camp, l’apprentissage de l’anglais occupe la majeure partie de mon temps. Pour réussir dans l’aviation, il faut connaître cette langue. »“During the four months I passed at the camp, the learning of English occupied most of my time. To succeed in the Air Force, it is necessary to know this language.”(Gilbert Boulanger, L’alouette affolée : Un adolescent à la guerre, La Pocatière, Impressions Soleil, 2006, p. 53.)The English bias was even more problematic in Montréal. They had the silly idea to put their recruitment center far in the West, where there were no francophones (the majority of the city). As a result, they would never be seen by francos since they did not frequent these places. This is why they had to buy in 1941 a venue in the East (Saint-Denis / Sainte-Catherine corner) otherwise they would not get francos. In November 1941, the commander of the No. 13 Recruitment Centre in Montréal, the lieutenant L. P. Gélinas, was still waiting the “Ability to Learn Tests” in French because a lot of people did not understand English enough to pass the test in English.The education system in Québec was also at odds with what the Air Force wanted. Many people in Québec attended the « collèges classiques », in which you learned Latin, Greek, Philosophy and Theology… While they did learn things like Mathematics, the required level for the Air Force would not be reached until later in the curriculum so the franco recruits had to be taught mathematics to have the necessary knowledge. Some Quebecers lived in New England and studied there… the problem is that they would forget to come with a certification of the studies they did.« La bonne éducation classique que j’avais reçue, le Grec, le Latin, l’histoire, la philosophie, la théologie, ne serviraient pas beaucoup lorsque le moment viendrait de taper un message en code Morse. » (Guy Rainville)“The good classical education that I had received, Greek, Latin, history, philosophy, theology, would not serve much when it would be time to type a message in Morse code.” (Guy Rainville)In Victoriaville, the only francophone instructor had a poor English.Air Force : Training in English CanadaA bit of the training of the aircraftmen could be partially in French in Québec I presume but later they would go to Toronto (Ontario) to learn English. It’s amusing to note that Toronto had a quite bad reputation among francos and so many were not quite enthusiast to go there… another deterrent to recruitment…« Le train arrive à Toronto à 7h, le matin d’un premier juillet chaud et humide. C’était ma première visite dans la ville reine, foyer des sentiments impérialistes, colonialistes, anticatholiques et antifrançais, selon mes contemporains. Peu importe ce que j’avais entendu ou lu, j’étais déterminé à mettre de côté tous mes préjugés, d’apprendre l’anglais, de voir les choses par moi-même et de ne pas juger hâtivement. »“The train arrives in Toronto at 7 hours, the morning of a warm and wet first of July. It was my first visit in the Queen City, the home of the imperialist, colonialist, anticatholic and anti-French sentiments, according to my contemporaries. No matter what I had heard or read, I was determined to put aside all my prejudices, to learn English, to see things by myself and not judge hastily.”(Guy Rainville)Even Guy Rainville, that actively wanted to learn English fast in Toronto, had difficulty.« De notre groupe de cinq cents recrues très peu parlaient le français, et dans mes efforts déterminés à apprendre l’anglais, la langue d’instruction, j’évitai cette minorité. À l’école j’avais appris suffisamment d’anglais pour lire et écrire, mais lorsque je tentais de mettre deux phrases ensemble tout cela semblait être oublié. Maintenant j’écoutais chaque parole, j’étudiais en anglais lors de mon temps libre. Un jour un officier s’arrêta près de moi, observant des recrues qui faisaient de la boxe ; je l’ai salué vivement. Il me corrigea : « Ne salue pas sans ton képi ! » et j’en fus surpris. Cette information m’était passée par-dessus la tête et je ne pouvais offrir aucune excuse. »“Of our group of five hundreds recruits very few spoke French, and in my determined efforts to learn English, the language of instruction, I avoided this minority. In school I had learned enough English to read and write, but when I was trying to put two sentences together all of this seemed to be forgotten. Now I listened to each spoken word, I studied in English during my free time. One day and officer stopped next to me, observing the recruits doing boxing; I saluted him swiftly. He corrected me: “Do not salute without your kepi!” and I was surprised about that. That information passed over my head and I could provide no excuse.”(Guy Rainville)In the leisure time, there were among other things concerts organized by the Orange Lodge, the archenemy of francophones. Franco-Ontarians had a secret organization called l’Ordre de Jacques Cartier, or more informally « la Patente », meant to resist against the Orange Lodge.Afterwards they had a more specialized training for the specific job they did in the Air Force. Gilbert Boulanger was sent to No. 7 Flight School in Summerside, on the Prince Edward Island. He also had difficulties with English there…« Ma connaissance très limité de la langue de Shakespeare a failli un jour me mettre dans de beaux draps. Mon caporal est parti dîner et je suis seul au bureau. Le chef instructeur, le Squadron Leader, Eric Webster, entre soudainement et me dit d’une voix tonitruante : … Aircraftman Boulanger, go and tell all flights that this will be dual only… Yes sir!… Je suis terrifié à la vue de cet officier. Il boite et il a les cheveux roux. Il ne sourit jamais. Il « jappe » ses ordres. Je n’ai rien compris. La peur me rend sourd. Je sais que je dois sortir, aller quelque part dire quelque chose à quelqu’un. Je ne peux rester dans le bureau attendre le caporal. Incertain et à pas lents, je m’approche du premier hangar. Il a bien dit flights et il y en a six. Puis, go veut dire aller. Donc, je dois aller voir les flights et leur dire dual only. Je n’ai aucune idée du sens de dual only. J’ouvre la porte du Flight A et constate que les élèves pilotes sont calmes ; ils jouent aux cartes ou aux dés. D’une voix incertaine, je dis : … Dual only ... What did you say? … Dual only… À cet ordre, les aviateurs se répètent les uns aux autres ce fameux dual only. Cela les met dans tous leurs états. Alors ils se ruent tous en même temps et ils enfilent leur combinaison de vol, leurs bottes, leur casque et leur parachute. Ils parlent tous en même temps. Je ne sais pas ce que je leur ai dit, mais ils semblent assez contents. Avec un peu plus d’audace, je donne le même signal aux Flights B, C et D. À mon commandement, les pilotes se comportent exactement comme ceux du Flight A.[…] Je continue ma ronde ainsi de suite jusqu’au Flight E au 3e hangar. Les aviateurs réagissent avec enthousiasme à mon dual only. Arrivé au Flight F, je me rends compte de l’importance de ce mot qui sème tout ce joyeux brouhaha. Mon DUAL ONLY est maintenant important. Je l’ordonne avec force et de façon très militaire. À la sortie du hangar, je vois les avions Harvard entourés de mécaniciens et élèves pilotes qui se préparent. Le bruit est infernal. Déjà quelques avions volent et d’autres quittent la rampe entourés de nuages de gaz d’échappement qui se mêlent à la neige dans un tourbillon menaçant.Tête haute, au pas militaire, confiant, je retourne à la tour de contrôle. M’approchant, tout à coup un doute terrible s’empare de moi. Que veut dire ce dual only? Et si j’avais mal compris? Si dual only voulait dire que deux avions seulement pouvaient voler! Alors, je me sens misérable et je m’imagine tous les reproches qui vont m’être adressés. Je me vois déjà au cachot au pain et à l’eau.Je retrouve le caporal à son bureau. Le Squadron Leader Webster m’ignore totalement. […] Ça y est, me dis-je, il va me tomber dessus […] Mais rien de grave ne semble se produire. Que veut bien dire ce fameux dual only? Ce n’est que plus tard au mess hall que j’ose demander à un camarade la signification de ces mots : […] Dis-moi, que veut dire l’expression dual only? […] Tu ne sais donc pas? Étant donné le mauvais temps, les élèves doivent voler avec leurs instructeurs seulement. Donc dual only signifie en double commande, me répond-il en riant. […] Voilà pourquoi il y avait tant d’animation et tant de cries [sic] de joies. Il y avait du vrai dans l’expression : « Trop peu de connaissances est dangereux. » »(Gilbert Boulanger, L’alouette affolée : Un adolescent à la guerre, La Pocatière, Impressions Soleil, 2006, pp. 55-58.)“My very limited knowledge of the language of Shakespeare almost put me in a right mess. My corporal went to dine and I am alone at the office. The Chief Instructor, the Squadron Leader Eric Webster, suddenly enters and tells me with a thundering voice: …Aircraftman Boulanger, go and tell all flights that this will be dual only… Yes sir!… I am terrified at the sight of that officer. He limps and he has red hair. He never smiles. He “barks” his orders. I understood nothing. Fear makes me deaf. I know I must get out, go some place tell something to someone. I cannot stay in the office waiting for the corporal. Unsure and walking at a slow pace, I approach the first hangar. He did say flights and there are six. Then, go means aller. Therefore, I must aller see the flights and tell them dual only. I have no idea of the meaning of dual only. I open the door of the A Flight and notice that the pilot students are calm; they are playing cards or dices. With an unsure voice, I say: …Dual only… What did you say? …Dual only… To this order, the aircraftmen repeat to each other this much talked dual only. This gets them into a lather. Then, they all rush at the same time and equip their flight suit, their boots, their helmet and their parachute. They all speak at the same time. I do not know what I told them, but they seem quite happy. With a bit more audacity, I give the same signal to the B, C, and D Flights. To my command, the pilots behave exactly like those of the A Flight.[…] I continue my tour and so on until the E Flight in the 3rd hangar. The aircraftmen react with enthusiasm to my dual only. Having reached the F Flight, I realize the importance of that word that spreads all this joyful hubbub. My DUAL ONLY now is important. I order it with strenght and in a very military way. At the exit of the hangar, I see the Harvard planes surrounded by mechanics and pilot students that are preparing themselves. The noise is infernal. Already, some planes are flying and other are leaving the ramp surrounded by clouds of exhaust gas that mix to the snow in a menacing whirlwind.Head high, military pace, confident, I go back to the control tower. Approaching, suddenly a terrible doubt seizes me. If dual only meant that only two planes could fly! Then, I feel miserable and I imagine all the reproaches that will be directed towards me. I already see myself in the cell on bread and water.I retrieve the corporal to his office. The Squadron Leader Webster totally ignores me. […] This is it, I tell myself, he will give me a bad time. […] But nothing grave seems to be happening. What does that damned dual only means? It’s only later at the mess hall that I dare t o ask to a comrade the meaning of these words : […] Dis-moi, que veut dire l’expression dual only? […] Tu ne sais donc pas? Étant donné le mauvais temps, les élèves doivent voler avec leurs instructeurs seulement. Donc dual only signifie en double commande [You don’t know? Due to the bad weather, the students must fly with their instructors only. So dual only means double piloting], he answers laughing. […] That’s why there was so much animation and so many cries of joy. There was truth in the expression: « Trop peu de connaissances est dangereux. » [“Too little knowledge is dangerous.”]”(Gilbert Boulanger, L’alouette affolée : Un adolescent à la guerre, La Pocatière, Impressions Soleil, 2006, pp. 55-58.)Air Force : Being a francophone in EnglandUp there in England there could be some francophones. The Acadian Laurie Cormier met a Belgian. Gabriel Taschereau also met some French.« Le gars en charge des mitrailleurs venait de la Belgique. Il parlait français. Un jour, il m’a dit qu’ils voulaient trois avions de l’OTU pour aller en mer du Nord à la recherche d’avions américains qui étaient disparus en revenant d’un raid contre Hambourg. […] Normalement, ils prenaient des instructeurs pour aller sur ces vols, mais il n’y en avait pas assez pour faire trois équipages. J’ai demandé au Belge si je pouvais y aller. Il m’a répondu que je n’avais pas encore fini mon entraînement. Je lui ai dit que ça ne faisait rien. Il a demandé la permission au commandant, et c’est comme ça que j’ai fait mon premier voyage. […] Ils m’ont mis dans la tourelle avant. C’était un équipage international : le pilote était un Anglais, le navigateur venait de l’Australie, l’opérateur radio était un Américain dans l’aviation canadienne, moi, j’étais dans la tourelle avant, et le Belge était dans celle d’en arrière. Nous avons fait ce qu’on appelait un « square search ». »“The guy in charge of the gunners was from Belgium. He spoke French. One day, he said that they wanted three planes of the OTU to go in the Northern Sea to look for American planes that were disappeared coming back from a raid against Hamburg. […] Normally, they took instructors to go on these flights, but there was not enough to make three crews. I asked the Belgian if I could go. He answered that I did not finish my training yet. I told him it didn’t matter. He asked the permission to my commander, and this is how I did my first trip. […] They put me in the front turret. It was an international crew : the pilot was an English, the navigator was from Australia, the radio operator was an American in the Canadian Air Force, me, I was in the front turret and the Belgian was in the back one. We did what we called a “square search”.”(Laurie Cormier, cité dans Ronald Cormier (dir.), Entre bombes et barbelés : Témoignage d’aviateurs et de prisonniers de guerre acadiens, 1939-1945, Moncton, Les éditions d’Acadie, 1990, pp. 74-75.)So, some francophones served in the Royal Air Force before 1942, like the Quebecers Guy Rainville and Gabriel Taschereau, or the Acadians Laurie Cormier and Roger Pichette.From a francophone perspective, the English of England were much nicer than the English of Canada. The Acadian Roger Pichette said:« Nous avons été très bien reçus par les Britanniques. Tu étais simplement un Canadien même si tu avais un accent français. Ce n’était pas la même mentalité de « goddam Frenchman » qu’on trouvait au Canada, dans des endroits comme Campbellton [au Nouveau-Brunswick], où j’ai grandi. Je trouvais que c’était fantastique. Ils nous appelaient les « bloody Colonials », mais c’était en riant. »(Roger Pichette, dans Entre bombes et barbelés : Témoignage d’aviateurs et de prisonniers de guerre acadiens, 1939-1945, Moncton, Les éditions d’Acadie, 1990, p. 27.)« We were received very well by the British. You simply were a Canadian even if you had a French accent. It was not the same mentality of « goddam Frenchman » that was found in places like Campbellton [in New Brunswick], where I grew. I found it was wonderful. They would call us the « bloody Colonials », but while laughing. »(Roger Pichette, dans Entre bombes et barbelés : Témoignage d’aviateurs et de prisonniers de guerre acadiens, 1939-1945, Moncton, Les éditions d’Acadie, 1990, p. 27.)Being a mere “bloody colonial” was an upgrade of status compared to home.They always had a certain passive hatred for the British Empire, but now they were in England, they could get a dramatically different impression of the English. Guy Rainville was moved by the spectacle of a little girl getting out of rubbles in London that shouted her anger at the Luftwaffe:« Est-ce que l’Angleterre était une histoire de ses conquêtes, ses colonies, sa puissance en mer, et sa flotte? Ce n’est sûrement pas l’Angleterre détestée de mes livres d’histoire, le pays de la monarchie, de l’aristocratie, Albion fière et perfide. C’était un pays d’humanité souffrante. Rien ne pouvait changer la vérité sur mes observations à l’égard de sa structure sociale, mais mon cœur fut ému. Malgré une attitude orgueilleuse, voyant cette guerre comme une aventure personnelle, malgré mon fatalisme, car la mort semblait préférable aux années de désespoir dont j’avais souffert, je commençais à voir une autre dimension, à entendre un message. Du creuset de la douleur est sortie une petite fille courageuse; devant moi elle avait vécu la misère, la terreur d’une attaque sans défenses. Se cachant la nuit sous le barrage de bombes elle était sortie des ruines, sale mais glorieuse, les yeux rebelles, une épée d’acier trempé, prête à se venger - c’était elle l’Angleterre ! »(Guy Rainville)"Was England a story of her conquests, her colonies, her power on the seas, and her fleet? This is surely not the England hated in my history books, the country of monarchy, of aristocracy, proud and perfidious Albion. It was a country of suffering humanity. Nothing could change the truth on my observations pertaining to its social structure, but my heart was moved. Despite a big-headed attitude, seeing this war like a personal adventure, despite my fatalism, because death seemed preferable to the years of despair that I lived, I started to see another dimension, to hear a message. From the crucible of pain a brave little girl has got out; before me she lived destitution, the terror of an attack without defenses. Hiding at night under the barrages of bombs she got out of the ruins, dirty but glorious, the eyes rebellious, a tempered steel sword, ready to avenge herself - it was her, England!"(Guy Rainville)Air Force: The creation of a “francophone” squadronIt’s not because in 1942 there would be a “French Canadian” squadron that it would actually do anything in French in the operations.« Il faut savoir garder présent à l’esprit que, même si j’appartenais à une escadrille dite « canadienne-française », tout ce qui s’y faisait officiellement l’était de langue anglaise. De même, les Français qui composaient les deux escadrilles de bombardement cantonnées à Elvington, près de York, utilisaient eux aussi le langage de la Royal Air Force avec beaucoup de bonne volonté. »(Gabriel Taschereau, Du salpêtre dans le gruau : Souvenirs d’escadrille, 1939-1945, Sillery, Septentrion, 1993, p. 20.)“One must keep in mind that, even if I belonged to a so-called “French Canadian” Squadron, everything that was officially done there was in the English language. Likewise, the French that composed the two bombing squadrons in Elvington, near York, also used the language of the Royal Air Force with a lot of good will.”(Gabriel Taschereau, Du salpêtre dans le gruau : Souvenirs d’escadrille, 1939-1945, Sillery, Septentrion, 1993, p. 20.)In 1942, there was a plebiscite done by the federal liberal government of William Lyon Mackenzie King. He had promised Québec that there would be no conscription. The 1939 elections in Québec were won by the liberals for the SOLE reason that the federal minister Ernest Lapointe said that if the other party won that election, he would resign and there would be no obstacle left to a conscription. Now Mackenzie King wanted to go back on his word, so he organized a referendum in 1942 to request to be allowed to go back on his word. This caused as usual a major crisis since pretty much all the francophones were strongly opposed to it and all the anglophones, that often were still recent immigrants from England, were for. The liberals of Québec were also pretty embarrassed since the prime minister Godbout of Québec promised to resign and fight the Liberal Party should a conscription happen. This destroyed the liberals of Québec for almost 20 years : during the 1944 and 1948 elections, the liberals of Québec would be completely wiped out.Wilfrid Sanders did a poll in June 1942 : 60 % of the French Canadians said that Canadian pilots should form a distinct combat air force [from England], while only 21 % of the anglophones agreed with that statement.Also, 56 % of the French Canadians believed that Canada would not participate to this war if it was completely independent or did not belong to the British Empire. 70 % of the French Canadians believed that Canada was dependent on the UK.I keep saying it, anglos NEVER wanted their independence from England, they were forced by the UK to be independent.Therefore, recruitment was going to be even more difficult due to the anger of Québec against the injustice of being forced into a war it did not care about and due to the absence of welcoming units for them, and the perception of subordination to England. It was urgent to do something.The Minister of Defense responsible for the Air Force in 1940–1944 was Charles Gavan Power (nicknamed Chubby). He was of Irish origin and was previously an MP from Québec City, so he was friendly to francophones. It was him that created the 425th Squadron and he was adamant on this project and overcame the oppositions to it. For example, the vice-marshall L. F. Stevenson opposed it because it would be a lost opportunity to melt the French and English Canadians together (read : assimilate the formers to the latters).It was logistically complicated to create such an unit. The Royal Air Force was asked to make a list of all the French Canadian personnel (here it means a francophone of Canada, no matter of which nation). The officers simply gathered the personnel and asked those that identified as French Canadians to raise their hand.The wing commander that would lead the 425th Squadron would be Joseph Ménard William Saint-Pierre. He was nicknamed usually Joe, but one guy called him Bill. Do not be deceived by the name, he did not speak French. He was an USAmerian born in Chicago (Illinois). He seems to be a descendant of Quebecer immigrants in the US because his father was called Adolphe Saint-Pierre and his mother was called Marguerite Ménard (she was born in Michigan). He worked in Montréal for the Imperial Oil and he married a Quebecer woman, Pauline Sauvé (sister of the famous Paul Sauvé) in 1937 in Outremont (Québec). He called one of his men, Jean-Paul Corbeil, by the nickname “Corbille” because he could not pronounce it right.The recruitment of the francos that already had combat experience was difficult, because some were simply already used to their units and did not desire to change, some were afraid to forget the English they learned and some viewed it suspiciously because they believed it was a political move due to the crisis in Québec in 1942 and felt it would make them pawns of the war propaganda. It was not easy to find franco personnel to fill all the posts, especially for the maintenance personnel.The unit was equipped with nine Vickers Wellington Mk III heavy bombers (later it would be Halifax planes with four motors). It was decided the 425th Squadron would be one of bombers because unlike fighter planes, bombers required less to communicate on the radio and so a potential French accent would be less likely to impair communication. In August 1942, they were ready to fly. Their base was in Dishforth.The Squadron was called Alouette (Lark). This is an obvious cultural reference to any francophone. It’s a traditional song called Alouette, gentille alouette. Every francophone child was sung this at some point. Obviously, their motto, just like the song, was : Je te plumerai ! (I will pluck you!).The Alouette was divided in two sections : that of Georges-Albert Roy (son of the former ambassador of Canada in Paris) and that of Logan Savard (son of the judge Alfred Savard).Some members of the squadron were Guy Rainville, Gabriel Taschereau, Blair Bourgeois, Joseph LeBlanc. The adjudant was Jean-H. L. Saint-Germain. One sergeant, Louis Coallier (22 years old), did not speak English before entering the Air Force. The engineering officer was Hillaire Roberge of Ottawa, a Franco-Ontarian. So you had all sorts of Francos : Quebecers, Acadians, Franco-Ontarians…/!\ I have not figured out if this Gabriel Taschereau was from the noble Taschereau dynasty the prime minister Louis-Alexandre Taschereau was part of. If you know his genealogy I’d like to know that information. /!\Their doctor was Hector Payette. He was an interesting fellow. He was doctor in the East of Montréal (poor, industrial, francophone) during the Great Depression and he witnessed all possible suffering. He was appreciated by criminals because he was very discreet. In the 425th squadron, he wanted to understand what the crews went trough and so asked to be taken along in some of their missions despite it was against the rules. Once, they almost died when a cone of light pointed them and a flak shot a them. He was so afraid he fainted and he never went back in the sky.The had a catholic chaplain of course, Daniel Bernabé. The crewmen crafted however they could an altar and the chaplain had them kneel together, and he listened to their confessions. He would say: “Go in peace, my son, you will recite three Ave.” He did signs of the cross when the planes would take off.The journalist Hervé Major went to England to meet the francos in the Air Force and he did not like the quality of their French, he was quite harsh.« Excepté à l’escadron que dirige Jos. Saint-Pierre et qui absorbe graduellement tous les nôtres, je ne rencontrerai plus de nombreux aviateurs de langue française, et parmi mes compatriotes j’en trouverai qui parleront le plus habituellement l’anglais, qui me paraîtront désapprendre le français. Dans l’armée, même s’ils n’appartiennent pas à des unités composées exclusivement de Canadiens-français, les nôtres ont plus souvent de s’exprimer dans leur langue maternelle. Mais c’est l’anglais qui se parle surtout parmi les aviateurs et se [sic] sont eux qui se montrent les plus British. »“Excepted the squadron led by Jos. Saint-Pierre and that gradually absorbs all of our people, I did not encounter many aircraftmen of French language, and among my compatriots I will find some that will speak English more usually, that will seem to me to unlearn French. In the army, even if they do not belong to units exclusively made of French Canadian, our people got more often the opportunity to speak in their mother tongue. But it’s English that is spoken the most among the aircraftmen and they are those that seem the most British.”(Hervé Major, « Visite à l’aviateur », La Presse, 27 octobre 1942, p. 7.)Indeed, you have to understand that since they were never taught the technical vocabulary in French, they had no idea of how to say it in French, and even the grades were not translated so often they stated them in English since they were not sure of to say it correctly in French. Indeed, their technical French was atrocious:« ça m’a tout l’air d’un « runaway motor » […] à moins qu’il n’y ait eu un morceau de « bearing » dans le « filter » […] je suis sûr que le moteur a « overrevvé » parce que le « constant speed unit » a r’volé… je vais le « checker » de nouveau demain au « D. I. » [daily inspection] »There were women too : they would transport the bombs to the bombers, or do the domestic chores (those ones were called “batwomen”) and they would cut the wood to heat the barracks. I don’t know much about them for the linguistic aspect of their experience. Women were not allowed to be military pilots then. It was however in 1947 that a Quebecer woman got a civilian pilot license for the first time (Gertrude Dugal).(Gertrude Dugal, the first female Quebecer civilian pilot)Another person of note I suppose would be the air commodore Albert de Niverville, that played a great role in putting in place the recruitment system of the Air Force in Québec (he did 14 recommendations to make it more performant) and that in fact was part of the Canadian team that went to England in 1940 to study how they organized their Air Force in order to copy everything. He died in 1942 near Cap-Chat in Québec commanding a squadron from Mont-Joli.Sources : Bill Rawling. L’Alouette en guerre - La 425e Escadrille, 1939–1945, Athéna éditions, Outremont, 2010.Pierre Lagacé. RCAF 425 Alouette (blog), Wordpress. He personally interviewed many veterans of the 425th.NavyThe Navy was the most hostile division of the Canadian Army to the francophones. The francos did not like it and it didn’t like the francos. It’s especially ironic considering that Québec as a whole was one of Canada’s most important shipyards, as there were many shipyards in Québec such as in Montréal, Lévis and Sorel. Since there was no specific franco unit in that army, the franco contribution to it is far less famous and far less studied.Between 1914 and 1918, 4 of the 73 officers of the Marine were francos (5.4 %). At the eve of WW2, it was 4.84 %. The 1st of July 1944, 7 promotions on 333 were for francos. In 1951, Marcel Jetté did a report and discovered that 11 % of the sailors and subofficers were franco and that only 9 of the 382 officers were franco.Due to the British naval tradition, the anglos considered that the Navy belonged to them and that only them knew anything about sailing. In the times of New France, you had amazing franco sailors or captains (like the famous Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville that was overpowered, but there were others like Jean Léger dit Lagrange or Robert Chevalier, or Acadians such as Pierre Maisonnat dit Baptiste or Pierre Morpain of the colony of Plaisance), but after the 1760 Conquest, the francophone naval presence shrunk to insignificance. Of the three armies, the Navy was the least autonomous from England, something we already showed franco had contempt for.(More about the pirates and privateers of New France : )(A few naval battles of New France : NINE YEARS WAR Naval battle off St. John (1696) - Wikipedia, Battle of Hudson's Bay - Wikipedia, Hudson Bay expedition (1686) - Wikipedia, Battle of Fort Albany - Wikipedia SEVEN YEARS WAR Action of 8 June 1755 - Wikipedia, Battle of Restigouche - Wikipedia, Battle of Neuville - Wikipedia, Battle of the Thousand Islands - Wikipedia, Blocus du Saint-Laurent — Wikipédia)(And a bit of Louisiana : Jean Lafitte - Wikipedia)In fact it was only a franco that wanted the Canadian Navy started to have distinctive attributes from the British one : the Minister of Marine Louis-Philippe Brodeur asked the British the authorization to put a green maple leaf in the middle of the White Ensign jack used by the Navy, and it was refused.Francos were considered good only to serve posts that require little intellectual abilities and that they only learned useless things in their schools and these prejudices even colored the historiography, like Tony German’s The Sea is at Our Gates: The history of the Canadian Navy. As I pointed out earlier, sometimes the francos did learn what they would need to enlist but not at a time convenient for the military.The federal minister of Marine Louis-Philippe Brodeur and his subminister Georges Desbarats requested exams in French and bilingual instructors. It was rejected. Louis-Philippe Brodeur complained, in vain. The Navy said that any attempt to combine the two languages would be a nuisance to the service. There was not a single boat on which francos were the majority. Those that dared to speak French were considered headstrong. The first franco unit would be the HMCS* Ottawa in 1968. It’s interesting to note it was also Louis-Philippe Brodeur that put in place the Canadian Naval Service in 1910.(*HMCS : Her/His Majesty’s Canadian Ship. In French it’s NCSM : Navire canadien de Sa Majesté.)One of the most famous Quebecer sailors is Stanislas Déry. He became notorious because in 1944, as he was second in command on the HMCS St. Thomas, he saved 55 German prisoners (30 of whom he guarded) from the submarine his ship sunk (the U-877). Years later, the son of one of those Germans found him back and they became friends, so this story is famous in Québec. Déry had a brilliant career and was a competent guy, yet he was never put in command of a ship and he was not decorated for that battle in 1944 despite all the rest of the crew was. The Déry family seems to be in the opinion it was racism that motivated this treatment. Mr Jocelyn Couture of Québec City however is in the opinion that it was because Déry did an act of insubordination, however heroic it was, that he was not decorated. Anyhow, the point is that Déry had a brilliant career, was liked by his superiors and nevertheless never had it crowned with recognition.Déry was aware that he had gathered a lot of experience and in 1945, he expressed that he would not want to serve under a less experienced captain than him:« On ne me garderait pas comme premier lieutenant sous les ordres d’un capitaine dont la séniorité serait moindre que la mienne; ce ne serait pas la première fois que ma séniorité aurait travaillé contre moi. »(Stanislas Déry, 1945)“I would not be kept as first lieutenant under the orders of a captain whose seniority would be lesser than mine; it would not be the first time that my seniority would work against me.”(Stanislas Déry, 1945)Déry believed that if the war had lasted a little longer, he would have commanded his own ship. In 1961, he said to the journalist Maurice Desjardins :« les officiers canadiens français n’étaient pas très nombreux dans la marine canadienne. À peine un pour cent. Je n’avais guère la chance de devenir amiral. Si la guerre s’était poursuivie, j’aurais été promu capitaine en juillet 1945 et j’aurais commandé un bateau. » (Stanislas Déry, 1961)“French Canadian officers were not very numerous in the Canadian Navy. Barely one per cent. I had no chance to become admiral. If the war kept going on, I would have been promoted captain in July 1945 and I would have commanded a boat.” (Stanislas Déry, 1961)The most famous franco in the Navy is however Victor-Gabriel Brodeur, the son of the minister Louis-Philippe we mentioned earlier. I suspect the success in his career was not unrelated to the fact he was the “son of”. Victor-Gabriel was a veteran of WW1 : he served for the Royal Navy, including on the famous HMS Dreadnought. In 1938, Victor-Gabriel Brodeur was commodore of the Pacific fleet. In 1940, he was the first naval attaché of Canada in Washington DC. Despite he was the “son of”, he was not pampered so much in the Navy:“In his young days with the RN [Royal Navy] he took more than a fair share of the condescension and ribbing that “colonials” got from many of their British mesmates. A Canadian accent was one thing, but with his French-Canadian accent Brodeur really stood out. The RN sailors who couldn’t fathom it dubbed him “Scottie”. While others shrugged off the joshing and simply made up their mind to beat the Brits in due course at their own game, Brodeur retained suspicion, if not actual antipathy. He admired the RN as a service, but he was certainly no Anglophile.”(German, The Sea, p. 61.)Louis de la Chesnaye Audette (this name is quite prestigious in Québec : the Aubert de La Chesnaye were a dynasty made noble in the 17th century by Louis XIV) also had a brilliant career. He was the franco that served on a ship for the longest time. He survived the defeat of the destroyer HMCS Saguenay in 1940, served on the HMCS Francis and the Flower-class corvette HMCS Pictou, then commanded that HMCS Pictou, then commanded the HMCS Amherst, then the frigate HMCS Coaticook and the HMCS St. Catharines. His bravery was acknowledged in 1945.Marc Milner described him that way:“The son of a French Canadian father and a Scottish mother, Audette was fluently bilingual, identified strongly with his ancient Québécois roots, and, although an anglophile, was the least enamoured of the stuffy and pompous manners of the Royal Navy.” (Marc Milner, Canada’s Navy, p. 193.)It’s amusing to note that Gabriel Taschereau liked his superior Saint-Pierre in the Air Force for a similar reason : there was nothing pompous with him, so we might assume that in general francos had no appreciation for the splendor and hierarchy in the British military culture and preferred more a egalitarian and pragmatic approach to the military.Other interesting figures were the lieutenant-commander Maurice Lévesque and the commander J.-W.-R. Roy. In the Navy that remained on the ground, there was J.-O. Cossette, the lieutenant-commander Renaud Saint-Laurent (son of the future prime minister of Canada, Louis Saint-Laurent), the lieutenant-commander Eugène Noël and Léon J. M. Gauvreau. There are also some doctors of note : lieutenant-commander Gaétan Jarry and lieutenant-commander Joseph-Jean-Louis Bouchard.Sources : Jean-François Drapeau. « Chapitre IX : Le leadership canadien français dans la marine au Canada, 1910–1971 », dans Roch Legault (dir.). Le leadership militaire canadien français - Continuité, efficacité et loyauté.Jocelyn Couture. « Stanislas Déry, l’autre côté de la médaille », Le Soleil, 1er janvier 2015.EpilogueIt would only be in the 1970’s that the Canadian army as a whole would be bilingualized. The Jacques Dextraze we mentioned earlier played a role in that process.

Should China abolish the death penalty? Why or why not?

Yes the fuck they SHOULD!! Why? Because there’s a huge problem with the death penalty in China! They don’t publish the numbers or reasons or ANYTHING!! Which means that ANYBODY could be sentenced to death for any reason they deem appropriate!! That’s just crazy to me! They can kill political adversaries or political activists and people who protest or disagree with the government on any level, and they ain’t got to tell nobody shit!! Anybody says they are for that shit on any level better get the fuck off that “christian train.” And re-think your position!! To give a government that kind of power. The power to “disappear” people? You gotta be some kind of informant or government controlled rat to think that such a thing would be alright for these militaristic, theocratic thugs. To think that they are using that power equitably or responsibly is fantasy. The problem with the death penalty is that it has a serious flaw which I’ll just call HUMAN ERROR!! Humans are flawed and fallible and in our society our flawed fallible and subjective memories are often used to have people placed on death row. If indeed there were DNA evidence in every case and in every case we could be CERTAIN that a person were 100% guilty, I might not have much of an objection to people like the student eater guy being killed by the state. Having said that, such is NOT the case in over 60% of cases. In 60% of cases there IS NO DNA!! That’s the problem with our system. Aside and apart from the fact that black and brown men who have had mostly less than adequate representation comprise a disproportionate number of cases. And let’s not even talk about corruption. Check this link out. A republican governor who did away with the death penalty and commuted everyone’s sentence to life because of the unbelievable depths of the corruption of their homicide detectives.George RyanFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchFor other people named George Ryan, see George Ryan (disambiguation).This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "George Ryan" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR(February 2021)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)George Ryan39th Governor of IllinoisIn officeJanuary 11, 1999 – January 13, 2003LieutenantCorinne WoodPreceded byJim EdgarSucceeded byRod Blagojevich36th Secretary of State of IllinoisIn officeJanuary 14, 1991 – January 11, 1999GovernorJim EdgarPreceded byJim EdgarSucceeded byJesse White42nd Lieutenant Governor of IllinoisIn officeJanuary 10, 1983 – January 14, 1991GovernorJames R. ThompsonPreceded byDave O'NealSucceeded byBob Kustra65th Speaker of the Illinois House of RepresentativesIn officeJanuary 14, 1981 – January 10, 1983GovernorJames R. ThompsonPreceded byWilliam A. RedmondSucceeded byArthur A. TelcserPersonal detailsBornGeorge Homer RyanFebruary 24, 1934 (age 86)Maquoketa, Iowa, U.S.Political partyRepublicanSpouse(s)Lura Lynn Lowe​​(m.1956; died 2011)​Children6EducationFerris State CollegeProfessionPharmarcistbusinessmanMilitary serviceAllegianceUnited StatesBranch/serviceUnited States ArmyYears of service1954–1956[1][2][3][4]George Homer Ryan (born February 24, 1934) is an American former politician who was the Republican 39th Governor of Illinois from 1999 until 2003. Ryan received national attention for his 1999 moratorium on executions in Illinois and for commuting more than 160 death sentences to life sentences in 2003. He was later convicted of federal corruption charges and spent more than five years in federal prison and seven months of home confinement. He was released from federal prison on July 3, 2013.Contents1Early life2Political career3Term as governor3.1Capital punishment4Scandals, trial, and conviction4.1Indictment4.2Defense and appeal4.3Sentencing5Electoral history6References7External linksEarly life[edit]George Homer Ryan was born in Maquoketa, Iowa to Jeannette (née Bowman) and Thomas Ryan, a pharmacist.[5][6] Ryan grew up in Kankakee County, Illinois. After serving in the U.S. Army in Korea, he worked for his father's two drugstores.[7] He attended Ferris State College of Pharmacy (now Ferris State University) in Big Rapids, Michigan. Eventually, he built his father's pair of pharmacies into a successful family-run chain (profiting from lucrative government-contract business selling prescription drugs to nursing homes) which he sold in 1990.[7][8] Ryan was drafted into the U.S. Army in 1954. He served a 13-month tour in Korea, working in a base pharmacy.[9]On June 10, 1956, Ryan married his high school sweetheart, Lura Lynn Lowe (July 5, 1934 – June 27, 2011), whom he had met in a high school English class. She grew up in Aroma Park, where her family (originally from Germany) had lived since 1834. Her father owned one of the first hybrid seed companies in the United States.[10] The couple had five daughters (including a set of triplets);[8] Julie, Joanne, Jeanette, Lynda and Nancy;[11][12] and one son, George Homer Ryan, Jr.[13][14][15][16]Lura Lowe died of lung cancer at Riverside Hospital in Kankakee on June 27, 2011. Ryan's brother, Tom, was a prominent political figure in Kankakee County.[7] In addition, Ryan's sister Kathleen Dean's former son-in-law, Bruce Clark, is the Kankakee County, Illinois Clerk.[17]Political career[edit]Ryan began his political career by serving on the Kankakee County Board from 1968 to 1973 (his brother Tom J. Ryan was Mayor of Kankakee for 20 years from 1965 to 1985). He was then elected to the Illinois House of Representatives, where he served from 1973 to 1983, including two terms as Minority Leader and one term as Speaker. He then spent 20 years in statewide office, as Lieutenant Governor under Governor James R. Thompson (1983–91), Secretary of State from 1991 to 1999, and as governor from 1999 to 2003. During his first term as Secretary of State, then–State Treasurer Pat Quinn was publicly critical of Ryan. Specifically, he drew attention to special vanity license plates that Ryan's office provided for clout-heavy motorists. This rivalry led Quinn in a failed bid to challenge Ryan in the 1994 general election for Secretary of State.[18][19]Term as governor[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "George Ryan" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR(February 2021)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)Ryan was elected Governor in 1998, defeating his opponent, Glenn Poshard, by a 51–47% margin. Ryan's running mate was first-term state representative Corinne Wood. Ryan outspent Poshard by a 4-to-1 margin. Poshard, a firm believer in campaign finance reform, placed limits on individual donations and refused to accept donations from corporate or special interests.One of Ryan's pet projects as governor was an extensive repair of the Illinois Highway System called "Illinois FIRST". FIRST was an acronym for "Fund for Infrastructure, Roads, Schools, and Transit". Signed into law in May 1999, the law created a $6.3 billion package for use in school and transportation projects. With various matching funds programs, Illinois FIRST provided $2.2 billion for schools, $4.1 billion for public transportation, another $4.1 billion for roads, and $1.6 billion for other projects. He also improved Illinois's technology infrastructure, creating one of the first cabinet-level Offices of Technology in the country and bringing up Illinois's technology ranking in a national magazine from 48th out of the 50 states when he took office to 1st just two years later. Ryan committed record funding to education, including 51% of all new state revenues during his time in office, in addition to the billions spent through Illinois FIRST that built and improved schools and education infrastructure. In 1999, Ryan sparked controversy by becoming the first sitting U.S. Governor to meet with Cuban President Fidel Castro. Ryan's visit led to a $1 million donation of humanitarian aid, but drew criticism from anti-Castro groups.[20] In 2000, Ryan served as a chair of the Midwestern Governors Association.Capital punishment[edit]Ryan helped to renew the national debate on capital punishment when, as governor, he declared a moratorium on his state's death penalty in 2000.[21]This decision was heavily influenced by lawsuits filed by exonerated prisoners who made false confessions as a result of police torture under the direction of a police commander named Jon Burge.[22] "We have now freed more people than we have put to death under our system," he said. "There is a flaw in the system, without question, and it needs to be studied."[23] At the time, Illinois had executed 12 people since the reinstatement of the death penalty in 1977, with one execution, that of Ripper Crew member Andrew Kokoraleis, occurring early during Ryan's term. Ryan refused to meet with religious leaders and others regarding "a stay of execution" in light of the impending 'moratorium' and other facts relative to the 'flawed' capital punishment system in Illinois; in fact, under Ryan's governorship, 13 people were released from jail after appealing their convictions based on new evidence. Ryan called for a commission to study the issue, while noting, "I still believe the death penalty is a proper response to heinous crimes ... But I believe that it has to be where we don't put innocent people to death."[24]The issue had garnered the attention of the public when a death row inmate, Anthony Porter, who had spent 15 years on death row, was within two days of being executed when his lawyers won a stay on the grounds that he may have been mentally disabled. He was ultimately exonerated with the help of a group of student journalists at Northwestern University who had uncovered evidence that was used to prove his innocence. In 1999, Porter was released, charges were subsequently dropped, and another person, Alstory Simon, confessed and pleaded guilty to the crime of which Porter had been erroneously convicted. Simon himself was later released after serving fifteen years for the crime, after it was proven that he, too, was wrongfully accused.[25]On January 11, 2003, just two days before leaving office, Ryan commuted (to "life" terms) the sentences of everyone on or waiting to be sent to Illinois' death row — a total of 167 convicts — due to his belief that the death penalty could not be administered fairly. He also pardoned four inmates, Aaron Patterson, Madison Hobley and Leroy Orange (all of whom were interrogated by Burge and released), and Stanley Howard. However, Patterson is currently serving 30 years in prison after being arrested for drug trafficking he committed after his release from death row. Howard remains in prison for armed robbery.[26] Ryan declared in his pardon speech that he would have freed Howard if only his attorney had filed a clemency petition; Ryan then strongly urged investigators to examine Howard's alleged robbery case, because it appeared to be as tainted as his murder conviction.[27]These were four of ten death row inmates known as the "Death Row 10," due to widely reported claims that the confessions that they had given in their respective cases had been coerced through torture. Ryan is not the first state governor to have granted blanket commutations to death row inmates during his final days in office. Arkansas Governor Winthrop Rockefeller also commuted the sentence of every death row inmate in that state as he left office after losing his 1970 bid for a third two-year term, as did New Mexico Governor Toney Anaya before he left office in 1986 and Ohio Governor Dick Celeste before he left office in 1990.[citation needed]Ryan won praise from death penalty opponents: as early as 2001, he received the Mario Cuomo Act of Courage Award from Death Penalty Focus, in 2003 the Rose Elizabeth Bird Commitment to Justice Award from the same organization, and in 2005 he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. On the other side of the Atlantic, Robert Badinter, who had successfully introduced the bill abolishing the death penalty in France in 1981 praised Ryan's decision.[28] Many conservatives, though, were opposed to the commutations, some questioning his motives, which came as a federal corruption investigation closed in on the governor and his closest political allies (see below). Conservative columnist Pat Buchanan called Ryan "pathetic", and suggested the governor was attempting to save his public image in hopes of avoiding prison himself. Buchanan noted "Ryan announced his decision to a wildly cheering crowd at the Northwestern University Law School. Families of the victims of the soon-to-be-reprieved killers were not invited."[29]Scandals, trial, and conviction[edit]Ryan's political career was marred by a scandal called "Operation Safe Road", which involved the illegal sale of government licenses, contracts and leases by state employees during his prior service as Secretary of State. In the wake of numerous convictions of his former aides, he chose not to run for reelection in 2002. Seventy-nine former state officials, lobbyists, and others were charged in the investigation, and at least 76 were convicted.[citation needed]The corruption scandal leading to Ryan's downfall began more than a decade earlier during a federal investigation into a deadly crash in Wisconsin. Six children from the Willis family of Chicago, Illinois, were killed; their parents, Rev. Duane and Janet Willis, were severely burned.[30] The investigation revealed a scheme inside Ryan's Secretary of State's office in which unqualified truck drivers obtained licenses through bribes.In March 2003, Scott Fawell, Ryan's former chief of staff and campaign manager, was convicted on federal charges of racketeering and fraud. He was sentenced to six years and six months.[31] Former deputy campaign manager Richard Juliano pleaded guilty to related charges and testified against Fawell at trial. Roger Stanley, a former Republican state representative who was hired by Ryan and testified against Fawell, pleaded guilty to wide-ranging corruption, admitting he paid kickbacks to win state contracts and campaign business, secretly mailed out vicious false attacks on political opponents and helped obtain ghost-payrolling jobs.[32]Indictment[edit]The investigation finally reached the former governor, and in December 2003, Ryan and lobbyist Lawrence Warner were named in a 22-count federal indictment. The charges included racketeering, bribery, extortion, money laundering and tax fraud. The indictment alleged that Ryan steered several state contracts to Warner and other friends; disbursed campaign funds to relatives and to pay personal expenses; and obstructed justice by attempting to end the state investigation of the license-for-bribes scandal. He was charged with lying to investigators and accepting cash, gifts and loans in return for his official actions as governor. On September 19, 2005, the case went to trial.[33]Fawell, under pressure from prosecutors, became a key witness against Ryan and Warner. He agreed to a plea deal that cut the prison time for himself and his fiancée, Andrea Coutretsis. Fawell was a controversial witness, not hiding his disdain for prosecutors from the witness stand. According to CBS Chicago political editor Mike Flannery, insiders claimed that Fawell had been "much like a son" to Ryan throughout their careers. At Ryan's trial, Fawell acknowledged that the prosecution had his "head in a vise", and that he found his cooperation with the government against Ryan "the most distasteful thing I've ever done".[31] Nonetheless, he spent several days on the witness stand testifying against Ryan and Warner. Once a tough-talking political strategist, Fawell wept on the witness stand as he acknowledged that his motivation for testifying was to spare Coutretsis a long prison sentence for her role in the conspiracy. The jury was twice sent out of the courtroom so that he could wipe tears from his eyes and regain his composure.Ryan's daughters and a son-in-law, Michael Fairman, were implicated by testimony during the trial. Stipulations agreed upon by the defense and prosecution and submitted to the court included admissions that all five of Ryan's daughters received illegal payments from the Ryan campaign. In addition to Lynda Fairman, who received funds beyond those her husband Michael testified he had received, the stipulations included admissions from the rest of Ryan's daughters that they did little or no work in return for the payments.[34][35] In addition, Fawell testified that Ryan's mother's housekeeper was illegally paid from campaign funds, and that Ryan's adopted sister, Nancy Ferguson, received campaign funds without performing campaign work.[11][34] The prosecution took nearly four months to present their case, as a parade of other witnesses (including Juliano) followed Fawell.On April 17, 2006, the jury found Ryan and Warner guilty on all counts.[36] However, when ruling on post-trial motions, the judge dismissed two counts against Ryan for lack of proof.[37] Ryan said that he would appeal the verdict, largely due to the issues with the jury.Patrick Fitzgerald, the federal prosecutor, noted, "Mr. Ryan steered contracts worth millions of dollars to friends and took payments and vacations in return. When he was a sitting governor, he lied to the FBI about this conduct and then he went out and did it again." He charged that one of the most egregious aspects of the corruption was Ryan's action after learning that bribes were being paid for licenses. Instead of ending the practice he tried to end the investigation that had uncovered it, Fitzgerald said, calling the moment "a low-water mark for public service".[38]On September 6, 2006, Ryan was sentenced to six and a half years in prison.[39] He was ordered to go to prison on January 4, 2007, but the appellate court granted an appeal bond, allowing him to remain free pending the outcome of the appeal.[40] His conviction was affirmed by the Court of Appeals of the Seventh Circuit on August 21, 2007,[41] and review by the entire Seventh Circuit was denied on October 25, 2007.[42] The Seventh Circuit then rejected Ryan's bid to remain free while he asked the U.S. Supreme Court to hear his case; the opinion called the evidence of Ryan's guilt "overwhelming".[43] The Supreme Court rejected an extension of his bail, and Ryan reported to the Federal Prison Camp in Oxford, Wisconsin, on November 7, 2007.[44][45] He was transferred on February 29, 2008, to a medium security facility in Terre Haute, Indiana, after Oxford changed its level of medical care and stopped housing inmates over 70 years old.[46] He was listed as Federal Inmate Number 16627-424 and was released on July 3, 2013.[47]Defense and appeal[edit]Ryan's defense was provided pro bono by Winston & Strawn, a law firm managed by former governor Jim Thompson. The defense cost the firm $10 million through mid-November 2005.[48] Estimates of the cost to the firm as of September 2006 ranged as high as $20 million. Ryan served as Thompson's lieutenant governor from 1983 to 1991. After the United States Supreme Court declined to hear Ryan's appeal, Thompson indicated that he would ask then President George W. Bush to commute Ryan's sentence to time served.[49] United States Senator Dick Durbin wrote a letter to Bush dated December 1, 2008, asking him to commute Ryan's sentence, citing Ryan's age and his wife's frail health, saying, "This action would not pardon him of his crimes or remove the record of his conviction, but it would allow him to return to his wife and family for their remaining years."[50] Bush did not commute Ryan's sentence.After his conviction Ryan's annual $197,037 state pension was suspended under state law. Ryan's attorneys litigated the pension matter all the way to the Illinois Supreme Court, which ruled on February 19, 2010, that state law "plainly mandates that none of the benefits provided for under the system shall be paid to Ryan".[51] Ryan was paid $635,000 in pension benefits during the three years between his retirement and his political corruption conviction, plus a refund of the $235,500 in personal contributions he made during his 30 years in public office.[52][53]Sentencing[edit]In 2010, Ryan requested early release, partly because his wife had terminal cancer and was given only six months to live, and partly on the grounds that some of his convictions should be vacated in light of a Supreme Court ruling that was alleged to have affected their legitimacy. On December 21, 2010, U.S. District Court Judge Rebecca Pallmeyer denied Ryan's request.[citation needed]On January 5, 2011, Ryan was taken from his prison cell in Terre Haute, Indiana, to a hospital in Kankakee to visit his dying wife. He was present when she died five months after that visit.[4][54] Ryan entered a Salvation Army halfway house in Chicago on January 30, 2013. Less than three hours later, he was released back to his home in Kankakee where he remained on home confinement until July 3, 2013.[55]Electoral history[edit]1998 – Illinois Governor[56]George Ryan (R) 51%Glenn Poshard (D) 47.5%Lawrence Redmond (Reform) 1.5%1994 – Illinois Secretary of State[57]George Ryan (R) 61.5%Patrick Quinn (D) 38.5%1990 – Illinois Secretary of State[58]George Ryan (R) 53.5%Jerome Cosentino (D) 46.5%References[edit]^ "George Ryan". Biography in Context (fee, Fairfax County Public Library). Detroit, MI: Gale. 1999. Gale Document Number: GALE|K1650000189. Retrieved June 27, 2011. Gale Biography in Context.^ "George Homer Ryan". The Complete Marquis Who's Who (fee, Fairfax County Public Library). Marquis Who's Who. 2010. Gale Document Number: GALE|K2013022832. Retrieved June 27, 2011. Gale Biography in Context^ Roberts, Roxanne; Argetsinger, Amy (June 29, 2011). "The Reliable Source: From the mansion to the Big House". Washington Post. p. C2. Retrieved June 29, 2011. Ryan was recently released temporarily to be with his terminally ill wife, who died of lung cancer Monday^ Jump up to:a b Schlikerman, Becky; Annie Sweeney; Rick Pearson; Ray Long (June 28, 2011). "George Ryan, released from prison, at wife's side when she died". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 29, 2011.^ Library, CNN. "George Ryan Fast Facts".^ Merriner, James L. (September 8, 2008). The Man Who Emptied Death Row: Governor George Ryan and the Politics of Crime. SIU Press. ISBN 9780809328659 – via Google Books.^ Jump up to:a b c Arden, Patrick (January 16, 2003). "The redemption of Gov. Ryan". Salon magazine online. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2011.^ Jump up to:a b "The Nobel Peace Prize For Governor George H. Ryan of Illinois". Stop Capital Punishment Now!. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2011.^ Goudie, Chuck (November 12, 2007). "On Veterans Day, George Ryan again is taking orders". Daily Herald. Arlington Heights, IL: Paddock Publications, Inc. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved June 29, 2011.^ "Lura Lynn Lowe Ryan". | Where Life Stories Live On.^ Jump up to:a b "Fawell: Ryan's family, friends got cash". Chicago Sun-Times. October 7, 2005. Retrieved September 6, 2006.^ "Family Members on Payroll". Chicago Tribune. January 19, 2006. Archived from the original on November 15, 2007. Retrieved September 6, 2006.^ Warren, Ellen (September 29, 2005). "Cast of characters stars in drama made in Illinois". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 6, 2006.^ "Ryan Guilty". Chicago Sun-Times. April 17, 2006. Retrieved September 6, 2006.^ "Michael Sneed's lunch with George Ryan". Chicago Sun-Times. April 18, 2006. Retrieved September 6, 2006.^ Korecki, Natasha; McKinney, Dave; Janssen, Kim (June 29, 2011). "Lura Lynn dies with husband, ex-Gov. George Ryan, at her side". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved June 29,2011.^ "Lobbyist's Ex-Girlfriend Tells of Ryan Junkets". Chicago Sun-Times. January 10, 2006. Retrieved September 6, 2006.^ Hawthorne, Michael (December 10, 2008). "Pat Quinn waiting in the wings". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 30, 2009.^ "Biographical information on Quinn". WTOP. Associated Press. January 29, 2009. Retrieved January 30, 2009.[permanent dead link]^ "US governor on Cuba mission". BBC News. October 24, 1999.^ Johnson, Dirk (May 21, 2000). "No Executions in Illinois Until System Is Repaired". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2009.^ Sobol, Rosemary; Gorner, Jeremy; Heinzmann, David (19 September 2018). "Disgraced ex-Chicago police Cmdr. Jon Burge, accused of presiding over decades of brutality and torture, has died". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 11 January 2019.^ "A Chilling Look at the Death Penalty". Washington Post. July 26, 2004.^ "Campaign 2000: Insurgents Bradley, McCain Target Independents as N.H. Primary Approaches; Bush Expressing High Hopes; Gore Emphasizing High Road". Inside Politics. CNN. January 31, 2000.^ "Alstory Simon, freed from prison after wrongful conviction, spends his time in Greater Cleveland working to free others". Cleveland OH Local News, Breaking News, Sports & Weather. Retrieved January 11, 2019.^ Warden, Rob. "Stanley Howard – The Supreme Court found the evidence "overwhelming", but Governor Ryan found otherwise". Chicago, IL: Northwestern School of Law Bluhm Legal Clinic, Center on Wrongful Convictions. Retrieved June 27, 2011.^ "Free Stanley Howard". Archived from the original on July 11, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2011.^ "La conscience du gouverneur Ryan", Le Nouvel Observateur, January 16, 2003, p. 39.^ Buchanan, Pat (January 25, 2003). "Moral Corruption in Illinois". The American Cause. Retrieved June 27, 2011.^ Former Illinois Gov. George Ryan Heading to Prison NPR, November 6, 2007.^ Jump up to:a b 'Most distasteful thing I've ever done' nears for Fawell, Chicago Tribune, September 28, 2005.^ http://www.chicagotribune Archived July 19, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, May 9, 2003, Stanley guilty in kickback, payroll scam Former legislator admits mail fraud, money laundering by Matt O'Connor and Ray Gibson, [1]^ Reports, From Times Wire (September 19, 2005). "Corruption Trial of Ex-Governor to Begin". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved May 9, 2016.^ Jump up to:a b Election Funds Went to Relatives Chicago Tribune, October 7, 2005, accessed September 6, 2006.^ Korecki, Natasha (January 19, 2006). "Ryan daughter tells of no-work job". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved September 6,2006.^ Guilty on all charges.[dead link] Chicago Sun-Times, April 18, 2006.^ "Ryan judge explains why she dismissed 2 charges". Chicago Tribune. September 8, 2006. Archived from the original on November 15, 2007.^ Ex-Governor of Illinois Is Convicted on All Charges New York Times, April 17, 2006, accessed September 6, 2006.^ Ryan gets 6½ years in prison Chicago Sun-Times, September 6, 2006, accessed same date.^ Federal appeals court says Ryan can stay free on bail Archived November 30, 2006, at the Wayback Machine Chicago Sun-Times, November 29, 2006, accessed same date.^ "Ex-Gov. Ryan's guilty verdict stands despite jury controversy". Chicago Tribune. August 21, 2007. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved August 21,2007.^ Higgins, Michael; Coen, Jeff (October 25, 2007). "Ryan loses appeal". Chicago Tribune.^ Higgins, Michael (November 1, 2007). "Ryan down to last appeal". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007.^ "U.S. Supreme Court turns down Ryan request to remain free". Chicago Tribune. November 6, 2007.^ Conlon, Michael (November 7, 2007). "Former Illinois Governor Ryan enters prison". Reuters.^ Jason Meisner, Ex-Gov. Ryan switches prisons, Chicago Tribune, February 29, 2008.^ "Inmate locator: George Ryan". Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved June 27, 2011.^ A Christmas card defense Archived November 15, 2007, at the Wayback MachineChicago Tribune, February 3, 2006, accessed June 24, 2018.^ Ex-Gov. to Bush: Let Ryan go Archived May 31, 2008, at the Wayback MachineChicago Sun-Times, May 28, 2008.^ Durbin, Richard J. (December 1, 2008). "Durbin Releases Letter on Commutation for Governor Ryan". Retrieved December 23, 2008.^ Anonymous. "Ryan-must forfeit State Pension". USA TODAY: Latest World and US News - Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2012.^ "State Supreme Court denies pension for George Ryan – Chicago Breaking News". February 19, 2010. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2012.^ "Illinois Supreme Court Opinion". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved February 12, 2012.^ Schlikerman, Becky; Sweeney, Annie; Pearson, Rick; Long, Ray (June 28, 2011). "George Ryan, released from prison, at wife's side when she died". Chicago Tribune.^ Leventis, Angie; Sweeney, Annie (January 30, 2013). "George Ryan home after spending just hours at halfway house". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 30, 2013.^ "Ballots Cast". November 3, 1998. Archived from the originalon March 4, 2016. Retrieved April 4, 2015.^ "1994 Secretary of State General Election Results – Illinois". Retrieved April 4, 2015.^ "1990 Secretary of State General Election Results – Illinois". Retrieved April 4, 2015.NBC NewsExternal links[edit] "'Blanket commutation' empties Illinois death row", January 11, 2003.Biography from site supporting his nomination for a Nobel Peace PrizeChicago Sun-Times archive on The George Ryan TriangleAnd if that’s not enough for you I have statistics from the Innocence Project for you that have (through new ways of testing evidence…DNA evidence and otherwise) worked to have over 200 people freed from death row.DNA Exonerations in the United StatesFast facts:1989: The first DNA exoneration took place375 DNA exonerees to date37: States where exonerations have been won14: Average number of years served5,284: Total number of years served26.6: Average age at the time of wrongful conviction43: Average age at exoneration21 of 375 people served time on death row44 of 375 pled guilty to crimes they did not commit69%: Involved eyewitness misidentification and of these:34% of these misidentification cases involved an in-person lineup52% involved a misidentification from a photo array7% involved a misidentification from a mugshot book16% involved a misidentification from a show-up procedure5% involved a misidentification from a one-on-one photo procedure27% involved a misidentification through the use of a composite sketch11% involved a voice misidentification2% involved a misidentification through hypnosis54% involved an in-court misidentification29% involved a misidentification through some other procedure (e.g., mistakenly “recognizing” someone on the street and reporting them to law enforcement)77% of the misidentification cases involved multiple procedures84% of the misidentification cases involved a misidentification by a surviving victim42% involved a cross-racial misidentification32% involved multiple misidentifications of the same person by different witnesses18% involved a failure to identify the exoneree in at least one procedure43%: Involved misapplication of forensic science29%: Involved false confessions49% of the false confessors were 21 years old or younger at the time of arrest31% of the false confessors were 18 years old or younger at the time of arrest9% of the false confessors had mental health or mental capacity issues, known at trial17%: Involved informants268: DNA exonerees compensated190: DNA exonerations worked on by the Innocence Project165: Actual assailants identified. Those actual perpetrators went on to be convicted of 154 additional violent crimes, including 83 sexual assaults, 36 murders, and 35 other violent crimes while the innocent sat behind bars for their earlier offenses.Demographics of the 375:225 (60%) African American117 (31%) Caucasian29 (8%) Latinx2 (1%) Asian American1 (<1%) Native American1 (<1%) Self-identified “Other”Other facts:130 DNA exonerees were wrongfully convicted for murders; 40 (31%) of these cases involved eyewitness misidentifications and 81 (62%) involved false confessions [as of July 9, 2018]102 DNA exonerations involved false confessions; the real perp was identified in 76 (75%) of these cases. These 38 real perps went on to commit 48 additional crimes for which they were convicted, including 25 murders, 14 rapes, and 9 other violent crimes [as of July 24, 2018]180 of the DNA exonerees (50%) had the real perpetrator(s) identified in their cases [as of August 22, 2018]137 of the DNA exonerees had the real perpetrator(s) identified through a cold database hit [as of October 19, 2018]At least 43 (52%) of the 83 DNA exonerees who falsely confessed included non-public facts in their confessions [as of July 29, 2020]23 (22%) of the 104 people whose cases involved false confessions had exculpatory DNA evidence available at the time of trial but were still wrongfully convicted [as of July 29, 2020]83 (61%) of the 137 DNA exonerees who were wrongfully convicted for murder had false confessions involved in their cases (33 confessed themselves, 20 had co-defendants who confessed, and another 30 confessed themselves and had co-defendants who confessed) [as of July 29, 2020]How DNA makes a difference in the criminal justice systemSince 1989, there have been tens of thousands of cases where prime suspects were identified and pursued—until DNA testing (prior to conviction) proved that they were wrongly accused.In more than 25% of cases in a National Institute of Justice study, suspects were excluded once DNA testing was conducted during the criminal investigation (the study, conducted in 1995, included 10,060 cases where testing was performed by FBI labs).An Innocence Project review of our closed cases from 2004 – June 2015 revealed that 29% of cases were closed because of lost or destroyed evidence.ContactAboutDonateWays to GiveCareersFinancialsPrivacy PolicyLegalThe Innocence Project is affiliated with Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, Yeshiva University.You really think that they’re doing things any differently in New York than they were in Chicago? Only if you’re so privileged you cannot see the forest for the trees.Lastly, I would add that the death penalty is akin to “gang-banging” on a societal level. This is not what we should teach our children. Correct me if I’m wrong but teaching our children that it’s okay to kill killers…to show that killing is wrong…is like the most asinine, backwards shit you could ever do. Come on man. Bottom line is we can’t be for killing based on the flawed, subjective views of 12 people who you can be sure will not be my “peers,” and who are prone to making these horrible mistakes REGULARLY!! If you’re FOR such a flawed system it not only shows how privileged you are, it shows what raw killers we can all become. Crazy!

Which universities are listed in WES? How can I check that list?

This is a select list of institutions that receive WES evaluation reports. It should not be construed as an endorsement by any organization.A.T. Still University (ATSU)AACOMASAACPMASAcademy of Art UniversityACOTRO-Assoc of Can. Occupational Therapy Reg OrgsAcsenda School of ManagementAdams State UniversityADEA-AADSASADEA-CAAPIDADEA-DHCASADEA-PASSAdelphi UniversityAdler UniversityAdler University (IL)Adventist University of Health SciencesAHCASAIB College of BusinessAims Community CollegeAlabama A & M UniversityAlbany College of Pharmacy and Health SciencesAlbany State UniversityAlbert Einstein College of MedicineAlberta College of Occupational TherapistsAlberta College of Speech-Language PathologisAlberta Health and WellnessAlberta Institute of AgrologistsAlberta Real Estate AssociationAlcorn State UniversityAlexander CollegeAlgoma UniversityAlgonquin College of Applied Arts and TechnologyAmerican Board For Certification of Teacher ExcellAmerican Board of Medical MicrobiologyAmerican College of EducationAmerican College of Traditional Chinese MedicineAmerican InterContinental University (AIU Online)American Public University SystemAmerican Sentinel UniversityAmerican Training School for Medical ProfessionalsAmerican UniversityAmerican University of AntiguaAnabaptist Mennonite Biblical SeminaryAncilla CollegeAnderson University (SC)Andrews UniversityAnne Arundel Community CollegeAnoka-Ramsey Community CollegeAntioch University (CA)AOMA Graduate School of Integrative MedicineAPPA CASAppalachian State UniversityArab Community Centre of Toronto (ACCT)Arcadia UniversityArchCASArizona CollegeArizona School of Acupuncture & Oriental MedicineArizona State UniversityArkansas State UniversityArkansas Tech UniversityArt Academy of CincinnatiArt Institute of AtlantaArt Institute of California - HollywoodArt Institute of California - Los AngelesArt Institute of California - Orange CountyArt Institute of California - San FranciscoArt Institute of Fort LauderdaleArt Institute of HoustonArt Institute of IndianapolisArt Institute of JacksonvilleArt Institute of Las VegasArt Institute of MichiganArt Institute of MinnesotaArt Institute of PhiladelphiaArt Institute of PhoenixArt Institute of Pittsburgh - Online DivisionArt Institute of PortlandArt Institute of SeattleArt Institute of TucsonArt Institute of VancouverArt Institute of Virginia BeachArt Institute of WashingtonArt Institute of Washington - Northern VirginiaAsbury Theological SeminaryAsbury UniversityAshford University (CA)Asnuntuck Community CollegeAspen UniversityAsso of Professional Eng and Geos of Alberta APEGAAsso of Professional Eng and Geos of Saskat APEGSAssociation of Cert. Forensic Investigators of CanAssociation of Professional Geoscientists OntarioAssociation of Registered Nurses of PEI (ARNPEI)ATCASAthabasca UniversityAthens Technical CollegeAtlanta Technical CollegeAtlantic Cape Community CollegeAuburn UniversityAugsburg UniversityAugusta UniversityAurora UniversityAustin Peay State UniversityAverett UniversityAvila UniversityBabson CollegeBaker CollegeBakersfield CollegeBaldwin Wallace UniversityBall State UniversityBarnes-Jewish CollegeBarry UniversityBarton CollegeBastyr UniversityBaylor College of MedicineBaylor UniversityBecker CollegeBelhaven UniversityBellarmine UniversityBellevue UniversityBelmont Abbey CollegeBelmont UniversityBemidji State UniversityBenedict CollegeBenedictine CollegeBenedictine UniversityBennett CollegeBergen Community CollegeBerklee College of MusicBerkshire Community CollegeBerry CollegeBethany College (KS)Bethany College (WV)Bethel College (IN)Bethel College (KS)Bethel University (MN)Bethune-Cookman UniversityBioMedCASBismarck State CollegeBlack Hawk CollegeBlack Hills State UniversityBloomfield CollegeBlue Mountain CollegeBlue Ridge Community College (NC)Bob Jones UniversityBoise State UniversityBossier Parish Community CollegeBoston Architectural CollegeBoston CollegeBoston UniversityBoston University CASBow Valley CollegeBowie State UniversityBrampton Flight CentreBrandon UniversityBrenau UniversityBrescia UniversityBrewton-Parker CollegeBridgewater State UniversityBrigham Young UniversityBrightwood CollegeBritton Management Profiles Inc.Brock UniversityBrock University - OUACBrookdale Community CollegeBrooks InstituteBroward CollegeBrown Mackie College - Findlay OHBrown UniversityBryan CollegeBryant UniversityBucks County Community CollegeBusinessCASCabrini UniversityCairn UniversityCaldwell UniversityCalgary Catholic Immigration Society (CCIS)Calhoun Community CollegeCalifornia College of the ArtsCalifornia Institute of Integral StudiesCalifornia Institute of the Arts (CalArts)California Intercontinental UniversityCalifornia International Business UniversityCalifornia Lutheran UniversityCalifornia Miramar UniversityCalifornia Polytechnic State UniversityCalifornia Southern UniversityCalifornia State University - Bakersfield CACalifornia State University - Channel Islands CACalifornia State University - Dominguez Hills CACalifornia State University - Fullerton CACalifornia State University - Long Beach CACalifornia State University - Los Angeles CACalifornia State University - Maritime AcademyCalifornia State University - Monterey BayCalifornia State University - Pomona CACalifornia State University - Sacramento CACalifornia State University - San Marcos CACalifornia State University - Stanislaus CACalifornia University of Management and SciencesCalumet College of St. JosephCalvin CollegeCamden County CollegeCameron UniversityCampbell UniversityCampbellsville UniversityCanada CollegeCanada Immigration Partners / CIP ConsultingCanadian Alliance of Physiotherapy RegulatorsCanadian Career College of Innovative TechnologyCanadian College of Naturopathic MedicineCanadian Counselling and Psychotherapy AssociationCanadian Environmental Certification Approvals Bd.Canadian Institute of Dental Hygiene Inc.Canadian Memorial Chiropractic CollegeCanadian Provincial Nominee and Immigration SeviceCanadian Society for Medical Laboratory ScienceCanadim, Renaud Dery Avocat Inc.Canisius CollegeCape Breton UniversityCape Fear Community CollegeCapella UniversityCardinal Stritch UniversityCarle Illinois College of MedicineCarleton UniversityCarnegie Mellon UniversityCarnegie Mellon University - AustraliaCarson-Newman CollegeCarteret Community CollegeCASAACase Western Reserve UniversityCASPACatawba CollegeCatholic Distance UniversityCatholic University of AmericaCC Internet Immigration Services Inc.CDI CollegeCentennial CollegeCenter for International EducationCentral Christian College of KansasCentral CollegeCentral Connecticut State UniversityCentral Michigan University - Mount Pleasant MICentral Washington UniversityCentral Wyoming CollegeCentre for Education and TrainingCentre for Immigrant and Community Services (CICS)Chamberlain College of NursingChaminade UniversityChamplain CollegeCharles R. Drew University of Medicine & ScienceCharleston Southern UniversityCharter Oak State CollegeChartered Professional Accountants of AlbertaChartered Professional Accountants of OntarioChatham UniversityChicago School of Professional PsychologyChicago State UniversityChipola CollegeChristian Brothers UniversityChristian Theological SeminaryChristie's EducationCIPS - Canada's Association of IT ProfessionalsCity Vision CollegeCivis Immigration ConsultantClaflin UniversityClaremont Graduate UniversityClaremont Lincoln UniversityClark Atlanta UniversityClarkson UniversityClayton State UniversityClemson UniversityCleveland State UniversityCleveland University - Kansas CityCoastal Carolina Community CollegeCoastal Carolina UniversityCoe CollegeCoker CollegeCollege for Creative StudiesCollege of Audiologists & Speech-Language CASLPOCollege of Central FloridaCollege of CharlestonCollege of Coastal GeorgiaCollege of Dietitians of AlbertaCollege of Dietitians of British ColumbiaCollege of Dietitians of OntarioCollege of Early Childhood EducatorsCollege of Licensed Practical Nurses of NSCollege of Midwives of AlbertaCollege of Midwives of British ColumbiaCollege of Midwives of ManitobaCollege of Mount Saint VincentCollege of New RochelleCollege of Nurses of OntarioCollege of Occupational Therapists of OntarioCollege of Optometrists of OntarioCollege of Psychologists of New BrunswickCollege of Registered Nurses of British ColumbiaCollege of Registered Nurses of Nova ScotiaCollege of Registered Psychotherapists of OntarioCollege of Respiratory Therapists of OntarioCollege of Saint RoseCollege of San MateoCollege of Southern IdahoCollege of St. ElizabethCollege of St. ScholasticaCollege of Traditional Chinese Medicine (CTCMPAO)College of Western IdahoCollege of William & MaryColorado Christian UniversityColorado Mesa UniversityColorado State UniversityColorado Technical UniversityColumbia College (SC)Columbia College - Chicago ILColumbia International UniversityColumbia Southern UniversityColumbia UniversityColumbia University Teachers CollegeColumbus City SchoolsColumbus State Community CollegeColumbus State UniversityCommunity College of Baltimore CountyCommunity College of PhiladelphiaCommunity College of the Air Force (CCAF/DESS)Community College of VermontCommunity MicroSkills Development Centre EastCommunity MicroSkills Development Centre WestConcord UniversityConcordia College (NY)Concordia University ChicagoConcordia University IrvineConcordia University NebraskaConcordia University of EdmontonConcordia University PortlandConcordia University TexasConcordia University, St. PaulConestoga College ITALConfederation College of Applied Arts & TechnologyConnexion Canada Aide à la MobilitéConverse CollegeCooper UnionCorban UniversityCornell University - Ithaca NYCornell University - Manhattan NYCornerstone UniversityCOSTICOSTI - CITPTCOSTI Employment Services - VaughanCOSTI Employment Services for ITPTCOSTI-Immigrant ServicesCPA Atlantic School of BusinessCPA Examination Service/CPAES/NASBACPA Western School of Business (CPAWSB)CPHR AlbertaCrandall UniversityCreighton UniversityCreighton University Medical CenterCSDCASCTTAMCumberland UniversityCUNY Baruch CollegeCUNY Brooklyn CollegeCUNY LaGuardia Community CollegeCUNY Lehman CollegeCUNY School of Professional StudiesD'Youville CollegeDakota State UniversityDakota Wesleyan UniversityDalhousie UniversityDallas Baptist UniversityDallas Theological SeminaryDalton State CollegeDavidson County Community CollegeDavis & Elkins CollegeDefense Language Institute (DLIFLC)Delaware County Community CollegeDelaware State UniversityDelgado Community CollegeDelta CollegeDelta State UniversityDenturist Association of ManitobaDenver Public SchoolsDenver SeminaryDepartment of the Navy - 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Graduate AdmissionsGeorge Mason University - Office of the ProvostGeorge Mason University - School of LawGeorge Mason University - School of PolicyGeorge Mason University - Undergraduate AdmissionsGeorge Washington UniversityGeorgetown UniversityGeorgia Gwinnett CollegeGeorgia Institute of TechnologyGeorgia Military CollegeGeorgia Piedmont Technical CollegeGeorgia Southern UniversityGeorgia Southwestern State UniversityGeorgia State UniversityGeorgian CollegeGeorgian Court UniversityGillette CollegeGISAC Global Immigration & Study Abroad ConsultantGlendale Community College (CA)Global Avenues Consulting, Inc.Global TalentGolden Gate UniversityGoldey-Beacom CollegeGolf Academy of AmericaGonzaga UniversityGoshen CollegeGovernment of British ColumbiaGovernment of Manitoba (MPNP)Government of New BrunswickGovernment of Newfoundland and LabradorGovernment of Prince Edward IslandGovernment of SaskatchewanGovernment of the Northwest TerritoriesGovernment of YukonGovernors State UniversityGraceland UniversityGradCASGraduate SchoolGrambling State UniversityGrand Canyon UniversityGrand Erie District School BoardGrand View UniversityGrande Prairie Regional CollegeGrantham UniversityGreensboro CollegeGreenville CollegeGreenville Technical CollegeGuilford CollegeGulf Coast State CollegeGwynedd Mercy UniversityHagerstown Community CollegeHalton Multicultural Council (HMC)HAMPCASHarcum CollegeHarris Institute for the ArtsHarrisburg Area Community College - Harrisburg, PAHarrisburg University of Science and TechnologyHarvard Business SchoolHarvard UniversityHastings CollegeHawaii Pacific UniversityHawkeye Community CollegeHealthfirst, Inc.Heidelberg UniversityHenderson State UniversityHenry Ford CollegeHerzing UniversityHigh Point UniversityHillsborough Community CollegeHinds Community CollegeHiram CollegeHodges UniversityHofstra UniversityHollins UniversityHoly Family UniversityHoly Names UniversityHondros CollegeHood CollegeHope International UniversityHorry-Georgetown Technical CollegeHouston Baptist UniversityHoward Community CollegeHoward UniversityHSC, SUNY Stony BrookHudson County Community CollegeHudson Valley Community CollegeHuman Resources Professionals Association (HRPA)Humber College Institute of Tech & Advanced LearnHusson UniversityICAN IncIdaho State UniversityIGlobal UniversityILAC International CollegeIllinois Central CollegeIllinois College of OptometryIllinois Institute of Art - ChicagoIllinois Institute of Art - SchaumburgIllinois Institute of TechnologyImmigrant Services Association of Nova ScotiaImmigration GroundsImmigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada(IRCC)Independence UniversityIndiana Institute of TechnologyIndiana State UniversityIndiana UniversityIndiana University of PennsylvaniaIndiana University-Purdue University Fort WayneIndiana Wesleyan UniversityInstitute of International EducationInterdenominational Theological CenterInternational College of the Cayman IslandsInternational Institute for Restorative PracticesInternational Institute of St. LouisInternational Technological UniversityIona CollegeIPAP-UNMCItawamba Community CollegeIvy Tech Community College - 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