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Can you name some leading entrepreneurs in India?

In my list of Entrepreneurs there are 2 great entrepreneurs.Roman Saini (Co-Founder of Unacademy)Ritesh Agarwal (Founder of OYO Rooms)Here is reason Why?Roman Saini: Before starting Unacademy. First he cracked AIIMS in age of 16 then IAS in 23 then he started working on his dreams. Roman Saini got 4th place in Forbes India 30 under 30, 2018. He knows that how to push limits.Ritesh Agarwal: A college dropout, who once wanted to sit for an engineering exam, Ritesh today heads among the most valuable start-up by a person who never studied beyond school.He even sold sim cards to survive, afraid his well off family would end his entrepreneurial dreams and summon him back home to Odisha if they knew of his struggles.In Kota(Rajasthan), where he was ostensibly preparing for his IIT entrance exams, Ritesh says he couldn't wait every weekend to slip out to Delhi and meet those doing their own thing.This 19-year-old had traveled for months staying at budget hotels, attended customer calls everyday and immersed himself in every possible experience to learn about budget hotel customers and their expectations. That was the kind of on-the-ground learning that helped him pivot Oravel to Oyo.I will keep update it.Vaani

Which college is better: IIT or BITS Pilani?

First of all, this question needs to be a lot specific. Comparison between Bits Pilani Pilani campus and one of the new IITs is meaningless. Same applies to comparison between an old IIT and Bits Goa/Hyderabad/Dubai(?) campuses.Secondly, what makes a college better depends on the individual and his requirements. But answering the question in a general sense, the real bugger is comparison between Bits Pilani Pilani Campus and an old IIT like IIT Bombay.Since this answer requires a subjective treatment,there is a lot of ground to cover, so hold back,stretch your hands,relax, make yourself a coffee and find a good couch as this will take time to read.First lets analyze on points that are believed to give Bits an edge over the IITS:(1)Reservation:Reservation is one messed up system and we do have students above 5k rank in core branches, boasting their IITB credentials. Situation is even worse in other IITs as IITB witnesses higher cutoffs than any other IIT. However the rest half are arguably the cream students of the country and for a population of 1.3 billion, that’s saying a lot. This makes IITB an incredibly competitive place and in general, the level and quality of competition is definitely much higher than that in Bits.Besides majority of students in Bits also have ranks above 5k ,so even the reserved crowd logically offers more or less the same competition. IIT(old)ians in departments like electrical and cs, whether reserved(OBC) or not, still possess much higher ranks than Bitsians. The OBC btech cutoff for cs and electrical at iitb remains around 300 and 1200 respectively. Nobody with right mindset would have chosen Bits with those ranks. SC/ST’s are whole other stories but they comprise just 22% of the population. So the general crowd in an old IIT based on entrance tests is better than the regular Bitsian crowd. The best in IIT are at whole new level while the mediocre are not so far behind.The impact of reservation on overall quality is felt only in new iits. It may feel not difficult (but only in your first year) to score more than the average even if you perform poor, thanks to reservation. On the flip side, try to score maximum marks in an exam and you will regret being born.(2)No attendance: This is a major argument given against IITs that Bits follows zero attendance policy and hence gives more freedom to its students. However this hardly makes a difference as professors in Bits ensure attendance through unannounced tut tests or covering stuff out of slides in lectures. Besides most of the courses at IITB also are relaxed on attendance and it really depends on the professor. Most of the courses in the first year IITB had no attendance requirement. Following a passion during lecture hours doesn’t make much sense if you want a decent academic record. The only relaxation that zero attendance policy provides is that one will still be allowed to give term end exams even with zero attendance, or one can pay uninterrupted attention to private endeavors like startup, etc.(3)Dual Degree: This is really a very nice policy at Bits where they have integrated Msc courses with BE ones. Hence one can graduate with both a bachelors and a masters degree in different streams and this allows for a lot of flexibility. Any engineering stream of one's choice can be clubbed with the dual at a low cgpa cutoff. Dual degrees certainly provide Bits an edge over IITs. There is no such concept at IITB.For people smartly pointing out that IITB also has dual degree courses, take a deep breath and try to understand what's being said here. The dual courses in iit is very different from bits pilani even though both are called dual degrees. See comments for more info.(4)Practice Schools: Another good policy of Bits. Students are almost certain to be interned at the end of second and fourth year. There are extremely high number of opportunities at IITB also but there is no certainty. The minor flip side is that you cannot attend PS2 if you missed PS1.(5)Deciding own timetable: In Bits you can choose own timetable but that’s only if you have a high PR number(randomly generated each semester) else you will have to compromise on your instructors/schedule. All this is not of much consequence overall.(6)Fees: Fees in Bits is a tad higher than IITB but you get exemption on fees if you perform well in Bits. There is no such provisions at IITB. SC/STs study at this premier most institute for free and no reason at all. The closest you can come is a Merit-Cum-Need or some private scholarship. All this is pretty irritating.Edit: Fees is no longer a tad bit higher in bits as the administration there treats the students as gold mines for its vision 2020.(7)Seclusion: Pilani is located very remotely with nearest cities being Delhi and Jaipur, both around 200 kms far. So for every little initiative or career requirement you have to shuttle between cities. Though the enthusiasm for startup is great at Pilani, one has to travel to Delhi again and again to run it. IITB being located right in the financial capital of the nation offers much more opportunities and attracts companies more.Comparison of experience at both the institutesCampus: Both the institutes have a breathtaking campus to boast, with IITB campus being larger and greener, while the Pilani campus being cosier and less green due to the geographical location of Pilani. The Bits campus is slightly better maintained and has got more places where you can simply lay down,relax and stargaze or something like that. The Saraswati Temple , the grass area of NAB(New Academy Buildings), and the Sky Lawns are great places to spend time in peace.Meanwhile the IITB campus feels more spacious and has a cooler appeal to it.Overall, both campuses are worth taking a pause to appreciate their beauty.2.Clubs: Club culture in Bits is more or less meaningless. The first few weeks of a fresher is spent in tedious interactions with seniors and if you can impress them, you might get selected in a department. Interactions for clubs are meaningless as ultimately auditions for them are what that matters eventually. Further if you somehow couldn’t make into a club that you are interested in, there is very little possibility you will be given a second chance. However once you do get in a C/D, you will spend a good time. One positive aspect of this is that senior-junior interaction at bits is very high from the start. You make contacts with tons of seniors effortlessly, which kind of felt missing at IITB where there was minimal interaction in the beginning. Gradually however, through various channels like working in institute bodies, department events, etc. you get in touch with a large number of seniors in IIT also.In IITB, scenario is different as “enthu” is the main thing that’s required. Anyone can work if one is interested. For tech teams, of course they expect you have the required skills if you join late, but the process is much less stringent. The orientation of each club were exciting events and the participation was purely voluntary. This system works way better as you get to freely experiment with the work involved in different bodies at your comfort level and then gauge your interests accordingly. All this freedom and opportunity to explore varied sorts of work was highly missing in Bits.Both institutes have clubs for most of the activities.3.Ragging: Zero(rather negative) in IITB, dismal in Bits Pilani. Only during interactions when you visit seniors, you might be asked to give your intro and stuff but everything’s under control. In IITB if a senior is caught in a fresher hostel in the first month, he will face a hard time justifying that.Besides that, there is an excellent system at IITB to provide a 4th-year student as ISMP mentor to the freshers to assist them in all their difficulties and guide them, and a DAMP mentor (of the same branch) in the following years to help you regarding all academic or curriculum problems. Such a system really ensures one gets a proper guidance and stay comfortable with the insti life and policies.4.Facilities:Mess- Food quality is definitely better at IITB especially in senior hostels. IIT mess is markedly better as it serves 4 times a day, provides a lot more variety to food than Bits’ mess, has wifi, TV and is more spacious. However, Bits somewhat compensates that by having a nice canteen in the mess itself and by organizing regional dinners called “Grubs”, but even that is retaliated in IITB by organizing multiple gala dinners and hostel events.Library-Bits library is better hands down. Its much larger, aesthetically much more beautiful, calmer and has got an excellent environment and facilities to read and study. Obviously, all sorts of books and facilities are available at both libraries, it is just that the Bits library is better built and maintained. Plus its got a nice CCD machine.Workshop-Mechanical Workshop in Bits was much better than at IITB with more shops and a stricter first-year course that focused heavily on the details of the processes involved. Plus the equipments were provided in the workshop itself and needn’t be bought, unlike at IITB.Internet-The net speed at Bits made me laugh and cry at the same time. Wifi speed is okayish while Lan speed is laughable. There were restrictions on many sites. The only relief was the software labs in NAB but that too was closed after midnight. One had to rely on mobile data outside hostels and DC++ to download stuff.IITB, on the other hand, offers high Lan and wifi speed clocking around 100mbps and has got wifi in every building. There is no restriction of any kind, except torrents. So IITB has a lot better internet connectivity.Hospital-Bits had a medical center that closed down in the evening(lol) and in cases of emergency, you would have to call the warden who will in turn either come himself with his car or send for an ambulance. Besides one cannot expect very good medical services in a small town like Pilani. The medical center was also not very up to the mark.The IIT hospital is a very large one with 24-hour emergency service, very sincere ambulance service and highly skilled doctors. A medical file of each student is maintained and the medicines are supplied free/subsidized rates. One can find medical assistance for any trouble.Hostel-Bits has better living conditions :P if you think for 4 years. Gandhi, SR,Ram and Buddh bhawans are very nicely built and are spacious. Rest all hostels can be described as “meh”. The rooms are sufficiently large, open; no space crunch so hostels are only one story high. There are small courtyards in the hostels where one can play cricket, badminton, etc. and the common room had TT tables, TV and CCD service at night. Any complaint was immediately dealt with. However the washrooms in older hostels were miserable and cleaning staff wasn’t very sincere.IITB hostel rooms for the first year are as good as it gets, offering a very nice view of Sameer hills from the windows and with a nice large Refugee area on the 7th floor where one can chill out and enjoy the scenic beauty of the Powaii area(including Vihar and Powaii lakes). The common rooms are spacious and have TT and foosball tables. Besides rooms get cleaned once every month by the staff. However things go somewhat ugly after the one year paradise. The hostels for sophomores and third year UG male students seem no less than haunted places with rooms small enough to put slums at Dharavi to shame and old enough to remind us of the colonial era.Edit: Most of the crowd in the older hostels have been shifted to the newly formed Hostel 18 with single rooms, which has top notch infrastructure and facilites.For any recreation, one needs to go to SAC which is not very far away.Infrastructure:The Saraswati Temple,Rotunda, NAB area and FD5 are really well built and comfortable to spend time in. The Bits campus is small so reaching from one place to another usually take no longer than 15 minutes. However the SAC and GymG(sports ground) were small and very ordinary and there was not much scope to pursue a new skill/sport if you are a beginner, or barring a few activities there was not much emphasis overall on extra-currics. IITB on the other hand has a very good Lecture Hall Complex and excellent facilities at SAC, better roads in the campus, more comfortable classrooms and really nice auditoriums.Transport in Pilani is a big pain in the ass with no direct trains and limited connectivity to the nearest station Loharu. Inside the campus, the autos charged profusely though there was never a need to ride with them. On the other hand, IITB is located right in the city and inside the campus, tumtum services are good and the autos charge moderately.The FD2/FD3 divisions in Bits were old. IITB does have more halls for teaching and better maintained department classrooms.5.Sex Ratio: Both are engineering colleges at the end of the day. Be prepared to die single, no exceptions here.6.Life in the campus:In bits life was more chilled out(or lite) as the academic pressure was a little lesser and the no attendance rule always cut off some slack. Beside the late night culture in bits is really popular and the campus is much more alive at night. Places like ANC, SR reddy , Rotunda see a lot of footfall and team meets. Such thing is missing at iitb as people mainly gather in the canteens but don’t roam around the campus or carry out their business too late at night.There are many places in Bits where one can hang out to eat or celebrate. There were reddys for each of the 14 hostels, ANC, Sky Lawns and a few restaurants inside the campus. As compared to that, IITB also has a similar case with many canteens and cafes to eat. However, outside the Pilani campus, there were not many options. The Connought place was at a stone’s throw but had substandard food at high prices. There were very few restaurants/bars outside, no Dominoes, no McDonalds,no anything. On the other hand, outside the campus of IITB there is Hiranandani and the whole Mumbai city. Obviously there is no further need to mention anything more, you can explore new places and restaurants every day of the year if you want to.Being located in city area has its own perks. There is an ocean of options if one wants to hang out or plan a one day trip in IITB, notably for trekking. In Pilani, there is a lot of seclusion and less exposure. To have any little excursion or adventure outside the campus, one has to consider Delhi or Jaipur.Freedom: In IITB the institute gives somewhat more freedom to its students. You can leave or enter the campus at any time and roam outside all night if you want. In Pilani until this year, girls had to return back to their rooms by 10pm which I guess, sucked a lot, and is a pretty seneseless rule. Further there is no restriction in iitb to enter hostels of the opposite sex until 10 pm.Edit on the request of Navneet Prabhat : boys are not allowed to enter the girl's hostel at all(Mira Bhavan) in Bits Pilani :PYou don’t need to take your wallet when you go out of your room in Bits. Your ID card takes care of that as transactions in most of the shops happen against your mess bill. So its a good step towards going cashlessWeather: The weather at Bits is another pain in the ass. Being located in Rajasthan, the temperature goes from 45C to all the way down to -2C. The rains are torrential and sometimes choke the campus. Mumbai on another hand remains mild, showery and pleasant all the year long.Lingo: There is virtually nothing to call a lingo at iitb. Words like craxx and machauu seems too forced to be used in regular conversations. In bits “lite” culture is really popular and the lingo was addicting. Words like “phoda”, “ghot” really slip out of the mouth.Fests: Oasis is not very interesting and rather a little over-hyped. Yes I said it. Not sure about being the second best but surely it lags behind Mood-I. The only flip side to Mood-I is that the institute provides no food or accommodation to the first year students. However loads of people get room retention on the pretense of projects under profs, IB work or sports camps.A lot of cultural, entertainment, technical and academic events are organised all the year round in both the colleges, the frequency being more in IITB.DC++: Dc++ sharing at IITB is very poor. Not many hubs and very limited files. Meanwhile at Bits, DC++ was the lifeline with many hubs and almost all sorts of files were available. Plus I don't believe IITB can ever have a DoPo of its own :P7.Academics:The first few weeks at both the colleges felt same in terms of quality,pressure and peer group. However differences segregated out a lot gradually.In Bits, almost all the courses were dealt superficially with a less in-depth treatment. Many courses could easily be nailed by properly covering the slides and practicing a particular set of questions. There were rare surprises in the evaluative papers in many courses although some courses like CP, Meow, EG, Bio and Thermo were challenging. Situation in IITB was different as the courses are much more detailed and depend more on implementation of the concepts taught rather than simply understanding them. Plain slide reading wouldn’t ensure a good grade at IITB. Conclusively, the evaluatives in Bits didn’t compel one to appreciate or explore the subject.The quality of interaction between students and the instructor during lectures was dismal. Some professors like Rishikesh Vaidya, Sunil Kumar, and Vishal Saxena were amazing and even received ovations. However lectures were usually rushed and less time was devoted to entertain doubts. The quality of discussions was also very ordinary. A lot of this depends on the peer group also. In IITB according to my experience the students take a much greater interest in initiating these discussions which sort of felt missing in Bits.In IITB, the instructors are academically more qualified and the student-prof interaction is very rich. The doubts are highly entertained and the discussions are very stimulating. In general the professors at IITB teach better, focus on intricate points, and resolve doubts effortlessly. Overall for similar courses at both the places, IITB covered them in a more comprehensive and conceptual manner, rather than stressing on formulas or on concise/shallow coverage of more topics; as was the case in Bits.A lot of open-book exams were held in bits which really was a good thing. Open book exams were a lot more challenging and really tested one’s level of understanding of the topic/course. There were fewer open book tests in IITB.The tutorials in Bits were taught by professors while in IITB mostly senior students took them. Obviously a professor with PHD has a more in depth grasp on the course and a much higher expertise in teaching than a 2nd/3rd year student. Thus tuts in Bits were more beneficial than tutorials at IITB, provided one opted for decent profs when deciding the timetable.Relative grading is followed at both the colleges. In bits performance of students are evenly distributed and its easier to score a good grade and even if one messes a course, the grade doesn’t fall down drastically. In IITB, scoring a top grade can suck the life out of you and if you ruin your paper, the grades slip down sharply. Even 0.5 marks are sufficient to push down the grade. The peer group is very competitive,which is natural considering that majority of under 500 rankers choose IITB. Consequently, academic pressure at Bits is more relaxing and less stressful.A good initiative at IITB is that each student has to compulsorily have to enroll in NSO(sports),NSS(social work) or NCC(cadet corps) zero credit course. This was missing in Bits.8. Internship opportunities: Probably this point is one of the most impactful one to establish a contrast between the two institutes. Internship and research opportunities offered by an engineering college, particularly in the third year, are the benchmark for deciding its eminence and IIT-B for all purposes comprehensively edges over Bits in this regard. Right at the onset of the fifth semester, a plethora of companies, universities and firms approach the institute for extending internship and work opportunities, and a good majority of them extend PPOs to the students after the third year summer. The situation is such that maximum students get interned by the end of the semester in a highly reputable company or a notable university with lucrative stipends, just because of the sheer volume of companies/univs that approach IITB.In Bits, the large majority of students mostly venture on opportunities that they have to create for themselves, be it through apping or personal contacts, for the third year summer. Barring a few, the masses either spend the summer learning stuff on their own, without a professional guidance, or engage in self undertakings, which is quite a waste of a golden period. However the 7th sem is spent in PS -2 which does provide a comprehensive working experience with reasonable stipend.In general, the trend to intern in a company or take up a research project is markedly more in IIT-B, where staying idle even in the second year summer is scorned upon.9.Alumni Support: This is again an important area where IIT-B considerably triumphs over Bits-Pilani. There was hardly a body in Bits that meliorated the student-alumni interaction in the institute to benefit the students. In contrast, the Student Alumni Relations Cell (SARC) in IITB, is a committed and highly active body to foster productive and constructive relations between the students, the alumni and the institute through a variety of initiatives, most notably the Alumni Student Mentorship Program (on the same lines as ISMP and DAMP), and Alumination (a plethora of events for career boosting and personal guidance). Consequently, the alumni side engagement is also very high, leading to enrichment and high networking opportunities.10.Tag value: No doubt tag value of IITB is more marketable than that of Bits Pilani. This difference is even more pronounced internationally. The local population also tend to respect the IIT tag more, no matter whether you enter by merit or through bogus means like reservation. That’s a hard fact and there are no if or buts.11.Connection of Campuses: It doesn’t matter whether you graduate from Bits Pilani or Bits Goa, you will get the same graduation certificate and treatment by every recruiter. The course structure, curriculum and administrative policies at all campuses are identical. In IITs this is not the case and each IIT isn’t bound by same curriculum and policies.12.Experience after one year: Iitb definitely felt like a more dynamic institute with a hell lot of more opportunities to learn and apply after the first year. The aggressive and productive environment was sort of missing in Bits. The provisions are such that one can pursue whatever one wants whenever one wants in IITB. The programs like ITSP, SOS and SOC, plus surplus internship opportunities, coordinator work, social programs, summer courses, adventure trips, and various other workshops at IITB felt missing a lot at Bits where maximum students are compelled to waste their summers doing nothing or next to nothing. Further over-viewing the curriculum at the end of the year, IITB curriculum felt more relevant, rigorous, qualitative and productive. There is much more clarity regarding future years. Further Bits also pays the price of seclusion as the IIT experience felt more wholesome. The peer group is also very challenging in IITB that automatically induces one to not to lag behind.So that indeed was a comprehensive comparison between the two institutes. And though IITB is definitely better than Bits Pilani Pilani Campus on many parameters, including the important ones, the Pilani campus is one of the most unique ones in India. Furthermore all the comparisons I have done is on the basis of limited knowledge gathered over just one year and there can be a lot of aspects that might make a difference.Besides an ideal college also depend on what courses/stream one wishes to pursue. Leaving CS/Elec at IITB to study the same at Bits is one horrible decision, and leaving the same at Bits to study non core courses/courses you have no interest in, at IITB just for the sake of it, is also a very bad decision. Needless to say, perspective guides me . Someone else might observe things differently.The real difference to a college is brought about by its students. Since old IITs has top rankers of JEE, they definitely accept the cream. If the same students go into Bits, it may supersede IITs.So “Is Bits a good college?”: yes. Its rare for a completely autonomous private college with no government support and ties: to engage in a somewhat close battle with completely government funded premier institutes, and still maintain its identity and reputation both internationally and locally. Furthermore Bits has really been efficient at progressing on limited resources and finding its own way. If it had its own lavish research funding and government support, it would improve way much more than other colleges.However nothing can be said for 5–6 years in the future. The way Bits is going on regarding low cutoffs, increased strength and fees has really put its reputation at stake.I hope I have been thorough and gave a glimpse of what it is like to spend time in these colleges and hence give my version to the long debate of which college trumps over the other.Leave in comments any correction or any more parameter that should have been discussed.Edit: More than 100 upvotes in less than a day. Thanks for the response.Edit2: Addd a lot of stuff in the answer.

What should be an ideal strategy for the UPSC CSE Mains 2019 just before one week?

Last Week Revision strategyTwo days for Essay:Prepare quotes, facts and intro and conclusion on below topics. You can also do mind mapping of below topics.Read here my essay strategy:What should be our strategy for the essay paper in the IAS (UPSC) exam?Very Important Topics1. $5 trillion in five years: Can we do it?2. Is Bretton Woods still relevant today?3. Politics without principle is a disaster.4. What India needs: Population control or population development?5. With Big Data comes Big responsibility6. Destiny of the nation is shaped by its citizens7. Is water crisis in India a manmade crisis?8. Means or Ends: what is more important?9. Is Gandhian philosophy relevant today10. Rapid Urbanization : Problems and prospects11. Can Zero Budget Natural farming ensure food security?12. Is privatization panacea for ailing Public Sector?13. Can UBI be a panacea for poverty?14. Rising inequality in India: An anomaly or an outcome of economic reforms?15. Industry 4.0: Is India ready?16. Without the rule of law there can be no democracy.17. Is India’s water Crisis a Man Crisis?18. Is Artificial intelligence boon or curse?19. Can State Funding ensure free and fair elections?20. India’s Population: Demographic dividend or demographic Disaster?21. Development and tribal welfare must be synchronous.22. Extreme is the new normal: Climate Change23. “Is development possible without making compromises on our environment?”24. Inequality is not just a moral issue—it is a macroeconomic issue.25. Is de globalization underway?Less Important Topics:26. The ignorance of one voter in a democracy impairs security of all.27. If you don’t vote you lose the right to complain.28. If voting made the difference they won’t us do it29. Politics, Business and Bureaucracy – a fatal triangle30. E-vehicle : Is it the right time to make a transition31. Malnutrition : A silent epidemic32. Suicide: A silent emergency33. Live simply so that others can simply liveGS Strategy:Answer writing Strategy:What should I do to improve if I only scored a total of 328 marks out 1000 in GS 1,2,3,4 and an overall score of 718 out of 1750 in the UPSC Civil Services 2018 Mains?Important Topics GS1:Culture:1. Mughal painting2. Indian school of philosophy with special focus on Vedanta (advaita, DaVita, Vishist Advaita) and Yoga.3. Ancient Indian Sruti literature4. Aryan invasion theory.5. Trace the evolution of Hindustani and Carnatic style of music in India6. Guptas as Golden Age in Ancient Indian History7. Mughal chroniclesModern India:1. Contribution of Jawaharlal Lal Nehru in pre and post-Independence India2. GoI Act 19193. Subhas Chandra Bose and his Azad Hind Fauj4. Jallianwala Bagh5. Ishwar Chandra Vidya Sagar6. contributions of Indians living abroad in India’s freedom struggle movement, especially during WW1World History:1. French revolution2. Treaty of Versailles of 1919 had sown the seeds for the Second World War3. Colonialization and decolonialisation : China and Hong Kong4. Cold war5. Communism6. Nationalism: Compare and contrast the policy of Bismarck with that of Count Cavour.Post-Independence:1. The language problem2. Unification of post partition India and the princely states under one administration.3. The 1969 bank nationalization4. Assam AccordSociety:1. Secularization of caste in India2. Social exclusion3. New social movement4. Sexual Harassment of women (prevention, prohibition ad redressal) Act and Crimes against Women5. Female labour force participation in India has fallen to 26%.6. Indian family – changing structure and norms7. Pre-conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic techniques Act and intentional sex selection- sex rati8. Discuss the linkage between the poor sanitation and Malnourishment9. POSCO and child sex abuse10. Optimum population and population explosion11. Anti-Trafficking Bill12. Tribal land alienation13. Drug menace in society14. Malnourishment problem15. HIV (Prevention and Control) Act 201716. Multi-dimensional poverty17. Disability and Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan18. Migrant workers and one nation one ration19. Sec 377 and transgender20. What are PVTGs? Discuss their geographical location along with characteristics and vulnerabilities. List few schemes for PVTGs.21. UNCCD’s land degradation neutrality (LDN) and land degradation in India22. Globalizations and tribal23. Globalizations and labour24. Rapid urbanization and environment degradation25. Counter urbanization26. Secularism and Communalism27. Does regionalism a threat to the unity and integrity of IndiaGeography1. Why earthquake and kinds of waves ?2. Tsunami2. Marine biodiversity and Depp ocean mining and deep sea fishing3. Biodiversity hot spots4. Indian monsoon and extreme climate events5. Polar vortex6. Forest fire in India?7. Hindu Kush Himalayan assessment report8. Gacial lakes outburst floods9. Heat wave10. Rare earth minerals significance and distribution around the world.11. Formation and distribution of coal deposits in India12. Two time zones in India.13. How tropical cyclones are formed and what phenomenon strengthens them? Explain how cyclone Tilti and Fani are different from the early ones?14. Identify the significance of jute industry? Explain the factors responsible for jute industry?15. Discuss the factors influencing the locations of automobile manufacturing Clusters in India.16. Port led development17. Bangalore as IT CITY locational factors18. Despite a ban, rat hole mining remains a prevalent practice for coal mining in India, why?19. Discuss the geographical factors responsible for the growth of Iron and steel industry in India?GS 2: Important Topics• Government of India Act, 1919• Due process of law• The 44th amendment• Fundamental duties enlargement and enforcement• Directive Principles• 102nd constitutional amendment Act and 103rd Constitutional Amendment Act. Does this violate the basic structure doctrine?• Assam Accord? Citizen Amendment Bill, 2016• 124A of IPC violate the freedom of expression given in article 19• Mob lynching and rule of law• Right to religious freedom• Section 499 of IPC• Article 32• Concurrent list• Madras High court has held that the elected government of Union Territory generally assumes supremacy over the lieutenant government.• Indian fiscal federalism suffers from vertical and horizontal imbalances- Role of NITI Ayog• Office of the governor and Article 356• 15th Finance commission• Finance of ULBs- municipal bonds• Cooperative federalism is an important tool in healing many evils like inter-state and intra-state inequalities• CBI credibility• Panchayat Extension to Scheduled Areas Act, 1996• Gram panchayat development plans• Inter-state River Water Dispute (Amendment) Bill, 2019 helps in overcoming the challenges.• Cooperative federalism and Zonal councils in this regard.• Demand for smaller states will lead to balkanization of Indian states. In your opinion, can more number of smaller sates bring in effective governance at state level? Discuss• judicial legislation in India• interstate council• Decline in performance of Indian Parliament• Parliamentary committees are like mini Parliament. Discuss how they increase the efficiency and expertise of the Parliament.• Department related standing committees necessary?• Cabinet Committees• Parliamentary privileges codification• office of profit• Compare and contrast the vote on account and interim budget• Rajya Sabha relevance• Anti-defection Law has achieved its desired purpose and role of speaker.• Opposition Party and leader• Need of Legislative Councils• 5th and 6th schedules tribal area administration• Legalizing lobbying• State funding of elections• Rapid criminalization of politics, SC judgment and Regulation of political parties?• Feminization of Indian politics• FPTP system to PR system• Delimitation.• MCC• electoral bonds• Increasing role of PMO vs cabinet secretariat?• Judicial reforms and vacancy• Pressure groups role and limitation• India had a piecemeal approach to transport planning with multiplicity of agencies .How far can a unified ministry.• Election Commission Appointments• Tor of 15th Finance commission• National Green Tribunal• Tribunalization of justice• Lokpal can be an effective anti-corruption body• National Human Rights Commission commemorates its 25th anniversary• centrally sponsored schemesNGOs vs state and National policy on voluntary sector, 2007• Self Help Group and Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana• Manual scavenging Act• Transgender being the third genders according to the landmark Supreme Court judgment in NALSA vs. Union of India• Forest Rights Act, 2006• Extensive amendments to Forest Act 1927• The consumer protection bill, 2019 is a major step forward in consumer empowerment. Discuss• RTI (Amendment) Bill is RTI elimination bill and Official Secrets Act• E-Gov• NCD Challenge in India• Ayushman Bharat scheme and how far it would address these limitations?• draft NEP• Bihar Primary health crisis.• What do you understand by family law/personal law? Do they come under laws mentioned in Article 13 of Indian Constitution Lateral entryImportant Topics GS 3:• Middle income trap? How can India avert this?• Employment elasticity? Examine the causes of decline in employment elasticity• domestic demand falling• Private investments• India's tax-GDP ratio is still abysmally low and widening tax base• Restrictive labor laws• MSMEs significance• India’s demographic transition• The nationalization of banks and bank merger , NPA• Under-employment• Share of manufacturing in India’s GDP is low.• Demographics especially age structure of the population and economic growth• Black economy• 1991 reform and inequality• Domestic demand driven economy to export driven economy• Green GDP• Is GDP a satisfactory• capital account convertibility and risk• Twin balance sheet problem• Double farmers’ income by 2022and Agriculture Export Policy, 2018. In this context, discuss the key recommendations of the agriculture export policy.• Farm loan waiver.• Agri distress and structural Imbalance in agriculture• Agriculture census shows trends of slide in farm size and rise in woman land owners• Ease of doing business• The vision of $5trillion economy• Missing middle• Farmer security and Farm security• Agriculture and Inclusive growth• Inclusive growth and increasing economic inequality.• Financial inclusion is a prerequisite to inclusive growth.• Economic Survey 2019 and Budget 2019 role of private investment is a key driver of the growth.• Is there a need to revisit the FRBM act FRBM Review Committee headed by NK Singh• Outcome based budgeting• Cropping pattern? Discuss the factors affecting the cropping pattern in India.• Crop diversification for doubling farmer’s income.• Agricultural marketing problems and APMC , ENAM• Precision agriculture• National Agro-forestry policy 2014• GM crops• Price deficiency payment• Challenges of Public Distribution System• Potential of FPOs• Technology missions in agriculture• Non-farm employment in the rural areas• Global warming and its impact on crop productivity.• Model Contract Farming Act, 2018.• E-technological intervention for farmers?• Discuss the scope and prospects of food processing in India. Also examine the challenges faced by the sector.• It has often been suggested that an essential element of “Make in India” has to be “Bake in India”, i.e. a renewed focus on value addition and on processed agricultural products. Comment• land reforms of India• How far LPG reforms introduced in 1991 succeeded in fulfilling the original goal of liberalization? Do you think the economic reforms are the main causes of increasing inequality in India? What are its impacts? How can this be corrected?• What is Industry 4.0? Do you think that India is prepared for this?• dedicated freight corridor-• Infrastructure deficit is the biggest hurdle in achieving $5 trillion economy. In this context, discuss the budget proposal to build a robust infrastructure.• What is strategic oil reserves• What do you understand by energy poverty• Only Solar farming• Private investments need to be encouraged in infrastructure through renewed public private partnership (PPP) mechanism on the lines suggested by the Kelkar Committee.• What is Artificial Intelligence? How artificial intelligence can transform the Indian economy and provide for inclusive growth? Discuss in the light of Niti Aayog's National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence.• Internet of Things IoT and Big Data• India’s policy on Data localization and its implications.• Net Neutrality.• Block chain• Gene editing? What is the role of Crisper-Cas9• DNA Technology (use and Application) Regulation Bill, 2019 would augment the justice delivery system of the countr• What is Personalized Medicine? How Genome India Project• Food fortification• Antibiotic resistance, superbugs.• gravitational waves• ISRO space industry and Vikram Sarabhai contribution• Mission Shakti. Does• Why the world is in a second race to the moon? What is the importance of India launching Chandrayaan-2 mission to moon?• Electric vehicles• India’s new drone regulations• Generic medicine and pharma industry• Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001• India's rank in Global Innovation Index.• National Supercomputing Mission (NSM)• Water crisis• Biofuel Policy• The coastal regulation zone notification 2018• Rat hole mining• Illegal mining has ravaged the Aravallis• Space private players• E Wastes• Large hydropower reservoirs• Extreme climate events• Circular Economy?• zero draft EIA notification, 2019• solar geoengineering• Biofuel policy 2018.• climate change on Ocean• National Clean Air Programme and Green Mobility• water crisis• GM technology• . Modernization and indigenization for the armed forces.• Digital currency security• Money laundering• Coastal Security• Smart fencing on borders• India nuclear doctrine• Mission Shakti• Indian Army's "Cold Start" doctrine• How organized crime in India is reinforcing Terrorism• NIA (Amendment) bill and UAPA bILL• Police reforms• Central Armed forces• State and non-state actorsGS 4: Topics:• Altruism• Surrogacy ethics• Medical Ethics• Sports ethics• Political campaign Ethics• Climate justice• Citizen Charter• Work Culture• Citizen charter• Probity• Courage of conviction• Civil service activism• Neutrality• Intellectual Integrity• Organ donation• Prejudice and stereotype• Mob violence –psychology• Abortion ethical dilemma• Price gouging• Sacrifice• Honor killing• Social audit• CSR• Corporate governance• Trusteeship• Auditors ethics• Politics and principles• Consumerism• Challenges of corruption• Leadership ethics• Altruistic surrogacy:• What do you understand by altruism? Does true altruism• How is compassion related to altruism?• What is ethical egoism?• What are ethical and legal issues in surrogacy?• Altruistic surrogacy and Women agency?• What are medical ethics?• Women hysterectomies:Doctors sans ethics: How medical malpractice has made hysterectomies a big business in MarathwadaWhy many women in Maharashtra’s Beed district have no wombs• What do you understand by medical malpractice?• What are reproductive rights?Fire: A young man saved life in Ahmadabad fire incident.This man saved two girls from deadly Surat coaching centre fire. Internet calls him a hero• What do you understand by self-sacrifice and courage? Why courage is called mother of all virtues?Caste discriminationNegative attitude and prejudice.Defections: Politics without principle is a disaster. Politics Without Ethics | Youth Ki AwaazWhat are the ethical issues involved in gene editing?Ethics in voting: Explain the below quote and their relevance in present context.• If you don’t vote you lose the right to complain. Somewhere inside all of us is the power to change the world.• The ballot is stronger than bulletAbortionDiscuss the moral, legal and religious issues regarding abortion.Prejudice and stereotypes• What are prejudices? Explain with examples.• How do we develop prejudices? How it leads to discriminatory behavior? How can we get rid of it?Ethics in disasters• Disasters are not administrative challenge they create moral problems also. Discuss• What is price gouging? What are the ethical issues involved in it?• Should businesses lower prices of their services during disaster?Sports ethics• What role ethics plays in sports?• Why ethics is important in sports?• What are the ethical issues involved in allowing use of performance enhancing drugs in sports?Social accountability: RTI, SOCIAL AUDIRSensitivityPrivate and Public Ethics• Is it sufficient to practice ethics in public life?Important Facts for mains 2019ResourcesWater:World’s 9th largest freshwater reservesTotal water resource: 1869 BCMReplenishable groundwater: 433 BCMAnnual per capita water availability 1951 20195177 1720 Cubic MeterWorld Bank Report: Ganga River Basin water shortage: 39%Asian Development forecast: By 2030, water deficit of 50%Niti Ayog Report: 600 mn will face water shortageStanding Committee on water resources: Waterbodies, wetlands are getting encroachedGroundwater: 85% used only for irrigation (221 BCM out of 243BCM).80% of rural people still don't have access to piped water supply.India has only 4% of the world’s renewable water resources but about 18% of the world’s population.NITI Ayog “Composite water management Index”- The report warns that twenty-one cities, including Delhi, Bengaluru, Chennai, and Hyderabad will run out of groundwater by 2020, affecting 100 million people. If the present situation continues, there will be a 6 percent loss to the country’s GDP by 2050.Of 91 major reservoirs in the country, 11 have zero percent storage. Further, almost two-thirds of the country's reservoirs have below normal levels, a report by the Central Water Commission’s report.As per a 2018 study by NABARD and Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, shifting a major chunk of the rice production to India’s central and eastern states like Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand, while encouraging wheat cultivation through sustainable irrigation in the rice-growing regions of Punjab and Haryana, could help India prevent an impending water crisis by 2030.As per the Central Water Commission, 85.3 percent of the total water consumed in India was for agriculture in 2000, and the figure is likely to decrease to 83.3 percent by 2025.Rice and wheat, two of India’s most important food crops, are the most water-intensive. Producing a kilogram of rice requires an average of 2,800 liters of water, while a kilogram of wheat requires 1,654 liters of water, as per a recent report by WaterAid IndiaGroundwater makes up 40 percent of the country’s water supply. The erratic monsoon and successive droughts have led to excessive depletion of groundwater, which resulted in the decline of groundwater by 61 percent between 2007 and 2017. A 2018 report by Water Aid has already put India at the top of a list of countries with the worst access to clean water close to homesUtilization of water: Agriculture>Domestic>Industrial>Commercial consumptionAcc. to The Energy and Resources Institute states, quoting the Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization, that the average water supply in urban local bodies of the country is 69.25 litres per capita per day (LPCD) against the service level benchmark of 135 LPCD.On an average, 85 liters of water goes waste for every 100 liters utilized.According to information furnished by the Centre, while urban areas of the country generate 61,948 MLD of sewage on a daily basis, the installed capacity of sewage treatment plants (STPs) is just 23,277 MLD. This means that only 37.5% of sewage generated can be treated.As per the Agriculture Census 2010-11, there are 138.35 million farm-holdings in India, of which 92.8 million are marginal (<1 ha) and 24.8 million are small (1-2 ha). Even though small and marginal farmers account for more than 85% of total farm holdings, their share in operational area is only 41.2%. About 1.5-2 million new marginal and small farmers are added every year due to law of inheritance.The International Seabed Authority (ISA), an autonomous international organization established under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, allots the ‘area’ for deep-sea mining. India was the first country to receive the status of a ‘Pioneer Investor ‘ in 1987 and was given an area of about 1.5 lakh sq km in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) for nodule exploration. In 2002, India signed a contract with the ISA and after complete resource analysis of the seabed 50% was surrendered and the country retained an area of 75,000 sq km.According to a release from the Ministry of Earth Sciences, the estimated polymetallic nodule resource potential in this area is 380 million tonnes (MT), containing 4.7 MT of nickel, 4.29 MT of copper, 0.55 MT of cobalt and 92.59 MT of manganeseClose to 80% of the electricity generated is from coal and gas. Yet another 50,000MW of coal-fired power plants are being set up under the National Electricity Plan. More than 20% of all the electricity generated goes into “transmission and distribution losses"Due to inadequate and irregular last-mile supply, close to 15 million tonnes of diesel is used by local generators to produce 80 billion KWh of electricity. Close to $2 billion worth of battery storage capacity is imported every year. And most independent power plants operate at 12-15% below their declared capacity as they over-invoice plant costs.Official estimates indicate that around 3, 00,000 farmers have committed suicide over the past 30 years.The single largest factor about India’s water is that 90% of it is consumed in farming. 80 per cent of this irrigation is for water-guzzling crops — rice, wheat and sugarcaneFood Security:·Global Food Security Index (Economist Intelligence Unit) india’s rank - 76/113Resource Mobilisation:Tax collection for 2018-19 fell by,Direct Tax: 74,774crIndirect tax: 93,198Gross tax revenue- GDP 2018-19= 11.9% 2019-20=11.7Direct Tax:GDP will fall from 6.4 to 6.3Indirect Tax:GDP will fall from 5.5 to 5.3Disinvestment target :1 lac croreGovernment interest payment for past borrowings forms the largest component of revenue expenditureCapital expenditure is projected to grow at a rate slower than the projected rate of GDP growth.Investments of Rs 100 lakh crore would be needed cumulatively over the next 5 years to boost infrastructure.The digital payment market, with 800 million mobile users in the country of which more than 430 million have internet access, is estimated to grow to over $ 1 tn by 2025.Pre 1980’s era- GDP growth rate was about 3-3.5% and the population growth rate was 2%.World bank in its Global Economic Prospects, has projected weakening of global trade in 2019. It is projected to grow at 2.6% this year.Requirement will rise to 2.3-2.7 million digitally-skilled professionals during 2023: NasscomIIP dips to 3.1% in May owing to slow down.Index of Industrial Production (IIP) measures the quantum of changes in the industrial production in an economy and captures the general level of industrial activity in the country.Index of Industrial Production is compiled and published every month by the Central Statistics Office (CSO) of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme ImplementationBlockchain technology is considered revolutionary for its ability to enable the secure movement of assets, without intermediaries, with its economic impact projected to exceed $3 trillion in the next decade. Blockchain is now the fastest-growing skill set demanded on job sites, with job growth rates at 2,000-6,000% and salaries for blockchain developers 50-100% higher than regular developer jobs.Blue Revolution:Blue Revolution 1.0: 1987-1997Blue revolution 2.0: 2016 onwardsIndia is second in the world in aquaculture production @ 4.7mn tnChina no.1 @ 60mn tnEEZ= 2MN km squareIndia exported fish worth 2017-18Energy:India is one of the world’s largest producers and consumers in 2 and 3 wheelers.Under National Biofuel Policy, 2018- 20% ethanol blending by 2030 10% ethanol blending by 2022One of the key requirements for a $ 5 tn economy is an investment of about Rs 5 lakh crore in the power transmission sector over the next few years, in order to cater to the 1.8 lakh crore units of electricity that India is likely to consume by 2025.·Share of green power increased from 6 %( 2014-15) to 10 %( 2018-19).Acc. to Oil Minister, India will continue to rely on petrol and diesel for running automobiles, and needs to expand its oil refining capacity by 80%.About ⅕ th of the world’s oil passes through the Strait of Hormuz.Even with the growth of renewable energy, coal has been projected to be the backbone of electricity sector until 2030 and beyond.India has created 80,000 MW of renewable energy and set a target of achieving 1,75,000 MW by 2022, reduced energy intensity by 21%.Global Innovation Index 2019 : Rank 52Boost demand for vehicles as 1 mnIndia and China will surpass the U.S. as the World’s Centers of Tech Innovation by 2035, according to Bloomberg New Economy Global Survey.India has just 4% of the world’s renewable energy but have 18% of the world's population.·The advantages of transporting water over water include the fact that one Horsepower of energy can move 150 kg on road, 500 kg on rail and 4,000 kg on water. Similarly, one liter of fuel can move 24 tonnes per km on road, 85 tones on rail and 105 tones on inland water transport.·China is way ahead of India in its expansion. Over the 2014-17 period, China’s addition to its renewable energy capacity (207.2 GW) was nearly six times India’s (33.3 GW). Over the same period, China increased its installed capacity in solar energy by 105.5 GW, while India increased its capacity by only 14.3 GW — a mere one-seventh of the former. Advanced economies like the U.S. and Japan installed almost twice the amount of solar capacity over this period compared to India.·India’s annual coal demand rose by 9.1% to nearly one billion tones during the year ending March 2019. Coal features among the top five imports of India, with total imports rising from 166.9 million tons in 2013-14 to 235.24 million tons in 2018-19.·A report published by the Centre for Financial Accountability in June 2018 showed that out of a total lending of ₹83,680 crore for 72 energy projects, 12 coal-fired power plants with a combined capacity of 17 GW obtained loans of ₹60,767 crore. The 60 renewable energy projects, with a combined capacity of 4.5 GW, were able to mobilize only ₹22,913 crore·According to BP Energy Outlook 2019, coal’s share in India’s primary energy consumption will decline from 56% in 2017 to 48% in 2040. But that is still nearly half of the total energy mix and way ahead of any other source of energy. Oil’s share, the second largest, will decline from 29% to 23%, and the contribution of renewables will rise fivefold to 16%. Even the NITI Aayog, which replaced the Planning Commission, in a 2017 report estimated the share of coal in the energy mix in 2040 to be at least 44%.Science and technology:Chandrayaan-1- Launched by PSLV -C11. Detected signs of water molecules.·Chandrayaan-2- Orbiter, Lander(Vikram) and a rover(Pragyan). GSLV Mk III. 3 stage(solid, liquid, cryogenic). 2 Vikas engine. Science and Technology.·The establishment of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in 1969 heralded the Indian space programme. As the sixth-largest space agency celebrates its golden jubilee, India has slowly and steadily emerged as a pre-eminent space power with 102 spacecraft missions, the largest fleet of civilian satellites in the Asia-Pacific region, a successful inter-planetary Mars Orbiter Mission and a world record of launching 104 satellites from a single rocket.·The establishment of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in 1969 heralded the Indian space programme. As the sixth-largest space agency celebrates its golden jubilee, India has slowly and steadily emerged as a pre-eminent space power with 102 spacecraft missions, the largest fleet of civilian satellites in the Asia-Pacific region, a successful inter-planetary Mars Orbiter Mission and a world record of launching 104 satellites from a single rocketEducation:·Acc. to RTI query, scientists from SC and ST are grossly underrepresented in scientific institutions funded by Dept. of Biotechnology.·UGC has issued list of 23 fake universities and 14 of them also appear on the 2005-2006 list of fake universities by UGC·Water: India has 4% of the world's renewable water and 18% of the population.Health:Health: SDG AIM END AIDS BY 2030AIDS: consumed 20 mn lives22 mn under ART1.7mn new infections every year and 1mn deathsPreventing mother to child transmission of HIV by 2020By 2024- 80% less new HIV infection.The second edition of NITI Aayog’s Health Index was recently released in its report titled ‘Healthy States, Progressive India: Report on Rank of States and UTs’.What does the trend imply?Some States and Union Territories are doing better on health and well-being even with a lower economic output.In contrast, others are not improving upon high standards, and some are actually slipping in their performance.In the assessment during 2017-18, a few large States showed less encouraging progress.This reflects the low priority their governments have accorded to health and human development since the first edition of the ranking for 2015-16.The disparities are very evident in the rankings, with the populous and politically important Uttar Pradesh being in the bottom of the list.A World Health Assembly Resolution passed in May is hoping to catalyse domestic and external investments to help reach the global targets. These include ensuring at least 60% of all healthcare facilities have basic WASH services by 2022; at least 80% have the same by 2025; and 100% of all facilities provide basic WASH services by 2030.As a joint report published earlier this year by the World Health Organization and the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) outlines, WASH services in many facilities across the world are missing or substandard. According to data from 2016, an estimated 896 million people globally had no water service at their healthcare facility. More than 1.5 billion had no sanitation service. One in every six healthcare facilities was estimated to have no hygiene service .Despite decades of effort, India still has less than one doctor for every 1,000 people, the World Health Organization’s minimum ratio for a country’s healthcare adequacy.On an average, a government doctor attends to 11,082 people, more than 10 times than what the WHO recommends. The shortage of government doctors does not augur well for India where 70 per cent of health care expenses are met by out-of-pocket expenditureIn Bihar, one government doctor serves 28,391 people. Uttar Pradesh is ranked second with 19,962 patients per doctor, which is followed by Jharkhand (18,518), Madhya Pradesh (16,996), Chhattisgarh (15,916) and Karnataka (13,556).Delhi is better in terms of doctor-population ratio (1:2203), but it is still twice the ratio recommended by WHO. The states and UTs that are closest to meeting the WHO standards are Arunachal Pradesh, Puducherry, Manipur and Sikkim.As of March 31, 2017, the country had a shortfall of 10,112 female health workers at primary health centres, 11,712 female health assistants, 15,592 male health assistants and more than 6,1000 female health workers and auxiliary nurse midwifes at sub-centres.In fact, primary health centres across the country are in want of at least 3,000 doctors with 1,974 such centres operating without a single doctor. In community health centres, there is a shortfall of close to 5,000 surgeonsThere are reportedly 462 medical colleges that churn out 56,748 doctors every year. Similarly, 3,123 institutions across the country prepare 125,764 nurses each year. However, with India’s population increasing by about 26 million each year, the increase in number of medical staff is too little.States, which are the worst performers in the entrance test for admission to MBBS courses, have the highest number of registered doctors. Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu had the lowest pass percentage in entrance test and yet they top the list of registered doctors—153,513 and 126,399, respectively. Rajasthan, the best-performing state in entrance test, has less than half the number of registered doctors.If the entire country wants to achieve 1:1,000 ratio, it will need 2.07 million more doctors by 2030, according to a study published in the Indian Journal of Public Health, in September last year. With the government sparing just 1.3 per cent of the GDP for public healthcare, as opposed to the global average of 6 per cent, shortage of government doctors means people will continue to incur heavy medical expenditure in private health care system.The study titled 'The Health Workforce in India', published in June 2016 by WHO, also revealed that in urban parts of India, only 58.4% of doctors have a medical qualification. The figure is really poor in rural areas with only 18.8% qualified doctorsAs per the WHO World Health Statistics 2015, India ranked 187 out of 194 countries for its public healthcare services with the public sector spending only 1.16% on health as a percentage of the GDP.Non Communicable Diseases- disease pattern in India in general and particularly in rural India has undergone a significant shift over the last 15 years. An early inkling of this change was evident in a 2001-2003 government of India report on the causes of death in the country. The report revealed that the deaths in rural India due to communicable diseases (41%) were almost matched by those due to NCDs (40%)A follow-up study on the causes of death in rural India for the years 2010-13 showed that NCDs accounted for 47% of all deaths while communicable, maternal, peri-natal and nutritional conditions together accounted for 30%High blood pressure, the biggest risk factor for death worldwide, now affects one in five adults in rural India, while diabetes affects about one in 20 adultsA recent report released by the India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative shows that three of the top five leading causes of DALYs lost in India were NCDs: coronary artery disease, chronic lung diseases and stroke.It is estimated that India is likely to lose $4.58 trillion before 2030 due to NCDs.NCDs in rural India are affecting a relatively younger population—about a decade younger—compared to that in the developed countries. This is likely to be due to malnutrition early in life, which paradoxically increases the risk of NCDs and an unhealthy lifestyle in early adulthood.The government-run healthcare system in rural India largely focuses on maternal and child health and infection. For instance, of the total health budget of Rs47,343 crore in 2017-18, only Rs955 crore was allotted to the NCD programme.India has a doctor-population ratio of 1:1,655; the World Health Organisation standard is 1:1,000. Moreover, there is a considerable skew in the distribution of doctors, with the urban to rural doctor density ratio being 3.8:1.Diabetes has increased in every Indian state between 1990 and 2016, even among the poor, rising from 26 million in 1990 to 65 million in 2016. This number is projected to double by 2030. A major contributor to this epidemic is the displacement of whole foods in our diets by energy dense and nutrient-poor, ultra-processed food products.Self-styled doctors without formal training provide up to 75 per cent of primary care visits. Moreover, at present, 57.3 per cent of personnel practicing allopathic medicine do not have a medical qualification.Population:·As the National Family Health Survey-4 (2015-16) notes, women in the lowest wealth quintile have an average of 1.6 more children than women in the highest wealth quintile, translating to a total fertility rate of 3.2 children versus 1.5 children moving from the wealthiest to the poorest.·Similarly, the number of children per woman declines with a woman’s level of schooling. Women with no schooling have an average 3.1 children, compared with 1.7 children for women with 12 or more years of schooling.·This reveals the depth of the connections between health, education and inequality, with those having little access to health and education being caught in a cycle of poverty, leading to more and more children, and the burden that state control on number of children could impose on the weakest.·As the latest Economic Survey points out, States with high population growth are also the ones with the lowest per capita availability of hospital beds.·Today, as many as 23 States and Union Territories, including all the States in the south region, already have fertility below the replacement level of 2.1 children per woman·The Economic Survey 2018-19 notes that India is set to witness a “sharp slowdown in population growth in the next two decades”. The fact is that by the 2030s, some States will start transitioning to an ageing society as part of a well-studied process of “demographic transition”·A study by the UN Population Fund titled Demographic Dividend in India projects that by 2060, India’s population is expected to touch 166 crore. Most of this increase will translate into a larger working population of people aged between 15 and 59 years. Eighty percent of India’s total population growth during the period 2001-’31 will get translated into an increase in the working age population. By the mid-2040s, this sub-group will consist of more than a billion people·For the first time in Indian history, the population increase during 2001-2011 has been greater in urban areas than in rural areas. Nearly one-third of India’s population, 377 million people, lives in urban areas. The level of urbanization is higher in the south-western Indian states at an advanced demographic stage, accounting for 45% of the population of India’s urban population.Demographic Dividend:·For the first time since independence, India’s working age population — those aged between 15-64 years — will outnumber its dependents, that is, children aged 14 and below as well as people aged 65 and above·This demographic dividend is expected to last for the next 37 years, till 2055 — and is expected to spur India’s economic growth, as well as per capita income.·In Japan, for instance, which was among the first major economies to experience rapid growth because of changing population structure, the demographic dividend phase started in 1964 and ended in 2004. It was seen that in the first 10 years of this phase, it recorded a double digit GDP growth in five of those years, above 8% in two of those years and a little less than 6% in one year. Only two of these 10 years saw growth below 5%.·In Singapore, the dividend years started in 1979 and in the next 10 years, there were only two years when its economy grew at less than 7%. The island country saw double digit growth in four of these 10 years. South Korea entered this phase in 1987 and in the next 10 years, there were only two years when its growth rate fell below 7%.·The dividend years started in 1979 in Hong Kong and it witnessed less than 8% growth rate in only two of the next ten years.·According to the UNFPA — which cites the example of Latin American countries that, despite a demographic dividend, saw only a two-fold increase in their GDP in the late 20th century whereas the Asian countries in the same period saw a seven-fold increase.·Much of what India is able to achieve through its working population increase, says the UNFPA, will depend on whether India is able to provide good health, quality education and decent employment to its entire population.·India’s dependency ratio has declined from 68.4 %( 1950) to 49.8 %( 2018). Total Fertility rate declined from 5.9(1950) to 2.2(2018).India’s working-age population is now increasing because of rapidly declining birth and death rates.In their study, Atri Mukherjee, Priyanka Bajaj and Sarthak Gulati examine how changes in India’s population have influenced macroeconomic outcomes between 1975 and 2017. They find that while overall population growth is associated with lower economic growth, an increase in the working-age population is associated with higher growth.India’s age dependency ratio, the ratio of dependents (children and the elderly) to the working-age population (14- to 65-year-olds), is expected to only start rising in 2040, as per UN estimates.India’s labour force participation rate is declining, especially among rural youth (15- to 29-year-olds) and women.Agriculture:Acc. to FAO, insufficient investment in the agriculture sector in most developing countries over the past 30 years has resulted in low productivity and stagnant production.In India, with a steadily decreasing share of 14.4% in Gross Value Added since 2015-16, the sector’s contribution to a $ 5 tn economy would be around $1 tn- assuming a positive annual growth rate.An early experience of BRIC nations has shown that a 1% growth in agriculture is at least 2-3 .times more effective in reducing poverty than similar growth in non-agricultural sector.Public Investment in agricultural research and development in terms of percentage share in agriculture GVA stands at 0.37%, which is fairly low in comparison to between 3% and 5% in developed countries.·Acc. to Deputy Governor, RBI disinvestment in PSEs would alleviate crowding out effects of government borrowings in the country. Currently, the share of capital expenditure is meagre 14%.·Digital Payment- The number of transactions done through UPI has increased by 180 times since its inception in 2016. However, private players have cut into the government backed BHIM app’s share of the transactions, while card based transactions are still the most preferred online payment method.The Ashok Dalwai Committee clarified real incomes will need to be doubled over seven years (over a base income of 2015-16), which requires a growth rate of 10.4 percent per year in order to realise doubling of farmer’s income by 2022.India is the largest exporter of rice in the world, exporting about 12 to 13 MMT of the cereal per year. If the government raises the MSP of rice, by say 20 per cent, rice exports will drop and stocks with the government will rise to levels far beyond the buffer stock norms.Today, India spends roughly 0.7 per cent of agri-GDP on agri-R&D and extension together. This needs to double in the next five years.India, with a large and diverse agriculture, is among the world’s leading producer of cereals, milk, sugar, fruits and vegetables, spices, eggs and seafood products. Indian agriculture continues to be the backbone of our society and it provides livelihood to nearly 50 per cent of our population. India is supporting 17.84 per cent of world’s population, 15% of livestock population with merely 2.4 per cent of world’s land and 4 per cent water resources.Various studies on fresh fruits and vegetables, fisheries in India have indicated a loss percentage ranging from about 8% to 18% on account of poor post-harvest management, absence of cold chain and processing facilitiesIndia is currently ranked tenth amongst the major exporters globally as per WTO trade data for 2016. India’s share in global exports of agriculture products has increased from 1% a few years ago, to 2.2 % in 2016.Women in agriculture:The UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation estimates that if women had the same access to productive resources as men, they could increase yields on their farms by 20-30%. This could raise total agricultural output in developing countries by up to 4%, which could in turn reduce the number of hungry people in the world by 12–17% - that's 100-150 million people.MobilityThe higher your educational qualifications, the longer your work commute. That, in essence, is the finding reported in a working paper on mobility in one of India’s most congested cities, Bengaluru, by researchers from the Institute for Social and Economic Change (ISEC).Unlike people with higher education qualifications, those in the unorganised sector without degrees work within five km of home.The commute to work required 42.45 minutes for about 10.84 km. This is an increase from around 40 minutes in 2001. Peak hours add on average six minutes to the commute one-way. Over 95% working in government, or in trade and commerce, move in peak time, while in the industrial sector, 66% of workers have peak-hour travel. That figure falls to just 10% for IT and 6% for the informal sector.Also, 41.91% of commuters used public transport, and a quarter used two-wheelers. Over 10% of commuters walked to work, highlighting the need for better pedestrian infrastructure.·Farm Mechanization: Laser guided land leveler can flatten the land in less time than oxen powered scrapper. It increases farmers productivity by 15%.·Agriculture Census 2018: Uttar Pradesh is home to the largest number of people tilling land, followed by Bihar and Maharashtra, according to the 2015-16 Agriculture Census.·India has been allotted a site of 75,000 sq. km. in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) by the UN International SeaBed Authority for exploitation of polymetallic nodules (PMN). These are rocks scattered on the seabed containing iron, manganese, nickel and cobalt.·Being able to lay hands on even 10% of that reserve can meet the energy requirement for the next 100 years. It has been estimated that 380 million metric tonnes of polymetallic nodules are available at the bottom of the seas in the Central Indian Ocean.·India’s Exclusive Economic Zone spreads over 2.2 million sq. km. and in the deep sea, lies “unexplored and unutilised”·The Amazon basin, spread across millions of hectares in multiple countries, hosts massive sinks of sequestered carbon, and the forests are a key factor in regulating monsoon systems.·As the custodian of forests in about 5 million sq km of Amazon land. One estimate by the World Bank some years ago noted that 15 million hectares had been abandoned due to degradation. Globally, there is tremendous momentum to save the Amazon forests. Brazil must welcome initiatives such as the billion-dollar Amazon Fund backed by Norway and Germany which has been operating for over a decade, instead of trying to shut them down.·The rainforests harbour rich biodiversity and about 400 known indigenous groups whose presence has prevented commercial interests from overrunning the lands.Zero Based Natural Farming:·Acc. to NSSO 70% of agri household spend more than they earn·50% of farmers are in debt.·In AP and Telangana debtedness is 90%(Avg debt 1lac)·Acc to NITI Aayog , more than 1.6 lakh farmers are practicing the ZBNF in almost 1,000 villages.Banking:The opening of 36 crore bank accounts in Jan Dhan Yojana has linked the poor to our growing economy.Government is in talks with foreign lenders to provide $14.5 bn in credit to millions of small firmsIndia’s 63 million firms in micro, small and medium firm sector are responsible for more than a quarter of the country’s manufacturing and services output. Gross domestic product growth fell to a 5 year low of 5.8% in January-March quarter, well below the 8% plus rates that the government is targeting.Credit availability for SMEs, which also account for about 45% of the country’s exports, has worsened due to a liquidity crisis in the NBFCs sector.A study by RBI Panel said the overall deficit in credit for the MSME sector is estimated at about Rs 20-25 lakh crore.Employment:MGNREGA- Lack of adequate financial allocation, pending liabilities and low wages have dogged the programme over the past 8 years.About 20% of budget allocation in each of the last 5 years is pending wage liabilities from previous years. It was worst in 2016-17 when pending liabilities were 35% out of total allocation of Rs 38,500 crore.MGNREGA wages in many states are about 40% lower than the national minimum wage.Swaraj Abhiyan vs Union of India, 2015- Government should provide more work to the people of drought prone area and timely wages.Public employment in India is only one-tenth of that in Norway, only 15% of that in Brazil and much than a third of that in ChinaAuto Industry:8-10 lac job lossAutomatic Hubs: Gurugram - Manesar belt , Pune , Jamshedpur,PithampurEnvironment:The total surface area of our Earth is 52 billion hectares (Ha), and 31% of this has been forest cover.FAO defines forest as a land area of at least 0.5 hectare, covered by at least 10% tree cover without any agricultural activity or human settlementSwiss and French ecologists have found out that there is potential climate change mitigation through global tree restoration by adding 0.9 bn hectares. More than 50% of this restoration potential can be found in 6 countriesIndia has 21.54% tree cover and between 2015 and 2018, we have added 6,778 sq kmPhilippines Success story- Making mandatory for each elementary, high school and college student to plant 10 trees before graduatingSection 15 of the Environment Protection Act(for thermal power plants) provides for blanket penalty for contravention of any of the provisions of EPA: up to 5 years of imprisonment and up to Rs 1 lakh fine along with additional daily fines for continuing offences.·As per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) norms for upgraded fuels, (IS: 2796 – petrol and IS: 1460 – diesel), sulphur content is reduced to 10 mg/kg max in BS-VI from 50 mg/kg under BS-IV. This key reduction in sulphur makes it possible to equip vehicles with better catalytic converters that capture pollutants.·As per June 2019 sales data released by SIAM, automobile companies sold 16.28% fewer passenger vehicles compared to June 2018. There was a 23.39% drop in the sale of commercial vehicles in the same period. Two-wheeler sales dipped by 11.70%.·India has been emerging as one of the world’s most polluted countries, with particulate matter PM 2.5 levels spiking more than 999 microgram per cubic metre in parts of Delhi last year.·The government also commissioned a study to gauge the economic value of tiger reserves. Based on an analysis of 10 of them, the government claimed that the cumulative benefits — from the carbon and timber conserved, livelihood to those who depend on forests and tourism — were anywhere from ₹4,200 crore to ₹16,000 crore annually.·Nearly 3,000 tigers now reside in India, that's more than 70% of the world's tiger population.·The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has asserted in its report, ‘Status of Tigers in India’ 2018, that 83% of the big cats censused were individually photographed using camera traps, 87% were confirmed through a camera trap based capture-recapture technique, and other estimation methods were used to establish the total number.·The less accessible Western Ghats has witnessed a steady increase in numbers from 2006, notably in Karnataka, and Central India has an abundance, but there is a marked drop in Chhattisgarh and Odisha; in Buxa, Dampa, Palamau, which are Tiger Reserves, no trace of animal was found.·Madhya Pradesh saw the highest number at 526, closely followed by Karnataka (524) and Uttarakhand (442).·Chhattisgarh and Mizoram saw a decline in tiger population and all other states saw a “positive” increase, according to a press statement.Studies show that India’s road transport emissions are small in global comparison but increasing exponentially.Global Carbon Project reports that India’s carbon emissions are rising more than 2 times as fast as the global rise in 2018.Globally, the transport sector accounts for a quarter of total emissions, out of which three quarters are from road transport.According to the recent National Family Health Survey(2015-16), nearly 30% of all men are overweight or obese in southwest Delhi. These data correlate with high reliance of car use in Delhi and low demand for walking.India Human Development Survey shows that 10% increase in cycling could lower chronic disease for 0.3 mn people.A recent UN Global Assessment Report estimated India’s economic losses would be 4% of GDP annually if we don’t invest in building natural ecosystems, while a 2018 World Bank Report said that 600 million Indians are moderately to severely affected by changes in temperature and rainfall.Greenpeace air pollution report for 2019 lists as many as seven Indian cities among the 10 worst in the worldAnother report said that 1.2 million deaths in 2017 could be directly attributable to all-round pollutionThe IPCC report warns that clean energy, clean transport and reduction emissions alone will not cut global emissions enough to avoid dangerous warming beyond 2 degrees Celsius. It points out that the global food system is responsible for 21 to 37 per cent of the world’s GHG emissionsAbout a quarter of the Earth’s ice-free land area is subjected to what the report describes as “human-induced degradation”. Rapid agricultural expansion has led to destruction of forests, wetlands and grasslands and other ecosystems. Soil erosion from agricultural fields, the report estimates, is 10 to 100 times higher than the soil formation rate.The Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH) estimates that the commercial production of shale gas would require multiple fracking activities in each well with water requirement of up to nine million liters per fracking activity. As of today, 56 sites across six States have been identified for fracking, and according to the World Resources Institute, all of them fall under ‘water stress’ zones, having limited supply of fresh water.The world is 1° C hotter than preindustrial 1850-1900 levels, with 2015-19 comprising the hottest years on record.As a result of global warming, sea levels could rise by 2.8 ft. by 2100, presenting an existential threat to India’s coastlines.Driving this temperature increase, carbon emissions rose by a record 2.65 parts per million (ppm) a year in 2015-19, reaching 412 ppm today. At this rate, the catastrophic threshold of 450 ppm for reaching the 2° C increase in warming will be breached in just 15 years. By 2050, temperatures in India are projected to increase 1.5-3° C relative to 1981-2010, if little action is taken.The average cost of these two renewable power sources is now in the range of the cost of fossil fuels. Even so, renewable energy still accounts for only 17% of India’s electricity needs, with 80% coming from polluting fossil fuelsAlso, energy-related CO2 is rising because of increased fossil fuel consumption, encouraged by government subsidies for this energy source. Worldwide, these subsidies increased by one-third in 2018, to $400 billion globally.Perversely, coal plant capacity is set to expanding South and Southeast Asia, which together account for half of the world’s planned coal power expansion, with India, Vietnam and Indonesia combined for over 30%. Bangladesh and Pakistan plan to increase coal-based capacity threefold, and the Philippines wants to double capacity.·Marine culture: Agriculture Minister further said that fish production in India is estimated at 11.4 million tones, out of which 68% is registered from inland fisheries sector and the remaining 32% from marine sector. It is expected that the indigenous fish requirement by 2020 would be 15 million tones as against the production of 11.4 million tonnes. This gap of 3.62 million tonnes is expected to be made up by Inland Aquaculture and also through Mari culture.E-Waste:According to the United Nations University’s Global E-waste Monitor, India’s e-waste generation amounted to 2 million tonnes in 2017. Computer and telecom equipment accounted for 82 per cent of the total e-waste generated in India, according to an ASSOCHAM-KPMG study.However, only 0 .036 million tonnes of waste was processed.E-waste generation in India is estimated to increase by 500 per cent by 2020. Approximately 95 per cent of e-waste generated ends up in the informal sector according to reports.As of now, government has 312 registered recycling facilities across 19 states with the capacity to recycle 0.78 million metric tonnes.Infrastructure:Road Transport- More people die in India due to road accident related incidents than anywhere else in the world. With over half a million accidents and over 1.5 lakh fatalities every year — and that’s the official figure; unofficially, fatalities could be 20 per cent higher and accidents 50 per cent higher than what’s captured in the crime records database.India overtook China in 2006 as the country with the world’s deadliest roads. A total of 146,133 people were killed on Indian roads in 2015, an increase of 4.6% from 2014, according to the latest data with the roads ministry. The number of road accidents in India increased 2.5% in 2015 to 501,423 while injuries from road accidents rose 1.4% to 500,279 in 2015.According to NITI Aayog “Transforming Mobility Report”, congestion in the 4 biggest metro causes annual economic losses of over $22 bnElectric Vehicles:In 2018 China accounted for 57% of EV sold globally.By 2023 100% electric 3 wheelersBikes by 2025Science and Technology:It is feared that these multidrug-resistant superbugs may kill as many as 10 million people worldwide by 2050.On Medical Devices- “The fact is after the GST regime, importers have to pay respective customs duty which is around 7.5%-10% in addition to 12% of GST. So in effect, importers are paying more taxes after the GST regime than before.It is true that the input tax credit is applicable against GST component on inputs, but the same is available for locally manufactured goods as well.In total, GST regime does not benefit importers in any way over domestic players. In fact, post-GST import duties on many implantable devices have gone up to 10% due to increase in custom duties.Micro RNAs- These are regulators of gene expression, acting like switches. They decide which protein should be made and how much in a given cell or tissue or an organism. They are tiny, having some 20-22 digits of RNA.·The establishment of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in 1969 heralded the Indian space programme. As the sixth-largest space agency celebrates its golden jubilee, India has slowly and steadily emerged as a pre-eminent space power with 102 spacecraft missions, the largest fleet of civilian satellites in the Asia-Pacific region, a successful inter-planetary Mars Orbiter Mission and a world record of launching 104 satellites from a single rocketSecurity:“30,000 to 40,000” militants — trained in Afghanistan and Kashmir — are still operating in Pakistan, Mr. Khan(PM of Pakistan) has admitted.Western countries such as U.S, U.K, Canada, Australia, Germany advise their citizens against travelling to Kashmir valley. Against 13 lakh tourists who travelled to Kashmir in 2016, the first 6 months of 2019 recorded just 3.54 lakh.Migration:·Top out migration states: UP,Bihar , Rajasthan,MP,Karnataka·Top in migration states: Maharashtra, delhi, up , gujarat,Haryana.5.43 cr roughly population of Myanmar was the interstate migrant at the time of census 2011.More migrants in Maharashtra ( 91l) than Delhi ( 63l)and Rajasthan(26l). Gujrat( 39l), UP( 41L)21% of interstate migrant go to Maharashtra.22% of job seeker migrants prefer MaharashtraReasons for migration:23% for employment31% for marriage3% for education1% for business40% for familyGender perspective:o47 % Men migrate for employmento4% Women migrate for employmentoHalf of women interstate migrant state marriage as the mains reason.Innovation:·Global Innovation Index : India’s rank 52nd·Israel in top 10.·It invest 7% of GDP in education.·It invest 4% in R&D.Organized Crime:·In 2016, in its reply to a Lok Sabha question, the Union Health Ministry noted that there is a huge gap between the demand and supply of human organs for transplant even though the precise numbers of premature deaths due to heart, liver, lung and pancreas failures have not been compiled.·The Ministry noted that against the demand of 2 lakh kidneys, only 6,000 were available. Similarly, against the demand of 30,000 livers only 1,500 were available, and against the demand of 50,000 hearts merely 15 were available across the country.·According to the Multi Organ Harvesting Aid Network Foundation (Mohan Foundation), a Chennai-based NGO working on organ donation, only about 3% of the demand is met.·“In India, [the] deceased organ donation programme is largely restricted to big institutions and the private sector which makes it less accessible for all. The deceased donation rate in 2013 was 0.26/million population and this went up to 0.36/million population in 2014.Innovation:·Global Innovation Index : India’s rank 52nd·Israel in top 10.·It invest 7% of GDP in education.·It invest 4% in R&DEconomyThe latest International Monetary Fund (IMF)-World Economic Outlook update in July 2019 has confirmed a growing belief that global growth has decelerated and dark clouds seem to be looming in the near term. Specifically, the IMF has downgraded global growth multiple times since October 2018 and now projects it to be 3.2% compared to 3.6% in 2018.The government’s fiscal deficit touched ₹4.32 lakh crore for the June quarter, which is 61.4% of the Budget Estimate for 2019-20 fiscal.In absolute terms, the fiscal deficit, or the gap between expenditure and revenue, was ₹4.32 lakh crore at June-end, as per the data released by the Controller General of Accounts (CGA).The government aims to restrict the fiscal deficit to 3.4% of the GDP (gross domestic product) in the current fiscal, the same as last financial year.India dropped two places in GDP rankings in 2018 compared to2017. With a slump in consumption, and new investments reducing to a trickle, the government’s aim of making India a $5 trillion economy 2024 seems far fetched.Drop in position : In 2017, the size of the Indian economy stood at $2.65 trillion, the fifth largest. In 2018, India’s economy in $ terms grew by 3.01% to $2.73 trillion. But in the same period, the U.K. and France grew by 6.8% and 7..3% respectively, pushing India to the seventh place in the World Bank’s GDP rankings in 2018.Investment Woes : Investments in new projects nosedived to a 15 year low in the quarter ending June 2019. The drop in value of new projects was driven by a dip in both private and government investments.Consumption drops : Three of the four major indicators of the consumer economy recorded negative growth rates in the first half of 2019.Downward revision : The IMF, Asian Development Bank and CRISIL brought down their projections for India for FY20. While both IMF and ADB have projected that India will grow at 7% or more, CRISIL has estimated that the GDP will grow by 6.9%India will now need to attract private capital amounting to 3%-4% of GDP for the ‘Great March’ that Prime Minister Narendra Modi has flagged off to $5 trillion GDPBanking: After nationalisation of banks in 1969, the share of institutional sources in the outstanding debt of rural households increased from just 16.9% (1962) to 64%(1992).The share of bank deposits to GDP rose from 13% in 1969 to 38% in 1991. The gross savings rate rose from 12.8% in 1969 to 21.7% in 1990. The share of advances to GDP rose from 10% in 1969 to 25% in 1991. The gross investment rate rose from 13.9% in 1969 to 24.1% in 1990.After economic reforms of 1991, more than 900 rural bank branches closed down across the country. The rate of growth of agricultural credit fell sharply from around 7% per annum in the 1980s to about 2% per annum in the 1990s.Between 1991 and 2002, the share of institutional sources in the total outstanding debt of rural households fell from 64% to 57.1%RBI new branch authorisation policy in 2005- the number of rural bank branches rose from 30,646 in 2005, to 33,967 in 2011 and 48,536 in 2015. The annual growth rate of real agricultural credit rose from about 2% in the 1990s to about 18% between 2001 and 2015.Between 2010 and 2016, the key responsibility of opening no-frills accounts for the unbanked poor fell upon public banks. Data show that more than 90% of the new no-frills accounts were opened in public banks·A revenue deficit of Central govt. Is relatively recent, having been virtually non existent till the 1980s. After that a rampant populism has taken over all political parties, reflected in revenue deficit accounting for over ⅔ rd of the fiscal deficit.·World Economy: IMF forecast for the world is 3.2%Disaster ManagementAccording to the World Health Organization (WHO), 30-40 per cent of the victims of catastrophic natural disasters suffer from major mental distress and require counselling.CybersecurityInternet Shut down·During 2012-017, says Icrier, 16,315 hours of Internet shutdown cost India’s economy around $3 billion, the 12,600 hours of mobile Internet shutdown about $2.37 billion, and the 3,700 hours of mobile and fixed-line Internet shutdowns nearly $678.4 million.··India is the 5th largest producer of solar energy and 6 th largest producer of renewable energy.·China ranks 1st in terms of renewable energy production according to International Renewable Energy Agency·A study by the Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, shows that Indian coal-fired thermal power plants are considered the most inefficient and polluting in the world. More than 75% of these plants don’t comply with governmental regulations.IMPORTANT TOPICS FOR MAINS-2019:Employment:The Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) of the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) released on Friday showed the unemployment rate in the country in FY18 was at 5.3% in rural India and 7.8% in urban India, resulting in overall unemployment rate of 6.1%.Middle income trap:The per-capita income at current prices during 2018-19 is estimated to have attained a level of ₹1,26,406 ( ₹10,533.83 monthly) as compared to the estimated for the year 2017-18 of₹1,14,958 ( ₹9,579.83 a month), showing a rise of 10%," according to the annual national income and GDP 2018-19 data released by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI).Export policy:India’s revenue from exports of merchandise over the last four fiscal years was $310 billion, $262 billion, $275 billion and $302 billion, respectively. Thus over the four years from April 2014 till March 2018, the total growth was zero, or, rather, a tad negative. Even the ratio of exports to gross domestic product (GDP), at 11.6%, is at a 14-year low.In 2014, the trade policy announced by the Union commerce minister envisaged total exports worth $900 billion by 2020. That looks almost impossible, unless exports grow by 40% per annum from now onEmployment elasticity:The old link between growth and jobs is now much weaker than before. In the 1990s, the employment elasticity in India was nearly 0.4. This number measures how much a given rise in growth impacts jobs. At 0.4, a one per cent rise in GDP growth gives us a 0.4% rise in employment; 5% growth gives jobs a 2% boost.Now, this elasticity is down to 0.2 or lower. This means, for every percentage rise in growth, we get only a 0.2% impact on employment. Put another way, we need a minimum of 10% GDP growth to give us the kind of jobs kick we used to get in the 1990s.The gap between jobs created and jobs sought will be just over 1.5 million annually.Tax-GDP Ratio :The tax-GDP ratio is expected to cross 12% in FY19, a new high in over a decade, but lower than emerging market peers.Tax-to-GDP ratio for India has inched up slightly in recent years, but remains well below the world average. It is 10.6% , 11.6% , 12.1% in the years 2016, 2018, 2019 respectively.MSME :MSME has played a prominent role in the development of the country in terms of creating employment opportunities-MSME has employed more than 50 million people, scaling manufacturing capabilities, curtailing regional disparities, balancing the distribution of wealth, and contributing to the GDP-MSME sector forms 8% of GDP.MSME sector has cut jobs in the last seven yearsDemographic transition:India’s working-age population is now increasing because of rapidly declining birth and death ratesIndia’s age dependency ratio, the ratio of dependents (children and the elderly) to the working-age population (14- to 65-year-olds), is expected to only start rising in 2040, as per UN estimatesDemographic Dividend:For the first time since independence, India’s working age population — those aged between 15-64 years — will outnumber its dependents, that is, children aged 14 and below as well as people aged 65 and above.India’s dependency ratio has declined from 68.4 %( 1950) to 49.8 %( 2018). Total Fertility rate declined from 5.9(1950) to 2.2(2018).Black Money:Various studies and estimates have pegged black money circulation india anywhere between 7 per cent and 120 per cent of the country’s GDP in 2009-10 and 2010-11.Green GDP:Damage to the environment is put at Rs 34,0000 crores per year and it reduces the GDP by 9.5 percent annually.If water scarcity persists, it can lead to an alarming loss of six percent in the GDP by year 2050.Non Performing Asset:In recent years, the gross NPAs of banks have increased from 2.3% of total loans in 2008 to 4.3% in 2015 .Care Ratings says 17 banks have bad loan ratio above 10%. Gross NPAs of a set of 36 banks increased from ₹6.71 lakh crore in March 2017 to a peak of ₹9.66 lakh crore in March 2018 and subsequently moderated to ₹8.70 lakh crore in March 2019 before increasing to ₹8.97 lakh crore in June 2019.Agriculture export policy :India’s share in global exports of agriculture products has increased from 1% a few years ago, to 2.2 % in 2016.In 2018, India accrued a $14.6 billion trade surplus of agricultural, fishery, and forestry goods. Leadingexports consisted of Basmati rice, carabeef/meat of bovine animals, frozen shrimp and prawns, cotton, and refined sugar.Farm loan waiver:Agricultural NPAs were on a continuous decline between 2001 and 2008. Second, there is no evidence to argue that the 2008 waiver led to a rise in default rates among farmers.The rise of agricultural NPAs, from 2% to 5%, is no evidence for indiscipline in farmer repayment behaviour. One, NPAs in agriculture remained stable at around 4 to 5% between 2011 and 2015. This was despite the fact that agricultural growth averaged just 1.5% between 2011 and 2015.Agriculture census:Small and marginal farmers with less than two hectares of land account for 86.2% of all farmers in India, but own just 47.3% of the crop area, according to provisional numbers from the 10th agriculture census 2015-16.Inequality and Inclusive growth :About 50% of wealth in India in owned by just 100 people which is due to unequal distribution of wealth.Agriculture has a share of 17% in the GDP but employs about half the total labour force while the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) have a share of 32% in the gross value added (GVA) and have an important place in providing an “above the poverty line” lifestyle to the people (GoI 2018).Financial Inclusion:600 million deposit accounts were opened between fiscals 2013 and 2016, or twice the number between 2010 and 2013. Nearly a third of this was on account of Jan Dhan.for fiscal 2016 (the latest period for which data is available) show financial inclusion has improved significantly in India, with the all-India score rising to 58.0 in fiscal 2016, compared with 50.1 in fiscal 2013.Private investment:Investment in private sector projects fell similarly (83% compared to the previous quarter and 89% compared to last year).The stalling rate of private sector projects, which has hovered above 20% since the September 2017 quarter, reached an all-time high of 26.1% in the June 2019 quarter.Livestock Population:About 20.5 million people depend upon livestock for their livelihood. Livestock contributed 16% to the income of small farm households.The value of output from livestock was about 31.11% of the value of the output from total agriculture and allied sector.Food security in India :The country is home to 270 million hungry people, the highest in the world. India stands 97th in Oxfam’s Food Availability Index, and 103rd in the 2018 Global Hunger Index. In 2015-16, food grains accounted for 79 per cent of the imported agricultural produce; the figure was 76% the following year.Large-scale import of wheat in 2016 is often attributed to drought years. But there has been large-scale import of edible oil and pulses as well in the past two decades.Energy Poverty:India has just 4% of the world’s renewable energy but have 18% of the world's population.Agricultural technology:Farm Mechanization: Laser guided land leveler can flatten the land in less time than oxen powered scrapper. It increases farmers productivity by 15%.Food processing :According to the ministry of food processing industries annual report, the sector employs 12.8% of the workforce in the organised sector (factories registered under Factories Act, 1948), and 13.7% of the workforce in the unorganised sector. Despite being one of the largest producers of agricultural and food products in the world, India ranks fairly low in the global food processing value chains.Food processing is also important from the point of reducing food waste. In fact, the United Nations estimates that 40% of production is wasted. Similarly, the NITI Aayog cited a study that estimated annual post-harvest losses of close to Rs 90,000 crore.Renewable energy and energy security :Even with the growth of renewable energy, coal has been projected to be the backbone of electricity sector until 2030 and beyond.India has created 80,000 MW of renewable energy and set a target of achieving 1,75,000 MW by 2022, reduced energy intensity by 21%.India’s annual coal demand rose by 9.1% to nearly one billion tones during the year ending March 2019. Coal features among the top five imports of India, with total imports rising from 166.9 million tons in 2013-14 to 235.24 million tons in 2018-19.Best of luck to all mains candidates!God bless you all

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