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How do you begin an automotive dealership?

Why Start a Car Dealership Business?With a population of 1.324 billion as of 2016, India remains a vibrant market for whatever goods or services an entrepreneur decides to go into and if you are interested in starting a business in India, one of your options is to open a car dealership shop; a place where both used and new cars will be retailed. It is indeed a thriving and profitable business in India especially with the growing population of the middle class.If you are sure this type of business is what you truly want to do after you must have conducted your feasibility studies and market research, then the next step to follow is to write a good business plan; a detailed blue print of how you intend raising your seed capital, setting up the business, managing the flow of the business, sorting out tax and marketing your services amongst others.The truth is that it is one thing to have a fantastic business plan, but it is another thing for the business plan to translate to profits, which is why it is important to assemble a team of dedicated workers to work with if you want to be successful with your car dealership business.Below is a sample car dealership business plan template in India that will help you successfully write yours with little or no stress.A Sample Car Dealership Business Plan Template IndiaIndustry OverviewPlayers in the car dealership industry sell both brand new and used cars and they may fall into any of the following niche areas; brick and mortar car dealership shop, online used cars dealership shop, locally produced car dealership shop, imported car dealership shop, luxury car dealership business and multi – brand and multi – maker car dealership.The auto industry in India is one of the leading auto industries in the globe. As a matter of fact, the auto industry contributes 7.1 per cent of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The Two Wheeler segment with 80 percent market share is the leader of the Indian Automobile market owing to a growing middle class.Additionally, the growing interest of companies in exploring the rural markets further helped the growth of the sector and the overall Passenger Vehicle (PV) segment has 14 percent market share.Statistics has it that about 4 million cars are manufactured in India, one of Asia’s largest markets in the 2015/2016 fiscal year. The automotive industry in India is growing and becoming more important for Indian citizens with 14.9 million jobs projected to exist by 2022. India is also one of the leading auto exporters in the world with positive export growth potentials going forward.Lastly, starting a car dealership business just like starting any other business might not be easy but it is a straight – forward business that can generate huge and steady profits if well positioned and properly managed.People often think that starting this type of business does not require any professional skills; in as much as it is true, you would still need a good knowledge of automobiles, good business skills, bargaining skills and of course customer services skills if indeed you want to build a profitable car dealership business.Car Dealership Business Plan – Executive SummaryRaj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. is a registered car dealership shop that will be located in one of the busiest business districts in the city center in Mumbai – Maharashtra. We have been able to lease a facility that is big enough (a 4 thousand square foot facility) to fit into the kind of standard car dealership shop that we intend opening.At Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc., we will be involved in the sale of both brand new and used cars from different manufacturers from India and abroad. We are set to service a wide range of clientele in and around Mumbai – Maharashtra.We are aware that there are several car dealership shops all around Mumbai – Maharashtra, which is why we spent time and resources to conduct a thorough feasibility studies and market survey so as to be well positioned to favorably compete with all our competitors. We have an online service option for our customers, and our garage is well secured with various payments of options.Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. will ensure that all our customers are given first class treatment whenever they visit our garage. We have a CRM software that will enable us manage a one on one relationship with our customers no matter how large they may grow to. We will ensure that we get our customers involved in the selection of car brands that will be in our garage.Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. will at all times demonstrate her commitment to sustainability, both individually and as a firm, by actively participating in our communities and integrating sustainable business practices wherever possible. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our customers’ needs precisely and completely whenever they patronize us.Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. is a family business that is owned by Raj Ravi Khan and his immediate family members. Raj Ravi Khan is an auto freak with good knowledge of various car brands manufactured both in India and abroad.He has a robust business network with a host of car manufacturing companies in India. Raj Ravi Khan has plans to open Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. all across the 29 states and 7 union territories (including a national capital territory) in India.Our Product OfferingRaj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. is in the car dealership industry to service a wide range of clients and of course to make profits, which is why we will make available a wide range of both brand new and used cars from top manufacturing brands in India and other countries of the world.We will ensure that we do all that is permitted by the law of India to achieve our aim and objectives of starting the business.Our Vision StatementOur vision is to build a car dealership business that will become the number one choice for both corporate clients and individual clients in the whole of India.Our Mission StatementOur mission is to establish a car dealership garage business that will make available a wide range of cars from top manufacturing brands at affordable prices to the residents of Mumbai and across all the States in India where we intend opening our car dealership garages and franchise.Our Business StructureOur intention of starting a car dealership business is to build a standard car dealership garage in Mumbai – Maharashtra. Although our car dealership garage business might not be one of the biggest in India, but will ensure that we put the right structures in place that will support the kind of growth that we have in mind while setting up the business.We will make sure that we recruit people that are qualified, honest, customer centric and are ready to work to help us build a prosperous car dealership business that will benefit all our stake holders. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of ten years or more.In view of that, we have decided to hire qualified and competent hands to occupy the following positions;Chief Executive Officer (Owner)Garage ManagerHuman Resources and Amin ManagerMerchandize ManagerSales and Marketing ManagerInformation TechnologistAccountantsSales Agents/Customer Services ExecutiveCleanersRoles and ResponsibilitiesChief Executive Officer – CEO:Increases management’s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions.Responsible for fixing prices and signing business dealsResponsible for providing direction for the businessCreates, communicates, and implements the organization’s vision, mission, and overall direction – i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization’s strategy.Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the companyEvaluates the success of the organizationAdmin and HR ManagerResponsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organizationMaintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products.Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs.Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing processCarries out induction for new team membersResponsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employeesResponsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointmentsOversees the smooth running of the daily office cum business activities.Garage Manager:Responsible for managing the daily activities in the car garageEnsures that proper records of cars are kept and the garage does not run out of used carsEnsures that the garage facility is in tip top shape and cars are properly arranged and easy to locateControls car distribution and supply chain inventorySupervises the workforce in the car garage sales floorMerchandise ManagerManages vendor relations, market visits, and the ongoing education and development of the organizations’ buying teamsHelps to ensure consistent quality of cars from different manufacturers are purchased and retailed in good price that will ensure we make good profitResponsible for planning sales, monitoring inventory, selecting the merchandise, and writing and pricing orders to vendorsSales and Marketing ManagerManages external research and coordinate all the internal sources of information to retain the organizations’ best customers and attract new onesModels demographic information and analyze the volumes of transactional data generated by customer purchasesIdentifies, prioritizes, and reaches out to new partners, and business opportunities et alIdentifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the completion of development projects.Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clientsDevelops, executes and evaluates new plans for expanding salesDocuments all customer contact and informationRepresents the company in strategic meetingsHelps to increase sales and growth for the companyInformation TechnologistManages the organization websiteHandles eCommerce aspect of the businessResponsible for installing and maintenance of computer software and hardware for the organizationManages logistics and supply chain software, Web servers, e-commerce software and POS (point of sale) systemsManages the organization’s CCTVHandles any other technological and IT related duties.AccountantResponsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organizationProvides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions.Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis.Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reportingResponsible for developing and managing financial systems and policiesResponsible for administering payrollsEnsures compliance with taxation legislationHandles all financial transactions for the organizationServes as internal auditor for the organizationClient Service ExecutiveEnsures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest levelThrough interaction with customers on the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in the company’s products and servicesManages administrative duties assigned by the human resources and admin manager in an effective and timely mannerConsistently stays abreast of any new information on the organizations’ products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to customers when they make enquiriesCleaners:Responsible for cleaning and washing all the cars in the garage at all timesEnsures that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of stockHandles any other duty as assigned by the garage managerCar Dealership Business Plan – SWOT AnalysisOur major aim of starting just one outlet of our car dealership shop in Mumbai – Maharashtra is to test run the business for a period of 7 years to know if we will invest more money, expand the business and then open other outlets in India.We are quite aware that there are several car dealership garages all over Mumbai – Maharashtra and even in the same location where we have plans to open ours, which is why we are following the due process of establishing a business.We know that if a proper SWOT analysis is conducted for our business, we will be able to position our business to maximize our strength, leverage on the opportunities that will be available to us, mitigate our risks and be equipped to confront our threats.Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. employed the services of an expert HR and Business Analyst with bias in car dealerships to help us conduct a thorough SWOT analysis and to help us create a business model that will help us achieve our business goals and objectives.This is the summary of the SWOT analysis that was conducted for Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc.;Strength:Our business location, the business model we will be operating, varieties of payment options, wide range of both brand new and used cars from different manufacturing brands and our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc.Weakness:From our findings, one major weakness that may work against us is the fact that we are a new car dealership garage in Mumbai – Maharashtra and we don’t have the financial capacity to compete with multi – million car garages that can afford to purchase fleets of cars in one fell swoop.Opportunities:A population of over 1.3 billion people and a growing population of the middle class in India provide us with unlimited opportunities to sell our cars to a large number of individuals and corporate organizations. We have been able to conduct thorough feasibility studies and market survey and we know what our potential clients will be looking for when they visit our car garage; we are well positioned to take on the opportunities that will come our way.Threat:Just like any other business, one of the major threats that we are likely going to face is economic downturn. It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing/spending power. Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of a new car dealership outlet in same location where ours is located. So also, unfavorable government policies may also pose a threat to businesses such as ours.Car Dealership Business Plan – MARKET ANALYSISMarket TrendsThe trend in India shows that the auto industry is set to witness major changes in the form of electric vehicles (EVs), shared mobility, Bharat Stage-VI emission and safety norms amongst other.Electric cars in India are expected to get new green number plates and may also get free parking for three years along with toll waivers. India’s electric vehicle (EV) sales increased 37.5 per cent to 22,000 units during FY 2015-16 and are projected to rise further on the back of cheaper energy storage costs and the Government of India’s vision to see six million electric and hybrid vehicles in India in the nearest future.If you have ever taken your time to study car patronage and usage in India, you will have noticed that Indians especially the middle class make use of cars that are manufactured in India. This goes to show that there is a thriving business for car manufacturers in India.One notable trend in the car dealership industry is that most car dealers are leveraging on online stores to sell their used cars to a large market.The used car dealership garage landscape has seen tremendous changes in the last 20 years; it has grown from smaller outlets to a more organized and far reaching venture. The introduction of franchise and online car dealership makes it easier for a car dealership garage to reach out to a larger market far beyond the areas where their physical store is located.Our Target MarketThose who purchase cars cut across all genders above 18 years; hence the target market for car dealership business is all encompassing. In essence, your target market can’t be restricted to just a group of people, but all those who desire to own a car.In view of that, we have positioned our car dealership garage to service the residents of Mumbai – Maharashtra and every other location where outlets of our car dealership garage will be located. We have conducted our market research and feasibility studies and we have ideas of what our target market would be expecting from us.We are in business to retail a wide range of cars to the following groups of people and corporate organizations;StudentsMiddle Class FamiliesUpper Class FamiliesCorporate OrganizationsCelebritiesCorporate ExecutivesOur Competitive AdvantageA close study of the global car dealership industry reveals that the market has become much more intensely competitive over the last decade especially with the advent of online car dealership stores. As a matter of fact, you have to be highly creative, customer centric and proactive if you must survive in this industry.We are aware of the competition and we are prepared to compete favorably with other leading car dealership garages in Mumbai – Maharashtra and throughout major cities in India.Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. is launching a standard car dealership garage that will indeed become the preferred choice for people who live and work in Mumbai – Maharashtra and every other location where our outlets will be opened. Our car dealership garage is located in one of the busiest business districts in the city center in Mumbai – Maharashtra.We will ensure that we have a wide range of cars brands from leading manufacturers both in India and abroad in our garage at all times. It will be difficult for customers to visit our garage and not see the type of car they are looking for. One of our business goals is to make Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. a one stop car dealership shop.Our excellent customer service culture, online store, various payment options and highly secured facility will serve as a competitive advantage for us.Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category in the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our aims and objectives. We will also give good working conditions and commissions to freelance sales agents that we will recruit from time to time.Car Dealership Business Plan – SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGYSources of IncomeRaj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. is in business to retail a wide range of both brand new and used cars to people in Mumbai – Maharashtra and every other location where we intend opening our outlets. Our source of income will be the retailing of a wide range of cars from different car manufacturing brands at affordable prices.Sales ForecastOne thing is certain when it comes to car dealership business, if your garage has various brands of new and used cars from different manufacturing brands and is centrally positioned, you will always attract customers that will sure translate to increase in revenue generation for the business.We are well positioned to take on the available market in and around Mumbai – Maharashtra and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough profits from our first six months of operation and grow the business and our clientele base.We have been able to critically examine the car dealership industry in India, we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projections are based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to startups in Mumbai – India.First Fiscal Year: INRs. 8 MillionSecond Fiscal Year: INRs. 18 MillionThird Fiscal Year: INRs. 26 MillionN.B: This projection was done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and there won’t be any major competitor within our market space. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher.Marketing Strategy and Sales StrategyBefore choosing a location for Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. we conducted thorough market survey and feasibility studies in order for us to penetrate the available market and become the preferred choice for people and organizations in and around Mumbai – Maharashtra and every location where we intend opening our outlets.We have detailed information and data that we were able to utilize to structure our business to attract the number of customers we want to attract per time.We hired experts who have good understanding of the car dealership industry in India to help us develop marketing strategies that will help us achieve our business goal of winning a larger percentage of the available market in Mumbai – Maharashtra, India.In summary, Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. will adopt the following sales and marketing approach to win customers over;Open our car dealership garage in a grand style with a party for all to attract people who live around our car dealership garageIntroduce our car dealership garage by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to households, corporate organizations, businesses and other key stakeholders in and around Mumbai – MaharashtraEnsure that we have a wide range of both brand new and used cars from different brands at all times.Make use of attractive hand bills to create awareness and also to give direction to our garagePosition our signage/flexi banners at strategic places around Mumbai – Maharashtra, IndiaPosition our greeters to welcome and direct potential customersCreate a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our regular customersEngage in roadshows within our neighborhood to create awareness for our car garageList our business and products on yellow pages’ ads (local directories)Leverage on the internet to promote our businessEngage in direct marketing and salesEncourage the use of word of mouth marketing (referrals)Car Dealership Business Plan – Publicity and Advertising StrategyIn spite of the fact that our car dealership garage is well located, we will still go ahead to intensify publicity for the business. We are going to explore all available means to promote our car dealership garage.Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. has a long-term plan of opening our car garages in various locations all around key cities in India which is why we will deliberately build our brand to be well accepted in Mumbai – Maharashtra before venturing out.As a matter of fact, our publicity and advertising strategy is not solely for winning customers over but to effectively communicate our brand. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc.;Place adverts on community based auto newspapers, radio and TV stations.Encourage the use of word of mouth publicity from our loyal customersLeverage on the internet and social media platforms like YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, Google+ and other platforms to promote our business.Ensure that our we position our banners and billboards in strategic positions all around Mumbai – MaharashtraDistribute our fliers and handbills in target areas in and around our neighborhoodAdvertise our cars dealership business in our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the siteBrand all our official cars and trucks and ensure that all our staff members and management staff wear our branded shirt or cap at regular intervals.Our Pricing StrategyWe are aware of the pricing trend in the car dealership industry which is why we have decided to build robust business relationship with car manufacturers in India so as to enable us get cars at good prices and also sell at good prices.In view of that, our prices will conform to what is obtainable in the industry but will ensure that within the first 6 to 12 months our cars are sold a little bit below the average price of various car brands in India. We have put in place business strategies that will help us run on low profit for a period of 6 months; it is a way of encouraging people to buy into our car dealership brand.We know we don’t have the capacity to compete with big players in the car dealership industry but we will ensure that the prices and quality of all the cars that are available in our garage are competitive with what is obtainable amongst car garages within our level.Payment OptionsThe payment policy adopted by Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at the same time, we will ensure that we abide by the financial rules and regulation of India.Here are the payment options that Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. will make available to her clients;Payment via bank transferPayment via credit cards / Point of Sale Machines (POS Machines)Payment via online bank transferPayment via checkPayment via mobile money transferPayment via bank draftIn view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our clients make payment for our cars without any stress on their part. Our bank account numbers will be made available on our website and promotional materials to clients who may want to deposit cash or make online transfer for our cars.Startup Expenditure (Budget)From our market survey and feasibility studies, we have been able to come up with a detailed budget on achieving our aim of establishing a standard and highly competitive car dealership business in Mumbai – Maharashtra, India and here are the key areas where we will spend our startup capital;The total fee for registering the business in India – INRs. 9,200Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the accounting services (software, P.O.S machines and other software) – INRs. 15,700.Marketing promotion expenses for the grand opening of Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. in the amount of INRs. 13,000 and as well as flyer printing (2,000 flyers at INRs. 1.00 per copy) for the total amount of INRs. 8,980.The cost for hiring business consultant – INRs. 4,000Insurance (general liability, workers’ compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium – INRs. 15,000The cost for payment of rent for 12 months at INRs. 6.00 per square feet in the total amount of INRs. 200,000The cost for garage remodeling – INRs. 50,000.Other start-up expenses including stationery (INRs. 3,000) and phone and utility deposits (INRs. 11,000).Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) – INRs. 260,000The cost for start-up inventory (stocking with a wide range of brand new and used cars from different manufacturing brands) – INRs. 12 MillionThe cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) – INRs. 23,750The cost of purchase and installation of CCTVs: INRs. 10,000The cost for the purchase of office furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al): INRs. 50,000.The cost of launching a website: INRs. 7,000The cost for our opening party: INRs. 29,000Miscellaneous: INRs. 10,000We would need an estimate of INRs. 12.5 million to successfully set up our standard car dealership garage in Mumbai – India.Generating Startup Capital for Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc.Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. is a private registered business that is solely owned and financed by Raj Ravi Khan and his immediate family members. They do not intend to welcome any external business partner which is why he has decided to restrict the sourcing of the startup capital to 3 major sources.These are the areas we intend generating our startup capital;Generate part of the startup capital from personal savingsSource for soft loans from family members and friendsApply for loan from the bankN.B: We have been able to generate about INRs. 2.5 million (Personal savings INRs. 2 million and soft loan from family members INRs. 500,000) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of INRs. 10 million from our bank. All the papers and documents have been signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited with the amount.Car Dealership Business Plan – Sustainability and Expansion StrategyThe future of a business lies in the number of loyal customers that they have, the capacity and competence of their employees, their investment strategy and business structure. If all these factors are missing from a business, then it won’t be too long before the business closes shop.One of our major goals of starting Raj Ravi Khan® Car Dealership, Inc. is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and winning customers over is to retail our wide range of cars a little bit cheaper than what is obtainable in the market and we are well prepared to survive on lower profit margin for a while.

Should China be penalized for creating a mess in the world?

This virus happened not because the Chinese wanted it to happen.The virus happened because of evolution. Nature threw the dice and this time, natural selection has created SARS-Cov-2.Should China be penalized for creating a mess in the world? I don’t think we should do it. This is not intentional. Scientific researches all around the world cannot find a link that the virus was man-made, and that existing evidence says they are instead natural.How is it that its natural?(Source: COVID-19 coronavirus epidemic has a natural origin)The novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus that emerged in the city of Wuhan, China, last year and has since caused a large scale COVID-19 epidemic and spread to more than 70 other countries is the product of natural evolution, according to findings published today in the journal Nature Medicine.The analysis of public genome sequence data from SARS-CoV-2 and related viruses found no evidence that the virus was made in a laboratory or otherwise engineered."By comparing the available genome sequence data for known coronavirus strains, we can firmly determine that SARS-CoV-2 originated through natural processes," said Kristian Andersen, PhD, an associate professor of immunology and microbiology at Scripps Research and corresponding author on the paper.In addition to Andersen, authors on the paper, "The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2," include Robert F. Garry, of Tulane University; Edward Holmes, of the University of Sydney; Andrew Rambaut, of University of Edinburgh; W. Ian Lipkin, of Columbia University.Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that can cause illnesses ranging widely in severity. The first known severe illness caused by a coronavirus emerged with the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) epidemic in China. A second outbreak of severe illness began in 2012 in Saudi Arabia with the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS).On December 31 of last year, Chinese authorities alerted the World Health Organization of an outbreak of a novel strain of coronavirus causing severe illness, which was subsequently named SARS-CoV-2.(A/N: I’m highlighting this one so people who doubts that they haven’t been informed earlier can have their answer)As of February 20, 2020, nearly 167,500 COVID-19 cases have been documented, although many more mild cases have likely gone undiagnosed. The virus has killed over 6,600 people.Shortly after the epidemic began, Chinese scientists sequenced the genome of SARS-CoV-2 and made the data available to researchers worldwide. The resulting genomic sequence data has shown that Chinese authorities rapidly detected the epidemic and that the number of COVID-19 cases have been increasing because of human to human transmission after a single introduction into the human population.(A/N: I’m highlighting this one so people who doubt that they haven’t been informed earlier can have their answer, and also to make everyone knows this is an international cooperation and that it was already running, long before the world went mad.)Andersen and collaborators at several other research institutions used this sequencing data to explore the origins and evolution of SARS-CoV-2 by focusing in on several tell-tale features of the virus.The scientists analyzed the genetic template for spike proteins, armatures on the outside of the virus that it uses to grab and penetrate the outer walls of human and animal cells. More specifically, they focused on two important features of the spike protein: the receptor-binding domain (RBD), a kind of grappling hook that grips onto host cells, and the cleavage site, a molecular can opener that allows the virus to crack open and enter host cells.(From The new coronavirus was not man-made, study shows)More specifically, the authors of the new research looked at two components of spike proteins: the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which latches onto healthy host cells, and the cleavage site, which opens up the virus and allows it to penetrate the host cell.To bind to human cells, spike proteins need a receptor on human cells called angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).The scientists found that the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein had evolved to target ACE2 so effectively that it could only have been the result of natural selection and not of genetic engineering.Furthermore, the molecular structure of the backbone of SARS-CoV-2 supported this finding. If scientists had engineered the new coronavirus purposely as a pathogen, explain the researchers, the starting point would likely have been the backbone of another virus in the coronavirus family.However, the backbone of SARS-CoV-2 was very different than those of other coronaviruses and was most similar to related viruses in bats and pangolins.“These two features of the virus — the mutations in the RBD portion of the spike protein and its distinct backbone — rule out laboratory manipulation as a potential origin for SARS-CoV-2,” explains Andersen.Josie Golding, Ph.D., who is the epidemics lead at the Wellcome Trust, a research charity based in London, United Kingdom, did not participate in the study but comments on its significance.She says the findings are “crucially important to bring an evidence-based view to the rumors that have been circulating about the origins of the virus (SARS-CoV-2) causing COVID-19.”“[The authors] conclude that the virus is the product of natural evolution,” Goulding adds, “ending any speculation about deliberate genetic engineering.”This is an illustration of the relationships the virus has on known viruses from before.a, Mutations in contact residues of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (red bar at top) was aligned against the most closely related SARS-CoV-like coronaviruses and SARS-CoV itself. Key residues in the spike protein that make contact to the ACE2 receptor are marked with blue boxes in both SARS-CoV-2 and related viruses, including SARS-CoV (Urbani strain). b, Acquisition of polybasic cleavage site and O-linked glycans. Both the polybasic cleavage site and the three adjacent predicted O-linked glycans are unique to SARS-CoV-2 and were not previously seen in lineage B betacoronaviruses. Sequences shown are from NCBI GenBank, accession codes MN908947, MN996532, AY278741, KY417146 and MK211376. The pangolin coronavirus sequences are a consensus generated from SRR10168377 and SRR10168378 (NCBI BioProject PRJNA573298).(Sources:Evidence of recombination in coronaviruses implicating pangolin origins of nCoV-2019Viral Metagenomics Revealed Sendai Virus and Coronavirus Infection of Malayan Pangolins (Manis javanica))So now that the virus is natural and not manmade, China can still be penalized for how it performs in the current pandemic…The question now is how China performed?There are those who said that China should have informed everyone sooner. But then how early should the Chinese have done it?To answer the last question, I will establish a timeline. I will make the timeline as objective as possible, taking both angles from both sides.Nov 17: According to a report quoted by SCMP on 13 March 2020, a 55-year-old man, a confirmed case of the novel coronavirus, may have contracted the disease on 17 November 2019 but the case was not recognized at the time. No scientific paper has yet been published about such pre-December cases.Dec. 1: The earliest date of symptom onset, according to a study in the journal Lancet.Dec. 10: Wei Guixian, one of the earliest known coronavirus patients, starts feeling ill.Dec. 16: Patient admitted to Wuhan Central Hospital with infection in both lungs but resistant to anti-flu drugs. Staff later learned he worked at a wildlife market connected to the outbreak.Dec. 27: Wuhan health officials are told that a new coronavirus is causing the illness.Dec. 29: Local hospitals in Hubei report the first four cases of a “pneumonia of unknown etiology.”Dec. 30:Ai Fen, a top director at Wuhan Central Hospital, posts information on WeChat about the new virus. She was reprimanded for doing so and told not to spread information about it. The Chinese angle is here. (Jesus Christ, please Google, don't make me spend half an hour just to find an archived web page).Wuhan doctor Li Wenliang also shares information on WeChat about the new SARS-like virus. He is called in for questioning shortly afterward. For the details from the two sides please check the Western version and Chinese version. (Wow, looking for the Chinese angle is hard).Wuhan health commission notifies hospitals of a “pneumonia of unclear cause” and orders them to report any related information.Dec. 31:Wuhan health officials confirm 27 cases of illness and close a market they think is related to the virus' spread.Chinese authorities alert WHO about a string of pneumonia-like cases in Wuhan.CCTV local media in Wuhan made a report on the ongoing pneumonia epidemic. Also here.Jan 1:The seafood market (Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market) that was identified as a suspected center of the outbreak is closed.Wuhan Public Security Bureau brings in for questioning eight doctors who had posted information about the illness on WeChat. Chinese version for Dr Li is here, and the other doctors here.An official at the Hubei Provincial Health Commission orders labs, which had already determined that the novel virus was similar to SARS, to stop testing samples and to destroy existing samples. The Chinese angle is here and a forum is also here. (Seriously google, make it easier for me to find what I’m looking for.)Jan. 2: Chinese researchers map the new coronavirus' complete genetic information. This information is not made public until Jan. 9. (Sorry I don’t have money to see wsj articles).Jan. 7: Xi Jinping becomes involved in the response.Jan. 9: China announces it has mapped the coronavirus genome.Jan 10: WHO issues its first guidance on the novel coronavirus. The review tool.Jan. 11–17: Important prescheduled CCP meeting held in Wuhan. During that time, the Wuhan Health Commission insists there are no new cases.Jan 11: The first two patients in Shenzhen city transferred into negative pressure room in Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen City due to matching lab test result, symptoms, and epidemiology and are being listed as suspected cases. The cases were not confirmed at the time, because requirement from the Chinese government at the time was that first case in each individual cities need to be submitted to provincial CDC, verified by national CDC, and then evaluated and confirmed by a specific diagnostic team in national CDC. Report here. (3rd hour of making this thing. I just give up)Jan 12:In China, more than 700 close contacts of the 41 confirmed cases, including more than 400 healthcare workers, had been monitored, with no new cases reported in China since 5 January. Report here.The WHO published initial guidance on travel advice, testing in the laboratory and medical investigation. Report here.Jan. 13:First coronavirus case reported in Thailand, the first known case outside China.The USCDC announced that the genome had been posted on the NIH genetic sequence database, GenBank. Report here.Jan. 14:WHO announces Chinese authorities have seen "no clear evidence of human-to-human transmission of the novel coronavirus."WHO refuses to rule out human-to-human spread in China's mystery coronavirus outbreak. NCOV-19 has limited human-to-human transmission but could spread wider. WHO full report here.Wuhan implements screening measures for travelers leaving the city at airports, railway stations, and other passenger terminals.(Ok…..)Jan 15:A second death occurred in a 69-year-old man in China on 15 January..The WHO published a protocol on diagnostic testing for 2019-nCoV, developed by a virology team from Charité Hospital.The patient who becomes the first confirmed U.S. case leaves Wuhan and arrives in the U.S., carrying the coronavirus.China, U.S. sign phase-one trade deal. Chinese report. US report.US-China Phase 1 Trade Deal copy here.Jan 16: Japan reports its first case, a man in his mid-thirties who did not visit the seafood market.Jan 17:A second man, aged sixty-nine, dies in Wuhan.Thailand reports its second case, a seventy-four-year-old woman.Jan. 18:The Wuhan Health Commission announces four new cases.Annual Wuhan Lunar New Year banquet. Tens of thousands of people gathered for a potluck. Chinese version here.Jan. 19:First confirmed cases were reported in China, outside Wuhan, one in the southern province of Guangdong and two in Beijing.Wuhan reported 136 additional laboratory-confirmed cases, bringing the total number of laboratory-confirmed cases in China to 201. A new death was also reported in Wuhan, bringing the total number of fatalities in China to three.Jan. 20:The first case announced in South Korea. Report here.Zhong Nanshan, a top Chinese doctor who is helping to coordinate the coronavirus response, announces the virus can be passed between people. Report here.China announced that the virus was human-to-human transmissible after two medical staff were infected in Guangdong.Scientists from the China CDC identified three different strains of the 2019-nCoV confirming that the original nCoV-19 had mutated into two additional strains.Singapore were diagnosed with the Wuhan coronavirus upon returning home: one from Malaysia, two from South Korea and two from Singapore. Report here.Jan. 21:The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention confirms the first coronavirus case in the United States.CCP flagship newspaper People’s Daily mentions the coronavirus epidemic and Xi's actions to fight it for the first time.China's top political commission in charge of law and order warns that “anyone who deliberately delays and hides the reporting of [virus] cases out of his or her own self-interest will be nailed on the pillar of shame for eternity."WHO makes field visit to Wuhan, China. Report here.Wuhan Institute filed to patent the use of Gilead's remdesivir for the treatment of novel coronavirus. Report here.WHO Situation Report 1.Jan 22:New data showed indications of the current rapid spread of the disease and an increase in the rate of transmission. Report hereOfficials announced a quarantine of the greater Wuhan, China area to commence on 23 January 2020 at 10:00 a.m. No traffic would be allowed in or out of the city.WHO Situation Report 2.Jan. 23:Wuhan and three other cities are put on lockdown. Right around this time, approximately 5 million people leave the city without being screened for the illness.First meeting of Emergency Committee regarding the novel coronavirus outbreak. WHOBack to the question. How early should the Chinese have done it?Depends of which side of the divide you are.Me, who is in the positive side says China did fast. Really fast. If you ask me what can I say, I would say kudos to the Chinese. They did it the earliest they ever do, given the knowledge they have of the situation.China’s response to the outbreak of Covid-19 has been exceedingly transparent, swift, effective and lifesaving.However, the narrative has been hijacked by a few Western media outlets to propagate a cover-up using nitpicked events that were twisted to fit their narrative.The reason it has been succesful is because it aligns with pre-existing Western biases about China’s government being untrustworthy liars.No amount of re-writing history will change the objective reality that China faced an entirely new virus, had to do all the discovery from scratch, and still had the fastest and most aggressive response. And nothing will change how the entire western world, despite having all the homework done for them, still failed to react until thousands or tens of thousands of cases emerged.(From Did China really coverup the virus? A myth debunked - Asia Review)I have plenty of WSJ articles here, but I can’t read them. No seriously, why would I pay them my food money? I dont even earn that much, and now I’m jobless. I do read NYT too.But…If you read something like, I kind of think otherwise. I dont know about you though.I also agree with WHO. WHO has been supportive in this on my view. My view. I don’t you though. But WHO did a good job for me.And I also agree on how they portrayed China on this.Even Bill Gates agree.Should China be penalized? Why should we penalized them.Look at this graphs.This is the United States.This is Italy.This is Spain.This GermanyMy country, the PhilippinesThis is IndiaNoticing something?Let me tell you then. Almost 6 weeks, the world witnessed China. And for six weeks, alarms in Beijing are crying out loud. Beijing held off the pandemic and delayed it for 6 weeks.6 weeks for the world to prepare.Some did manage to do something.This is South KoreaAnd this China.South Korea used the time China had gave them. And they were successful.Now, you will argue with me and tell me: But China caused it.They didn’t. Its all in the data.Your Question: Should China be penalized for creating a mess in the world?My Answer: I will congratulate the Chinese for their astonishing achievement. I think were lucky coronavirus hit China first. It gave some the time to prepare. Imagine the total pandemonium if it started somewhere else. Penalizing the Chinese should be the last thing in our minds.That’s all. (Wew, that 5 long hours of research).A message to Google. I really appreciate your service, shoving to my face and into my throat… I mean giving me pages after pages of reference when it is from Western sources but please, if I’m looking for Chinese reference, please don’t bury it. Page 10 in google search is like being in a remote jungle. And when I search its full name or title (word by word arrangement), don’t give me unrelated stuff. Thank you.

Is there any reference agreement / contract template available (between client & contractor) for villa construction? If so please forward me.

Construction Draft Agreement formARTICLES OF AGREEMENTThis deed of agreement is made in the form of agreement on _____(date) between Mr.____________ or his authorized representative (hereinafter referred to as the first party) and Mr.________________ , S/O _______________ resident of ______________ (hereinafter referred to as the second party), to execute the work of construction of _______________________________ (hereinafter referred to as works) on the following terms and conditions.2. Cost of the ContractThe total cost of the works (hereinafter referred to as the “total cost”) is Rs. ____ Lacks as reflected in Annexure - 1.3.1 Payments under its contract:Payments to the second party for the construction work will be released by the first party in the following manner:-MS NoON COMPLETION OFPAYMENT %VALUE (INR)CUMULATIVEMS-01Land Registration & agreement signature20% (based on land value)MS-02On reaching plinth level05% of the total costMS-03On completion of GF15% of the total costMS-04On reaching roof level15% of the total costMS-05Flooring, bathroom tiling and MEP works10% of the total costMS-06Painting, toilet fixtures & Roof tiling10% of the total costMS-07Well, Boundary wall & External landscape.10% of the total costMS-08Clearing of punch list & Project hand over.15% (adjust based on first MS%)3.2 Payments at each stage will be made by the first party :(a) on the second party submitting an invoice for an equivalent amount ;(b) on certification of the invoice (except for the first installment) by the engineer nominated by the first party with respect to quality of works in the format in Annexure - 2; and(c) upon proper and justified utilization of at least 50 % of the previous installment and 100 % of any prior installment.4. Notice by Contractor to EngineerThe second party, on the works reaching each stage of construction, issue a notice to the first party or the Engineer nominated by the first party (who is responsible for supervising the contractor, administering the contract, certifying the payments due to the contractor, issuing and valuing variations to the contract, awarding extensions of time etc.), to visit the site for certification of stage completion. Within 15 days of the receipt of such notice, the first party or the person nominated by it, will ensure issue of stage completion certificate after due verification.5. Completion timeThe works should be completed in ___ (Normally villa project finish by10-12 months) months from the date of this Agreement. In exceptional circumstances, the time period stated in this clause may be extended in writing by mutual consent of both the parties.6. If any of the compensation events mentioned below would prevent the work being completed by the intended completion date, the first party will decide on the intended completion date being extended by a suitable period:a)The first party does not give access to the site or a part thereof by the agreed period.b)The first party orders a delay or does not issue verified / approved drawings, specifications or instructions for execution of the work on time.c)Ground conditions are substantially more adverse than could reasonably have been assumed before issue of letter of acceptance and from information provided to second party or from visual inspection of the site.d)Payments due to the second party are delayed without reason.e)Certification for stage completion of the work is delayed unreasonably.7. Any willful delay on the part of the second party in completing the construction within the stipulated period will render him liable to pay liquidated damages. @ Rs. 500 per day to a maximum of Rs.150, 000/- which will be deducted from payments due to him. The first party may cancel the contract and take recourse to such other action as deemed appropriate once the total amount of liquidated damages exceeds 2 % of the contract amount.8. Duties and responsibilities of the first party8.1 The first party shall be responsible for frequent visits and guidance to the second party for carrying out the works as per specifications. This will include written guidelines and regular site visit of the authorized personnel of the first party, for checking quality of material and construction to ensure that it is as per the norms.8.2 The first party shall supply 3 sets of drawings, specifications and guidelines to the second party for the proposed works.8.3 Possession of the site will be handed over to the second party within 10 days of signing of the agreement.8.4 The Engineer or client representative as may be authorized by the first party shall hold meeting once in a month where the second party or his representative at site will submit the latest information including progress report and difficulties if any, in the execution of the work. The whole team may jointly inspect the site on a particular day to take stock of activities.8.5 The Engineer shall record his observations/instructions at the time of his site visit in a site register maintained by the second party. The second party will carry out the instructions and promptly rectify any deviations pointed out by the engineer. If the deviations are not rectified, within the time specified in the Engineer’s notice, the first party as well as the engineer nominated by it, may instruct stoppage or suspension of the construction. It shall thereupon be open to the first party or the engineer to have the deviations rectified at the cost of the second party.9. Duties and responsibilities of the second party9.1 The second party shall:a)take up the works and arrange for its completion within the time period stipulated in clause 5;b)employ suitable skilled persons to carry out the works ;c)regularly supervise and monitor the progress of work ;d)abide by the technical suggestions / direction of supervisory personnel including engineers etc. regarding building construction ;e)be responsible for bringing any discrepancy to the notice of the representative of the first party and seek necessary clarification :f)ensure that the work is carried out in accordance with specifications, drawings and within the total of the contract amount without any cost escalation ;g)keep the first party informed about the progress of work on daily basis. Use electronic / social media to transmit daily progress photograph in case client / representative is not available at work place.h)be responsible for all security and watch and ward arrangements at site till handing over of the building to the first party ; andi)maintain necessary insurance against loss of materials/cash, etc. or workman disability compensation claims of the personnel deployed on the works as well as third party claims.f) Pay all duties, taxes and other levies payable by construction agencies as per law under the contract (First party will effect deduction from running bills in respect of such taxes as may be imposed under the law).10. Variations / Extra ItemsThe works shall be carried out by the second party in accordance with the approved drawings and specifications. However, if, on account of site conditions or any other factors, variations are considered necessary, the following procedure shall be followed:-a)The second party shall provide the Engineer with a quotation for carrying out the Variation when requested to do so by the Engineer. The Engineer shall assess the quotation, which shall be given within seven days of the request before the Variation is ordered.b)If the quotation given by the second party is unreasonable, the Engineer may order the Variation and make a change to the Contract Price which shall be based on Engineer’s own forecast of the effects of the Variation on the Contractor’s costs.c)The second party shall not be entitled to additional payment for costs which could have been avoided by giving early warning.11. SecuritiesThe Performance Security shall be provided to the Employer no later than the date specified in the Letter of Acceptance and shall be issued in an amount and form and by a bank or surety acceptable to the Employer. The Performance Security shall be valid until a date 28 days from the date of issue of the Certificate of Completion in the case of a Bank Guarantee.12. Termination12.1 The first party may terminate the Contract if the other party causes a fundamental breach of the Contract.12.2 Fundamental breaches of Contract include, but shall not be limited to the following:(a) the contractor stops work for 28 days and the stoppage has not been authorized by the Engineer;(b) the Contractor has become bankrupt or goes into liquidation other than for a reconstruction or amalgamation;(c) the Engineer gives Notice that failure to correct a particular Defect is a fundamental breach of Contract and the Contractor fails to correct it within a reasonable period of time determined by the Engineer;(d) the Contractor does not maintain a security which is required;12.3 Notwithstanding the above, the Employer may terminate the Contract for convenience.12.4 If the Contract is terminated the Contractor shall stop work immediately, make the Site safe and secure and leave the Site as soon as reasonably possible.13. Payment upon Termination13.1 If the Contract is terminated because of a fundamental breach of Contract by the Contractor, the Engineer shall issue a certificate for the value of the work done less advance payments received up to the date of the issue of the certificate, less other recoveries due in terms of the contract, less taxes due to be deducted at source as per applicable law.13.2 If the Contract is terminated at the Employer’s convenience, the Engineer shall issue a certificate for the value of the work done, the reasonable cost of removal of Equipment, repatriation of the Contractor’s personnel employed solely on the Works, and the Contractor’s costs of protecting and securing the Works and less advance payments received up to the date of the certificate, less other recoveries due in terms of the contract and less taxes due to be deducted at source as per applicable law.14. Dispute settlementIf over the works, any dispute arises between the two parties, relating to any aspects of this Agreement, the parties shall first attempt to settle the dispute through mutual and amicable consultation.In the event of agreement not being reached, the matter will be referred for arbitration by a Sole Arbitrator not below the level of retired Assistant Engineer, PWD to be appointed by the first party. The Arbitration will be conducted in accordance with the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996. The decision of the Arbitrator shall be final and binding on both the parties.Annexure IBILL OF QUANTITIESNoDescription of WorkQty.UnitEstimated Cost (Rs.)RemarksIn figureIn WordsGross Total Cost : Rs. ..........................We agree to execute the works in accordance with the approved drawings and technicalspecifications at ............ percentage above/below the estimated rates, i.e., for a total contract price of Rs. ...........(amount in figures ) (Rs. ........... amount in words).Signature of ContractorAnnexure - 2Milestone Completion CertificateCertified that the works upto -------------------------------------------------- level in respect of construction of ------------------------------------- at ----------------------------------- have been executed in accordance with the approved drawing and technical specifications.SignatureName & Designation (Official address)Place :Date :Office sealAnnexure - 3Standards & Specification4.1 Civil and Structural worksa)The building should be RCC slab with wall support structure. The cladding / sub structure wall should be of laterite masonry stone supported on RCC slabs and RCC plinth beams. The roof of the building should cast with structural reinforced concrete of M30 Grade (1:1:2) ready mix concrete for integrity & strength. Staircases should be of RCC M30 grade concrete.b)All main walls shall be 200 mm solid concrete walls made from first quality laterite stones pointed with 1:5 cement sand mortar with a maximum 10mm thickness. Higher thickness of walls shall be adopted for living room slab supported wall for excess load resulted from wider span.c)All external faces of walls and RC members shall be provided with 20 mm thick cement mortar plastering in CM 1:5. All internal faces of walls shall be provided with 12 mm thick plaster in CM 1:5. RCC ceiling, if any, shall be provided with 6 mm thick plaster in CM 1:4.d)Roof shall be treated with bitumen felt waterproofing as per IS-1346. Underground sump & holding tank shall be of RCC M30 water retaining structure design. Construction joints should be linked with water bars to avoid leakage.e)Considering clay content in the soil, bottom soil shall be removed and replaced with granular imported soil, levelled & compacted with optimum moisture content .100mm thick Lean / plain cement concrete of grade M10 should be used to prevent settlement & uniform load distribution to grade.f)The building shall be designed in accordance with the latest Indian Standard Codes and shall be designed to resist wind and seismic forces.g)Minimum grade of reinforced concrete used shall be M25. Ordinary Portland cement of Grade-43 conforming to IS-8 112 shall be used.h)Reinforcement bars will be high yield strength deformed bars of grade Fe-4 15 conforming to IS-1786. Steel structure shall be designed in accordance with provisions of IS 800 - 1984. Structural steel shall conform to IS-2062. Tubular sections shall conform to IS4923. Gr. Yst-240.i)Contractor to ensure minimum Seven days curing with moistened sack bags at three times a day for all RCC members & plastered surfaces. For roof slab curing, water flooding method to use for efficient curingj)Contractor is advised to carry out its own tests/ investigations related to soil quality/ profile.k)Contractor to apply anti-termite treatment inside grade slab & external periphery 1mtr wide around plinth beam.4.2 Hard landscape & Drainagea)Well shall be located 30mtr away from nearby septic tank to avoid seepage.b)External boundary walls shall be made of grade1 laterite stone on top of RCC plinth /belt beam with section details similar to villa structure.c)A suitable arrangement for carrying the sewage shall be designed using the stoneware pipes and sewage shall be disposed to the nearby municipal sewer line.4.3 Architectural Worksd)The minimum quality of finishes used for various building areas are furnished in this section. However, the Contractor would be free to suggest and select in consultation with Project Engineer alternative material, which can meet similar requirements of durability, texture, abrasion, corrosion and moisture absorption.e)Flooring: The nominal total thickness of floor finish shall be 50 mm including under bed and topping. The flooring shall be laid on already matured concrete base. The under bed for floors shall consist of cement concrete 1:2:4 with stone chips 12.5 mm down graded as coarse aggregates. The under bed shall be provided with appropriate slope towards catch pit for floor drainage.f)Heavy duty ceramic tiles: HD ceramic tiles with matt finish shall be used in toilets, locker rooms etc. The tiles shall be 300x300x7 mm of approved makes.g)Bath tiles- Floor tiles should be non-slippery type laid on water proofed surface.h)Kitchen dado tiles shall be up to 0.8 mtr height from slab level. Kitchen double sink with rotating center tap. Provision for cooking range / gas stove embedded to granite. Gas connection line from work area gas storage area to gas stove.i)Granite Flooring: Minimum 20 mm thick 900x900 machine cut machine polished granite flooring shall be used. The tiles shall be of approved makes and acceptable to client.j)Skirting / Dado : 150 mm skirting matching with floor finish shall be provided in all areas unless specified otherwise elsewhere. Toilets & wash Room shall be provided with dado of full wall height with ceramic tiles of minimum 5 mm thickness as per IS:777.Plasteringa)Sand and cement in the specified proportion shall be mixed dry on a water tight platform / mixer machine and minimum water added to achieve working consistency.b)External face of all walls shall be provided with 18 mm thick cement mortar plastering with an under layer 12 mm thick in CM 1:6 and top second layer (Thickness 6 mm) thick layer in CM 1:4 with approved water proofing compound.c)For internal walls 18 thick plaster in CM 1:6 shall be provided on the uneven side of the wall and 12 mm thick plaster in CM 1:6 on the even side of the wall.d)Inside surfaces of walls shall be provided with 2 mm thick putty punning over the plastered surfaces for uniformity.e)Ceiling of all buildings shall be given 6 mm thick cement sand plaster 1:4Internal plastering on walls shall be done to cover surfaces from skirting level to bottom of roof slab in all areas including areas where false ceiling is proposed.f)All drips, grooves, mouldings, and cornices shall be done with special care to maintain true lines, levels and profiles. After the plastering work is completed, all debris shall be removed and the area left clean.g)Neat cement finish: After achieving a true plastered surface with the help of a wooden straight edge, the entire area shall be uniformly treated with a paste of neat cement at the rate of 1 kg. per Sq.M. and rubbed smooth with a trowel.h)Curing: All plastered surface after laying, shall be watered, for a minimum period of seven days, and shall be protected from excessive heat and sunlight by suitable approved means. Moistening shall commence, as soon as the plaster has hardened sufficiently and not susceptible to damage. Each individual coat of plaster shall be kept damp continuously, for at least two days, and then dried thoroughly, before applying the next coat.Paintinga)Details furnished here in below are the minimum acceptable standard for painting.b)Water proof cement based paint as per IS:5410 shall be provided on external faces of walls, sunshades, etc.c)Inside surfaces shall be provided with Acrylic emulsion paint as per 15:5411 Part-I / oil bound distemper as per IS :428d)All plastered ceilings shall be provided with water bound distempere)All wood work shall be provided with fire resistant transparent paint as per 15:162 over French polish as per 15:348 or flat oil paint as per 15:137.f)Painting for structural steel shall be done as per relevant IS standards.g)Following general instruction for painting shall be followed.ØFor painting on concrete, masonry and plastered surfaces IS:2395 parts I and II shall be followed.ØFor painting on wood work IS:2338 part I & II shall be followed.ØConventional painting methodology should be followed. ie. Moisten wall surface, apply base primer coat, putty filling for undulations, putty 2mm thick overall coating for smooth finish, primer prior to paint and two coats of paint.ØAll painting on masonry or concrete surfaces shall preferably be applied by rollers.ØPaint manufacturer method of application & recommendations shall be followed strictly.Roof coveringa)Roof tiles quality certificate shall be produced prior to purchase and get approved by client. Paint on top of roof tile shall be applied if requested by client.b)For efficient drainage of rain water, roof concrete shall be given a gradient of a minimum of 1 in 100. The gradient shall preferably provide by sloping the structural framing system itself. Gradient may also be provided using screed concrete 1:2:4 using 12.5 mm downgraded aggregate. But the average thickness of such screed concrete may be restricted to about 50 mm. Ic)All roof water proofing shall be provided using high solid content liquid applied elastomeric water proofing membrane with separate wearing course as per ASTM C-898. Thickness of the membrane shall be a minimum of 1.5mm. The treatment includes application of polymerised mortar over sloped roof to achieve a smooth surface and a primer coat. Flat roof shall be provided with chequered cement tiles as per IS: 13801 over water proofing treatment in areas where movement of personnel is expected. Minimum width of pathway i locally shall be 1000 mm.d)Number and size of rain water down comer pipe shall be decided based on the provisions of IS:1742 and IS:2527. The pipes shall be mild steel pipe conforming to class ‘medium’ of IS: 1239 with welded joint. In the case of tall structures, where maintenance is not possible these pipes shall be galvanised. Where access is available for maintenance, these pipes may be painted as specified elsewhere in this document similar to any other steel work. It is recommended that the minimum diameter of the pipe be kept as 150 mm The down comer pipes shall be suitably concealed with masonry work, cement concrete or sheeting to match with the exterior finish.Doors & Windowsa)Unless otherwise specified, all doors, windows and ventilators of air conditioned areas, entrance lobby of all buildings and windows/ventilators provided on the outer face of all buildings shall have, electro-colour coated (anodised) aluminium framework with glazing. All doors of toilet areas shall be of factory made pre-laminated particle board of minimum 35mm thick (MDF exterior grade) conforming to IS 12406.b)Single glazed panels with aluminium frame work shall be provided as partition between two air-conditioned areas wherever clear view is necessary.iv. Doors shall be complete with all hardware and fixtures like door closer, tower bolts, handles, stoppers, aldrops, etc.c)Hollow extruded section of minimum 3mm wall thickness shall be used for all aluminium doors, windows and ventilators.Double glazed wall panel with aluminium frame shall be provided between air- conditioned and non-air-conditioned areas.Glazinga)Double glazing shall consist of two 6 mm thick clear toughened safety glass conforming to IS:2553, hermetically sealed and separated by 12 mm thick gap for thermal insulation.b)For single glazed aluminium partitions and doors, Float glass or flat transparent sheet glass of minimum 5.5 mm thickness shall be used.c)Ground glass / frosted glass of minimum 4 mm thickness shall be used for all windows / ventilators in toilets.d)Unless specified otherwise in this specification minimum thickness of plain sheet glass used for windows/ventilators shall be minimum 5.5 mm.e)Float glass or flat transparent sheet glass on hand rail shall conform to IS:2835. All glazing work shall conform to IS:1083 and IS:3548.f)All glazing clips, bolts, nuts, putty, mastic, cement etc as required shall be supplied and thoroughly cleaned before putting in position, Each glass panel shall be held in place by special glazing clips. After completing of glazing work all dirt stains, excess putty etc. shall be removed and cleaned. All broken, cracked or damaged glass shall be replaced by new glass.g)Neoprene gaskets with snap fit glazing beads shall be fixed as per manufacturer’s instruction to give a leak proof installation.Water Supply And Sanitationh)Roof water tank of adequate capacity depending on the number of users and minimum 8 hours requirement shall be provided. Polyethylene water storage tank conforming to IS:12701 shall be used. The tank shall be complete with all fittings including float valve, stop cock etc.i)Galvanised M.S. pipe of medium class conforming to 15:1239 shall be used for internal piping works for potable water supply.j)Sand C.I.pipes with lead joints conforming to IS:1729 shall be used for sanitary works above ground level.Each toilet block shall have the following minimum facilities. Unless specified all the fittings shall be of chromium plated brass.k)WC (Indian type) Orissa pattern (580x440mm) as per IS:2556 (Part-3) with all fittings including flushing arrangement of appropriate capacity and type- 1 no for Maids bath.l)WC western type 390 mm high as per IS:2556 (part 2) with toilet paper roll holder and all fittings including flushing system of appropriate capacity and type in all other bath rooms.m)Wash basin (oval shape) with all fittings as per IS:2556 to be fixed on concrete platform finished with i2 mm thick polished granite stone in hand wash & all toilets.n)Wall to wall Bathroom mirror (5.5 mm thick float glass) with beveled edges including all fittings.o)Stainless steel towel rail (600 x 20mm) in all bath rooms & wash area.p)Stainless steel liquid soap holder in all bathrooms.Water heater & necessary copper pipe network in all bathrooms.Towel rail & shelfs as per client requirement.Water proof Power socket for electric shaver & hair drier.List of Approved Makes / brands:ØCeramic tiles - Johnson/ KajariaØVitrified tiles - Johnson/ SomanyØLight fixture – Philips /ØSwitches & Socket – Legrande / MK (16Ambs socket - 6 Nos)ØPaints & distempers - Asian/bergcr/ Nerolac . External –Asian paint apexØJoinery – Main Door Teak wood, Toilet- Superior moulded , other Doors seasoned hardwood of good quality.ØDoor fittings - Dorma/ Casma/ DlcoØGlass - Modi/ Glavcrbcl/ Saint GobainØSanitary ware - Hindware/ Cera (Wall mounted WC with concealed cisternØPlumbing fixtures - Jaguar/ Ess Ess / GroheØElectrical wiring / cables – Havells /ABB / SchneiderØFan – Usha / HavellsØCupboard – Wooden MDFØDB ,ELCB,MDB – MBB or equivalentØSand- Good quality river sand collected from non-saline reviser body.4.4 MEP & Miscellaneous requirements (Project Specific requirements)ØDB with breaker system / surge protection systemØEarthing with proper earth rod installedØWeather proof external socketsØIP-55 rated externa lights to protect from rain & ductØProvision for power to following equipmentsØGym equipments – First floor bed to convert to study / gymØProjector in the upstairs living areaØFalse ceiling bulk head lights in all rooms except kitchen & bathØWater heater points in all bath roomsØProvision for mirror lights in dining room wash, all toilet mirrors & Pooja areaØDish TV cable & telephone connection in upper / lower living room & master bed roomØWater tap near car porch , external soft landscape & up stair gardeningØGRP double skinned water tank of 2000Ltr capacity with shade.ØProvision for solar water heater & solar powerØProvision for UPS in a concealed areaØProvision for AC in all bed roomØProvision for water purified in the work areaØProvision for periphery wall /gate security system & CCTV cameraØProvision for sliding gateØProvision for dish wash unit below kitchen cupboard / external washØProvision for washing machine , dryer , ironing table in the upper utility room (wash room)ØShower area – Rain shower , shower mixer & glass partition between dry & wet areaØLiquid / kitchen waste disposal unit to be installed���Z�

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