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What fact sounds completely made up but is actually real?

I will answer this question with four real events in history.I want to thank you for being here 20世纪研究所,马前卒,知乎用户,匿名用户.The answer of these four Zhihu users is the full strength of my ability to complete this article. I translated a lot of their words and provided inspiration and inspiration for me.I.A group photo of nine European emperors.In May 1910, nine European monarchs gathered in London to attend the funeral of King Edward VII and take a group photo. Although the Russian Czar, the Italian King, the Romanian king and the Austro Hungarian king are missing, this is the most complete picture of the king's participation in history (rather than family photo). In the future, four of them will be abandoned and one will be assassinated.(Standing from left to right: King hakang VII of Norway, King Ferdinand of Bulgaria, King Manuel II of Portugal, King William II of Germany, King George I of Greece and King Albert I of Belgium.Sit from left to right: Alfonso XIII, king of Spain, George V, king of Denmark, Frederick VIII.)Can you believe that they are all one family, and they have very complicated relations. (In the picture, King Frederick VIII of Denmark is the father of King hakang VII of Norway; the wife of King hakang VII of Norway is the sister of King George V of England; the wife of King Frederick VIII of Denmark is also the uncle of King George V of England; the wife of King George I of Greece is the cousin of Russian emperor Nicholas II (not shown in the picture); the king of Germany Wei Lian II, King George V of England and Russian Tsar Nicholas II are all cousins... While Ferdinand of Bulgaria, Albert I of Belgium, Manuel II of Portugal and Alfonso XIII of Spain are all related to Britain, Habsburg, khohensoren and other royal families. What a European family!)Intermarriage has caused many deformities in babies.*Many people think of George V, the king of England sitting in the middle, as Tsar Nicholas II. The two brothers are really like each other! Because their mother is a sibling. (the two brothers have a good relationship. It is said that when George V knowed that Nicholas II was killed by comrade Lenin, the old man was silent for a sad morning!)▾ they are really like twins. Many people can't recognize each other if they become doubles. They can tell by speaking haha😂.This picture was taken in 1913. Left: Nicholas II right: George v. (* Please pay attention to their costumes! The two brothers were wearing German cavalry uniforms. Nicholas II was wearing German Westphalia light cavalry uniforms. George V was wearing Rhine cavalry army uniforms. In the past, European royal families used to symbolically present one of their own troops to other countries as a friendly exchange)Nicholas II on the left and George V on the right.▾ left: Maria fiodorovna (the mother of Russian czar Nikolai II) right: Alexandra Caroline (the mother of King George V)II.These are some of the cold knowledge of Western Law (trivia)1. According to the medieval Christian theory, there is a risk of going to hell to convict people (in some more rigorous theories, whether the conviction is correct or not, they will go to hell). At that time, the divine ruling was presided over by the church. The Catholic Church said that I would not accept this task, which was one of the reasons for abolishing the divine ruling.2. So the risk of convicting people to go to hell is transferred to countries. The judges in England also said that I would not accept the task, so they tactfully put the responsibility of conviction in the criminal trial on the jury.3. The jury is also unwilling to accept the damned task, so the jurors often ignore the facts and refuse to be convicted. In order to ensure that jurors have no psychological burden of conviction, England established the earliest theory of "excluding reasonable doubt" in the middle ages. That is, as long as the jurors have "ruled out reasonable doubt" at the time of conviction, even if the verdict is wrong, there is no need to go to hell.4. Judges in continental Europe failed to leave the pot to the jury, and the judges themselves assumed the responsibility of conviction. So the European continent established strict and mechanical evidence system earlier, because judges can avoid the risk of going to hell as long as they are convicted according to the evidence system.5. Because the evidence system in the European continent is more strict, leading to many cases can not obtain enough evidence, so the European continent introduced the torture system in the middle ages. On the contrary, in England, where the evidence system is more loose, torture is not necessary.6. "The scope of deterrence by death penalty set by criminal justice in England exceeds the extent that law enforcers are willing to implement it. In order to avoid the result of killing people, various forms of evasion measures are implemented. The adversarial criminal procedure is formed under this background. If we want to understand why the British and American criminal procedure formed in this era is so indifferent to the truth, we must remember that the day when we set up the criminal judicial procedure is the time when we do not need the truth so much. " It's about the 18th and 19th centuries.7. "No one should be forced to sue himself" has the same Christian background. This principle comes from church law, but for a completely different purpose. This is to make a clear distinction between the two aspects of Christians, emphasizing that the confession obligation of believers does not require criminal charges against themselves. Christians can confess their sins to priests, but they don't have to confess to judges or prosecutors about crimes that would be criminally punished.8. One of the main sources of income of the royal family in the Middle Ages was the court fees and fines, so the royal family of England tried to expand the jurisdiction of the royal court.9. Francis Bacon was a justice of the British court of equity and was impeached (despite the complicated political background) for taking bribes. When he left, Bacon said bluntly that although he did take bribes, he was still the cleanest justice of the equity court in history.10. In the history of the British Parliament, the level of corruption is not so good. Franklin once joked that if he was given half of the military expenditure of the war of independence, he could bribe the British Parliament.11. Gulliver's travels describes the English common law, which is totally different from the legal history textbook: "I said that there are such a group of people there. They (lawyers) have been learning a subject since their youth. How to use words to try to prove that it is black and the black is white? How much money you give him, how much power he will give you. In the eyes of these people, all but them are slaves They (judges) are all selected from the most astute and experienced lawyers. They are old, easy-going and hard-working, and they have been against the truth and justice all their lives, so they must protect fraud, perjury and tyranny These lawyers have a rule that it is legal for anything to be quoted in the preceding case to happen again. Therefore, they pay special attention to recording all previous judgments against utility and humanity. "12. Hugo spent a whole chapter in les miserables attacking the French Criminal System (Volume II, Chapter 7). In the normal textbooks of legal history, the French Criminal Code is called one of the important achievements of the enlightenment.13. Adam Smith once mentioned in the wealth of nations that England's judges and clerks charge according to the length of the judgment. I personally think this can explain why traditionally English judges are more lengthy than their counterparts in continental Europe.14. Adam Smith's speech on law, police, revenue and armaments mentioned a purely legal and technical issue: the testamentary successor can inherit the property only when the decedent dies, but at that time, the decedent has passed away and lost his rights. Leibniz solved this problem tactfully. Leibniz pointed out that the soul is immortal, so the heir still has rights after his death.15. Leibniz is a doctor of law. His doctoral dissertation is entitled "on the difficulty of law". He participated in the preparation of the civil code of Saxony, and some principles of the pandect system were established by Leibniz.16. The process of drafting and compiling the German civil code is extremely slow, which is much faster than that of the civil code under the law. As a matter of fact, the drafting of the French civil code was very slow at the beginning. It was not until Napoleon asked about it and often attended the regular drafting meeting that the progress was greatly accelerated.17. Goethe also studied law and worked in the Privy court of the Holy Roman Empire. Gerd once wrote a bad personal experience of poetry and Tucao, but I didn't expect this poem to become an important document for studying the imperial Privy Council.18. Anselm Feuerbach, the father of German philosopher Feuerbach, is a famous criminologist. It is common to say that ansom Feuerbach also loves philosophy and studies law for money, because "criminal law is the knowledge of bread". However, according to ansom Feuerbach's letter to his son, his original savings were enough to learn philosophy, until he knew his mother, in order to catch up with his sister, the cost increased, and finally he embarked on the road of criminal law.19. In contrast, Hobbes did not know the common law when he wrote Leviathan. His good friend gave him a common law textbook several years later, and suggested that Hobbes study common law. By the way, Leviathan didn't have a full French translation until after World War II.20. John Marshall's legal education was also limited, with only a few months of evening classes.21. The famous case of Marbury v. Madison originated from the fact that the former Secretary of state forgot to send a letter of appointment to Marbury before leaving office, and the new secretary of state Madison refused to send a letter of appointment to Marbury. John Marshall, the former Secretary of state, forgot to send a letter to Marbury. So Marshall's failure to avoid the trial of Marbury v. Madison was, to say the least, a disgrace.22. In the minutes of the constituent assembly, it is indeed recorded that a representative made a statement proposing to grant judicial review power to the Federal Supreme Court. But at least according to Madison's notes, the proposal fell to pieces without any response from other representatives. At least we can say that the judicial review power of the Supreme Court has not been seriously discussed by the representatives of the constituent assembly, and it is likely that the system design is not what they want to see.23. At the time of the constituent assembly, another representative put forward with great enthusiasm that the so-called "state power" does not exist and is far from a concept with a long history that has been generally recognized. This is just a theory created by every state for its own benefit, especially for the sake of keeping saving slaves.24. Marx wrote a pure declaration of philosophy of historical schools in early years. Although I do not know what hatred Marx and the Historical School of law are, but this article is in the fancy Historical School of law, for example, "people generally believe that the historical school is a reaction to the frivolous spirit of eighteenth Century. The popularity of this view is just in inverse proportion to its authenticity. Specifically, there is only one product of the 18th century, its main feature is frivolity, and the only product of this frivolity is the school of history.25. The Grimm brothers, who wrote fairy tales, are the students of Savigny, a famous historical law school. Now we can also publish the lecture notes of Savigny School of historical law based on the notes of the green brothers in the bookstore.III.A poor Chinese emperor who has never eaten eggsOne day, Daoguang, the Emperor of Qing Dynasty,cared about whether a minister had breakfast before the early Qing Dynasty. The minister was very moved to say that his family was poor, so he simply ate a few eggs. Results Daoguang was shocked: I dare not eat more eggs, but you dare to cry for poverty.During the reign of Guangxu, the egg reimbursement in the palace has become 30 Liang, while the one sold outside is 3 or 4 copper plates. So that Emperor Guangxu felt guilty every time he ate eggs.In fact, these emperors are also pitiful. They don't know that eggs are not valuable things in their whole lives, but that the Royal management department is too corrupt.IV.In the latest history, I am most shocked by Japan's initiative to send missions to the new world and Europe in the early 17th century.In the early shogunate era, Japan had actively participated in the early era of great navigation, using the routes opened by Spain and Portuguese to explore the world. The above route map is the route of the shogunate mission across the Pacific Ocean, across the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean to visit Europe:In 1609, the Spanish yacht San Francisco was hit by severe weather on its way from Manila to Acapulco, and it was wrecked in Chiba near Edo. The crew were rescued and warmly entertained, and the captain Rodrigo de vivero also met with Tokugawa.On November 29, 1609, the two sides signed a treaty. The treaty agreed that Spanish people would be able to set up factories in eastern Japan and bring in mining experts from New Spain. Spanish merchant ships would be allowed to visit Japan if necessary, and Japan would send an envoy to the Spanish royal family.Shogunate general decided to build a large sailing ship to bring biscaino and a Japanese mission to New Spain. The great name of Sendai, Yida Zhengzong, was in charge of the project. He ordered his family to take charge of the task. The Japanese named the large sailing ship as the village of IDA Maru, which was later renamed San Juan Bautista by the Spanish. It took 45 days to build the ship. The shogunate sent 800 shipbuilders, 700 blacksmiths and 3000 carpenters to participate in the project.After the completion of the project, the ship was ready to leave for Acapulco, Mexico, on October 28, 1613. About 180 people accompanied, including 10 shogunate Warriors (provided by the Minister of the navy to general Inoue), 12 Sendai warriors, 120 Japanese businessmen, crew and entourage, and about 40 Spanish and Portuguese.After three months of sea voyage, the ship arrived at Acapulco on January 25, 1614, and the envoys received a grand reception. The final task of Chang Cang is to go to Europe. After staying in Mexico for a while, he took a boat named Don Antonio Oquendo to sail in Veracruz. The sailboat sailed from San Jose to Europe on June 10. Zhicang had to leave the huge Japanese mission in Acapulco to wait for his return. On January 30, 1615, Ambassador Chang Chang Chang met with King Philip III of Spain in Madrid. Zhicang transmitted the letter of Yida Zhengzong to the king, which was a request for trade. The king complied with the demands. The branch was baptized by the king's personal priest on February 17 and renamed Philip Francisco branch. After that, Chang visited France and Rome. Through contacts with the west, Japan learned about geography and shipbuilding technology, and began to explore the world around it. However, the era of Japanese aggressors has passed, and the emerging military strength of the Qing Dynasty far exceeds that of the Ming Dynasty. The surplus Japanese warriors can only turn to Southeast Asia. In the first half of the 17th century, the Japanese in Ayudhaya had interesting similarities between the two rulers who started diplomatic relations between Japan and Siam in the early 17th century. In order to enrich the country and the people through commerce, King ergadh of Siam (R. 1605-1610) often went abroad to investigate. He was so keen on trade that the chronicles of the Siamese King described him as "more greedy than any of his predecessors", apparently "concerned only with how to enrich his treasury", and he was "very inclined to strangers and foreign countries". His successful brother, the great Siamese emperor Nari Xuan, completed the consolidation of Siamese kingdom which had been destroyed by Burmese for decades since 1569. In Japan, Jiakang, the first generation General of Tokugawa family, seeks diplomatic solutions in order to enhance business relations, establish friendly relations and new alliances between Japan and other Asian countries. He sent private letters to Southeast Asian countries to express the intention of business cooperation, and issued a royal seal to Japanese businessmen visiting Southeast Asia to protect and support them. Unlike European countries, Tokugawa did not form a joint venture company with businessmen in Japan, and its trade activities were still based on the subordination of Haoshang and shogunate. In 1606, Jiakang wrote a letter asking for the wood, cannon and gunpowder provided by the agathothal, indicating that he had established contact with the Siamese government of Ayudhaya at the latest. In another document in 1610, Jiakang thanked the king of Siam for his guns and gunpowder. Siamese also asked for Japanese horses and swords. The military trade between the two governments has a unique symbolic role, because it seems to imply the military alliance between the two sides. As a result, Tokugawa maintained official relations with the royal family in Ayudhaya and exchanged symbolic gifts, while they let the merchants take charge of large transactions. The Siamese side did not mind appointing Japanese businessmen as arbitrators to handle trade with Japan. For example, Chaya shirojiro, a businessman in Kyoto, can communicate directly with okphra Chula, an official of the Siamese court, while Hasegawa gonroku, the acting official of Nagasaki, has another channel of equal priority. Tsuda and Zuo weimen have lived in ayudaya since the first decade of the 17th century. He returned to Nagasaki in 1622 (or 1624) and became a translator. Kii KY Û Zaemon in Nagasaki may be the first Japanese to take office in the Siamese court. In 1616, he became the first envoy of Siamese to Japan. Generally speaking, Japanese invade Southeast Asia, Japan invade Korea, samurai and merchants enter Southeast Asia, zhicang often sends envoys to Europe and America, and shogunate defeats the last indigenous people in Hokkaido. There is a great correlation between these several events, which are the response of Japan to the new world system in the early period of the great navigation era. Although Japan quickly entered the period of lock up, as an island country with strong military tradition, the tradition of sea expansion inherited by Japan in the early era of great navigation had a great impact on the development of the country after its founding in the 19th century.My English is not very good. I welcome you to point out your opinions and suggestions for me.If you want to see other interesting things, you can leave a message in the comment area about the interest and scope, I will continue to update.Thank you for reading.

How long does it take to put together a great business school application starting from scratch? Is two months enough time?

My short answer is that for a single MBA application, I think you can indeed complete it in two months, but you may be sacrificing quality for speed, and that is not recommended.At MBA Prep School (, we studied applicants who completed three applications in a single round. The figures and the work plan that I will share was the result of that study. I will suggest some adjustments given that you asked about applying to a single MBA program.Before I start, let me acknowledge that this was not a "time and motion study" and no one used a stop watch. The results are based on anecdotal reports from clients who were deeply engaged in the process and produced successful, high-quality applications to three schools.For three business school applications, we recommend budgeting an average of 15 - 18 hours per week for 12 weeks. That is around 200 hours of work. To give you an idea of the scope and scale of the project of applying to business school, I am going to summarize each step and provide our estimates of how much time a typical applicant may need to devote to each activity.MBA Prep Step 1: Prepare to Apply (Prior to Starting Your Applications)For the early birds, who have more than twelve weeks until the deadlines, we recommend using the time to make their candidacy that much stronger. There are things you can do in the preparation phase to increase your chances of getting in, but I will save those for another Quora post. Note that we haven’t included time for these preparation activities in the 12 week / 200 hour budget. Furthermore, the work plan assumes that the applicant has already completed the GMAT.MBA Prep Step 2: Discover Your Strengths (Week 1; 12 hours)In this step, you will complete a thorough accounting of your key differentiators, character strengths, career history, and leadership capabilities. The things you discover about yourself will serve as the building blocks for a powerful application.MBA Prep Step 3: Define Your Career Goals (Weeks 2-3; 20 hours)Defining a powerful set of career goals is incredibly challenging. You must find the intersection between your strengths, passion, and sense of purpose in order to define an inspiring career vision for your career goals essays. Some applicants, though not many, already have this figured out. Adjust your budget accordingly.MBA Prep Step 4: Select Your Schools (Weeks 2-4; 18 hours)You need to look beyond the magazine rankings, the school’s marketing messages, and the opinions of others and instead complete in-depth school research to find the business schools that are best for you. Here again, you may be able to save time if you already know where you want to apply. Nevertheless, you still need to budget time for school research because a generic answer to an admissions officer's question about why you are applying to his or her school will undermine your candidacy.MBA Prep Step 5: Identify Each School's Fit Qualities (Weeks 4-6; 13 hours)To prove you are a better fit than your competition, you need to find out what qualities the MBA programs you are applying to value most and use that knowledge to shape and customize every element of your application – especially your essays. Our time budget assumes you are researching "fit qualities" for three schools; therefore, you can shave time off here if you are researching fit qualities for a single business school.MBA Prep Step 6: Create Your Application Resume (Weeks 4-6; 16 hours)Most schools will require you to submit a 1-2 page resume. You need to learn what admissions officers are looking for in an MBA application resume and then build a resume that will impress the admissions committee. If you already have a sparkling resume, then you are ahead of the game on this step.MBA Prep Step 7: Write Your Essays (Weeks 6-12; Budget 91 hours)The writing process is very demanding. From topic selection to final draft, there are really no shortcuts to creating great essays. Our standard estimate assumes that you will apply to three schools and complete three to five drafts of every essay. The first school's essays take the longest; so I wouldn't divide the number by three in your case. Instead, budget 8-10 hours of writing time for essay question you need to complete.MBA Prep Step 8: Select and Support Your References (Weeks 6-12; 19 hours)Selecting your references and supporting them along the way are critical aspects of a successful application. You need to guide your references to maximize the quality of the reference letters that accompany your application.MBA Prep Step 9: Complete the Application Forms (Weeks 10 -12; 13 hours)The application forms provide another opportunity to further differentiate your bid for admission. You need to summarize the awards and achievements that set you apart from others. For a single school, you probably only need about three or four hours for the forms. Proofread them very carefully. The time estimate assumes there are some short answer questions to tackle. It obviously doesn't take that much time to fill in your name and address...MBA Prep Step 10: Prepare for Interviews (After submitting your application)The admissions interview is the “final exam” in the application process. The preparation time is not factored into our budget for the application activities because this is work that takes place once your applications have been submitted. Some applicants will spend 20 - 30 hours or more preparing for interviews. Do keep in mind that a few business schools conduct interviews during the application round. If that is the case for the schools you are applying to then interview preparation time does need to be factored in to your twelve-week work plan.Final ThoughtsI hope that this work plan for applying for an MBA helps you to create a time line that is realistic and manageable given the other demands on your time. My final thought is that you should indeed aim to complete your MBA application in eight weeks. A sense of urgency is always a good thing. By about week six-- before your references letters are submitted-- take a step back from the process and ask yourself (and others) if you have optimized the quality of every element of your application. If not, then you should definitely postpone submission until the second round.

Did India use the IAF in the battle with China in 1962? If not, why? Answer the question in 3,000 or more words.

1962: Why the IAF was not used“The Indians at all levels are in a state of shock. Not one but two pleas for help are coming to us, the second one of them still highly confidential. They want our Air Force to back them up so that they can employ theirs tactically without leaving their cities unprotected…” JK Galbraith (US Ambassador in India during the 1962 Indo-China War)”Prime Minister Nehru wrote two letters in quick succession to the US President John F Kennedy on the night of November 19, 1962. The war situation had become desperate and India was at the verge of collapse with the Chinese troops having reached the foothills of NEFA (North-East Frontier Agency, now called Arunachal Pradesh). Bomdila had fallen and the retreating troops from Sela had been trapped between the two passes. Fear of Chinese coming down the valley and occupying the eastern sector had percolated down the line, creating an aura of panic and helplessness. The plans were afoot to evacuate major cities in Assam. This was the grim scenario under which Nehru wrote those two letters.He asked for a comprehensive aid from the US that included immediate help of the US Air Force for the purpose of air defence of the eastern sector. For the Indian Air Force to be employed in offensive role against the Chinese on the war front, it was felt necessary to have the US Air Force to defend the eastern sector against the PLAAF (People’s Liberation Army Air force as Chinese air force is known), should the Chinese retaliate by attacking Indian cities, oilfields and the industrial complexes in the region. The UK Prime Minister was also kept in the picture. However, by then the Chinese declared a unilateral ceasefire and a phased withdrawal. Obviously, they must have met their limited objective as set at the outset of the war. Besides, they could ill afford to stay on with the passes getting snow bound in days to come. These letters made public recently betray Nehru’s fears and the state of helplessness, as also the deference with which he approaches the subject of help from the US http://President.In the light of these letters, it has become necessary to re-visit the controversy surrounding this vital issue of non use of combat elements of the IAF, despite the overwhelming Chinese onslaught. The Army rightly feels aggrieved that despite the grave circumstances, the Air Force did not come to its rescue. Perhaps, had Nehru not been so influenced by US Ambassador, Galbraith’s advise and the IB boss, BN Mullick who had Nehru’s ears always, the outcome could well have been somewhat different. Whilst the former had Cold War compulsions in mind in advising Nehru the way he did, the latter was led to exaggerating the Chinese threat in the absence of real intelligence.Lack of genuine intelligence with the government, as also the armed forces and consequent fear of Chinese retribution due to over assessment of their capabilities obviously led to this unfortunate decision. Thus, it was the fear of the unknown that created a sort of paranoia amongst the higher hierarchy in the govt which totally froze and took decisions and actions that did not bring much honour to the nation and its Prime Minister, as stands revealed now.The US advice that it would be unwise to involve the combat elements of the IAF played a major role in arriving at this decision. The suggestion that the eastern cities and the air bases at Tezpur and Guwahati, Calcutta industrial complex, oil installation might become targets for the Chinese bombing unnerved the government. The intelligence about the Chinese having active air bases at Rudok, Gartok and Tashigong further added to the confusion. There are no such bases even today in 2010. Thus, the government was led to deciding in favour of not using the IAF in operations other than the logistic support to the army, lest it should result in some sort of disaster. The demand for twelve all weather supersonic fighter squadrons placed by highly paranoiac Nehru on President Kennedy also seems rather naive and not based on any sound professional advice. It was not a small number that somebody would have given us on a platter. Maj Gen Palit writes in his book “War in the High Himalayas” that when he was shown the draft letter as a DMO at the AHQ, seeking these fighter squadrons, he could only welcome the help in light of desperate circumstances, whatever its source. Whether the Air HQs were similarly consulted is not clear at all.The Chinese were known to have only Mig-15, Mig-17, IL-28 bombers and a few Mig-19. Most airfields in Tibet are at high altitude and had inadequate infrastructure to take on offensive fighter operations. The IL-28 bomber was the only aircraft that could have posed some threat in the eastern sector. In fact, in 1962, the PLAAF was at its weakest. The Soviets had pulled out of China in August; 1960. Their aeronautical industry was in tatters. Their serviceability was low due to non-availability of spares and so also was perhaps their morale. According to some western estimates based upon inputs from the Chinese sources, the Chinese Air Force was nearly grounded due to total suspension of supplies and the spares by the Soviet Union. Discord with Taiwan was also keeping the Chinese engaged on the eastern board. Large contingent of army and air force were deployed there.It may be mentioned here, though with the advantage of hindsight that during the period leading from the 62 war with India to its 1979 war with Vietnam, the PLAAF had shown a marked bias towards Air Defence as against Offensive Air Operations. That this was inspite of having more capable bomber like the Tu-16/H-6 at the time implies that this predilection towards Air Defence had more to do with their air force doctrine rather than the ‘short legs’ of its aircraft. Would it therefore, with the hindsight of course, be correct to say that the PLAAF in all likelihood would not have used its offensive power against Indian cities? This is a question that can perhaps never be answered.In comparison, India had technologically advance aircraft comprising Toofanis, Mysteres, Gnats, Hunters and the Canberras. Some of these aircraft were in location in the eastern sector already, though the Air Defence set up was rather rudimentary. With inherent flexibility that the air power has, it would have not taken much time for the IAF to reinforce the sector with requisite assets.Unfortunately, the Air Force too was not as clear and certain as it ought to have been, due to the lack of requisite intelligence inputs. And that is the reason indeed for not having any in-depth study on Chinese capabilities in Tibet in hand prior to the start of war. Lack of intelligence on China’s capabilities and their intentions was obviously the limiting factor resulting in India not being as ready as required by the emerging scenario. The fear of Chinese retaliation seemed to have weighed so heavily that it coloured all our decisions. In light of the fact that the Henderson Brookes report is unlikely to be released for public scrutiny, the only source of information in this regard would be the few surviving senior officers of the day.Ambassador Galbraith went to a great length in pressurising Nehru to desist from using combat aircraft against the Chinese which would widen the scope of the war. The US would not be able to support or provide any fighter cover. Galbraith could not have acted entirely on his own volition or hunch in advising Nehru so strongly without the backing from the home front. It could well have been the US military as also the CIA that were saying so. They had their own Cold War compulsions. Besides, the US was not very sure in regard to the extent of fissures in Sino-Soviet relations. However, what is of great interest is the fact that Prime Minister Nehru trusted Ambassador Galbraith without any trepidation whatsoever.Writing in his journal later to be published as ‘Ambassador’s Journal’, on 19 Nov 62, the day Nehru dashed off his missives, Galbraith notes, “The Indians at all levels are in a state of shock .Not one but two pleas for help are coming to us, the second one of them still highly confidential. They want our Air Force to back them up so that they can employ theirs tactically without leaving their cities unprotected… I think it would be very unwise for them to initiate any air action.” Then he goes to footnote this event by saying, “In the ensuing days, I urged against doing so in the strongest possible fashion”. In his next entry on 21 Nov 1962, he goes on to explain the logic behind his urgings, when he says, “The cities of the Gangetic Plain are accessible from the airfields of Tibet. There is no chance that the Indians could retaliate to China and there is nothing in Tibet”. It is instructive to note that soon after this entry is an account of Galbraith’s 10 AM meeting with Prime Minister Nehru.One of the main factors in the calculus of the Americans would have been the fact that the Cold War was at its peak with the Cuban missile crisis unfolding at this very juncture. Any clear siding with the Indians would have provoked the Soviets in some form or the other. That’s how the US did not want to be seen getting too involved on the Indian side. Any such perception would have brought the Soviets closer to the Chinese who had not yet fully parted company. The US on account of Cold War constraints obviously did not want another region getting embroiled in any major war and hence the advice to Nehru to avoid widening the scope of Sino-Indian conflict by employing its air power. Whether the US deliberately exaggerated the Chinese air threat is indeed debatable. The Soviets too could not afford to take a pro India stand in October 1962 because of their pre-occupation with the US on account of Cuban missile face off.The unfortunate consequence of this canard being sowed deep into the minds of the Indian decision making elite was that it soon began acquiring a life of its own, as a section of the military came to believe that using the IAF offensively would lead to the PLAAF responding with operations to hinder the IAF’s air maintenance of the Indian Army on which it was extremely dependent. That’s how a few requests for close air support by some units engaged on the front with the Chinese were promptly turned down by the army authorities on these very grounds.Despite Nehru’s entreaties, the US help was not forthcoming till after the end of the war, although there are references here and there in regard to the US aircraft carrier (USS Enterprise) being present in the Indian Ocean and its movement towards the Bay of Bengal. The US in response to India’s request for help got the Commonwealth countries to come forward and support it in this effort. President Kennedy with the help of British Prime Minister Macmillan worked out a joint military aid package of the order of about $120 million or so for India. Other Commonwealth countries were too roped in to share this responsibility on the grounds that India was more familiar with British and the Commonwealth countries’ equipment and the weapon systems rather than that of the Americans’. The US help therefore, came in the form of non-combat equipment only. It thus became a support from the western powers and not necessarily from the US who was wary of the Soviets’ reaction.Thus, Ex Shiksha was planned between the air forces of the US, UK, Canada and Australia in order to check the air defence of Delhi and the eastern sector. Later, the help materialised in the form of aircrafts and the equipment from these countries. Besides, the US agreed to train certain number of Indian pilots in US. The US also gave badly needed winter clothing, some transport aircraft and later 500 series Star Saphire air defence radars which were later deployed all along the Himalayas from the west to the far east. Canada sent a squadron of Caribous transport aircraft. UK too provided some support in the form of submarine training to one batch of Indian naval officers. Some of this came free, some on concessional rates and some on full payment.Interestingly, a stage came when India was able to get the best from both the sides. Right till 1965 war, India was able to acquire major military hardware from the US as well as the Soviet Union. No wonder, India’s non-alignment policy came to be referred as ‘bi-alignment’. Questions about India’s foreign policy began to be raised all over, particularly in the western world. Even within the country, the eyebrows were raised that the architect of India’s non-alignment policy was seeking military intervention by the US forces. However, what really matters is the way one looks at it. National interest must remain paramount, ideology notwithstanding.Where India went wrong was in its strategic assessment of Chinese intentions that they would not resort to war. But they did and caught us totally off guard. This shattered Nehru and his much coveted non-alignment policy. Being still in “Bhai Bhai, era,” even our intelligence could not adjust to the emerging adverse relationship. To add to the woes, Nehru’s proclivity of ignoring the armed forces that unfortunately remained in World War-II mould all this while till the Chinese shook us resulted in the nation paying this heavy price. However, what needs to be debated in India is as to who sowed the seeds of imagination in the minds of the Indian polity of the time. Nehru was obviously not advised correctly or professionally. The unexpected Chinese onslaught and consequent rout of the Indian Army led Nehru and his advisors to overestimate Chinese politico-military objectives.Air Marshal RS Bedi (Former Director General Defence Planning Staff.)

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