Day probationary period template


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If you purchase a rental property how much profit would you lose if you let a property management firm manage it?

If you have a really good property management firm (PM) you can actually increase your profit because as they manage the property well, you will have less turn-over, have a better maintained property and reap additional benefits that will reduce your overall expenses in the short- and long-term. The cost of a PM can range from 3% of your monthly rents (generally only for larger multifamily properties) to 10% (a typical rate for a single family residence (SFR). A bad PM can end up costing you a lot more if they aren’t doing their job well. I highly recommend you take your time checking out potential PMs for your properties. Dig deep to find out how they work. Don’t just call the references they give you but research and call the clients they don’t give you. Create a template that you can use to regularly monitor and evaluate their service. If they fail to me your expectations make sure you can cancel out of the contract without a penalty (for example, include a “trial” or “probationary” period clause in the contract that gives you 60–90 days to try them out). I hope that helps.

I want to build an iOS app by hiring a software engineer on upwork. How do I structure the project and contract to maximize my chances of success?

This is a very good question to ask since many people go into hiring freelancers without understanding the intricate details that can make or break your project and/or budget. The advice provided here applies to people who do not have a technical background and also people with a technical background who are new to hiring freelancers and outsourcing development.The first thing you want to do before you hire a freelancer is to see if there are ready made templates or full solutions that can satisfy a majority of your requirements. This will not only save you money but will also get you thinking as to what you really need in your app from a functional user perspective. Templates for iOS can be found on sites like CodeCanyon, an Envato marketplace (I am not affiliated with them). You can also find hybrid templates that work on iOS, Android and other platforms which will require a different set of skills but will allow you to deploy to many more app stores. Templates can be full apps that need customization on the user interface, content and backend development or they can just be themes/mockups/designs for the front-end like CSS/HTML/Javascript or Photoshop/Illustrator design files styling. The great thing about doing this first is you will be better informed and equipped to negotiate a contract and design requirements. Spend at least 16 hours doing this and you will save hundreds of hours in development and design time.Whether you find a full/partial or no design template at all you will still need someone to customize it and integrate it to a backend if you intend to do any kind of networking and server based database work. The assumption you made is that you only need one software engineer. This will be the first thing you want to avoid. Do not hire just one software engineer that says they can do everything. You will eventually need to hire someone else when they are asked to do something they can't handle within your budget and timeline. It is also better to use the terms front-end, user interface, back-end, integration, developer, programmer, designer, architect than software engineer since software engineer is a vague term and for some people it is a technically incorrect use of the term engineer. So what do you need to do? Since this may be your first iOS app I suggest you work with an agency that has a team of developers and can give you a fixed price on the full project from design, development, testing, deployment and maintenance. This will reduce your costs (not guaranteed) since you can negotiate a better fixed price and also increase (not guaranteed) your chances of the project coming in on time and within budget.Before you create a job post you will want to create a detailed requirements document that can be a simple spreadsheet or text document listing everything you need the app to do from a user perspective. Also create a flowchart to help visualize how your users will flow through the app. The more detail the better. This will serve as your user interface, use case and functional requirements document all in one. There are many online resources that teach you how to do these requirements docs so I won't detail them here. Most well managed projects will have separate documents for each but you will be able to accomplish the same with one or two very well thought out requirements doc. You will not be able to create the technical design unless you have done many of these in the past. This is where the design/template research will come in handy as you will be able to include readymade screenshots of your concept. Without existing readymade designs you will need to at least create wireframe designs which show each and every screen/view your app will have. Everything from login/signup forms, to settings, lists, data entry forms, popups etc... Do not leave any screen/view out. You can draw them by hand or use any drawing/design tool you want. The key is to include everything the user will have to interact with since this will determine how you build the client front-end (what the user sees on their mobile device) and back-end (server and database code that does work). If the team you hire is good they will let you know up-front in their proposal if there are any issues. Spend at least 80 hours on developing your requirements and you will save countless hours in change requests, meetings and overall distress. Get feedback from potential users and modify accordingly until you feel your users are getting what they need. This is very important since they will tell you what they need not what you think they need. The design requirements should be at least half of the effort and be completed before you create a job post.Once you have the design doc(s) with screenshots, user functionality and screen flow requirements you can create the job post. Fill out the form and include a summary description of your app. You don't have to give any details of what the app will be used for just what it will do. Upload your requirements doc(s) and reference them in your summary description. Select that you are only looking for agencies at this time unless you want to hire 3-5 different freelancers and manage them (don't do this). At the end you will be able to ask questions you want answered in your proposal. Some of the questions I like to ask are:Show 1-2 mobile applications (in your case iOS) that are currently in the app store. -Eliminate any proposal that did not provide this.Who will be part of the project team? -Eliminate any proposal that does not include a PM, Business Analyst, Tech Lead-Developer, Mobile iOS Developer, Designer (Optional if you have designs ready made), Back-End Developer, Testers. Some roles can be done by the same person such as PM/BA. Front/Back End developer can sometimes be the same person if the project is not too complicated (judgement call). Developers should not be the testers. You will negotiate with the account manager who will be there if you have any complaints/issues with the quality of work or performance.What is the expected duration (how long from start to finish) of the project?What is the expected effort in hours of the project?What is the guarantee period after delivery of the app?Do you provide app store submission services? -Optional unless you need someone to do the app store deployments with your app store account.Describe your development process and what will be expected of the client.What are some potential issues with the job requirements/description?What technologies will you use for the front and back end? For front end iOS they will say Swift, Ojective-C or Cordova/PhoneGap/Ionic. For full native use swift as that is the language Apple will be solely supporting in the future. Use Cordova for hybrid apps. Objective-C as a last resort. Back-end database and server language can be anything although you will probably want to go with what makes sense for your business/app. You can use something like Parse which provides a full back-end as a platform or build your own on something like Node/MongoDB and host on AWS/Azure/Bluemix or any cloud provider.What online project tracking tool do you use?What online code repository do you use for version management and delivery?Ask anything else you want related to your specific app.Stating your fixed price budget is a bit more involved. If you price it too low you may not get as many quality proposals. Too high and proposals will always be close to your budget without taking into account the true cost. This takes time and experience to get right but here are some numbers based on the costs I have seen to get you started:$1k and below will get you the simplest of apps with little to no back-end integration. Not recommended for full customer facing app. Will be good for proof of concept apps that are not for production use. I will often do these small projects to test out an idea with potential customers. It will have enough functionality to give users something tangible to provide feedback on. This is also a good way to vet a team without risking too much budget.$1k-5k will get you most simple (1-2 database sets without advanced user management) data driven apps (not high end games or large database/back-end integrations) for one native platform or hybrid app.$5k-10k will allow you much greater flexibility in terms of what you can build and allow you to target iOS and Android native apps.$10k-20k will get you most anything data driven.$20k+ I would not put a budget of this size. Best approach is to break down your project into separate jobs with short 3 or less months duration.Leave your job open for at least one week but no more than two weeks. Once you start getting proposals eliminate all proposals that do not meet your criteria for budget, timeline, process, team etc... You will get a sense of the of the right price after getting about 12 proposals. Get rid of the top and lowest bids right off. Ask additional questions based on the answers provided from your initial questions. Narrow down your list to a 3-4 finalists. Schedule a Skype or phone interview for an hour and get to know how they speak, communicate and overall how you get along. If they say yes to everything you ask eliminate them. For people without a technical background I recommend you hire another freelancer with a lot of experience on an hourly basis ($50-80 per hour, 5 star reviews, similar projects to your own) to evaluate the agency during your interview. This freelancer can be your on-demand consultant when you need objective technical advice. After many projects you may have more than one go-to people who you trust.Once you select a proposal it's time to negotiate terms. Send them your NDA doc to sign as part of the agreement. Clearly state how long the vendor will provide fixes for any issues found after delivery of your app. Clearly state that your milestones will be considered delivered once the code has been checked into via your Github or similar code repository. You can have someone review the code if needed at this point before payment. Collect any tax documents/info like an I-9 if needed. I don't think this will ever be used to sue someone but it let's them know you don't want anything shared outside their company for any reason. Price can still be negotiated but typically I don't do that if the price is not an issue and will only save you a couple hundred dollars as it just wastes time and provides a tiny bit of incentive to the vendor to under deliver/perform. You can set bonus (5-10%) contingencies for early or on time delivery of your app. This provides a good positive motivation and return on your investment if your timeline is strict. Break your milestones into 2 week deliverables. Only fund the first two milestones. Do not pay anything upfront although some will ask for an initial fee to get started. Do not release payment until the milestone has been met. Use your requirements doc to break up the work and make each requirement part of one of the milestones. If the requirements is not met then do not move forward. Have them agree to the milestones or have them provide their suggested milestones and hold them to it. Stop working with the agency if they do not deliver the first 2 milestones as required and on time.While working with team make sure they are always available on Skype or on the phone for whatever reason. Use an online project management tool to keep track of requirements and dates. I use Asana to keep things simple and allow the vendor to create and manage tasks as well. There are other tools with more technical functions but those should be used and managed by the vendor and not the client. Your concern is with the requirements and timeline not bug tracking. Meet at least 2 times a week with the PM/BA to go over any issues and review changes to the timeline. Nothing should be a surprise. Keep archives of all chats and emails not done through the Upwork system. End the project if they consistently take more than a day to get back to you. Use the first two weeks as a probationary period if you have never worked with them before. At the end of two weeks decide if you want to keep working with them or let them go. If you have any doubts let them know your concerns within a few hours of experiencing your issue with written proof. Give them time correct the issue or let them go if they do not improve. Make sure you have a good reason though. If you start having issues with more than a couple of teams it may be that you are the problem and not the team.At the end of your project when everything has been delivered as required determine if there are any changes that came up during the project that you need implemented. You can address these changes during the project timeline but keep into account that your initial timeline will be affected. If you start doing more than a few change requests during your project it is best to stop the project and start it over again once you figure out your requirements again. During the guarantee period (should be at least 30-90 days) make sure you report issues immediately and keep track of them using your project management tool. At this point you have already provided all payments so fixes will be dependent on the vendor to abiding by their guarantee.Treat your vendor team members well but if you are having to many unresolved issues early on it is best to cut them loose within a couple of weeks and find another team. There should not be any need to threaten or micro-manage any of your teams if they are professional and listen to your concerns. Let them know when they are doing something well. If you have to cancel a project due to an issue that is not due to the vendor you should provide an appropriate review and let them know as soon as you can when you will end the project. Provide a bonus at the end of the project if they exceed your expectations. You get reviewed as well.There is a lot more not covered but this should provide a good starting point for your endeavors. Feel free to ask any other questions.

How much training time is usually given to special army units for a covert ops?

Para (Special Forces),[2]commonly known as Para SF, is the special operations unit of the Indian Army. It is attached to the Parachute Regiment.The unit's heritage stems from World War II, with the creation of the 50th Parachute Brigade in October 1941. 9 Para SF, raised in 1966 as9th Parachute Commando Battalion, is the oldest among the eight Para SF units of the Indian Army.Contents1 History 1.1 1971 Indo-Pakistan War 1.2 Operation Bluestar 1984 1.3 Sri Lanka 1987 1.4 Operation Cactus 1988, Maldives 1.5 Kashmiri hostage-taking, 4 July 1995 1.6 1999 Kargil War 1.7 Operation Khukri 2000, Sierra Leone 1.8 Operation Summer Storm 2009 1.9 Ongoing Counter-insurgency Operations (COIN) in Jammu and Kashmir and the Eastern States 1.10 Counter terrorist operation in Samba 1.11 Counter insurgency operation in Myanmar 2015 1.12 Surgical strikes in Pakistani Occupied Kashmir2 Organization 2.1 Functions3 Personnel 3.1 Selection 3.1.1 Four phases 3.1.2 Training centers and courses 3.1.3 90-day probation 3.2 Training 3.3 Joint exercises with other nations 3.4 International competitions4 Equipment 4.1 Small Arms 4.2 Transport5 Insignia6 Gallantry awards 6.1 Ashok Chakra7 In popular culture8 See also9 References10 Bibliography11 External linksHistoryAn Indian Para (Special Forces) officer tries a U.S. Army weapon.The parachute units of the Indian Army are among the oldest airborne units in the world. The 50th Indian Parachute Brigade was formed on 27 October 1941, comprising the British 151st Parachute Battalion, the British Indian Army 152nd Indian Parachute Battalion, and the 153rd Gurkha Parachute Battalion.[3]The Parachute Regiment was formed from these and several other units in 1952.Indian Army Para CommandosIn 1944, the 50th was allocated to the newly founded 44th Airborne Division. In the post-independence restructuring, India retained only one parachute brigade—the 50th. This brigade consisted of three distinguished battalions personally nominated by the then Commander-in-Chief, namely 1 PARA (Punjab), 2 PARA (Maratha) and 3 PARA (Kumaon). During the Jammu and Kashmir operations of 1947-48 these battalions distinguished themselves with glory in the battles of Shelatang, Naushera, Jhangar and Poonch, and were awarded the respective Battle Honours.On 15 April 1952, the three battalions serving with the Parachute Brigade were removed from their respective Infantry Regiments to form the Parachute Regiment. Since then the Parachute Regiment has grown to comprise ten battalions including Parachute (Special Forces) battalions. In 1986, 8 PARA became 12 Battalion, Mechanised Infantry Regiment, while 21 Maratha LI converted to PARA (Special Forces). During their short but eventful existence so far, the regiment's battalions have had extensive operational experience, and singular achievements, to speak of their level of professionalism.During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, an ad hoc commando unit, named Meghdoot Force, consisting of volunteers from various infantry units was organized by then Major Megh Singh of the Brigade of the Guards. The unit performed well in combat, and the Government authorized the formal raising of a commando unit. Lt Col Megh Singh was selected to raise the unit which was originally intended to be a part of the Brigade of the Guards. However, recognizing parachute qualification as an integral element of special operations, the unit was transferred to the Parachute Regiment and raised as its 9th Battalion (Commando) on 1 July 1966. The erstwhile members of the Meghdoot Force formed the nucleus, and the new unit was based in Gwalior. In June 1967 the unit was split equally into two to form a second commando unit, designated as 10th Battalion, each with three Companies. 10th Battalion was mandated to operate in the Western Desert and 9th Battalion in the northern mountains. In 1969, these battalions were re-designated as 9 and 10 Para (Commando) battalions.[3]In 1978, the 1 Para, as an experiment, was converted to become the first special forces unit of the Indian army, and was kept as the tactical reserve. Already a recipient of the Chief of Army Staff Unit Citation twice, and the {GOC-in-C Eastern Command Unit Citation once, the unit was originally 1 Punjab, which was later re-designated as 1 PARA (PUNJAB) and in 1978 was converted to 1 PARA (SF). The unit is well over 200 years old.On 15 January 1992, the Parachute Regiment Training Centre along with the Records and PAO(OR), and the Para Regiment, moved to Bangalore and occupied the erstwhile location of Pioneer Corps and Training Centre. Bangalore is the new Key Location Project of the Centre.[4]1995 saw the formation of the fourth commando battalion when 21 Maratha Light Infantry was selected to convert to special forces and slated for the Eastern Command. After a stringent selection and training process that spanned more than a year, on 1 February 1996, the unit under Colonel VB Shinde, was formally inducted as the 21st Battalion (Special Forces), The Parachute Regiment. The unit has done well in its short lifespan, and is the proud recipient of the Chief of Army Staff Unit Citation twice (1992 and 2006) and the GOC-in-C Eastern Command Unit Citation once (2008), as well as a host of individual gallantry awards. With the changing scenario in military operations and the need for more special forces units, 2 Para began the conversion process from parachute to special forces role, followed closely by the 3 Para and the 4 Para in the year 2004 and 2005. The attempt did see a some success, but the reason it failed to achieve its goal was due to the stringent selection process.[citation needed]1971 Indo-Pakistan WarThe unit (Para Commandos, Indian Army) first saw action in the 1971 Indo-Pakistani war, the first six-man assault team was inserted 240 kilometres (150 miles) deep into Indus and Charchao, where they carried out raids. The assault team killed 73 and wounded 140 on the Pakistani side. In addition, they also destroyed 35mm artillery guns of the Pakistan independent battery. They also destroyed an airfield. In Bangladesh 2 PARA (Airborne), which was a part of 50 (Independent) Parachute Brigade, carried out India's first airborne assault operation to capture Poongli Bridge in Mymensingh District near Dhaka. Subsequently, they were the first unit to enter Dhaka. For this action 2 PARA were given the Battle Honour of Poongli Bridge and the Theater Honour Dhaka.[5]Operation Bluestar 1984In 1984 the Para (SF) were involved in Operation Blue Star. They were charged to lead an attack on the Holy Site of the Sikh religion the Golden Temple to evict Sikh militants in Punjab. 80 members of 1 Para (SF) were given the task of assaulting two areas of the temple, one of which required divers. However, there were a number of setbacks as a result of inaccurate intelligence on the strength of the militants who were trained by Gen. Shabeg Singh (ex- 1 Para himself), operating in low light, the conventional manner of the raid, and the lack of incentive, all of which resulted in a mission failure. The diver mission was aborted after the first team got bogged down. The commandos achieved their aims after a gunfight with militants that lasted hours.[6]Sri Lanka 1987Main article: Indian Peace Keeping ForceThe late 1980s saw the Para (SF) in action in Sri Lanka, as part of Operation Pawan. However, the lack of proper planning by the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), and insufficient intelligence on the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam's (LTTE) whereabouts, caused the initial heli-borne assault on Jaffna University on 11 October 1987 to be a tragic failure. However it was because of the efforts of the Para (SF) that later led to the capture of the Jaffna peninsula, forcing the LTTE militants to take refuge in the forests.Six soldiers lost their lives in that mission. Due to their superior training, the Para (SF) took refuge under a house, after they were misled by a youth who offered his services to help the commandos track Velupillai Prabhakaran but instead took them on a wild goose chase. They engaged the enemy for 24 hours and picked up all their dead with their weapons after reinforcements arrived the next morning.After the failed assault on Jaffna City, the 10 Para (SF) participated in a heli-borne assault on the town of Moolai 23 kilometres (14 miles) to the north west in November 1987. More than 200 LTTE guerrillas were killed and an arms depot seized. In order to give the commandos battle experience, 1 Para (SF) was rotated home in early 1988 and replaced by 9 Para (SF).This battalion was scheduled to return home in June 1988, but the tour of duty was extended due to a planned air assault into the coastal swamps around Mullaittivu. The mission was a success, in that it located several arms caches. The 9 Para (SF) also provided 12 men for the security of the Indian High Commission in Sri Lanka.Operation Cactus 1988, MaldivesMain article: Operation CactusWith the capture of Maldives, an island nation off the south western coast of India, on 3 November 1988 by the People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE) mercenaries, the army turned to the 50 (Independent) Parachute Brigade to carry out an airborne/air transported operation to liberate the country and return power to the legal government. This operation had 6 PARA spearheading the mission. 6 Para flew in on 4 November 1988 in a fleet of IL-76, An-32 and An-12 transport aircraft. One team rescued the president, another took over the airfield, and a third rescued Maldivian security personnel besieged in the National Security Service HQ. Later 7 Para and part of 17 Para Field Regiment were also deployed to the Maldives. When mercenaries tried to escape by sea along with hostages, they were intercepted by the Indian navy. Thus, 6 Para, and the 17 Para Field Regiment conducted the first-ever international intervention by the Indian army without any loss of life.Kashmiri hostage-taking, 4 July 1995In 1995, Para (SF) took part in mission to rescue the six Western tourists kidnapped on 4 July by Al-Faran, a Kashmiri Islamist militant organisation.[citation needed]None of hostages were rescued, but the operation resulted in the death of Al-Faran leader Abdul Hamid Turki and four other Al-Faran members.[citation needed]1999 Kargil WarMain article: Kargil WarIn 1999 nine out of ten Parachute battalions were deployed for Operation Vijay in Kargil, which bears testimony to the operational profile of the Regiment. While the Parachute Brigade cleared the Mushkoh Valley intrusions, 5 PARA was actively involved in the forgotten sector of Batalik, and was awarded the Chief of Army Staff (COASS) Unit Citation.Operation Khukri 2000, Sierra LeoneOperation Khukri was a rescue mission conducted by the 2 PARA (SF) in Sierra Leone in June 2000. About 90 operators commanded by Major (now Lt. Col.) Harinder Sood were airlifted from New Delhi to spearhead the mission to rescue 223 men of the 5/8 Gurkha Rifles who were surrounded and held captive by Revolutionary United Front (RUF) rebels for over 75 days, just 90 Para (SF) forced 2000-5000 members of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) divided into 5 battalions to surrender. This ultimately led to the liberation of Freetown.Operation Summer Storm 2009On 11 April 2009, the 57 Mountain Division of the Indian Army based in Manipur, Para Commandos along with the para-military Assam Rifles and State Police, launched a counter insurgency operation, code-named "Operation Summer Storm" in the Loktak Lake region and adjoining Loktak Lake in Bishnupur District, located south of State capital of Imphal. The first major mobilization of troops in 2009 ended on 21 April. As the troops began pulling out, an Army spokesperson described the operation as a success, disclosing that 129 militants, all belonging to the People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) were killed. The Forces also claimed to have located and destroyed five militant camps during the Operation and more than 117 weapons, including sixty nine AK-series rifles, forty eight rocket launchers, and an unspecified quantity of explosives and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). No militant was arrested. No fatalities among the Special Force (SF) personnel or civilians was reported.[7][8][9]Ongoing Counter-insurgency Operations (COIN) in Jammu and Kashmir and the Eastern StatesParatroopers and Para (SF) have conducted thousands of counter-insurgency (COIN) operations in Jammu and Kashmir, Assam and the eastern states in India. Sometimes these units work with the Rashtriya Rifles (COIN force) in complicated operations. Since the mid-1990s, the role of Paratroopers and Para (SF) as a counter terrorism force has increased substantially. They are now actively involved in counter terrorist (CT) and COIN operations in Kashmir as an essential part of the Home Ministry's decision to conduct pro-active raids against militants in the countryside and mountains. Personnel include Para (SF), Paratroopers (Airborne), National Security Guards (NSG) and special units of the Rashtriya Rifles - a paramilitary unit created for counter insurgency operations in Kashmir. They may also include MARCOS personnel, many of whom are seconded to the Army for CT operations.Counter terrorist operation in SambaOn 26 September 2013, terrorists dressed in Army fatigues stormed a police station and then an Army camp in the Jammu region killing 10 people, including an Army officer, in twin fidayeen attacks. The terrorists sneaked across the border early on Thursday, barely three days ahead of a meeting between the prime ministers of India and Pakistan. The attack was on a police station. The 16 Cavalry unit of the Army in Samba district falls under the jurisdiction of 9 corps, headquartered at Yol Cantonment in Himachal Pradesh. The three heavily armed terrorists, believed to be from the group Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), were holed up in the cavalry armored unit's camp at Samba for several hours after they barged into the Officers mess, until they were killed during a fierce gunfight with 1 Para (SF) of the army. The bodies of the three terrorists aged between 16 and 19 were in the custody of the Army.[10]Authorities moved commandos of 1 Para (SF) in helicopters to the shootout site. The Para (SF) commandos first carried out an aerial reconnaissance of the camp before landing to neutralize the three terrorists. The 1 Para (SF) had identified the exact spot during the aerial reconnaissance from where the intruders were returning the army fire. After landing, the commandos started engaging the terrorists in a direct gunfight, but in order to give them an impression that their exact hiding location had still not been identified, an abandoned building inside the camp was blasted. This made the terrorists complacent thinking that their hiding spot had not been yet been pin-pointed. They kept on intermittently returning army fire until all three of them were eliminated. The entire operation, from the moment the terrorists entered the camp until they were gunned down, took nearly nine hours to complete. The main worry of the soldiers tasked to eliminate the terrorists was the Army Public School situated some distance from the place where the terrorists had been engaged in a sustained firefight. Army men were worried about the possibility of the terrorists moving into the school and taking children and staff as hostage. For this reason, the operation to eliminate the terrorists was carried out with extreme caution and patience[11]Counter insurgency operation in Myanmar 2015Main article: 2015 Indian counter-insurgency operation in MyanmarBased on precise intelligence inputs, the Indian Air Force and 21 para (SF) carried a cross-border operation along the Indo-Myanmar border and destroyed two militant camps one each of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (K) (NSCN) and the Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL). The operations were carried out inside Myanmar territory along the Nagaland and Manipur border at two locations. One of the locations was near Ukhrul in Manipur. The army attacked two militants' transit camps.70 commandos were reportedly involved in the operation. The commandos, equipped with assault rifles, rocket launchers, grenades and night vision goggles, were divided into two groups after they fast roped from Dhruv helicopters just inside the Indian territory near the border with Myanmar. The teams trekked through the thick jungles for at least 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) before they reached training camps. Each of the teams was further divided into two sub-groups. While one was responsible for the direct assault, the second formed an outer ring to prevent any of insurgents from running and escaping. The actual operation (hitting the camp and destroying it) took about 40 minutes. Indian Air Force Mil Mi-17 helicopters were put on standby, ready to be pressed into service to evacuate the commandos in case anything went wrong. In its statement after the operation, the Indian Army said it was in communication with Myanmar and that, "There is a history of close cooperation between our two militaries. We look forward to working with them to combat such terrorism."[12]The Indian Army claimed to have inflicted heavy casualties (158 reported)[12]on the attackers behind the ambush of the Army on 4 June, which claimed the lives of 18 Army jawans (soldiers) of 6 Dogra Regiment from the Chandel district of Manipur.[13]This has been noted as the largest attack on the Indian Army after the Kargil war of 1999.Surgical strikes in Pakistani Occupied KashmirMain article: 2016 India–Pakistan military confrontationOn 29 September 2016, India attacked the strike targeted areas close to the Line of Control (LoC), where militants congregate for their final briefings before sneaking across it into India. An Indian security source said the operation began with Indian forces firing artillery across the frontier to provide cover for three to four teams of 70–80 para SF commandos from 4 and 9 Para (Special Forces) to cross the LoC at several points shortly after midnight IST on 29 September (18:30 hours UTC, 28 Sept.). Teams from 4 Para SF crossed the LoC in the Nowgam sector of Kupwara district, with teams from 9 Para SF simultaneously crossing the LoC in Poonch district.[2][16]By 2 a.m. IST, according to army sources, the special forces teams had travelled 1 km (0.62 mi) - 3 km (1.9 mi) on foot, and had begun destroying the terrorist bases with hand-held grenade and 84 mm rocket launchers. The teams then swiftly returned to the Indian side of the LoC, suffering only one casualty, a soldier wounded after tripping a land mine.[2]The Indian army said the strike was a pre-emptive attack on the militants' bases, claiming that it had received intelligence that the militants were planning "terrorist strikes" against India.[36][37]India said that, in destroying "terrorist infrastructure" it also attacked "those who are trying to support them," indicating it also attacked Pakistani soldiers.[48]India later briefed opposition parties and foreign envoys, but did not disclose operational details.[16]The footage from the strike captured by overhead drones and thermal imaging was released to the media afterwards.[1]However, the Pakistan army dismissed the claim stating that Indian troops had not crossed the LoC but had only skirmished with Pakistani troops at the border, resulting in the deaths of two Pakistani soldiers and the wounding of nine.[14]OrganizationThe Parachute Regiment presently has nine Special Forces, five Airborne, two Territorial Army and one Counter-Insurgency (Rashtriya Rifles) battalions in its fold. The regiment has tried raising new battalions to augment the strength of the special forces however the task has not been completed due to the tough selection phase. Furthermore, in the absence of a centralized command and lack of a centralized and standardized procedure for selection, even among the Para (SF) battalions, selection procedures vary. Meaning there is a different standard to get into different Para (SF) battalions.In the mid-1980s, there were plans to take the three para commando battalions from the Parachute Regiment and bring them together under an individual specialized organisation, the Special Forces Regiment. However, after several logistic and administrative obstacles, these plans were abandoned, and they continue to be trained and recruited by the Parachute Regiment.Para (SF) operate in assault teams, which work individually behind enemy lines, whereas the Paratroopers (Airborne) work in large teams and coordinate with other units as their role involves occupying large areas behind enemy lines. The total strength of the regiment stands at about 10,000, this includes five airborne infantry battalions, one Rashtriya Rifles and two Territorial Army battalion personnel, while the Para (SF) includes between 5,000 and 6,000 personnel. They have to hide their identity from general public.FunctionsIntelligence collection, special reconnaissanceSubversion and sabotage of vital enemy infrastructure and communications through deep penetration and surgical strikes behind enemy lines.Covert and overt/direct action special operations as part of the Indian Army's counter-terrorist and counter-insurgency operations.Hostage rescue operations within and beyond Indian territory.The unit is tasked with missions such as special operations, direct action, hostage rescue, counter-terrorism, unconventional warfare, special reconnaissance, foreign internal defense, counter-proliferation, counter-insurgency, seek and destroy and personnel recovery.[2]PersonnelThe neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met.(May 2015)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)A soldier of 9 Para displaying the TavorA soldier of 31 RR (SF) on operationsPara SF displaying arms & ammunition seized from terrorists in Jammu and KashmirSpecial forces soldier displaying captured arms & ammunition (1st on right)Special forces troopsSelectionAll Indian paratroopers are volunteers. Some enter the Para regiments fresh from recruitment, while others transfer in from regular army units.[15]They are put through a probationary period / selection process of three months for Paratroopers (Airborne) Battalions (5,6,7,23,29) and six months for Para (Special Forces) battalions (1,2,3,4,9,10,11,12,21 PARA), in order to be a Para (Special Forces) all personnel are first required to qualify as Paratroopers; once selected the candidates may choose to advance to the SF selection, which takes place twice a year in the spring and the autumn term. It is one of the longest and toughest training regimens in the world,the applicant is exposed to sleep deprivation, humiliation, exhaustion, and mental and physical torture. Deaths have been reported during this selection process. The attrition rate is very high, and selection rarely exceeds 10 percent. Even though a candidate may have cleared selection, he is not formally inducted into the regiment until completion of the Balidan Padh where, after training, a candidate is involved in active operations in a hostile zone for a year. Provided the candidate survives the Balidan Padh, he is given the Balidan Badge and formally inducted into the regiment.There are nine Para (SF) battalions and soldiers are selected accordingly. An example of this would be the 10 Para (SF) who are also known as Desert Scorpions. The probation period for this is six month and the probationers are selected accordingly for desert warfare.[16]The 9 Para (SF) who specialise in Mountain warfare go through a nine-month course at the Special Forces training centre in Nahan, Himachal Pradesh which is followed by further specialised selection.[17][18]1 Para specialises in mountain warfare. This concept of geographical specialisation was over time reduced and each Para (SF) battalion is trained to operate in various different terrains and climates.[19][20]Soldiers of the Indian army volunteer for the course irrespective of rank.[21]Depending on the battalion, the probation period varies from three months, six months or nine months, with additional time for specialized skills selection. Over the probation period, all soldiers are stripped of their ranks, including officers, and are known as probationers or probies. During any day of the course, a probationers can opt to leave the course.[22][23][24][25]The completion rate is under 12-15 per cent and this slightly high completion rate is because many probationers are drawn from their regimental battalions.[26]Each Special Forces operative specialises in various skills such as weapons, demolition, navigation, communication, medical. PARA (SF) work in small teams, five to eight men, and are also focused on operations other than war (OOW), strategic reconnaissance, surveillance, target designation (RSTAD) and direct action (DA) tasks and are selected and trained accordingly.[27]Those who complete the probation period and are inducted into the para sf and undergo further selection and training, but to earn the para sf balidaan (sacrifice) badge, they have to further survive being deployed in active operations in hostile zones, known as the balidaan padh.[28]Four phasesThere are four phases to become a Para (SF):Basic military training - to start the process a candidate first must join the Indian army and complete the basic training requirements, which vary according to the training center and prospective role.Pre-Selection - this stage encompasses administrative procedures and the soldier applying for the Para (Air) or Para (SF) and the necessary medical requirements.Selection (encompassing a selection process and basic SF training) - the duration of this stage has changed over the years. For the Para (Air) it was initially 28 days which became 45 days after 1999 and is now 90 days. The Para (SF) was 90 days long and hasn't been changed since. The intensity also differs according to the prospective battalion. Para (SF) selection takes place twice a year. Probationers undergo extreme physical and mental tests. The drop out rate is high. Those who fail go back to their parent regiment. Those who complete the probation are inducted into the Parachute Regiment. 10 Para (SF) selection: the probation for the 10 Para (SF) starts in the desert, with rigorous physical training being undertaken in desert climate. There is no training manual, so there is no specific routine. Probationers go without food for 4 days, they have to minimize water consumption up to 1 litre water for 3 days and be able to go without sleep for 7 days. A 10 kg sandbag become a permanent buddy for the probationer. Routine speed marches and runs of 10 km, 20 km, 30 km and 40 km with full battle gears are conducted. Probationers must be exceptional navigators in areas where there is no network signal, no roads or landmarks and sand dunes that keep shifting every night.[16] Parachute Training: Candidates then complete a 3-week Basic Parachute Course at the Indian Army's Parachute Training School in Agra.Advanced SF Training[29] - all those who opt for Para (SF) must first qualify for Para (Air). Although this is also a training phase, this is still part of the selection process. Here the soldiers undertake various different kinds of training with various organisations overseen by the Parachute Regiment Training Centre and the Special Forces Training School. Training includes weapons handling training land navigation and field craft training, infiltration, assault and ambush tactics; close quarter battle (CQB) training; urban warfare; counter-terrorism; unarmed combat training and various other courses across training centers of the Indian defense forces.Training centers and coursesCommando Training Camp, Belgaum, Karnataka4-week High-Altitude Commando Course, Parvat Ghatak School in Tawang, Arunachal PradeshDesert Warfare School, RajasthanHigh Altitude Warfare School (HAWS), Sonamarg, KashmirBasic Combat Divers course, Indian Navy's Dive School, KochiCounter insurgency, at the Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School (CIJWS) in Vairengte, MizoramIndian Special Forces Training School, Nahan, Himachal Pradesh;Combat free-fall training (HAHO and HALO) at the Parachute Training School, Agra90-day probationSome of the training during the 90 day selection includes:[22][30]Day 1 to 35: The first 35 days comprises 'Physical and Skills Training'. This includes hours of rigorous exercises apart from other tests and skills training such as blindfolded team assembly, weapons training, demolition, navigation, communication, medical and cooking skills. Probationers are also taught animal handling skills,[31] insertion and extraction techniques and have to learn several languages. Many probationers are not able to complete this stage of the course itself and up to 50% drop out here.Day 45: The 36 hour Para SF stress test includes 36 hours of exercises, maneuvers, insertion, extraction where the probationers stress capabilities are put to the test. It starts with a 10 km speed march with 30 kg battle loads and an additional 40 kg each. This is followed by various exercises included lifting buddies over long periods. This is followed by weight shifting. Weight shifting has three rounds, where various kinds of weights have to be shifted such as 40 litres of jerry cans, tyre trucks and wooden logs up to 85 kg in weight.[32] During the 11th hour, trial by water is conducted[33] - simulated drowning, allowing only the bare minimum oxygen over a long period of time. This is to test probationers panic reactions under stress. The hands are also tied later on and using ropes the probationers are pulled under water. It is well known that hypoxia and blackout due to lack of oxygen is common during this test. The first 16 hours are completed without a drop of water or food. This is followed be immediate observational skills and operation tactics under pressure which included probationary having to recall objects placed in their exercises. This is followed by 10 km speed march and 6 hours of continuous exercises. Finally practical combat skills tested such as placing ambushes, response to an ambush, making camps, stretchers and simulated evacs. This is all done at the last stage of the stress test under lack to sleep and extreme fatigue mainly to test mental endurance of the probationers under such conditions and how they react. The 36 hours stress test also sees many probationers leave.Day 56: The Para SF 100 km endurance run is a must for all probationers. With 10 kg battle load and personal weapon of 7 kg they have to run 100 km. The time taken averages 13 to 15 hours. A known route the Para SF have used for this run is the hilly route between Rampur and Dakkal. The run is divided into four stages.[34]Day 60 to 90: The final and toughest test is reserved for those who make it to this stage, the Counter Terror Operations. Not much is publicly known about this stage or the other parts of this course. During the end of the 90 day probation, the successful candidates go through a glass eating tradition.[35]TrainingThe initial training to become a special forces operator is 3.5 years, the longest anywhere, but the training is also a continuous process. In the special forces, the members are imparted both basic and advance training. They are taught specialised modes of infiltration and exfiltration, either by air (combat freefall) or sea (combat diving). Some trainees return to PTS to undergo the free-fall course, which requires at least 50 jumps from altitudes up to 33,500 feet (10,200 metres) to pass. Both High Altitude Low Opening (HALO) and High Altitude High Opening (HAHO)techniques are learned. The ability to use the HAHO method and specially designed maneuverable parachutes called HAPPS (High Altitude Parachute Penetration System)/AMX-310 to conduct stealth insertions over distances up to 50 kilometres (31 mi) is also perfected.[15]For combat diving training, the commandos are sent to the Naval Diving School, Kochi. Like other special forces, these para commandos are trained for land, air and water.The daily routine begins with a 20 km (12 mi) morning run. Infiltration, exfiltration, assault, room and building intervention, intelligence gathering, patrolling, ambush tactics, counter-ambush tactics, counter insurgency, counter-terrorism, unconventional warfare, guerilla warfare, asymmetric warfare, raids and sabotage, martial arts training, tactical shooting, stress firing, reflex shooting, buddy system drills, close quarter battle, tactical driving, advance weapon courses and handling, sniping, demolition training, survival skills, linguistic training, logistic training, trade-craft training is imparted by the intelligence agencies. The training drills involve live ammunition at all times which is a reason for fatal accidents at times leading to death.Night and weapons training and field craft involving 20 km (12 mi) treks with 60 kg (130 lb) loads and live ammunition are conducted. Weekly forced marches with 65 kg (143 lb) combat loads with distances over 80 km (50 mi) to 130 km (81 mi) and quarterly night drops with full combat loads are also conducted.In addition to this in-house training, the commandos also attend a number of schools run by the Army that specialise in terrain and environmental warfare.[15]These include the Junior Leaders' Commando Training Camp in Belgaum, Karnataka, the Parvat Ghatak School (for high altitude mountain warfare) in Tawang Arunachal Pradesh, the desert warfare school in Rajasthan, the High Altitude Warfare School (HAWS) in Sonamarg, Kashmir, the Counterinsurgency and Jungle Warfare School (CIJWS) in Vairengte, Mizoram, and the Indian special forces training school in Nahan, Himachal Pradesh. These schools are among the finest of their kind anywhere, and routinely host students from other countries.[15]Members of USSOCOM (United States Special Operations Command) and UKSF (United Kingdom Special Forces) have conducted joint training exercises with the Indian Paras. SOF members from the three nations routinely train at each other's facilities to improve military cooperation and tactical skills. This allows the SOF operators from each nation to see tactics and perspectives offered by other top-notch organizations. U.S. Army Special Forces also conducted joint HAHO training with the Para (SF) in 1992, underwater training in 1995, and anti-terrorism training in 1997. It is thought that the French Foreign Legion also has approached CIJWS regarding the courses taught by them. Para (SF) troops can also undergo a complete Combat Divers course, after which they earn a combat diver badge.[36]They are also experienced in conducting SHBO (special heli-borne operations) and typically employ Cheetahs, MI-8/MI-17 or HAL (Dhruv) helicopters for this purpose.Joint exercises with other nationsThe Para (SF) conduct a series of joint exercises, named VAJRA PRAHAR, with the United States Army every year, in which about 100 personal from the US and Indian special forces participate.[37]INDRA is a series of joint exerise with Russian special forces,[38]and operation Sampriti is the name for joint exercises with Bangladeshi special forces.[39]Para (SF) also conducts exercises and training with the special forces of Israel.[40]The Ajeya Warrior is a series of exercises with regular infantry units of the UK (as the UK's special forces are highly classified).[41]Indian special forces also conduct exercises with forces of the following 16 friendly countries: the United States, France, the UK, Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, Maldives, Seychelles, Singapore, Indonesia and Thailand.[42]International competitionsPersonnel from the Para (SF) have participated in international competitions like Airborne Africa, Cambrian Patrol. This exercise was designed to test the endurance, combat efficiency, and combat readiness of the special forces community. The regiment has a record of highest tally wins in both these exercises that is hosted annually ever since their participation was inducted in the competition hosted by Botswana in Africa’s Kalahari Desert from June 8-10, 2002, in which 10 Para (SF) participated. Special forces from other nations like the Special Air Service of the UK and the Green Berets of the US also participated.[43][44]In 2014 a team from the Indian army won the gold medal out of the 140 teams that participated[45]EquipmentPara (SF) have access to various types of infantry weapons required for particular missions.Small ArmsPistol Auto 9mm 1A Semi-automatic pistolGlock 17 9mm Semi-automatic pistolBeretta 92 9mm Semi-automatic pistolHeckler & Koch MP5 Sub-machine gunMicro Uzi 9mm Sub-machine gunIWI Galil Assault rifleIWI TAR-21 Tavor Assault rifleM4A1 CarbineMPi KMS-72 East German made side-folded Kalashnikov riflePM Md.90 Assault rifleVZ. 58 Pi Assault rifleSVD Dragunov Semi-automatic sniper rifleIWI Galil Sniper Semi-automatic sniper rifleMauser SP66 Bolt-action sniper riflePKM General purpose machine gunMG 2A1 General purpose machine gunUk vz. 59L Light machine gunAGS-17 Plamya Automatic grenade launcher.C-90-CR-RB (M3) Disposal rocket launcher.RL MkIII 84mm Recoilles rifleB-300 Shipon 82mm Rocket launcherTransportC-130J Super Hercules tactical transport aircraftHAL Dhruv utility helicopterAll Terrain VehiclesHAL Cheetak utility helicopterInsigniaPara (SF) personnel, like other parachute troops in the Indian military, wear a maroon beret. In addition, they wear a "Special Forces" tab on each shoulder. Personnel who serve in the Para (SF) are allowed to wear the "Balidaan" (Sacrifice) patch on their right pocket below the name plate, which is similar to the SAS beret insignia; only para commandos are allowed to wear the patch. Para (SF) personnel may grow beards, as this allows them to blend in with the civilian population, especially in Jammu and Kashmir. The insignia on their beret is drawn from the near identical insignia of the British Special Air Service.Gallantry awardsAshok Chakra2009, (Posthumous) Major Mohit Sharma of 1st Para (Special Forces) for Counter-insurgency Operations in Jammu and Kashmir in 2009.[46]In popular culturePara SF have been portrayed in Bollywood movies such as;Uri: The Surgical Strike (2019), a dramatised account of the tactical strike conducted by the Para SF on the camps of terrorists across the Line of Control in retaliation for the 2016 Uri attack.Zameen (2003), Ajay Devgan and Abhishek Bachchan play the roles of Para SF officers. The latter resigns to joins the police. The film is based on the hijacking of an Indian Airlines jet.

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