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Art History: Why were ancient (Greek, Roman etc.) sculptors able to create true to life human forms with incredible precision while ancient painters produced much cruder representations?

Many more sculptures than paintings have survived from ancient civilizations. Stone and ceramics (and bronze - although most of those were later melted down) are still around, but few paintings have survived. We have almost no examples of Greek paintings, although we do have a fair number of Roman paintings.Sculpture was largely a public art, whereas paintings were more private.Sculpture was much more socially significant than paintings. The Greeks and Romans used sculpture to decorate temples, commemorate public figures and athletes, and for political purposes. Paintings, with some exceptions, mainly consisted of murals, were mostly used for decorating houses.Linear perspective hadn't been invented. The technique of rendering three-dimensional space through perspective was invented in the 14th century. There are some attempts to depict space, but without perspective, they seem unconvincing to modern eyes.Some ancient paintings are in fact rather sophisticated. Here are some examples:Greek vase decoration is considered a type of painting. The evolution of this change is fascinating.Exekias, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game (detail from an Attic black-figure amphora), from Vulci, Italy, ca. 540-530 BCEThe Romans offer us the most fresco paintings. Many were discovered buried by volcanic ash in the vicinity of Pompeii. As you can see, the Romans were painting some degree of illusionistic styles, conveying a sense of depth, shading, and sometimes shadows - though not with systematic perspective.Seated woman playing a kithara: From Room H of the Villa of P. Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale, ca. 40–30 BCEFrom the "Odyssey Landscapes" found on the Esquiline Hill, Rome, c. 40-60 BCERoman fresco of peaches and a glass jug, from the House of Red Deers , Herculaneum, 45-79 CEAnother class of paintings are the Fayum portraits, which were made in Roman-occupied Egypt, and were portraits of the deceased who were mummified.Fayum portrait, 3rd century CEIt should be mentioned that ancient civilizations outside the West also created astounding painting traditions. Here are a couple of mural images from the Ajanta Caves, from Gupta-period India (c. 600 CE)

Do I need to attach 1040 to 540?

Note: This is a question specific to the state of California.If your Form 1040 includes any forms or schedules other than Schedule A (itemized deductions) or Schedule B (income from interest and/or ordinary dividends), then you attach Form 1040 to your Form CA-540 when you are filing by mail. If you are itemizing deductions on your CA-540, but did not itemize deductions on your Form 1040, you complete Schedule A from the Form 1040 package (even though you didn’t file it) and include that with your CA-540.

Who were our ancestors at the beginning of the Cambrian?

We do not actually have any candidate fossils from the very beginning of the Cambrian, ca. 540 million years ago, so we don’t actually know.We do have Ikaria, a suspected early bilaterian from the late Ediacaran, from 550 million years ago.Ikaria wariootia - WikipediaEarly bilaterian organism fossil species Ikaria wariootia is an early example of a wormlike, 2–7 mm-long (0.1–0.3 in) bilaterian organism. Its fossils are found in rocks in South Australia that are estimated to be about 555 million years old. That falls within the Ediacaran period , about 14 million years before the Cambrian , when the Cambrian explosion happened, with the bilaterians becoming very widespread. [1] [2] [3] Discovery [ edit ] Scott D. Evans, Ian V. Hughes, James G. Gehling, and Mary L. Droser published a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America on 23 March 2020, describing the finding and identification of I. wariootia . [3] Etymology [ edit ] The generic name is taken from the Adnyamathanha word for "meeting place" (Ikara, also the name for nearby Wilpena Pound ) in recognition of the local indigenous people who originally lived in the region where the fossils were collected. The specific name refers to Warioota Creek, the type locality. [3] Features [ edit ] Over 100 Ikaria fossils have been found. [1] This is a simple imprints in the form of a small grain of rice (from 1.9 to 6.7 mm in length), slightly thickening to one end. The "anterior"/"posterior" differentiation may indicate that Ikaria was bilaterally symmetrical animal . No any other details of Ikaria anatomy were found on its fossils. [3] On the same sandstone bed there are numerous trace fossils Helminthoidichnites . The animal that produced such traces moved or burrowed through thin layers of well-oxygenated sand on the ocean floor [2] as it sought sustenance and it had some volition, turning as it moved. It is thought to have moved by constricting muscles and should have a coelom , mouth, anus, and through- gut , in a similar way to a worm. [3] The authors of the Ikaria description find that the size and morphology of Ikaria match predictions for the producer of the trace fossil Helminthoidichnites . [1] [2] [3] However, they note that they are not aware of examples of the connection of Ikaria with these trace fossils. [3] Therefore, the assumptions that Ikaria is the producer of these traces as well as the reasoning about Ikaria behavior, anatomy and taxonomy are speculative and may be erroneous. Significance [ edit ] This discovery is notable because while it has been long suspected that bilaterians evolved in the Ediacaran, for example Temnoxa and Kimberella , yet the vast majority of Ediacaran biota are very different from the animals that came to dominate the life on Earth in the Cambrian and until present day. Charles Darwin originally brought up the problem that most multicellular life, especially complex life, evolved at the beginning of the Cambrian period, 541 million years ago. This fossil appears to solve this problem. See also [ edit ] References [ edit ] External links [ edit ] we think might have looked like this:And then Ernettia, a suspected deuterostome (the cladistic group immediately under bilaterians to which chordates like humans belong, along with things like starfish and sea urchins) from the end Ediacaran, ca 549–541 million years ago.Ernietta - WikipediaErnettia is an extinct genus of Ediacaran organisms with an infaunal lifestyle. [2] Fossil preservations and modeling indicate this organism was sessile and “sack”-shaped. It survived partly buried in substrate, with an upturned bell-shaped frill exposed above the sediment-water interface. [3] Ernietta have been recovered from present-day Namibia, [4] and are a part of the Ediacaran biota , a late Proterozoic radiation of multicellular organisms. They are among the earliest complex multicellular organisms and are known from the late Ediacaran (ca. 548 Ma to 541 Ma). [3] Ernietta plateauensis remains the sole species of the genus. [2] Biology and paleoecology [ edit ] Fossil specimens show individuals to have lived partly buried in the substrate, as well as filled to some degree by substrate material. An exposed frill extended out of the substrate and was thought to have conducted feeding in the water column. [3] [5] Modeling based on fossil specimens show that the frill possessed an “upturned bell” shape. [3] [6] Water and nutrients circulated within this bell cavity, and the organism is thought to have engaged in suspension feeding. [3] [6] It is possible that appendages which carried out feeding were not preserved in fossils. [6] [7] Previously, Ernietta were thought to have obtained nutrients by passive absorption, however, this is currently unsupported given the high volume to surface area ratio observed in Ernietta [3] [6] . Alternatively Ernietta may have lived from associated symbiotic algae. [8] Hydrodynamic modeling carried out by Gibson et al. in 2019 assumed that Ernietta inhabited shallow marine environments in aggregations. [3] Nutrient delivery was found to be optimized when individuals were situated in “clumped” formations, with multiple individuals aggregated in groups located upstream or downstream from one another. This formation enhanced both vertical mixing and the direction of nutrient-rich currents to the bodies of downstream individuals. This may thus be one of the earliest examples of commensalism , in which organisms act to mutual benefit. [6] Ernietta plateauensis from the Kliphoek Member of the Dabis Formation. Farm Aar, Namibia. Cross-sectional view of Ernietta plateauensis from the Ediacaran Kliphoek Member of the Dabis Formation. Farm Aar, near Aus, Namibia. The body of Ernietta is composed of a layer of tubes (with some preservations indicating a double-layer of tubes). [2] [3] Perpendicular to these tubes is an equatorial seam. [3] [2] The body is asymmetrical along either side of this seam. The presence of this seam and offset symmetry unites the Ernettiomorpha, which includes taxa more similar to Ernietta (for example, Pteridinium , Swartpuntia , and Mietta ) than to the rangeomorphs . [2] Ernietta has been considered a benthic shallow marine fossil comparable with an anemone, however there is evidence for freshwater environments from its low boron content compared with other Ediacaran fossils. [9] Specimens have is thought to have looked like this:But it isn’t certain if it lies on the echinoderm (ie starfish) side of the clade versus the chordate one.And then from the early Cambrian we know of:Haikouichthys, ca 535–320 million ya.Haikouichthys - WikipediaExtinct genus of jawless fishes Haikouichthys is an extinct genus of craniate (animals with notochords and distinct heads) believed to have lived 535 million years ago, during the Cambrian explosion of multicellular life. Haikouichthys had a defined skull and other characteristics that have led paleontologists to label it a true craniate, and even to be popularly characterized as one of the earliest fishes . Cladistic analysis indicates that the animal is probably a basal chordate or a basal craniate ; [1] but it does not possess sufficient features to be included uncontroversially even in either stem group . [2] [3] It was formally described in 1999. [4] Description [ edit ] Haikouichthys is about 2.5 cm (1 in) long and is narrower than Myllokunmingia , another putative chordate that comes from the same beds. The holotype of Haikouichthys ercaicunensis was found in the Yuansshan member of the Qiongzhusi Formation in the 'Eoredlichia' Zone near Haikou at Ercaicun, Kunming City , Yunnan , China, [3] hence its name "Haikou fish from Ercaicun". The fossil was recovered among the Chengjiang fauna , in one of a series of Lagerstätten sites where thousands of exquisitely preserved soft-bodied fossils have already been found. [5] Following the discovery of the holotype, additional Lower Cambrian fossils of Haikouichthys ercaicunensis have been discovered. [3] Haikouichthys reconstruction The animal has a distinct head and tail. The head has at least six and perhaps nine probable gills . There are a number of segments (myomeres) with rear directed chevrons in the tail. There is a notochord . There is a prominent dorsal fin with fin radials similar, but not comparable, to those of hagfish and lampreys . [6] The fin radials seem to angle "forward" toward the end thought on the basis of internal structures to be the head. This happens with a few modern fish but is an uncommon arrangement. There are 13 circular structures along the bottom that may be gonads , slime organs, or something else entirely. See also [ edit ] References [ edit ] ^ "Archived copy" . Archived from the original on 2009-04-29 . Retrieved 2009-04-20 . CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link ) ^ Donoghue, P.C.J.; Purnell, M.A. (2005), "Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution" (PDF) , Trends in Ecology & Evolution , 20 (6): 312–319, doi : 10.1016/j.tree.2005.04.008 , PMID 16701387 , archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-17 , retrieved 2008-11-06 ^ a b c Shu, D. G.; Morris, S. C.; Han, J.; Zhang, Z. F.; Yasui, K.; Janvier, P.; Chen, L.; Zhang, X. L.; Liu, J. N.; Li, Y.; Liu, H. -Q. (2003), "Head and backbone of the Early Cambrian vertebrate Haikouichthys " , Nature , 421 (6922): 526–529, Bibcode : 2003Natur.421..526S , doi : 10.1038/nature01264 , PMID 12556891 ^ D. Shu; et al. (1999). Lower Cambrian vertebrates from south China. Nature , 402 : 42-46 ^ BBC News "Oldest fossil fish caught", 4 November 1999 ^ Zhang, X.G.; Hou, X.G. (2004), "Evidence for a single median f, ca 521–514 million ya.Haikouella - WikipediaHaikouella is an agnathan chordate from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan shales of Chengjiang County in Yunnan Province, China . It is similar to the form Yunnanozoon , [2] which is possibly a hemichordate . [3] Still, there are anatomical differences from Yunnanozoon , including a larger stomach and smaller (0.1 mm) pharyngeal teeth . Haikouella does not have bones or a movable jaw , but it otherwise resembles vertebrates . Almost certain fish Haikouichthys and Myllokunmingia have been found in the same beds. Suspected hemichordates are also known from these deposits as well as from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia . Other than possible fish scales/plates from the Upper Cambrian of Wyoming , these Chinese fish-like chordates are one of the only known pre- Ordovician craniates. Haikouella lanceolata fossil from Chengjiang, China. Haikouella lanceolata fossil from the Chlupáč Museum, Prague. Haikouella is known from 305 specimens mostly from a single bed in the Maotianshan shales of Yunnan province. The animal is 20 to 30 mm (40 mm max) in length and has a head, gills , brain , notochord , well developed musculature, heart and circulatory system . It has a bent caudal projection of the notochord that might be a primitive tail fin. It might have a pair of lateral eyes. Very small (0.1 mm) structures that are probably pharyngeal teeth are present in the body cavity. A few specimens display dorsal and ventral fins. There are two known species, H. lanceolata (Chen, Huang, Li), the type species , and H. jianshanensis . [4] References [ edit ] ^ Chen, J.-Y.; Huang, D.-Y.; Li, C.-W. (1999). "An early Cambrian craniate-like chordate". Nature . 402 (6761): 518–522. doi : 10.1038/990080 . ^ Chen, J.-Y. (2009). "The sudden appearance of diverse animal body plansduring the Cambrian explosion" . The International Journal of Developmental Biology . 53 (5–6): 733–751. doi : 10.1387/ijdb.072513cj . PMID 19557680 . ^ Shu, D.; X. Zhang; L. Chin (4 April 1996). "Reinterpretation of Yunnanozoon as the earliest known hemichordate". Nature . 380 (6573): 428–430. doi : 10.1038/380428a0 . Abstract ^ Shu, D.; Conway Morris, S.; Zhang, Z. F.; Liu, J. N.; Han, J.; Chen, L.; Zhang, X. L.; Yasui, K.; Li, Y.; et al. (2003). "A new species of Yunnanozoan with implications for deuterostome evolution". Science . 299 (5611): 1380–1384. doi : 10.1126/science.1079846 . PMID 12610301 . External links [ edit ] Myllokunmingia, ca 518 million ya.Myllokunmingia - WikipediaExtinct genus of jawless fishes Myllokunmingia is a genus of basal chordate from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan shales of China , thought to be a vertebrate , [1] although this is not conclusively proven. [2] It is 28 mm long and 6 mm high. It is among the oldest possible craniates , found in the lower Cambrian Chengjiang ( 518 million years ago ). It appears to have a skull and skeletal structures made of cartilage . There is no sign of biomineralization of the skeletal elements. The holotype was found in the Yuanshan member of the Qiongzhusi Formation in the Eoredlichia Zone near Haikou at Ercaicun, Kunming City , Yunnan , China. The animal has a distinct head and trunk with a forward sail-like (1.5 mm) dorsal fin and a ventral finfold (probably paired) further back. The head has five or six gill pouches with hemibranchs . In the trunk there are 25 segments ( myomeres ) with rearward-facing chevrons. There is a notochord , a pharynx and a digestive tract that may run all the way to the rear tip of the animal. The mouth cannot be clearly identified. There may be a pericardial cavity . There are no fin radials. There is only one specimen, which has the tip of the tail buried in sediment . [1] Only one species is known – Myllokunmingia fengjiaoa (Shu, Zhang & Han). Related creatures are Haikouichthys and Zhongjianichthys . See also [ edit ] References [ edit ] ^ a b Shu, D-G.; Luo, H-L.; Conway Morris, S.; Zhang, X-L.; Hu, S-X.; Chen, L.; Han, J.; Zhu, M.; Li, Y.; Chen, L-Z. (1999). "Lower Cambrian vertebrates from south China". Nature . 402 (6757): 42. Bibcode : 1999Natur.402...42S . doi : 10.1038/46965 . ^ Donoghue, P.C.J.; Purnell, M.A. (2005). "Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution" (PDF) . Trends in Ecology & Evolution . 20 (6): 312–319. doi : 10.1016/j.tree.2005.04.008 . PMID 16701387 . Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-17 . Retrieved 2008-11-06 . External links [ edit ] are all considered to be early true vertebrates.There is also Pikaia, which dates more recently to the middle Cambrian, at 505–510 million years ago, but looks possibly more primitive, and is probably on the lancelet side of the chordate family tree rather than the vertebrate one, but might as a result more closely resemble the as yet not found common ancestor it shared with the three early Cambrian suspected vertebrates that might have lived at the beginning of the Cambrian.Pikaia - WikipediaExtinct genus of lancelets This article is about the extinct chordate. For the anime series, see Pikaia! Pikaia gracilens is an extinct, primitive chordate animal known from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia . [1] Sixteen specimens are known from the Greater Phyllopod bed , where they comprised 0.03% of the community. [2] It resembled the lancelet and perhaps swam much like an eel . Its exact phylogenetic position is unclear. Proposed affinities include cephalochordata , craniata , or a stem-chordate not closely related to any extant lineage. [2] Description [ edit ] Life reconstruction of Pikaia gracilens Pikaia was a primitive chordate that lacked a well-defined head and averaged about 1 1 ⁄ 2 inches (38 mm) in length. Once thought to be closely related to the ancestor of all vertebrates , it has for that reason received particular attention among the multitude of animal fossils found in the famous Burgess Shale in the mountains of British Columbia , Canada. Pikaia had a pair of large, antenna-like tentacles on its head, and a series of short appendages, which may be linked to gill slits, on either side of its head. In these ways, it differs from the modern lancelet. The " tentacles " on its head may be comparable to those in the present-day hagfish , a jawless chordate. [ citation needed ] Although primitive, Pikaia shows the essential prerequisites for vertebrates . When alive, Pikaia was a compressed, leaf-shaped animal with an expanded tail fin; the flattened body is divided into pairs of segmented muscle blocks , seen as faint vertical lines. The muscles lie on either side of a flexible structure resembling a rod that runs from the tip of the head to the tip of the tail. [3] It likely swam by throwing its body into a series of S-shaped, zigzag curves, similar to the movement of eels; fish inherited the same swimming movement, but they generally have stiffer backbones. These adaptations may have allowed Pikaia to filter particles from the water as it swam along. [ citation needed ] Pikaia was probably a slow swimmer, since it lacked the fast-twitch fibers that are associated with rapid swimming in modern chordates. [4] Conway Morris and Caron (2012) published an exhaustive description based on all 114 of the known fossil specimens; they discovered new and unexpected characteristics [ which? ] that they recognized as primitive features of the first chordate animals. On the basis of these findings, they constructed a new scenario for chordate evolution. [5] Subsequently, Mallatt and Holland reconsidered Conway Morris and Caron's description, and concluded that many of the newly recognized characters are unique, already-divergent specializations that would not be helpful for establishing Pikaia as a basal chordate. [6] Discovery [ edit ] Scale diagram of various Burgess Shale invertebrates, P. gracilens in yellow P. gracilens was discovered by Charles Walcott and first described by him in 1911. It was named after Pika Peak course the modern lancelet looks possibly even more primitive than Pikaia so it may well be that it is the closest known model to whatever the actual ancestor of humans was like at the very beginning of the Cambrian.Lancelet - WikipediaOrder of chordates The lancelets ( or / ˈ l ɑː n s l ɪ t s / ), also known as amphioxi (singular: amphioxus / æ m f i ˈ ɒ k s ə s / ), consist of some 30 to 35 species of "fish-like" benthic filter feeding chordates [2] in the order Amphioxiformes . They are the modern representatives of the subphylum Cephalochordata . Lancelets closely resemble, and are believed to be related to, 530-million-year-old Pikaia , fossils of which are known from the Burgess Shale . Zoologists are interested in them because they provide evolutionary insight into the origins of vertebrates . Lancelets contain many organs and organ systems that are closely related to those of modern fish, but in more primitive form. Therefore, they provide a number of examples of possible evolutionary exaptation . For example, the gill-slits of lancelets are used for feeding only, and not for respiration. The circulatory system carries food throughout their body, but does not have red blood cells or hemoglobin for transporting oxygen. Lancelet genomes hold clues about the early evolution of vertebrates: by comparing genes from lancelets with the same genes in vertebrates, changes in gene expression, function and number as vertebrates evolved can be discovered. [3] [4] The genome of a few species in the genus Branchiostoma have been sequenced: B. floridae, [5] B. belcheri , [6] and B. lanceolatum . [7] In Asia, lancelets are harvested commercially as food for humans and domesticated animals . In Japan, amphioxus ( B. belcheri ) has been listed in the registry of “Endangered Animals of Japanese Marine and Fresh Water Organisms.” [8] Ecology [ edit ] Habitat [ edit ] Lancelets are distributed in shallow subtidal sand flats in temperate (as far north as Norway [9] ), subtropical and tropical seas around the world. [10] The only exception is Asymmetron inferum , a species known from the vicinity of whale falls at a depth of about 225 m (738 ft). [11] Although they are able to swim, adult amphioxi are mostly benthic . They live in sandy bottoms whose granulometry depends on the species and the site, [12] and they are usually found half-buried in sand. [10] When disturbed, they quickly leave their burrow, swim a short distance, and then rapidly burrow again, posterior end first, into the sand. Adults ( B. floridae ) can tolerate salinities as low as 6‰ and temperatures from 3 to 37 °C. [13] Feeding [ edit ] Their habitat preference reflects their feeding method: they only expose the front end to the water and filter-feed on plankton by means of a branchial ciliary current that passes water through a mucous sheet. Branchiostoma floridae is capable of trapping particles from microbial to small phytoplankton size, [14] while B. lanceolatum preferentially traps bigger particles (>4 µm). [15] Reproduction and spawning [ edit ] Lancelets are gonochoric animals, i.e. having two sexes, and reproduce via external fertilization . They only reproduce during their spawning season, which varies slightly b

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