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What are the differences between the Lamborghini LP 580, 610, and 640?

Your letting the LP confuse you. The LP stands for "Longitudinale Posteriore", which refers to the longitudinal mid-rear engine position. All of the models made if equipped the same could have the nomenclature you are referring to if they incorporated the same engine displacement which is what the580 , 610, and 640 represent. though all are not common denominators of all of the models. More insightful of the Lamborghini is where the cars all get the name for the models. They for the most part but not all derive from fighting bulls of historic history. Huracán was a bull known for its courage that fought in 1879.Lamborghini Gallardo2013. It is Lamborghini's best-selling model with 14,022 built throughout its production run. Named after a famous breed of fighting bull.Lamborghini Urus2018 model year. The name comes from the Urus, the ancestor of modern domestic cattle, also known as the aurochs. The Lamborghini Urus concept was unveiled18 KB (2,010 words) - 18:46, 26 January 2021Lamborghini Diablowas named Diablo, carrying on Lamborghini's tradition of naming its cars after breeds of fighting bulls. The Diablo was named after a ferocious bull raised56 KB (6,464 words) - 05:28, 7 January 2021Lamborghini Reventónby "the fastest airplanes". The car is named after a fighting bull, in line with Lamborghini tradition. The bull, was raised by Don Heriberto Rodriguez12 KB (1,071 words) - 22:36, 18 January 2021Lamborghini JaramaBertone designer Marcello Gandini. Ferruccio Lamborghini intended the name to recall the fighting bulls bred in Jarama river area in Spainthat is some of the models which are. Pretty cool I have always been a fan of and lucky enough to have worked a few. A Espada was my introduction into the cars, it was a 4 seater 12 cylinder rocket that looked like nothing I had ever seen the roof was so kow that the back glass was just above its tail lights. Lamborghini Espada, by 1973 known as the world's fastest four-seater Just the concept was a mind expanding event. Made me wonder what have these people been up to and how long?

Why does China have so many coal plants?

Zimbabwe is faced with widespread hunger because the country lacks the hard currency needed to import basic food, and a new currency introduced in June has provided little relief.“Millions die needlessly every year, from countless diseases of energy and economic poverty.But under a Biden-Harris Administration, with John Kerry at the forefront, there is little hope that these African and other pleas will be heard.”Duggan Flanakin below.“For more than two decades, Zimbabwe has been trying to break ground on a giant coal-power complex near the world’s biggest man-made reservoir. Now, China has agreed to get the $4.2 billion project underway.”This is a most pressing question with implications far beyond coal in my opinion. Is the West being blind sided by China’s expansions of coal fired energy at “insane levels” around the world and at home? Does China privately understand from its scientists that natural forces not minute amounts of CO2 from coal are the driving forces of climate change giving China confidence to go it alone on coal power expansions? There is evidence that they do. See NATURE STUDY below.NOTE: the carbon reduction targets of the PARIS ACCORD sideline everyone else from competing with China coal on the false premise and unfounded science that minute amounts of non polluting fossil fuel CO2 emissions (0.117%) are dangerous to the climate ? The world has been wrongly convinced that not only is coal a dirty fuel but it is harming the climate. China may be seeing more clearly that this view is false.BUT: This just in from the Global Warming Policy Forum GWPF China is not alone as many countries are resuming consumption of coal power.Global coal demand to rebound as economy recoversDate: 19/12/20BloombergGlobal coal demand is poised to rebound next year as the economy recovers and the U.S. and Europe may see the first increase in consumption in several years, the International Energy Agency said.Despite the global shift toward economies based on renewable energy, the dirtiest fossil fuel looks set to keep its role as the world’s biggest power source although its share will slip to 35% in 2021 from 36.5% last year.Coal use in power generation globally is expected to increase by as much as 2.8% next year as electricity demand rebounds particularly in Asia, the IEA said in its 2020 coal report.Global Coal Demand to ReboundDemand for the fuel will return in 2021 but won’t reach 2019 levelsOver the next 5 years, global demand is forecast to “flatten out” at around 7.4 billion tons, as declines in Europe and the U.S. will offset any increased use in Asia. The main drivers of demand for the fuel will continue to be China and India, which both rely heavily on the fuel in their energy mix.While there are few signs that use of the fossil fuel will fade away any time soon, the IEA said that unless there are unforeseen developments that would significantly boost demand, it’s likely that consumption peaked in 2013.EU coal demand is expected to increase marginally for the first time since 2012, rising 3.5%. The U.S. rebound will be the first since 2014, increasing consumption by 11.1% next year.Full storyHere are the relevant points about China and coal.The world is awash in fossil fuels and coal reserves in particular that there is no end in sight. (US alone has more than 357 years waiting to be mined.)China coal production at 3242 tonnes dwarfs all countries by a large factor. (US is only 672 t.)More than 2 billion in the developing world live in the dark off grid and need coal power to see the light.Clean coal power technology is used by China buiding state of the art plants arouond the world and at home.Significant climate studies published by Chinese academics in Beijing debunk the shoddy science of the PARIS ACCORD and may help explain why China ignores the carbon targets.China is single handedly destroying any chance of the world meeting the PARIS ACCORD carbon targets now or in the future because of its massive coal fired expansion.“In one sense, China's push for coal is not surprising: China knows how to build coal plants. It is the world's largest coal consumer, drawing more than 70 percent of its electricity from coal, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration.”Why Is China Placing A Global Bet On Coal?WRITTEN BY DUGGAN FLANAKIN, GUEST POST ONDEC 24, 2020. POSTED IN LATEST NEWSHow China Is Conquering Africa One Coal Plant At A Time“Joe Biden has pledged that one of his first acts as President will be rejoining the Paris Climate Treaty – which gives China a complete pass on reducing emissions until at least 2030.Even Biden’s designated “climate envoy,” former Secretary of State John Kerry, says the existing treaty “has to be stronger,” but then claims China will somehow become an active partner, instead of the competitor and adversary it clearly is. His rationale: “Climate is imperative, it’s as imperative for China as it is for us.”As to China employing more Green technology and abiding by (much less strengthening) the Paris agreement, the evidence is at best spotty, at worst completely the opposite.President Trump pulled the United States out of Paris, but between January 2017 and May 2019, the US had shuttered 50 coal-fired power plants, with 51 more shutdowns announced, bringing the total shutdowns to 289 (330 once announced shutdowns also take place) since 2010, soon leaving under 200 still operating.Meanwhile, as of 2019, China had 2,363 active coal-fired power plants and was building another 1,171 in the Middle Kingdom – plus hundreds more in Africa, Asia, and elsewhere.A CO2 Coalition white paper by Kathleen Hartnett White and Caleb Rossiter reveals that China now has modern pollutant-scrubbing technology on over 80% of its coal-fired power plants, but no scrubbers at any Chinese-built coal-fired power plants in Africa (or likely anywhere else) – and none anywhere that remove carbon dioxide.Harvard University China specialist Edward Cunningham says China is building, planning, or financing more than 300 coal plants, in places as widespread as Turkey, Egypt, Vietnam, Indonesia, Bangladesh, and the Philippines.India, South Korea, Japan, South Africa, and even Germany are also building hundreds of coal-fired power plants. No matter how many the USA closes down, it won’t make any global difference.Boston University data indicate that China has invested over $50 billion in building new coal plants overseas in recent years, and over a quarter of new coal plants outside the Middle Kingdom have some commitment or offer of funds from Chinese financial institutions.“Why is China placing a global bet on coal?” NPR wonders. That’s a 40 or even 50-year commitment, the life span of coal-fired units.The NPR authors even quote the Stinson Center think tank’s Southeast Asia analyst, who says “it’s not clear when you look at the actual projects China is funding that they are truly Green.” They’re obviously not green, and more is obviously going on than their poor eyesight can perceive.China knows it and the world will need oil, natural gas, and coal for decades to come. It sees “green” as the color of money and is happy to extend credit under terms very favorable to China.Communist Party leaders seek global military and economic power – and global control of electricity generation, raw materials extraction, and manufacturing of wind turbines, solar panels, and battery modules they will sell to address the West’s obsession with the “manmade climate crisis” and “renewable, sustainable” energy.Party leaders also know its production of “green” technologies is a good smokescreen for all this coal power – and few Western governments will dare to criticize China sharply over this or Covid.A recent Global Warming Policy Foundation report lambasts environmentalists (like John Kerry) as “useful idiots” who “praise the scale of Chinese ambition on climate change while paying lip service in criticizing China’s massive coal expansion.”It notes that China rarely honors its international agreements and has no intention of reducing fossil fuel consumption.But what are Africa and other developing nations to do? The West will not fund even clean coal projects that would eliminate pollution from dung and wood fires, while providing reliable, affordable electricity for lights, refrigerators, schools, shops, hospitals, factories, and much more.China will – and despite the heavy price, their demand for energy requires that they get electricity by any means necessary.With 1.1 billion people, Sub-Saharan Africa remains the world’s poorest region, despite massive mineral resources and a young, energetic population with an affinity for entrepreneurship.Dutch economist Wim Naudé says Africa must industrialize, which means it must have affordable, reliable electricity if it is to overcome poverty and disease, create jobs and discourage terrorism.Unfortunately, outrageously, US, EU, UN, and World Bank policies have stymied African energy resource development.As White and Rossiter note, US policies since the Obama era oppose Africans using the continent’s abundant coal and gas to fuel power plants, on the ground that carbon dioxide from fossil fuels might exacerbate climate change.African Energy Chamber executive chairman NJ Ayuk recently reported that the United Kingdom has also decided it will stop funding new oil, gas, and coal projects as of November 4, 2021, the fifth anniversary of the Paris treaty.The decision kowtows to Green opposition to UK Export Finance support for a Mozambique terminal to export low-CO2 emissions liquefied natural gas.Ayuk had been touting natural gas as an increasing option for African power plants, boasting that Africa is home to four of the world’s top 20 crude oil producers (Nigeria, Angola, Algeria, and Libya); Algeria and Nigeria are among the top 20 natural gas producers, and Mozambique also has huge gas reserves.“It is troubling,” Ayuk said, “that an aggressive foreign-funded anti-African energy campaign continues to undermine the potential of making Mozambique an oasis for gas monetization and meeting our increasing energy demands.”Despite this setback, he continued: “We must continue to be unwavering in our commitment to stand up for Africa’s energy sector, its workers, reducing energy poverty, and those free-market values that will make our continent attractive to committed energy investors.”In much of Africa, electricity demand far outstrips supply. “In factories, businesses, government buildings, and wealthy neighborhoods in every African country,” White and Rossiter observe, “a cacophonous symphony of soot-spewing backup diesel engines erupts when the grid goes down, which is usually every day.”In fact, says the World Bank’s International Finance Corporation, many African countries spend more on dirty backup power than on electricity for the grid itself; in West Africa, backup kilowatts equal 40% of total grid kilowatts.In Sudan, which gets 30% of its energy from dams on the Nile River, diesel-based pumps run constantly to lift river water for irrigation, even at the confluence of the Blue and White Niles.In Nigeria, hotels ban guests from jogging because of health dangers from breathing soot from their diesel backup generators, which kick in repeatedly as neighborhoods go dark.In Southern Africa, construction sites simply run generators all day, filling nearby streets with noxious clouds. Universities rely on diesel to run old, inefficient air conditioning units.White and Rossiter note that American clean coal technology, exemplified by the Turk power plant in Arkansas, virtually eliminates health hazards from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulates.They urge the U.S. to support proposals by African governments to import this technology, noting that electricity is “the central nervous system of a modern economy and modern life expectancy. Africa’s electricity deficit translates directly into its life-expectancy deficit of 15 years per person.”Millions die needlessly every year, from countless diseases of energy and economic poverty.But under a Biden-Harris Administration, with John Kerry at the forefront, there is little hope that these African and other pleas will be heard.With European allies in myopic puritanical lockstep, China will continue to get a total pass on complying with Green demands – and will have free rein to turn sub-Saharan Africa into a giant Chinese colony, despite the environmental damage, monstrous debt, slave and child labor under horrific workplace conditions, and likely modest benefits to Africans.It is eco-imperialism and eco-manslaughter at its worst. Where are the vaunted guardians of climate and environmental justice?”Duggan Flanakin is Director of Policy Research at the Committee For A Constructive Tomorrow ( China Is Conquering Africa One Coal Plant At A TimeCHINA INDUSTRY DEMANDS INCREASED COAL POWERThe industry group for China’s power sector giants, China Electricity Council, has argued that coal-power capacity “will” reach 1,300GW by 2030, up from 1,050GW today. This target is based on its projections for annual electricity demand and the need for capacity to meet peak loads.A cap of 1,300GW in 2030 would imply the addition of well over 300GW of new coal-fired capacity this decade, after accounting for the retirement of older plants.China Electric Power Planning and Engineering Institute (EPPEI), the authoritative consultancy that has designed most of China’s coal power units and grid infrastructure, warned in June 2019 that 16 provinces in the country should increase new capacity and start working on a new batch of thermal power plants to avoid the possibility of shortages in the next two to three years.The thinktank affiliated with China’s giant grid utility company, State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC), stressed the need to maintain coal-power capacity in a July 2019 intervention:“[China] should not close coal power plants at a large scale too soon or too fast and, by around 2030, we should maintain around 1,200GW of coal power to ensure the reliability of the power system, and key power generating regions should retain some backup and reserve capacity.”Analysis: Will China build hundreds of new coal plants in the 2020s?“For awhile it looked like China was moving away from coal toward clean energy, but coal is still a pretty big part of the country’s economy,” says Christine Shearer, the coal program director at the Global Energy Monitor. “We don’t have a lot of time in terms of emission reduction, but clean energy development is happening alongside coal plant construction rather than displacing it.”BUTDANIEL OBERHAUSSCIENCE11.27.2019 07:00 AMChina Is Still Building an Insane Number of New Coal PlantsWhile the rest of the world turns away from the fossil fuel, China is investing big in coal-powered electricity.China Building Hundreds Of Coal-Fired Power Plants Abroad › why-is-china-placing-a-global-bet-on-coalApr 29, 2019 — But now it plans to build hundreds of coal plants abroad. ... Forum in Beijing over the weekend, promoting his signature foreign policy of building massive ... But within the past four years, all four stopped burning coal. ... China has made more than $244 billion in energy investments abroad since 2000, much ...Hassyan Clean Coal Project, DubaiThe 2,400MW Hassyan clean coal power station is an ultra-supercritical (USC) power plant being developed in Saih Shuaib, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.Plant TypeCoal-fired power plant Location DubaiCapacity 2,400MWEstimated Investment $3.4bnHassyan Energy Company is developing the 2,400MW ultra-supercritical Hassyan clean coal power plant in Dubai. Credit: Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA).Construction of the Hassyan clean coal project began in November 2016 and is expected to be fully completed by 2023. Credit: Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA).The Hassyan power plant will be equipped with Alstom’s (now GE) ultra-supercritical boiler and steam turbine generators. Credit: Alstom.The 2,400MW Hassyan clean coal power station is an ultra-supercritical (USC) power plant being developed in Saih Shuaib, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Upon completion, the project is set to be the first coal-based power plant in the region.Construction of the $3.4bn power plant commenced in November 2016. It will comprise four units of 600MW each, which are expected to start operations in 2020, 2021, 2022 and 2023 respectively, in March of those years.Hassyan Energy Company, which is a joint-venture (JV) between Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA, 51%) and the consortium of ACWA Power, Harbin Electric, and the Silk Road Fund (49%), is the project developer.The project supports the Dubai Clean Energy Strategy 2050, which is aimed at producing environment-friendly energy. The programme aims to produce 25% of energy from solar power, 7% from nuclear power, 7% from clean coal, and the remaining 61% from gas by 2030.The power plant is expected to produce sufficient electricity to power approximately 250,000 households. has also set the lofty goal of having the world's lowest carbon footprint in the world by 2050 - something that would be impacted by burning coal.Read more at:Dubai, oil-rich UAE sees a new wonder: A coal power plantLast Updated: Oct 22, 2020, 11:59 AM ISTCarbon dioxide emitted by coal power plants is clean without any pollution.COAL24 March 2020 8:00Analysis: Will China build hundreds of new coal plants in the 2020s?Signs of stimulusMany experts and industry bodies argue for a move away from top-down targets and controls, to investment driven by market forces. However, the spending needed to fuel a new stimulus program can only be mobilized if investment is directed at the behest of the state, rather than the market – as a rule, China does not fund stimulus with on-budget spending, but by directing state-owned enterprises and commercial banks to spend more. In these circumstances, lack of controls on capacity additions runs a high risk of over-investment.For example, efforts to control overcapacity might be vulnerable to the political priority of boosting investment spending to reach economic targets. An indication of this was the loosening of “traffic lights” for new coal-plant approvals, published by the National Energy Administration in February.The traffic light policy was first introduced in January 2017 to prevent provinces with overcapacity from permitting new projects. A year ago, however, 21 of China’s 31 provincial grids included in the policy were given a “green light”. Last month this increased to 25, as the figure below shows.Locations and sizes (megawatts, shown by the size of each circle) of new coal-fired power capacity in the pipeline in China. The maps are colour coded according to the “traffic light” status of the relevant provincial grid, with red meaning new capacity cannot receive permits to move ahead towards construction. Source: Global Energy Monitor and NEA. Figure: Authors.The change is significant, as the four additional greenlighted grid regions have a total of 34GW of coal-fired capacity in the pipeline.According to data from Global Energy Monitor, the traffic light loosening is already apparent in new project activity in 2019, with construction started or restarted on another 18GW of capacity, while 37GW of previously inactive projects have been revived.Furthermore, the past weeks have seen the announcement of major infrastructure programmes and other stimulus to offset the economic impacts from the coronavirus, but so far no mention of initiatives prioritising clean energy or other green investment.The focus on stimulating the economy with major investment – and a recent shift of emphasis towards energy security (below) – appear to cast aside concerns about overcapacity and financial viability.Some have interpreted Chinese premier Li Keqiang’s remarks at an October 2019 event as a signal of support for coal-power expansion. At the conference a “new energy security strategy” was formulated, in which the core role of coal was emphasised more strongly than renewable energy.This was widely interpreted as a retreat to coal in the face of energy security concerns, following the trade war with the US. However, China’s energy security fears mainly relate to oil – and, to a lesser degree, gas.Analysis: Will China build hundreds of new coal plants in the 2020s?China virtually alone in backing Africa’s dirty coal projectsWorkers unload imported coal at a port in Lianyungang, Jiangsu province, China, in December. A retreat from financial institutions in developed countries has paved the way for Chinese companies to invest in the coal industry in Africa. | VIA REUTERSBLOOMBERGSHAREMay 7, 2020For more than two decades, Zimbabwe has been trying to break ground on a giant coal-power complex near the world’s biggest man-made reservoir. Now, China has agreed to get the $4.2 billion project underway.The development, near the southern shore of Lake Kariba, is good news for Zimbabwe, where a collapsing economy and erratic policies have deterred foreign investment for the past 20 years.But it flies in the face of a growing global consensus that has seen financial institutions from Japan to the U.S. and Europe shun investments in coal projects. That retreat leaves the way open for Chinese companies — many with state backing — even at the risk of undermining the spirit of China’s international commitments to fight climate change.“We are very pleased that the project is going ahead, especially as major banks in the world are forced to stop financing coal-fired power stations,” Caleb Dengu, chairman of RioZim Energy, the company that owns the project, said in a response to questions. “This is testimony of Chinese commitment to development projects in Africa. The Chinese are interested in joining hands.”China is certainly in need of friends: A global backlash is building over Beijing’s handling of the coronavirus outbreak first identified in the Chinese city of Wuhan — evidence of a deficit of trust that was compounded by incidents of racism toward Africans in the southern city of Guangzhou last month.RELATED STORIESSumitomo Mitsui and Mizuho to end lending for new coal-fired plantsNearly half of global coal plants will be unprofitable this year, study showsYet pumping money into coal just underlines China’s creeping isolation in backing plants that generate large quantities of greenhouse gases and other pollutants.For financial institutions, “the ever-increasing reputational risk of funding a project like this, and the high likelihood that it would end up as a stranded asset, should make them very wary of getting involved,” said Tracey Davies, director of Cape Town-based shareholder activist organization, Just Share.In fact, the Chinese government promised back in 2017 to green its Belt and Road Initiative overseas construction plan, to promote environment-friendly development in line with United Nations goals. President Xi Jinping pledged last year that the program must be green and sustainable.Nonetheless, Chinese companies and banks are involved in financing at least 13 coal projects across the continent with another nine in the pipeline, according to data compiled by Greenpeace. Since 2000, the China Development Bank and the Export-Import Bank of China alone have supplied $51.8 billion of finance for coal projects globally, according to the Boston University Global Development Policy Center.“Despite promises to shift support to green and low-carbon energy, Chinese banks have continued to bankroll coal power projects,” said Lauri Myllyvirta, lead analyst for the Centre for Energy Research and Clean Air, an independent research body. “China has enormous state-owned thermal-power manufacturing and engineering firms that rely on overseas deals to stay in business.”President Xi regularly mentions China’s commitment to multilateralism through fighting climate change as a signatory of the Paris Agreement. China, however, is unlikely to divest from coal anytime soon. Despite hefty investment in renewable energy over the past decade, China still mines and burns about half the world’s coal.China has undoubtedly made progress domestically. By 2018, China had exceeded its target for reducing CO2 emissions, Foreign Minister Wang Yi told the U.N. climate action summit in New York in September. He touted increases in non-fossil fuel use and in forestation along with sales of some 1.25 million electric cars that year. But now, as it claws its way out of the pandemic-induced slump, Beijing has started to roll back restrictions on industrial pollution and slash subsidies for cleaner energy.There shouldn’t be a “one-size-fits-all approach” for green development in poorer nations, but rather the decision should be based on a host country’s natural resources, according to Yu Zirong, a vice director at the Chinese Academy of International Trade and Economic Cooperation, a think tank affiliated with the Ministry of Commerce.“For countries with rich coal resources, it is impossible to completely forbid them using coal,” said Yu, who spoke at a forum on sustainable Belt and Road Initiative in October in Beijing. “The key is how to use them more reasonably.”China’s agreement to invest is a rare win for Zimbabwe, which is currently subject to power cuts of as long as 18 hours a day as it doesn’t produce enough electricity to meet demand and can’t afford to pay for adequate imports.The project was initially owned by London-based miner Rio Tinto Group, the one-time parent of RioZim Ltd, which in turn owns Riozim Energy. It was set aside as Zimbabwe’s relations with the U.K., its former colonizer, deteriorated. After the project was revived in 2016, General Electric Co. and a unit of Blackstone Group LP didn’t pursue initial inquiries, according to Dengu, the company’s chairman.Power Construction Corp. of China, the state-owned company known as PowerChina, has been contracted to build the first phase of the plant known as Sengwa, which includes a 700 megawatt generation unit, as well as a pipeline from Kariba Dam to bring the water needed and power lines at a total cost of $1.2 billion. Funding is likely to come from Industrial & Commercial Bank of China, while China Export and Credit Insurance Corp., or Sinosure, may provide the country risk cover needed, according to Dengu. Both are owned by the Chinese government.Repeated calls to ICBC and Sinosure went unanswered. PowerChina said it didn’t have information on the Zimbabwe project at the moment. It had no comment on the possible climate impact of its involvement in overseas coal-related projects.Last month a deal was signed for the rest of the project, which will add a further 2,100 megawatts at a cost of $3 billion. China Gezhouba Group, which is partly state-owned, will develop the project and lead fund raising, Dengu said. The company didn’t respond to calls or an email request for comment.“The Chinese are looking at the business opportunity,” said Dengu. “We bring the market knowledge and management capacity, they bring the finance and the technology.”Rio Energy had few other options. European banks no longer fund coal projects and over the last year the biggest banks in South Africa have committed to reducing their coal funding under pressure from shareholders. Morgan Stanley and Citigroup Inc. are also among those looking to curb or halt project financing for coal-related projects.While the Zimbabwean project is sizable among those being considered by Chinese companies, it is not the biggest. PowerChina has signed a memorandum of agreement with South Africa’s Limpopo provincial government to build a power plant of at least 3,000 megawatts at a cost of $4.5 billion.Not all are welcomed by local communities.Sengwa would draw water from Kariba, a reservoir already so depleted by recurrent droughts attributed to climate change that its hydropower turbines operate at a fraction of their capacity. The South African government is facing a lawsuit because coal-fired power plants there cause some of the world’s worst air pollution.“It’s a fading industry,” said Han Chen, who manages the international energy policy program at the New York-based National Resources Defense Council. “So they are going places where the environmental standards are low so they can use more polluting equipment that is cheaper to operate.”Of 11 coal projects in Africa she tracks that are likely to get foreign support, 10 involve Chinese state-owned entities.As banks in other countries, including Japan and South Korea, snub coal, those projects will increasingly rely on China.“Chinese banks will find themselves increasingly alone in funding new coal plants, both at home and around the world,” said Christine Shearer, director of the coal program at Global Energy Monitor.China virtually alone in backing Africa’s dirty coal projectsIdentification of the driving forces of climate change using the longest instrumental temperature record.Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China 中国气象科学研究院New research confirms the view of leading climate scientists and scholars that trace amounts of Co2 emissions are not destabilizing the planet. Co2 is essential plant food and therefore green energy.The authors Geli Wang & Peicai Yang and Xiuji Zhou are scientists at the CHINESE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE and Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China 中国气象科学研究院ANTHROPOGENIC (human activity). The driving forces are“the El Niño–Southern Oscillation cycle and the Hale sunspot cycle, respectively.”The title of the study published in the prestigious NATURE Journal is: Identification of the driving forces of climate change using the longest instrumental temperature record study confirms THE DRIVING FORCES OF GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE ARE NATURALThe “driving forces” of climate change are natural and not Co2 plant food emissions. A new Chinese study confirms climate change comes from natural cycles. This research is based on the longest actual temperature data of more than 400 years from 1659 to 2013, including the period of anthropogenic warming.AbstractThe identification of causal effects is a fundamental problem in climate change research. Here, a new perspective on climate change causality is presented using the central England temperature (CET) dataset, the longest instrumental temperature record, and a combination of slow feature analysis and wavelet analysis. The driving forces of climate change were investigated and the results showed two independent degrees of freedom —a 3.36-year cycle and a 22.6-year cycle, which seem to be connected to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation cycle and the Hale sunspot cycle, respectively. [Emphasis added]. Moreover, these driving forces were modulated in amplitude by signals with millennial timescales.James Matkin 
This research is very relevant and should make climate alarmists pause in their crusade against Co2 emissions from fossil fuels. Far too much focus on Co2 like a one trick pony in a big tent circus where solar radiation is a more compelling show. The thrust of recent research has demonstrated that climate changes continually and is determined by natural forces that humans have no significant control over. Many leading scientists have presented research of other "driving forces" and cautioned against the arrogance of many that "the science is settled." See Judith Curry of the Georgia Institute of Technology and blogger at Climate Etc. talks with EconTalk host Russ Roberts about climate change. Curry argues that climate change is a "wicked problem" with a great deal of uncertainty surrounding the expected damage as well as the political and technical challenges of dealing with the phenomenon. She emphasizes the complexity of the climate and how much of the basic science remains incomplete. The conversation closes with a discussion of how concerned citizens can improve their understanding of climate change and climate change policy. MATKIN•2017-08-23 10:03 PMThe great failure of the Paris accord is the failure to accept that the IPCC Al Gore hypothesis of anthropogenic warming is not settled science. Indeed, none of the predictions of doom have occurred. New research confirms the view of leading climate scientists and scholars that trace amounts of Co2 emissions are not destabilizing the planet. Co2 is essential plant food and therefore green energy. The “driving force” of climate change is natural and not Co2 plant food emissions. A new Chinese study confirms climate change comes from natural cycles. This research is based on the longest actual temperature data of more than 400 years from 1659 to 2013, including the period of anthropogenic warming. The authors Geli Wang & Peicai Yang and Xiuji Zhou are scientists at the CHINESE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE and Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China 中国气象科学研究院 Their study confirms THE DRIVING FORCES OF GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE ARE NOT ANTHROPOGENIC (human activity). The driving forces are “the El Niño–Southern Oscillation cycle and the Hale sunspot cycle, respectively.” The title of the study published in the prestigious NATURE Journal is: Identification of the driving forces of climate change using the longest instrumental temperature record Identification of the driving forces of climate change using the longest instrumental temperature record This means that climate change cannot be stopped as Paris attendees believed. Co2 is very beneficial plant food and we need more not less. Why climate change is good for the world | The Spectator It is good news for civilization that the Paris targets are not being met around t Apr 2020China to Help Build $3 Billion Coal Plant in ZimbabweCategoryStoriesCountryZimbabweTagsEnergy Access, Finance and Investment, Fossil FuelsSource…Zimbabwe’s Rio Energy Ltd., a unit of RioZim Ltd., will build a 2,100 megawatt thermal power plant with China Gezhouba Group Corp in northern Zimbabwe at a projected cost of $3 billion, Rio Energy said Monday.“CGGC will develop the project and assist with the fund raising,” Caleb Dengu, chairman of Rio Energy Ltd said last week. The power plant at Sengwa will be constructed in four phases of about 700 megawatts each, bringing total capacity to 2,800 megawatts.“We have coal reserves to support a 10,000 megawatt plant at Sengwa,” Dengu said.A 250 kilometer (155-mile) pipeline will carry water from Lake Kariba to Sengwa. The pipeline, and a 420 kilovolt-ampere power line, will be built by PowerChina, said Dengu. The first phase of the project will cost about $1.2 billion, he added.The Industrial and Commercial Bank of China has given a formal expression of interest in the project and is negotiating with Sinosure, also known as the China Export and Credit Insurance Corp, to cover country risk insurance costs, Dengu told Bloomberg.Zimbabwe generates and imports about 1,300 megawatts of electricity, short of its 2,200 megawatt demand. Daily power outages have hampered industrial capacity for almost two decades.A two-year drought blighted the country’s Kariba thermal power plant by draining the reservoir, while aging equipment at its main Hwange thermal plant causes incessant breakdowns and outages that see many consumers receiving only eight hours of power a day.RioZim was spun off from Rio Tinto Plc in 2004. London-based Rio initially retained a stake in diamond mines and Sengwa before selling those to RioZim in 2015.China to Help Build $3 Billion Coal Plant in ZimbabweCHINA HAS BLIND SIDED THE WEST AND THE WEST IS CAUSING DEVASTATING ECONOMIC DAMAGE TO PREVENT A FAKE CLIMATE PROBLEM.I affirm this QUORA answer by Dr. John Walker.John WalkerNovember 28I have written a 500+ page treatise skeptical of CAGWQUORA QUESTION“Is China's carbon neutrality pledge by 2060 nonsense? Are they simply trying to buy decades worth of time to ignore the complaints of the rest of the world during this period, if so, are they in the right since the US also depends on fossil fuels?“Yes, of course.Anyone who believes anything the Communist Chinese pledge is a fool.But I doubt the Chinese have bought into the scam being promoted by climate alarmists using the unproven hypothesis that human emissions of CO2 are leading to catastrophic global warming. So, indeed, they are taking the logical approach to energy, continuing to increase their wealth and prosperity by utilizing cheap fossil fuels to power their enormous growth. They no doubt laugh at Western nations which are wasting $trillions on unproven dangers of future climate change while they build up their massive military, buy up mineral rights and mines around the world, infiltrate Western nations to steal crucial industrial and military secrets,’s also likely that the Chinese superficially and deceitfully promote CAGW and renewables to help ensure that Western nations continue to waste their wealth on this scam.Unfortunately, if the Democrats gain control of both Houses of Congress and the White House, then the US will join these other ignorant nations, wasting even more limited resources on an unproven future problem while watching numerous known current existential problems (hunger, violence, pollution and over-fishing of our oceans, infectious and other diseases, inadequate housing, sanitation and clean water, decaying infrastructure, etc.) go unsolved.You may want to learn to speak Chinese.”

Which is a more advanced fighter, aircraft Rafale or Pakistan's JF-17 Block-3?

A generation of airmen seems to have forgotten a simple lesson from history:‘It was leadership, not fancy equipment, that made the difference.’The problem with all of these fighter comparisons is that they're based on an old paradigm; the ability to dog-fight. Meaning that capability to engage multiple targets at distances , while remaining ‘radar-invisible' to Targets - Technology has changed the subject.One F- 22 Raptor was more than a handful for 3 - 4 F-15s in mock fights… Will it also occur in actual situation ….?*****************************************************************************************Its very difficult to base this theoretical assessment of one jet vs another, based on following:JF 17 Platforms Block I & II were NOT developed as AERIAL SUPREMACY JETS for taking on 4.5 G Combat jets . Its role was to replace Legacy jets of PAF (ROSE upgraded Mirage III EP & V , Chengdu F-7 Air-guard ). All Block I’s have been converted into Block II Jets.Super Scaled up Thunder - Block III was aimed as 4.0++ Generation Light Multi Role affordable shorter ranged jet with ‘NO sanctions’, based on evolving Chinese technology of J - 10 C , with Potent A.E.S.A Radar , H.O.B.S & HMD/S Capability , BVR PL - 12 firing ability , Nuclear / Tactical weapons carrying capability & other innovations.The proposed PAF platform for Advanced 5.0 G fighter is different “Project Azm” related to Turkish T.F.X Or Chinese J - 20 or J - 31.Air Chief Marshal Mujahid Anwar Khan, Chief of the Air Staff, Pakistan Air Force while commenting on various options for a 5.0 G future jet — “Pakistan is a third-world country, and it might not have the same resources and finances that others might have in the region. So when the PAF does evaluate something, it is evaluated thoroughly”. JF 17 Block III is leaps and bounds ahead of its earlier versions, yet JF 17 Bl -III Squadron will not be operational before Mid 2021.Rafale has been flying since 2001 and participated in various combats but not as Air Supremacy fighter - rather as a Striker Bomber .India ordered 36 Rafale jets from France in a deal worth Rs 59,000 crore on September 23, 2016. In January 2019, French Defense Minister Florence Parly announced France would commit $2.3 billion to develop an F4 generation of the Dassault Rafale twin-engine multi-role fighter. This would include production in 2022–2024 of the last twenty-eight of the original order of 180 Rafales, followed by the purchase of an additional thirty Rafales F4.2s between 2027–2030, for a total of 210. Since 2008, France has deployed land- and carrier-based Rafales into combat in Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Mali and Syria.Jf- 17 Block II has also seen combat , But JF 17 Block III is under process of Trials , Sourcing and readiness for Mass production by this year end.These two are Different Jets -RAFALE : Gust of WindMMRCA Medium Category 4.5++ Gen OMNI Role French technology . Rafale is designed to fulfill all roles - Air supremacy, interdiction, Aerial reconnaissance, Ground support, in-depth strike, Dynamic Targeting, Buddy-buddy refueling, Naval Carrier variant, Anti-ship strike and nuclear deterrence missions.It excels in A2G role and as strike Fighter firing Nukes with Naval carrier flying capability.Passive Stealth features giving RCS 0.5 to 1.0 meter square. Active Stealth systems SPECTRA .The brochure of State of Art SPECTRA us given in link below.http://file:///C:/Users/AWC-Zeeshan/Downloads/2018-Spectre-datasheet.pdfS.P.E.C.T.R.A incorporates Solid State Transmitter technology, A D.A.L Laser Warning receiver, MWR Missile warning, Detection systems and Jammers. French jet boasts an advanced electronic warfare system that supposedly can reduce the Rafale’s cross-section several times over, by reflecting back signals using ‘active canceling.’ Spectra also incorporates powerful jammers and flare and chaff dispensers, provides 360-degree early-warning, and can even assist Rafale pilots in targeting weapons to retaliate against attackers. Like JF-17 Thunder , Rafale started out without HDMS & Operated with a PESA radar. The AESA version of the RBE2 radar was operational in 2013.Rafale Is powered by reliable French SNECMA M-88 turbofan Twin Engines each providing a thrust of 75 kN , with ability to Super Cruise. The M88 incorporates the latest technologies such as single-piece bladed compressor disks (blisks), an on-polluting combustion chamber, single-crystal high-pressure turbine blades, powder metallurgy disks, ceramic coatings and composite materials.The M-88 engine comprises a three-stage LP compressor with inlet guide vane, an annular combustion chamber, single-stage cooled HP turbine, single-stage cooled LP turbine, radial A/B chamber, variable-section convergent flap-type nozzle and full authority digital engine control (FADEC).Air frame of 1990s with features such as Saw-tooth etc. French jet’s wings and fuselage are primarily composed of radar-absorbent composite materials and lightweight titanium. Other stealthy design features include S-shaped engine inlets, serrated edges and a channel exhaust cooling scheme designed to reduce infrared signature. Canard Delta Wing design originating from Dassault Mirage 2000s .Rafale’s all-moving canards—a second set of small wings near the nose—gives it excellent lift and low-altitude speed and performance. The ‘Close coupled canards with delta wing’ design is a premium aerodynamic feature of Rafale. While performing at high A.O.A angle of attack, Rafale remains agile. Close coupled delta canard wing offers Maximum lift coefficient & a ++ trim lift on all control surfaces. Further, canards and wing control surfaces allows it to remain ‘aerodynamically unstable’ at higher speeds compared to non-canard design.Rafale is able to take-off with 2.5 times its own empty weight. Rafale can be used as an aircraft carrier-based fighter and has a nuclear strike role. In fact its the only Non US Jet which is certified for use at US naval carriers. It doesn’t require the Runway of more than 400 meters. Has a vertical velocity of 305 m/s. Spectra System is so costly that it costs 30% of the total plane. Rafale has a scanning range of 145 km & a combat radius of 1800 km.Despite its size, the Rafale can carry an impressive set of ordnance beyond its 30mm DEFA 791 cannon: up to 9.5 tonnes of weapons and stores on 14 pylons (1-2 on center fuselage, 2 below engine intakes, 6 under-wing and 2 wingtip pylons), 5 of which are “wet” pylons that can carry heavy stores or fuel tanks. It can carry payloads of more than 9 Tons on 14 hard points for the air force version, with 13 for the naval version. The range of weapons includes: Mica, Magic, Sidewinder, ASRAAM and AMRAAM ; Apache, AS30L, ALARM, HARM, Maverick and PGM-100 air-to-ground missiles and Exocet / AM39, Penguin 3 and Harpoon anti-ship missiles, A2S Maverick missile, Scalp Storm-shadow cruise missiles in different roles.It excels in Air to Ground attack . In A2A Combat - the Meteor’s no-escape zone is touted to be three times greater than that of current medium range air-to-air missiles.The jets have been tailored for the IAF. India-specific enhancements include helmet-mounted sight, radar warning receivers, flight data recorders with enough storage for 10 hours of data, infrared search and track systems, jammers, cold engine start capability to operate from high-altitude bases, and towed decoys to lure incoming missiles away.While the formal induction happened in Sep Oct 2019, the first batch of four Rafale jets will fly to their home base in India only next April-May 2020. All 36 fighter planes will arrive by September 2022, a small step on the long road towards building a stronger air force. The two Rafale squadrons will be based at Ambala in Haryana and Hasimara in West Bengal, covering the northern and eastern fronts.JF 17 “SUPER THUNDER” BLOCK III -Light Multi Role .Conventional design with DSI and LERX - Originating from MiG -33 with similarities from F - 20 Tiger-Shark and F 16. More of indigenous product with partnership btw Chinese and PAC Technology . Equipped with Single Russian Engine. The Block 1 and 2 version of Jf-17 uses RD - 93 K Engine which was tested and rated good for flying .Thunder Block II remains highly maneuverable with DSI design Light Weight and Mach 1.8 speed, It has a superior range of around 750 miles, and its KLJ-7 Doppler radar is far more powerful.In the 21st Century the ability to take out the enemy Air Defences became almost as important as achieving Air Superiority. Thunder is also equipped with PL-5 short-range air-to-air missile, LS-6 ‘Thunderstone’ GPS-guided glide bombs, and YJ-12 supersonic and YJ-83 subsonic anti-shipping missiles. (The PAF’s No.2 squadron maintains one squadron in the maritime strike role.)The most remarkable reported modifications in Block III are :Composites % Added in Air FrameIncrease in Air In-takeRD - 33 Klimov Engine replaced by RD - 93 MAAvionics LabComplete 3 - Axis Fly - By - Wire F.B.WAdvance Data LinkPilot VisorA new single panel multi-functional display.An active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar KLJ-7AV2An infrared search and track system I.R.S.TA two - Seater cockpit option with a flight control stickReported to be Equipped with Russian R 73 for short range , Kentron Denel Dynamics Darter for Medium Range & AMRAAM PL - 15 Long range Missiles…As a delivery platform for Tactical SMART Weapons with Nuclear warhead Ra’ad . Hataf VIII Series ALCM Air Launched Cruise Missile named RA’AD - is capable of delivering miniature nuclear warheads , Has Stealth technology, with reported ranges of 550 kms.For Air to Surface - Mectron’s MAR-1 Anti - Radiation missiles are being equipped. MAR - 1 provide a new capability to the Pakistan Air Force as this is the only modern anti-radiation missile in PAF’s inventory capable of destroying enemy radars and air defense systems.A top speed of Mach 2.00 +INFORMATISED WARFARE with Chinese COMPASS Navigation systemFuture Possible Integration of Super A2A Missile - The PL-15 is a beyond visual range air-to-air missiles (BVRAAM). Chinese media said the PL-15 can reach out to over 300 km at a speed greater than Mach 4 (4,900 km/h).Active Electronically Scanned Array Radar A.E.S.AThis gadget gives JF 17 Enhanced defense-ability against electronic warfare (EW) jamming. AESA Radar enables the fighter jet to engage from a farther range and attack multiple targets at the same time. In the case of the AESA radar, jamming is more difficult because of two reasons. First, there is no single frequency to identify and record out of the background noise. Second, an AESA radar can switch to a different set of frequencies with each pulse, which could make a DRFM-based system less useful in terms of its ability to confuse the radar. Caution — AESA radars could be challenged if they enter Dense EW - ECM population, i.e. against multiple high-powered jamming sources, such as a dedicated EW aircraft, which is equipped with multiple EW jamming pods (e.g. F/A-18G Growler).Data link allows sharing of the AEW and ground radar pictures, as well as those from sensors of other formation members, to enhance situational awareness while staying discrete.Thunder Block III with A.E.S.A Radar (of J - 10 C) with Long ranged BVR Capability Track & Scan option - will give a huge boost to PAF, as IAF Fleet has all PESA Radars (SEPECAT Jaguar fitted with an Israeli AESA radar in 2019 are still in IOC clearance stage and are Non Air Superiority fighters).As a Defensive Air Craft - Jf-17 Block III with Advanced F-B-W will have the capability to be data linked to an Erieye AWACS 200 km behind it or with Mobile Ground Radar IBIS-150 which has a 150 km tracking range . This makes JF 17 Block III very difficult to detect by enemy Fighters ( Smaller Radar Cross Section R.C.S compared to Sukhoi etc, Single engine highly agile bird emitting low heat radiations infra red signatures for IRST and Heat Seeking Predator Missiles to track and can fly with its Radar off) , whereas it also allows JF 17 to share data with other PAF Platforms. In a combat intercept flight , a Mission in which the enemy Fighter jets such as Sukhoi of Mirage is being intercepted has already been detected by an AWACS or Powerful Ground Radar. Even if the JF 17s own radars don’t spot the Interceptor , the radar that did just needs to data link the details to the JF 17 BVR PL - 15 missile and the ENEMY FIGHTER JET is in deep trouble.Hence unless IAF can take out the Eri-Eye AWACS & IBIS / HQ 9 Radar stations with Rafale or long-range cruise missiles, JF 17 Block III in its own yard with EW Support will be a very lethal weapon.BASED ON SPECIFICATIONS , Thunder Block III would be ‘As Advanced’ as Modern F - 16s Block 60, superior in A.E.S.A Radar , Slightly lacking in Engine performance ; ‘Complete Sanction proof’ — compared to existing PAF F - 16 Block 52.Super Thunder Carries SD - 10 , PL - 12 , I.R.S.T, Anti Ship, Ra’ad Cruise LCM & AIM 120 Missiles.Already in excess of 110 Jets in service with PAF. Will cross 200 mark. Block III would be primarily supporting F -16s Block 52 in Air Superiority in short range with Agility and speed as forte.Huge cost difference - Rafale > 120 M US$ vs Projected cost of All Equipped JF 17 Block III around 35 - 40 M US$ Max. One to One combat is rear. Numerical advantage changes everything. 36 Rafale’s vs 100 plus JF 17s.Man behind the Gun is critical, So Training and Effectiveness of IAF on Rafale will take time. Compare this with Capability PAF on JF 17s. Maintenance and Upgrades - Rigorous Upkeep program for Operational Serviceability. Operational Readiness Turn around expertise.In future combats - Most Likely JF 17 Block III will compete with Sukhoi Su-30 MKI Flanker and HAL Tejas in future, While Rafale will face SAB - 400 and other Ground defenses , F 16 Block - 52s and J - 31s in future.SUMMARYJF 17 Block III is Light , Conventional , More Agile and Fuel economical. Jf-17 block 3 will be a Mach 2.0 + aircraft. It will have Advanced FBW , More Powerful Engine RD 93 MA or WS 13E Turbofan, AESA RADAR , HDM/S , Advanced AESL Firing Target Pods , Advanced BVR (Darter , AIM 9L - PL 15), Ability to Fire Tactical Weapon RA’AD . LS-6 ‘Thunder stone’ GPS-guided glide bombs, and YJ-12 supersonic and YJ-83 subsonic anti-shipping missiles. (The PAF’s No.2 squadron maintains one squadron in the maritime strike role.)Advantages in Shear Numerical numbers 100+ and Training competence due to use of similar platform. Overall cost to operate and Unit cost is very competitive.Zeeshan Syed's answer to When is the JF 17 Version 3 getting in the field?Overall Dassault Rafale Platform is more advanced in High Tech such as Advanced Air Frame, Delta Wing - Canard Design , Semi Stealth Spectre System SPECTRA Self-Protection Equipment to Counter Threats for RAFALE Aircraft , More Hard Points and MBDA Meteor AMRAAM. Very expensive Fighter with High cost of operation.***********************************************************************************Zeeshan Syed's answer to What is JF-17?“ The Art of War teaches usTo rely not on the likelihood of the enemy's not coming,But on our own readiness to receive him;Not on the chance of his not attacking,But rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.”—Sun Tzu

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