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Why does Ireland have a small population compared to England?
Important: Please see the many comments for a number of corrections to this narrative.This is the most important fact about Ireland’s population. It reached a high of 8.18 million in 1841. It has never recovered and is now about 6.7 million. In contrast, the population of England is presently about 56 million. There are so many reasons why.England is almost twice the size of Ireland in land area. England is geographically much more closely connected to the European mainland. It was invaded by the Romans 2,000 years ago. This began the ascent of London as a hub for international trading and commerce. England began the industrial revolution 250 years ago. Long before that event, it had begun a gradual process of agrarian reform and improvement, combined with journeyman-based industry, based around wool as the predominant textile, and there were many other commercially valuable nonfood crops, such as hemp for rope, clothing, and construction. Most importantly, unlike Ireland, warmer and dryer southern England was highly productive for food crops like wheat, fruit trees, and animal husbandry.England developed a huge merchant and naval fleet. Its victory in the Seven Years War (the first worldwide war) gave it global commercial supremacy and the basis for an empire. Industrialization led to and supported much larger population growth. England could afford to import wheat from North America to feed this population. In contrast, Ireland had potatoes as the major crop for sustenance. Irish tradition and law did not observe primogeniture, meaning farmland was continually subdivided from generation to generation. The coupe de grace was the potato famine that decimated Ireland’s population through starvation and emigration.(Note: The six counties of Northern Ireland are missing from this superimposed map.)I want to add information about England's culpability in the Great Famine (in response to a couple of critical comments). After all, Ireland was part of the United Kingdom, and a disaster of this proportion would not have been tolerated on the mainland. Before the adoption of the potato as the agricultural monoculture, the main Irish food sources were grains and dairy (milk and butter). Ireland was agriculturally productive, but much of the best land was owned by wealthy landowners (who were well-represented in the British parliament). Considerable amounts of produce were exported for England’s ever-growing food consumption. In particular, there was an insatiable appetite for beef in England, depleting the proportion of protein in the Irish diet. Potatoes became the main domestic food supply, and supported a low-wage economy of farm laborers.When the potato harvest failed in 1845 - caused by a fungus-like disease attacking the single potato variety - England did initially provide some food support under the administration of Robert Peel, but this was discontinued by the following prime minister, Russell. However, in “Black ‘49”, bowing to world opinion, England set up soup kitchens across Ireland, providing nutrition for up to 3 million. These were also discontinued, under the influence of Russell’s adviser Trevelyan, who was an extremist, laissez-faire economist - and from that point England abandoned Ireland’s plight
How do archaeologists know where to dig?
That’s a good question!In many cases, we don’t have to look.Pyramids at Giza PlateauMonk’s Mound, Cahokia, IllinoisPoulnabrone Dolmen, Co. Clare, IrelandJust wandering around the landscape, you can see that there are human-made structures that are ancient, and reveal the location of past human activity.In other cases, the traces may be harder to detect, but still visible. Aerial photography can reveal the locations of past human activity (and in recent years, technology such as LIDAR can help us do similar things, even allowing us to “see” through tree cover).Crop marks in Grézac, France.From the ground, this site looks like this:But from above, the regular shapes (circles and squares) are revealed by the colors of the crops, which can only be seen from a distance.A “cut-away” view, revealing the features below the surface, can explain why:People who lived long ago built a brick wall, and dug a trench. These were later covered by topsoil, but they are still present, and they influence the way that water drains. The brick wall sheds water, so the crops planted above it (yellow) don’t have as much water as those to either side, and the soil deposited in what was once a ditch is less compacted than the soil to either side, so it holds water, giving the crops planted on top (blue) a better reservoir of water to grow.From the ground, that’s hard to see, but from the air, the shapes left by those sub-surface trenches and walls are revealed by the patterns of crop growth.(Note that this is not the same thing as “crop circles,” which are interesting shapes made by drunk artists and hooligans who have nothing better to do after the pubs close for the night.)Over the past 50 years or so, a substantial number of archaeological sites have been found during the process of construction.The laws in many countries consider sites of historical and archaeological significance to be the collective property and “heritage” of all of the citizens of the nation, so it is illegal to destroy them.As a result, construction companies who are working with permits and/or funding, and/or on the authority of the government will hire archaeologists to perform “environmental impact assessments,” much like the ones that protect endangered species. The construction company tells the archaeologists (and historians) where they will be building, and we go to the areas that are likely to be impacted, to try to “salvage” any archaeologically significant materials that are in the way.Sometimes, the archaeological and/or historical materials are so significant that the construction companies alter their plans, in order to protect and preserve those irreplaceable sites. This may require a planned road to take a slightly different course, or a dam to be built on a different part of a river, for instance.In other cases, the construction cannot be moved to another location, so the archaeologists and historians may propose a different solution that allows the construction to proceed, but with modifications that honor and respect the people of the past. The African Burial Ground National Monument in Manhattan, New York, is an example.In still other cases, archaeologists are simply curious about how an ancient landscape might have been used. In those cases, we use a variety of statistical sampling techniques. We can’t explore an entire area, for practical reasons.For example, we know that people lived in Nebraska before Europeans arrived and started keeping written records, but we can’t dig up the entire state!People are living there now, and we can’t tell everyone in Omaha “get out, we want to dig here.” They’d not be pleased with that, to put it mildly! I wouldn’t give up my home just because someone was interested in what might be under it!Excavation is expensive. I would have to pay my crew (not to mention myself), buy all of the necessary equipment for digging, and rent a facility where I could do all of the lab work. Nobody is going to give me that kind of money!Excavation is time-consuming. It literally took my team three years to investigate just 75% of the surface of my most recent site, and less than 0.0001% of the sub-surface. We ran out of time and funding after digging maybe 5 square meters of a 7.5 acre site.So, to try to compensate for the limitations on excavation, we map a site, and then select samples of the site to investigate more thoroughly, in the hopes that our samples are representative of the whole site.In practice, whenever possible, we try to leave a significant portion of the sites that we find “undisturbed,” because we know that archaeologists of the future will have better technology than we have today.In short, we often don’t know “where to dig,” and we do it either because we have no other choice (construction), or because we want to provide our colleagues in the future with the best evidence that we can find in the present.Hope that helps.
If you were given a chance to frame a manifesto of an Indian political party, how would you frame it?
Here are some of the main points in my manifesto:(1) Income tax and corporate tax will be completely abolished. This would promote investments, growth, industries and employment. A large number of MNCs are expected to shift manufacturing / service industry base to India to save taxes. More industries and more businesses are the only ways to increase employment in India. For this to happen, other necessary infrastructure improvements will also be made. GST will be rationalised (with less number of rates) with strict implementation through technologies. This will also help in reduction of black money and corruption. [Please see one of my earlier replies on this issue for some more details.](2) All currency notes of ₹ 100 and above will be demonetised with no option to exchange them. There will however be six months’ period given before implementing this decision. This will make it possible to all to adjust to the new system and deposit all their high denomination notes in the banks (they would be checked for fake notes). All transactions above the value of ₹ 20,000 shall be compulsorily required to be in the form of crossed cheques / drafts / digital currency / online payments. RuPay Card will be taken over by the Government / RBI which will have ZERO transaction costs for all values for everybody, whether it is traders or customers (or, else, if needed, a new simple card will be launched for this purpose). UPI / BHIM app payments will also be made FREE for traders as well as customers for all values. These payment methods will be made universal and easier. The cost incurred on these will be borne by the Government, which will be much less than the cost incurred on printing / distribution of currency notes. If needed, smart card currency (somewhat similar to Delhi Metro smart card) with innovative features will be introduced. All small denomination currency notes of ₹ 50 and below will continue to be in operation (for the near future and medium term, at least) so that poor and less-educated citizens are not inconvenienced. These measures will help in reduction of black money and corruption.(3) The strength of judiciary will be increased at least by 500%, i.e., 5 times (or more, if needed), along with sufficient supporting staff. This will ensure that instead of litigants waiting for the cases to be heard, the judges will have to wait for newer cases to come up, i.e., the judges should be able to sit idle and most cases will be decided in matter of days, or at the most in months (and, not in decades as at present). Likewise, strength of police forces will also be hiked by 5 times. This will ensure that police should be able to reach the spot in about 2 minutes (in cities) and about 15 minutes (in villages) on the report of a crime occurring. This will ensure better prevention and detection of crime. These measures will ensure that ALL LAWS are respected, unlike today when most laws are broken with impunity. Mere enactment of laws is not sufficient, they also need to be enforced. This will ensure discipline. This will also provide some employment opportunities.(4) A permanent ban on future increases in reservation will be made effective. Creamy layer concept with strict guidelines will be enforced on all reserved categories (maximum of one benefit per person, and limited number of benefits per family). This will ensure that the real deserving sections of the reserved categories get the benefit unlike the present system where the same people get the benefit again and again at the cost of the most needy. At the same time, the existing reservation will be reduced by 5% for each category on pro rata basis every year (for example, for SC category, 15% reservation will be reduced by 0.75% every year), so that in 20 years the reservation could be ended completely. This will ensure that merit is given its due place after 20 years, while ensuring equality for everybody. A slow and long-term withdrawal of reservations will help ease tensions in the concerned communities. At the same time, due to heavily increased employment opportunities in private sector (due to zero-tax effect) and decreasing importance of government sector, reduction of reservations will be less painful for the concerned communities. Also, scholarships and financial help to poor and needy students of all communities will be given liberally. Drastic increase in educational institutions of repute (see next point) will help students of all communities to get better education opportunities even without reservations.(5) Top 100 universities / educational institutes of the world (such as Harvard, MIT, etc.) will be given not only permission, but also incentives, to set up their institutes in India, wherever they want. They would be encouraged to open more and more such institutes in India in order to provide world-class education to Indian students within India. Instead of the “Not for Profit” concept in education, the concept of “For Profit” education will also be allowed. There is no free lunch, after all. A free lunch cannot be a good lunch. At the same time, drastically increased number of scholarships and cheaper / easier educational loans would be provided to students. It will be ensured that if a student can get admission on merit in a reputed top level institute, he does not have to forego his admission due to want of financial resources. This system will enhance the standards of existing Indian institutes also (something similar when industries, such as auto industry was opened up for foreign competition). What is of priority would be giving best education to Indians, it is immaterial whether it is given by foreign institutes (in India) or the Indian institutes. The priority is not the welfare of Indian institutes but the welfare of the Indian students and the education. [For some more details on this issue, please see my previous answer on a related topic.](6) No country can be strong, if its defence forces are weak. Consider the examples of UK and USA at their respective prime times. Now, look at China. So, best technologies would be made available to defence forces. 100% FDI will be allowed in Defence sector without restrictions, with freedom to export their defence products (in order to incentivize them). In addition, incentives will be given to those who bring best / latest technologies in India. A transparent / fixed price-advantage will be given for defence products manufactured in India (even if by foreign companies) vis-à-vis imported ones, OTHER THINGS remaining the same; however, this does not mean that quality of products would be compromised; wherever, latest technology is not available in India, firstly efforts will be made to get that in India, otherwise such products can still be imported so as to ensure that our defence forces get the latest and best weapons and equipment. To remove chances of corruption and to avoid delays in defence acquisitions, transparent acquisition committees will be formed which will also have leaders of 3 largest opposition parties (in that order) in the Lok Sabha, and some prominent defence / technology experts who will be selected jointly by the government / opposition members.(7) Irrigation (including drip-irrigation) will be greatly enhanced. Best agricultural technologies will be introduced, if needed, by importing them. MSP based system will be abolished to avoid distorted crop pattern. Instead of that, if needed, a fixed amount per acre will be given as help to marginal farmers. Farmers will be given advance information about pattern of crops being currently sowed in India (using satellite and other technologies) so that they can take informed decision about which crops are going to be more beneficial to them. Artificial restrictions on movement of crops out of a state will be removed and farmers will be free to sell their crops anywhere in India (as is allowed to industries and traders). Exports of agricultural produce will be freely allowed (without restrictions) to help farmers achieve better incomes wherever possible. If necessary, the Government may store minimum crucial stocks of some important crops to protect consumers, but it will be at the cost of the Government and not at the cost of the farmers. Main problem of farmers is small farm size (sometimes, one acre or even less). Cooperative farming, contract farming, and even corporate farming (with sufficient safeguards) will be allowed to willing farmers on voluntary basis. Crop insurance will be enhanced drastically to secure farmers’ income. Agriculture and farm-based / cottage industries will be encouraged to take care of employment of persons in presently over-employed agriculture sector. Water management technologies (such as those used in Israel) will be used. All other technologies and methods would be used (with OPEN MIND) that help farmers increase their income, making them self-independent instead of making them dependent on loan waivers, freebies, etc. The emphasis is on asset-creation that can have long-term use, instead of freebies which are of short term use. Teach a person how to earn, instead of giving him food free for one or two times.(8) All transactions with Government will be made digital (except where it is impossible). No new law / rule / circular / guidelines, etc., will be allowed to be issued, unless it has first been uploaded online. All applications from citizens will be allowed online. Citizens will be allowed to interact with officers through video-conferencing (instead of personal meets) which shall be recorded. Such centres will be set up at designated places, if needed. Red tape breeds corruption, and all efforts would be made to reduce delays in delivery of services. Time-bound services will be ensured for all government functions. All government information shall be deemed to be open to all, and if any information is to be marked “confidential” or “secret” etc., that can be done only on some well-established guidelines and not at the whims of the officers. These and various other transparency measures will make better governance possible, with reduced corruption.(9) All PSUs will be privatized (not mere disinvestment of part-equity), barring in space and nuclear energy. But, even in space and nuclear energy, private sector will also be permitted (such as, those similar to, SpaceX of Elon Musk, or Areva and Westinghouse). Government has no business to be in business. Banks, Railways, etc., will also be privatised in phases, but within specified limited time period. For example, operations of railways can be privatized initially (starting with some trains), construction and upkeep of some tracks can be privatised (like some national highways), goods trains can be completely privatised. This can also raise money for initial years to take care of temporary effects of abolition of income tax and corporate tax.(10) All new technologies, such as solar power, electric vehicles, artificial intelligence, genetic science, 5G, etc., will be sufficiently encouraged, incentivized and promoted. India will be made the hub of the fourth industrial revolution by taking all steps necessary to promote innovation by facilitating research. A proper ecosystem will be put in place for this purpose that can self-propel innovation and research in all sectors, without any unnecessary government intervention. In fact, experience shows that the government only restricts growth by its intervention in newer technologies. So, there would not be any unnecessary intervention from Government. On the other hand, DARPA model of US, of giving special grants for high-tech and cutting-edge innovations by universities, private industries, research institutes, etc., will be followed.(11) Governance will be made visible everywhere, while Government will be made invisible. This means, minimum Government, maximum Governance. A rule-based transparent governance, helped by technology, not by discretion of human beings. With less and less human interface, and more and more technology-interface.Well, I can go on and on. I have at least 100 more points for my manifesto, and each of the above points can also be expanded with more details. But, I thought I should stop at 11.Yes, I know, this manifesto may not perhaps win votes. But, it can help India grow. In fact, I feel that it can win votes too, if properly followed and explained to people.I know it is an academic exercise. But, it may create some awareness. And, after all, every big idea has a small origin.[Edit: I have answered this question only as an academic exercise. This is an imaginary question. I have no intention to create any political party. I am writing this Edit, since some friends have perhaps thought that I may be floating any party. Not at all. My answer was just to create awareness about the issues that should be in national interest. That’s all. Thanks.]