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Can a fighter jet be stolen?

Mild Warning: This post contains some pretty dark and grim details of the Rashid Minhas incident of 1971. While the rest of the thread has somewhat happy endings, this one doesn’t.A few months before the 1971 war broke out between India and Pakistan, a Pakistan Air Force T-33 Trainer jet was involved in an attempted theft-and-defect situation that ultimately culminated in Airforce Pilot Rashid Minhas being awarded the highest medal of honor, the Nishan-e-Haider, in Pakistan and Pilot Matiur Rahman getting the Bir Sreshto, the highest gallantry award in Bangladesh.Pilot Rashid Minhas:Pilot Matiur Rahman:The official summary of the incident:On August 20, 1971, as a pilot still under training, Rashid was taxing out a T-33 Jet trainer for take-off, when a Bengali pilot instructor, Flight Lieutenant Matiur Rahman, forced his way into the rear cockpit. In mid-air Rahman knocked Minhas out, seized control of the aircraft and headed towards India.With just 40 miles of Pakistan territory remaining, Rashid regained consciousness and tried to regain control of his aircraft. Failing to do so, he did the only thing within his control to prevent the aircraft from being taken to India — he forced that plane to crash just 32 miles from the Indian border, deliberately sacrificing his life for the honour of Pakistan.44 years ago today: Rashid Minhas takes his plane down for PakistanThe 71 war was not only an international conflict between India and Pakistan but also an intranational conflict and a civil war, pitting the West Pakistan portion against the Bengali East Pakistan segment.While the war between both nations officially began in December 71, the civil strife between both West Pakistan and East Pakistan was already underway. Grim reports of harsh reprisals and counter reprisals taking place in East Pakistan were reaching West Pakistan despite media blackouts. The Bangladesh liberation army was morphing into a potent force and several Bengalis among the intelligentsia and armed forces were defecting to it as Bengalis began to coalesce around the idea of full independence from the Western wing.By March 1971, several Bengali officers had already been removed from sensitive duties in the armed forces in West Pakistan.On August 20th, Bengali Pilot instructor Matiur Rahman in West Pakistan came up with a plan: Seize control of an aircraft in his proximity and defect to India as part of the effort to contribute to Bengali independence attempt’s to sabotage and hamper the Pakistani armed forces.The movie on Rashid Minhas’s life actually goes into some pretty disturbing detail: Matiur Rahman signals the pilot Rashid Minhas who is taxing to the runway for flight. Using hand motions, he indicates that he needs to urgently speak to the pilot and signals that his headpiece is broken, so Rashid needs to open the canopy.Rashid Minhas complies and opens the canopy, at which point Matiur Rahman climbs into the flight instructor seat behind Rashid. He then attempts to knock out Rashid Minhas using a some kind of chloroform substance on a rag and slits Rashid’s wrists using a razor when he resists.Having subdued the pilot, he then takes over control of the aircraft from his instructors seat, takes off and flies towards India.At some point, Rashid Minhas regains consciousness during the flight and attempts to struggle to regain control of the aircraft:On the morning of Friday, 20th August, 1971, Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas, a pilot still under training, was in the front seat of a jet trainer, taxing out for take off. An instructor pilot from the same unit forced his way into the rear cockpit, seized control of the aircraft and having taken off, headed the aircraft towards India. With just some 40 miles of Pakistan territory remaining, Minhas had only one course open to him to prevent his aircraft from entering India. Without hesitation, and living up to the highest traditions of the Pakistan Air Force, Rashid Minhas tried to regain control of his aircraft, but finding this to be impossible in the face of the superior skill and experience of his instructor, forced the aircraft to crash at a point 32 miles from the Indian border. In doing so Pilot Officer Minhas deliberately made the supreme sacrifice for the honour of Pakistan and the service to which he belonged.PAKISTAN AIR FORCE - Official websiteFailing to regain control of the stolen aircraft, the pilot Rashid Minhas ultimately crashed it in order to prevent the defection from succeeding.There are three accounts i was able to find which go into details of the incident. Posted with context and sources here:Account # 1 Yawar A. Mazhar, Author of “Rashid Minhas Story”On August 20 1971 Flight Lt Mati ur Rahman and Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas died in the crash of a T-33 jet trainer near the Sindh coastline, 32 miles on the Pakistani side of the border with India. BOTH pilots were awarded the highest gallantry award available. Pakistan awarded the Nishan e Haider to Pilot officer Minhas and (2 years later) the newly independent state of Bangladesh awarded Flt Lt Rahman the Bir Sreshto, the highest gallantry award in BD. Educated Pakistanis are likely to know why Rashid Minhas is a hero (though some of the details they learned are less certain than the popular stories imply). Meanwhile it is my impression that even educated Bangladeshis are not as informed about Matiur as we are about Minhas. So here, as a public service, is what we know about this episode.One of the T-33 trainer aircraft used by the PAF in 1971 that Rashid Minhas died in.Source: Lockheed T-33A 55-3113 2 Sqn Pakistan Air force 17-02-91When the Pakistani army launched operation Searchlight in March 1971, the aim was to crush the movement for Bengali autonomy with overwhelming and decisive force. As a first step in the crackdown, the Bengali military and paramilitary units in East Pakistan were disarmed (and in several cases, most egregiously in Comilla, massacred en masse in the next few days). Those who got wind of the crackdown revolted and grabbed what territory they could (most successfully in Chittagong, which was mostly overrun by Bengali troops and where Major Zia ur Rahman was able to announce the independence of Bangladesh from the radio station) before the West Pakistani troops were able to bring superior numbers and firepower to bearand drive them out. Those who escaped capture or execution went to India where (with Indian help) they organized the Mukti Bahini and started a guerrilla war in East Pakistan.Bengalis serving in the armed forces in West Pakistan were not subject to arrest or execution and the steps taken against them varied very widely. But partly because the autonomy movement did have very wide support and partly as a reaction to the extreme harshness of the crackdown, they were also overwhelmingly pro-Bangladesh. A few of them went to great lengths to escape from West Pakistan (e.g. via Kabul, or even by the hazardous route of sneaking across the Kashmir or Sialkot border into India) to join the nascent Bangladeshi resistance in India but given the difficulties involved, most remained, albeit unhappily, on their jobs. Many were reassigned to duties where they would not have access to sensitive materials or weapons, while some continued to perform their usual duties and a few were genuinely loyal to Pakistan and did all they could to convince their superiors of the same and aggressively participated in the West Pakistani war effort when permitted to do so.Pilots serving in the Air Force were generally reassigned to ground duties. Several Bengali officers serving in Masroor airbase in Karachi were assigned to such duties and were supposed to be kept away from flying. One can get some idea of the intensity of nationalist feeling aroused in them from the fact that the entire group started trying to figure out what, if anything, they could do to play their part in Bengali resistance. They knew there were being watched by intelligence, so they did not discuss politics or make plans in any obvious meeting. Instead, they would discuss plans in short snatches in the course of normal work activities while appearing to be discussing work-related matters. Flt Lt Mati ur Rahman was assigned as deputy flight safety officer, an assignment that allowed him into the flight area a bit more than the others. He and his friends decided that he would try to hijack an aircraft and take it to India. Sneaking into and starting a fighter aircraft without ground crew assistance was practically impossible, so they decided he would hijack a T-33 jet trainer when it was being taken for a solo flight by one of the junior trainees. His fellow officers were to take his wife and infant daughters to the Indian consulate while he carried out his plan (this did not actually happen, the family was arrested but later released and repatriated). They themselves would face whatever consequences came their way. He apparently obtained a replica pistol that was recovered from the wreckage, so it seems that the hijacking was to be carried out using that weapon.On the morning of the hijacking, young pilot officer Rashid Minhas was going for the second solo flight of his short carrier. As he started to taxi towards the main runway, Matiur drove his Opel Kadett to a point on the taxiway where it was obscured by some bushes and where his actions were not visible to the air-traffic control. No one knows exactly what happened on that taxiway, but it is assumed that he signalled the young officer to stop and seeing the deputy flight safety officer on the taxiway, the young pilot naturally stopped his plane. It is assumed that Matiur than climbed on to the aircraft and got into the instructor’s seat behind Rashid. He may have used his replica pistol to order Rashid to take off. In some versions put out later (for example, in the TV movie made by PTV with Air Force assistance) Rashid is knocked out using chloroform and hit repeatedly by Matiur, but there is no proof of either occurrence.What we do know is that the plane headed out to the runway with both of them on board and that Rashed was able to send out a message saying he was being hijacked. Given the unexpected nature of the call and the occurrence, it is no surprise that air traffic control took a few minutes to figure out what was happening and by the time the order to scramble interceptors was given, the T-33 had already disappeared flying close to the ground where it was not visible to radar. Matiur was aware of the gaps in radar coverage and may have used that knowledge but nothing is known for sure about what happened on that flight during this time. In any case, the Sabre jets scrambled to intercept the T-33 never caught sight of it.Ground control and the airborne Sabres did try to radio Rashid to eject, knowing that he could actually eject BOTH pilots (with the rear seat pilot being ejected first) thus ditching the aircraft and bringing an end to the affair. But for whatever reason, he never did that (or never got a chance to do that).But just 32 miles short of the Indian border, something did happen. According to eyewitnesses on the ground, the aircraft seemed to fly erratically before it crashed into the ground, killing both pilots. Later investigation showed that Rashid went through the instrument panel at the point of the crash, indicating that he had been in his seat inside the aircraft when it hit the ground. But Matiur Rahman’s body was found some distance away and seemed to have been thrown out of the aircraft while it was in flight at high speed. The cockpit canopy was found some distance away and forensic examination indicated that it had flown off in flight and hit the tail section at high speed. This has led to the conjecture that Rashid opened the canopy deliberately, pulling Matiur out of his seat (he was not strapped in because the rear seat harness is locked away during solo flight). That Matiur was squatting on the seat without a cushion may also have impeded his ability to control the aircraft (he was without a seat cushion because in the T-33 the pilot’s parachute IS the seat cushion and he did not have one). The aircraft has dual mechanically linked controls, so neither party can override the other completely without a struggle and both can interfere with the flight.A few hours later, Karachi airbase learned that their missing plane was down within Pakistan and rescue choppers headed out for the wreckage (and the base commander probably heaved the biggest sigh of relief ever heaved east of Suez). The next day the air chief went to see President Yahya and recommended that Rashid be given a Sitara e Jurat (the third highest gallantry award in Pakistan), to which Yahya replied “Why Sitara e Jurat? Give the boy the Nishan e Haider!”.Source: Source: Mazhar, Yawar A. (September 1, 2004). "Rashid Minhas Story". Military History Archive. Pakistan Military Consortium. Retrieved January 31, 2012.Account # 2 "Bluebird-166 is Hijacked", Kaisar Tufail (Air Commodore, retired from the PAF)In the aftermath of the military crackdown that started in East Pakistan on 25 March 1971, the Bengali pilots in the PAF were grounded for fear of an adverse reaction. As the situation became more complex and war clouds started gathering, it was felt prudent to withdraw the flying clothing and equipment of Bengali aircrew, with hijacking of aircraft being precisely one of the fears.The Bengali pilots at PAF Base Masroor (Karachi), sensed the surveillance cover of Intelligence Units and agreed not to meet collectively. It was decided that a charade of friendly relations with the Base personnel would be maintained, and any kind of protest avoided to the utmost. In the meantime, short, meaningful meetings would be conducted in the course of normal activities. The consensus on hijacking an aircraft to India emerged in no time, with the underlying thought being that the incident would call world attention to the cause of Bangladesh freedom movement. It was also agreed that the backlash of the hijacking would be borne with fortitude by the remaining Bengalis.[3]At first, the Bengalis mulled hijacking one or more F-86 Sabres, but the mere presence of a Bengali pilot on the tarmac would have been viewed with suspicion. Besides, starting up a jet aircraft without help from ground crew and support equipment was a difficult proposition. How about sneaking into an already started one – a two-seater being flown by a single pilot? The idea sounded enticing, because gullible students going for their solo missions in the T-33 at No 2 Squadron seemed easy prey. Students would surely obey any instructor’s command from outside, especially if it had something to do with aircraft safety. A visual signal for a fuel or hydraulic leak, a flat tyre, even a finger pointed generally at the aircraft would get an immediate response from the student. Chances were that the student could be sufficiently alarmed through hand signals about some external malfunction with the aircraft, and he would stop to find out more about the problem.Flt Lt Matiur-Rehman had been an instructor in No 2 Squadron till he and his Bengali colleagues were grounded soon after the start of the counter insurgency operation in March. He was, however, given charge of the Ground Safety Officer with a mandate to check malpractices in aircraft maintenance and operations, thus authorising him to move around on the flight lines and tarmacs in an official transport. Given his affability and, his wife’s friendliness with neighbourhood ladies, Matiur-Rehman was considered the least likely of the Bengalis to arouse suspicion. He fitted the plot perfectly. Apprehensions about the safety of his wife and two daughters were allayed by his Bengali colleagues when it was decided that the family would be moved, with prior coordination, to the Indian Consulate in Karachi, before the Hijack Day.[4]In the meantime Matiur-Rehman, who had earlier checked the students' flying schedule during a brief visit to the squadron, sped off in his private Opel Kadett car to the north-eastern taxi track that led out of the main tarmac. The sides of the taxi-track had thick growth of bushes, which concealed his position both from the ATC tower as well as the tarmac. As the aircraft approached, he was able to stop it on some pretext, as expected. Seeing the instructor gesturing, Minhas must have thought that some urgent instruction was to be conveyed. After all, his mission had been scheduled as an after-thought, and something might have gone amiss in the haste. He expected Matiur-Rehman to plug in his headset and talk to him on the aircraft inter-com. Not encumbered by his flying gear (parachute, anti-G suit, life jacket and helmet), Matiur-Rehman easily stepped on to the wing and slipped into the rear cockpit through the open canopy.[6]Squatting on a seat without a parachute (which also doubled as a seat cushion), Matiur-Rehman was in an awkward position to properly control the aircraft himself.[7] To compel the student to follow his instructions would have required the threat of use of lethal force; else, the student could have turned back, or just switched-off the aircraft. A replica pistol recovered later from the wreckage explains Minhas’ predicament.[8]Image caption: The difficulty of flying without a parachute can be appreciatedfrom this T-33 ejection seat picture on the left, compared to onewhich is properly rigged with a seat-type parachute on the right.Source: "Bluebird-166 is Hijacked"Image caption: This picture shows the vulnerability of the front T-33 pilot to a pistol shot fired from the rear cockpit. Though no shot was fired, the mere threat of shooting may have tempered Minhas' actions from take-off onwards.Source: "Bluebird-166 is Hijacked"At 1128 hrs, ATC Tower received Minhas’ call: “Bluebird-166 is hijacked!” In the rough-and-tumble that followed, the T-33 got airborne from Runway 27 (heading 270°), at 1130 hrs. The aircraft turned left, (a non-standard turn out of traffic) and started steering 120°. It was seen to be descending down to low level and, in no time, disappeared from view. Two more frantic calls, “166 is hijacked,” were the last that were heard from the T-33.Not sure if he had heard it right, Flt Lt Asim Rasheed, the duty ATC officer understood what was going on only when the aircraft did an abnormal turn out of traffic and ducked down very low. Asim called up the Sector Operations Centre (SOC) to inform about the unusual incident; however, when the Sector Commander started asking for details, a quick-witted Asim dropped the phone to save precious time and called up the Air Defence Alert (ADA) hut. “A T-33 is being hijacked. Scramble!” he ordered. Wg Cdr Shaikh Saleem, OC of No 19 Squadron, who had just arrived in the ADA hut after inspecting the flight lines, immediately rushed to the nearby F-86s along with his wingman, Flt Lt Kamran Qureshi. Kamran, the sprightlier of the two, got airborne first, with the leader following closely; the pair was airborne within the stipulated time. The SOC had, however, no clue about the T-33’s position as it had descended to the tree tops and was not visible on radar. In any case, about eight minutes had already elapsed since the T-33’s take-off, and the scrambled pair of F-86s would not have been able to catch up before the border, even at full speed. Some more critical time was also wasted when the F-86 pair was mistakenly vectored onto a B-57 recovering from Nawabshah after a routine mission.[9]After a while, another pair of F-86s led by Flt Lt Abdul Wahab with Flt Lt Khalid Mahmood as his wingman, was scrambled. Wahab, who had been watching the unusual departure of the T-33 from outside the pilots’ standby hut, recalled later, “We knew something was wrong, we had seen the aircraft taxiing dangerously fast. After we got airborne, there was a lot of confusion. Nonetheless, we gave fake calls on ‘Guard’ channel that the F-86s were behind the T-33 and, it would be shot down if it did not turn back. However, with no real prospects of scaring Matiur-Rehman with warning bursts from the F-86’s guns, the only option that remained was to order Minhas to eject. A flurry of radio calls then started, asking Bluebird-166 to eject. There was no response, but the calls continued for several minutes, being repeatedly transmitted by the F-86s, as well as the SOC.”[10]Crash site is roughly in centre of pictureSource: "Bluebird-166 is Hijacked"The situation remained confused and it was apprehended that the hijack might have been successful. The prevailing uncertainty was cleared up in the afternoon, when a phone call was received from Shah Bandar that a plane had crashed nearby and the aircrew had not survived. The Base search and rescue helicopter was launched immediately and it was able to locate the wreckage at a distance of 64 nautical miles from Masroor, on a heading of 130°. The tail of the T-33 showing its number 56-1622 could be seen sticking out in water-logged, soft muddy terrain at the mouth of Indus River, just 32 nautical miles short of the border. Estimated time of the crash was 1143 hrs.Minhas’ body was found still strapped in the seat, 100 yards ahead of the wreckage, while Matiur-Rehman’s body was found clear of the seat, lying further ahead. Both ejection seats had been thrown clear of the aircraft on impact and, there seemed no sign of ejection. The location of Matiur-Rehman’s body away from the ejection seat indicates that he was not strapped up, having being unable to free the stowed harnesses after he had hurriedly stormed into the cockpit.[11]Investigators were baffled when the canopy was found to have a prominent scrape mark of the tailplane, while the tailplane was correspondingly dented by the canopy. Normally, during ejection sequence or jettison of canopy alone, the canopy would have been rocketed up and, would have cleared the tail by a wide margin (this being the very purpose of the rocket thruster). Now it seemed that the canopy had merely inched up into the airflow and had been blown into the tailplane. Could Minhas have actuated the canopy opening lever to throw the unstrapped rear seat occupant overboard, and then safely recover the aircraft?[12] A proper procedure, though, would have been to use the canopy jettison lever which would have rocketed the canopy well clear of the tailplane. In the heat of the moment, it seems that Minhas did what came naturally to him.[13]Image caption: No firewall separates the front and rear cockpits. Also note that without the seat parachute, the pilot would be sunk low and hiseyes would be at the level of the canopy sill, being unable to see all around.Source: "Bluebird-166 is Hijacked"The massive canopy hitting the elevator would have deflected it downwards, causing a sudden nose-down attitude at a precariously low height. Minhas would have then yanked back on the controls to prevent the aircraft from going into the ground. The sudden and violent pitch-up – which was confirmed by eyewitnesses – resulted in the aircraft stalling out. This is partially corroborated by the wreckage report of aircraft flaps found in the down position, implying a desperate need for vital lift to prevent stalling. The rather flat attitude in which the aircraft fell, as well as the compact spread of the wreckage, also confirms the stalled condition of the aircraft.Confronted with a very complex situation requiring quick thinking and steel nerves, Minhas was eventually able to counter Matiur-Rehman’s cunning design. Despite having the option of ejecting safely, and in the course of action also tossing out the hijacker who did not have a parachute, Minhas ostensibly tried to save the aircraft. Sadly, the unusual attempt at opening the canopy had resulted in a chain of uncontrollable events that eventually caused the crash. Nonetheless, Minhas did manage to prevent the aircraft from being hijacked to an enemy country, laying down his life in the process. He was destined to become the youngest star on Pakistan’s firmament of valiant heroes. May Allah bless his soul and may his Nishan-i-Haider be an inspiration for the future defenders of Pakistan.Source: "Bluebird-166 is Hijacked"Account #3 By Airforce Officer Cecil Chaudry, who was responsible for investigating the crash site.It is important to remember that Rashid Minhas was a very young and inexperienced pilot. The crash took place during his second solo flight on T-33 aircraft. In the run up to the 1971 crisis the PAF had grounded all East Pakistani pilots in PAF and had assigned them ground jobs. As part of this Flt Lt Mati ur Rehman was made the Deputy flight safety officer of the base. The Flight Safety Officer was Flt Lt Basit (if I remember the name correctly).Flt Lt Basit as FSO used to on occasions do surprise checks on the OCU students at the base. As part of this he used to stop these students while they were taxing out on a sortie and check if they had correctly stowed equipment in the cockpit or would query them on emergency checklists etc. As one would expect the student would get reprimanded if he was found wanting on any of this.On the day of the crash when Rashid Minhas was taxing out on a dusk training sortie and saw Flt Lt Mati ur Rehman (Deputy Flight safety officer) signalling him to stop he naturally assumed that the purpose was to do a similar check. Therefore, he not only stopped but his attention shifted to the cockpit. This allowed Flt Lt Mati ur Rehman to enter the instructor seat and initiate roll for take off. By the time Rashid Minhas realized this the aircraft was well into the take off sequence. On this Rashid gave a call to the ATC saying that the aircraft is being hijacked. Now this was 1971, aircraft hijacking was not considered an imminent possibility that too in Pakistan and at an air force base. The ATC requested confirmation of the call and got one from Rashid. On this fighters on ADA were scrambled to intercept the aircraft Again as hostilities were not imminent at that time the fighters were not at the highest ADA level (I forget exactly the ADA level Cecil mentioned but I think that it was 10 minutes). However given that Mati ur Rehman knew where the Radar gaps were (being till recently an active pilot) and the dusk conditions an interception was not made.No further information became available till late at night when the PAF base got a call from a police station near the Indian border stating that an aircraft had crashed near a village bordering India. Next morning a team was dispatched to the crash site. Following this an investigation into the incident was launched.Now coming to the factors that led Cecil to believe that a struggle for control took place and the crash was perhaps intentional.As the aircraft overflew a number of villages some eyewitnesses were available. According to them the aircraft was not flying straight and level but was banking or pitching up and down. If Mati ur Rehman had been in complete control of the aircraft this would have resulted in a straight and level flight. Only a struggle resulted in an erratic flight with probably Rashid Minhas trying to control the aircraft in one way and Mati ur Rehman counter acting.Fl Lt Mati ur Rehman’s body was found some distance before the crash site while Rashid Minhas body was at the crash site, had gone through the instrument panel and in the nose of the aircraft. The aircraft had crashed nose first. Mati ur Rehman’s body also had a sand blasting type effect on one side which indicated that he was blown off from the aircraft and dragged quite a bit on the desert surface.This evidence linked in with the earlier events. The manner in which Mati ur Rehman took over the aircraft did not allow him time to strap on. During the likely struggle for aircraft control he used his greater experience to counter Rashid’s efforts. Also he was sitting on the instructor’s seat and could over ride some of Rashid Minhas’s actions. However, the option to jettison off the canopy in an emergency was available with both pilots. Near the point of crash Rahid Minhas in his efforts, either intentionally or accidentally, jettisoned the canopy. As Mati ur Rehman was not strapped on he was blown off explaining the way his body was injured and the fact that it was found before the crash site.This resulted in sudden force on the controls of the aircraft in one direction, as force applied by Mati ur Rehman to control the aircraft was removed. This along with perhaps the effect caused by the loss of canopy, low level and Rashid Minhas’s inexperience resulted in the crash of the aircraft.Source: Source: Mazhar, Yawar A. (September 1, 2004). "Rashid Minhas Story". Military History Archive. Pakistan Military Consortium. Retrieved January 31, 2012.Further Reading and More detailed sources for those interested:"Bluebird-166 is Hijacked"Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas Shaheed and Flt Lt Mati ur Rahman Shaheed. Heroes.While the tale of Rashid Minhas is celebrated as an account of bravery and gallantry, a man sacrificing his life to prevent harm to his country, i can’t help but feel a deep sense of sadness and grim introspection when i read accounts of the hijacking incident and the crash.In a way, the entire Rashid Minhas story is a symbol of the 71 War itself: A tale of fratricide, brother against brother, an instructor pilot against his student and two soldiers fighting for causes so different yet origins so close, identities so intimate, that they struggled to their deaths within the same war machine.While i will honor the bravery of a man whom i have outlived, one who showed true grit in the one moment it counted most, i cant help but feel uncertainty and nervousness when i think about his sacrifice. We have honored Rashid and his sacrifice immensely, but have we learned anything from it? His death was a struggle against another countryman. Both of them believed they were dying for their country. He did not die in a war repelling foreign invaders, but a war within our own nation to define ourselves. The swampy grave that became his T-33’s final abode lay within our own borders. The only blood spilt here was ours.Nearly 45 years after his death, i look upon a country still engaged in semi-fratricide. We are still locked in a political and religious dysfunction that has created a blood bath where our own citizens kill each other more than any enemy.Rashid gave his life to us. He could have allowed the defection, been taken prisoner in India and returned home one day. He could have ejected and saved his life and left the aircraft to crash. But he believed in a Pakistan that was worth dying for, worth saving his aircraft for till the very bitter end. As he saw the swampy mire grow ever closer, his short life draw to a strange end, he must have seen something in us worth fighting for, worth dying for.I hope to see it too, in my life time, some day.(Please note that discussion over the 71 war and it’s morality, politics etc is a different topic which i am willing to discuss in other threads/answers. I don’t intend to belittle the decisions taken by either of the two pilots in this incidents and wont hash them out in the comments. Please remain respectful to both of them due to the sensitive nature of what is discussed here).

How do I get a job in Google or MNCs?

How can I get a job at Facebook or Google in 6 months? I need a concise work-plan to build a good enough skill set. Should I join some other start-up or build my own projects/start-up? Should I just focus on practicing data structures and algorithms?This question previously had details. They are now in a comment. How can a beginner learn algorithms in order to get a job in companies like Facebook, Google, Microsoft, etc.?Christopher J. Su gives an excellent and very comprehensive answer. I wanted to add a few things.The single best course I found for computers science when I was in school was, ironically, not a CS course. It was discrete mathematics. Make sure you take it. Also, spend time on graph algorithms, especially minimal spanning trees and path / flow algorithms.Think about checking out some open source projects, e.g. on source forge, and contributing to them. It's real-world experience, it can build a name for you, and it can be fun.The best single book I've found for general algorithms is Introduction to Algorithms. It's a little hard to read, but better than most algorithms books I've seen and very comprehensive. I think it's available online for free, as an ebook on kindle, or as a textbook.Finally, don't just learn facts and algorithms: understand how they fit together, how they compliment each other. Explore. Read technology sites like WIRED , Gizmodo - Everything Is Technology , and Engadget | Technology News, Advice and Features . When you see something that tickles your fancy, read up on it. Don't just learn about it in isolation, figure out how it integrates with the rest of your knowledge.Above all, have fun. If you wind up not liking programming, find something else to do. Be mindful of the career you'll get out of it, but remember, it sucks to do a job you hate for 40 years.17k Views · 34 Upvotes · Answer requested by Ashish MishraYour response is private.Are you satisfied with this answer?YesNoUpvote · 34 Comment...RecommendedAllPromoted by Blinkist Ever read 4 books in one day? Try the Blinkist app.Read or listen to the world's best nonfiction books in a matter of minutes and become a smarter you.Get the AppMarcelo Juchem, Software Engineer at Facebook, my code runs in the compilerUpdated Jun 12, 2015 · Upvoted by Felipe Oliveira Carvalho, former Software Engineer Intern at Facebook and Mohit Talwar, worked at FacebookThis, of course, is according to my opinion and experience. YMMV, but I hope it helps:The most important part that people often overlook:I always say that 30 minutes of study a day is way better than 3h 30min once a week. Study often, the body works in a use-it-or-lose-it fashion. There's no need to study for 8-10 hours straight, I would in fact discourage that because of the risk of burnout. Plan small sessions, plan small and big intervals during the day. Make these intervals flexible (don't go on a big interval if you feel like keeping up; don't stop for only 15 minutes if you're really tired). Get plenty of rest, specially a good night of sleep - that's when the brain stores information. Nobody thinks clearly when they are tired or hungry (that goes for interviews too). Don't go to sleep right after a session of intense brain workout, it takes a while to turn it off. Stop at least two hours before going to bed and do nothing or at least something relaxing (not video-games, they are usually stressing like any other challenging activity). Just don't ignore the signals you receive from your body and don't try to enter hero-mode, just keep your pace and aim for steady progress.When studying the algorithms, data structures and the solution to interview questions, never ever try to memorize the code. You should instead focus on understanding how and why the solution works. What's the motivation behind the problem? How could you use it to solve real-world problems? What are the insights, the clever observations made on the problem's constraints that make the solution possible? What details of the problem does the solution take advantage of to get that extra performance gain / space saving? Where does the algorithm / data-structure / solution suck? How could you make it better? What do you lose and gain by doing so? For the specific problem at hand, which solution presents the most acceptable trade-offs?Don't focus too much on the end goal, the whole process should be rewarding. If you're not enjoying prepping for the interviews, chances are you're doing it wrong, for the wrong reasons or you're simply pursuing the wrong career. Learning, understanding, overcoming the challenges and getting better at stuff is awesome by itself, getting the job is just a nice consequence of your good work. Remember: you're not only trying to get the job, you also want to keep it afterwards and it will probably not be too different from what you're already doing while studying. You're also not done when you get the offer - in fact, you're never done.Be humble. Nobody learns what they think they already know. Nobody improves what they think they're already good at. The only competition you have is yourself so be honest with you. Leave your ego outside the door.If you think you're ready for the interview because you know enough, you probably need to prep some more ( If you think you're not ready, that might not mean anything ('t quit if you fail an interview. Instead, try to identify and learn from your mistakes. The interviewing process is also not perfect, false negatives do happen.Just like every technical problem you'll have to solve during the interviews, the biggest difference lie in the smallest details. That's what this section is all about, the details that we don't always think about but that silently impact the final result.Format of the interviews:Most interviews for software engineering roles are divided into basically three categories: (1) behavioral / culture fit, (2) systems design and (3) programming / algorithms.Most of the time you'll be interviewed for (3), but the same interviewer might be evaluating you for more than one category at the same time.As far as (1) is concerned, it helps to put yourself in the interviewer's position and ask yourself: would I want to work with this guy everyday for the next year? Would I have a beer with him or invite him to lunch and talk about my weekend? Will I and the rest of the company be able to rely on him as a peer?The importance given to (2) is directly proportional to the experience you have in the industry. As a new grad, you shouldn't worry too much about it but don't neglect it either.Keep this format in mind while you study because it kinda reflects the daily work you'll do if you get the job. That's the interview purpose in the first place, right? See if you're a fit for the role.Where to find study material:this blog is amazing, it not only lists several technical problems, but also propose different approaches to solve it while providing a nice explanation: GeeksforGeeks - A computer science portal for geeksthis is a list of interview questions I compiled when I was in a similar situation to yours: don't want to sound like a douche who quotes himself, but I've written a somewhat similar answer that might be of some help: Marcelo Juchem's answer to How do you keep your programming skills sharp? How do you learn new programming languages?back in the day I used Glassdoor – an inside look at jobs & companies a lot. You can search for interview questions specific to the role and company you're looking forward to join. Look not only for the questions but also for the experience the candidate had while interviewing. Be warned, though, you'll notice there's a frequent pattern: some people blame the interviewer when they fail. Granted, there are lots of bad interviewers out there, but knowing when to admit that you screwed up is key to learning from your mistakes. Keep that in mind while rummaging through the posts. One can learn a lot from other people's experiences.get a good algorithms book. I used Introduction to Algorithms | The MIT Press by Cormen et al. You might want to skip some or most mathematical proofs of correctness and complexity - they're too dense and time consuming for your purpose. Some purists might say you shouldn't but let's be honest: you're not trying to write a thesis so be pragmatic. You won't benefit much from reading the whole book, focus on the chapters that cover the basics. From the table of contents presented on the link above, I'd read chapters 1-18, skim through 19-20, read 21-24, skim through 25-27, definitely read 32 and skim through 34-35. That's a lot, I know, but that's a solid foundation for everything else you'll encounter. Use your best judgement to decide when to skip stuff.stop whatever you're doing and start reading Programming Pearls by Jon Bentley if you haven't already. Right now. Before anything else. He. Is. Made in Italy Women Shoes > Home might help to brush up the first chapters of a good operating systems book (I used Modern Operating Systems, 2nd. ed.), at least the part about processes, threads, mutexes, semaphores... don't get carried away, though. Since we're in the subject, the short article Mutexes and Semaphores Demystified is a must to read. Semaphores are, IMHO, the single most misunderstood and misused / underused synchronization primitive.when it comes to algorithms you can simply write, compile and run them in your machine. Now systems design is a little harder to study because you need a proper environment to deploy the system, data to process and load to test the corner cases. It helps if you face these problems in your daily work but all is not lost if you don't. There is good material out there. Introduction to Information Retrieval is an awesome book on the subject. Like Cormen's, you probably want to select a few chapters to read because of the limited time you have. I suggest chapters 1-5 so you grasp the basics, that should give you enough background to come up with reasonable, working solutions.there are some basic concepts and algorithms widely used on systems design that you can read about, like: Consistent hashing, Distributed hash table, Paxos (, Shard (database architecture)another way to study systems design is by reading articles about real systems, like Kademlia. Google has some classic articles on this, namely: Google Research Publication: BigTable, Google Research Publication: MapReduce, The Google File System (the name might be misleading, it's not a general purpose file system, a better rough simplification would be a storage for applications that write data in an append-only or append-mostly fashion - consider a service that logs some activity in real-time, which would later be processed in batch with a MapReduce job), Chubby Distributed Lock Service, Google Research Publication: Paxos Made Live, Megastore: Providing Scalable, Highly Available Storage for Interactive Services... You can also find tons of stuff here: Facebook EngineeringHow to make progress:start by deciding how much of your day you want to spend on coding, reading about algorithms, solving problems, reading about systems design... Experiment on this and keep calibrating until you find what works best for you since YMMV.whenever you find a new subject, try to identify any dependencies on stuff you haven't already studied. Building a graph of dependencies helps you keep track of stuff (graphviz's dot is your friend: Graphviz - Graph Visualization Software). It helps to know how much is still left to do.keep track of your progress and adjust your plan accordingly: that's how you'll be able to fit everything in the time you have available. Make conscious decisions of when to include or leave something out of your plan. Keep track of how many pages per hour/day of technical stuff you can read, of how many problems per day you can solve... Update this data periodically and use it to make adjustments to your plan. This will also help you with motivation because you'll have clear and concrete metrics on the progress you're making.revisit, from time to time, the problems you already solved and the algorithms and data structures you already implemented. You'll be amazed by how much an individual can forget. Remember, use it or lose it. Our brain learns by repetition. Each time you do it you'll notice that your speed and accuracy will improve.find someone who share your goals. It might not sound very intuitive but explaining stuff is an awesome exercise at understanding and memorizing complex ideas. Discussing solutions also helps with seeing things from a different angle that you're normally biased not a non-exclusive alternative to finding someone to study with you, write your own blog, publish your code or share your experiences online somehow. Chances are someone will benefit from it. If you do a good job you might even get the attention of folks in the companies you wish to join. Just don't get obsessed with this idea because it can deviate you from your your own software library as you go with data structures and algorithms. Whenever possible, use your own library. Don't aim for the most reusable, templates/generics enabled state-of-the-art library. Your goal is to simply exercise what you're studying. Library writing is the best way I know to exercise software design. Keep in mind, though: a library without a use case won't be mature enough to help you on this. This video might help:Update: a revised and updated version of this answer can now be found here: How to prepare for a Software Engineering Interview266.2k Views · 2,710 UpvotesUpvote · 2.7k Chandrashekhar KotekarGreat answer. What is the probability of FB or Google recruitment team changing their hiring stra...Promoted by Paysa Do you know your salary worth?Find our what you're worth and find jobs that match your skill. Get paid more!Start NowNandish Punter, Developer at AmazonUpdated May 6, 2013 · Upvoted by Anuj Tewari, former Software Engineering Intern at Facebook (2016)Continue ReadingFollow these 10 steps and eventually you may be in good position to apply to these companiesStick to one programming language, make sure you can code with absolute ease in this language. I am sure Google and FB dont have affinity to one specific language.Code them on Linux or Mac preferably. They are Unix variantsGet yourself a good book on Algorithms and data structuresComplete the book so that you get the hang of all basic algorithms and data structures. (Book,Data Structures Using C)Learn other computer basics like OS concepts, bit programming, networking and about data bases(Preferably The world's most popular open source database(MySql) should be enough)Understand that you have just completed the course and you are still not expert in Algorithms!Now you need to sharpen your coding and algo skills, which should be taken in parallel.Fork some small and famous Build software better, together (Git) projects and try understanding the code and if possible try contributing to it. This will ensure that you code the right way!Participate in topcoder or codechef or codesprint. These sites have practice problems which will sharpen your algorithms skill.I find Programming Interviews has some awesome explanations to very nice problems from a IITian if you can follow Indian English accent.Please glance back what ever you learn in these days and make sure you dont forget what you learn82.5k Views · 942 UpvotesYour response is private.Are you satisfied with this answer?YesNoUpvote · 942 Comment...RecommendedAllCosmin Negruseri, former engineer at GoogleAnswered Feb 10, 2011Continue ReadingOriginally Answered: What is the best way to get a job at Google?Read these two great articles: has another great article about phone screens advice to undergrads is that you need to have very good background in computer science. This usually means doing an algorithms course and knowing most of CLRS really well.Then you need to be able to code somewhat fast under interview pressure. This means having a rating of at least 1500 on algorithm contests.If you get your rating that high send me your CV.13.1k Views · 111 UpvotesUpvote · 111 Comment...RecommendedAllDeepak Shukla, Careers Coach. Seen 1k+ applications. Interviewed 200+ People.Updated Mar 22, 2016Continue ReadingLet's break this into sections or skip to my free guide hereCoding Development:Build up your knowledge of Java, Swift and HTML and algorithms and data structuresEnter competitive coding competitions to 'force progress'Attend interviews at lower level companies to force yourself to brush up on codeSubmit code to some open source projectsDevelop an App or Website for a commercial project for a friend (so you feel morally obliged) that sits just OUTSIDE your range of expertiseAcademic Development:If you're in college/university aim to get top/as close to top GPA's/results across your courses as you canIt pays to know an 'in-demand' language such as Russian or Urdu or SpanishPersonal Development:Not everyone is applying for SDE jobs; so it pays to have an interesting outside skillIf you have a hobby you are involved in; pursue it more rigorouslye.g. if you do cross-fit; enter a cross-fit competitionIf you run, enter 2x 10k racesIf you play chess, enter a competitive chess competitionIf you DON'T have a hobby. Find oneResume preparation:3 million people apply. 7k get jobs. Probably 20 people for every job are interviewed (educated guess)Getting to interview is tough. You need an amazing resumeNick a template from here. Don't make THESE mistakesOnce it's ready have it reviewed by a current/ex-googler/by me/on Quora. Don't ASSUME it's good enoughInterview preparation:I have 60 answers in the area of Google Recruiting on Quora where I'm a most viewed writerGet readingRead anything by Gayle Laakmann McDowellLook up programming/otherwise questions on GlassdoorPractice with a friendThen practice againOther:Get to know someone at Google to get a referralReview your progress at 1/3/5 monthsSmile; try and enjoy it :)61.3k Views · 530 Upvotes · Answer requested by User-12771462627386223909Your response is private.Are you satisfied with this answer?YesNoUpvote · 530 Comment...RecommendedAllHemanth MutteviAnswered May 1, 2013Continue Reading1) Be perfect in one language .2) Refer Bible (Introduction to Algorithmsis a book by Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, and Clifford Stein)3) learning concepts of approaching a problem is one part , solving exercise is another part .All the above will make you a strong contestant .Know how question varies for a particular situation by participating in online judges like Sphere Online Judge (SPOJ) , ,Project Euler .4) Show-case your caliber and passion by participating in top-coder .5) Refer Theory of computation (most important in my view)6) play with linux flavor O.S .Be updated with latest interview question from GeeksforGeeks - A computer science portal for geeks and Programming Interview Questions | CareerCupAnd last but not the least , try contributing to online forum something like Stack Overflow .Because teaching will sometimes make concepts clear that will give you reputation as well(being human) .9.6k Views · 29 UpvotesUpvote · 29 Comment...RecommendedAllMichael Grier, former Software Engineer at Google (2015-2017)Answered Feb 3, 2015Continue ReadingOriginally Answered: If I have 1 year to prepare for a Google software engineer interview, how should I prepare?Write code. Write a lot of code. Solve a number academic problems - e.g. get one of the problem sets for dynamic programming, get an accessible book on algorithms like Sedgewick's and DO ALL THE PROBLEMS. Even if you resort to typing in answers do them. (It's not a bad idea to take the version for a different language and translate them into the language of your choice.) Understand the sorting algorithms, understand Dijkstra's algorithm.Become fluent and comfortable in a language. It's extremely unusual for implementation language to matter in an interview but saying you know say for example Go while not actually writing Go (or idiomatic Go) is a bad idea. If you're the kind of person who would pass a loop you're the kind of person who will be agile and able to pick up a new language.In my loop at Microsoft (successful, many many years ago) my worst interview was where I claimed to understand Lisp and then completely failed to deliver on finding if a list had a loop. In my (successful, very recent) Google loop my worst interview was where the interviewer asked me to implement the one sub-technique to a sorting algorithm that I had skipped (humorously I remember it passing through my mind and I explicitly wrote it off...). It flustered me and I tanked that one. (I still made it but when I pass that interviewer in the halls I wonder if he wonders why I got the offer... :-} )If you are going for a research position then I think you need to demonstrate some serious CS theory chops but I'm more of an engineer/builder type so I didn't spend much time there other than getting over my fear of dynamic programming. Do be ready with O(n) analysis, a lot of it, I was weaker than I should have been here.In the end you want to demonstrate problem solving skills and fluency in the solution space. There's a lot of talk about which language is best but really to a large degree all the procedural languages have approximately the same shape, it's a matter of how much boilerplate you have to write so just pick one and get great at it. I would pick either C++ or Java assuming you're starting from ground zero; Go is not a bad choice either although somewhat risky if your interviewer doesn't know it yet. If you want to do front end programming, Javascript could be a good choice although lack of formal structure declarations makes it harder to get your data structures recorded somewhere.Hope this helps.Mike6.1k Views · 24 UpvotesYour response is private.Are you satisfied with this answer?YesNoUpvote · 24 Comment...RecommendedAllZach BoldygaAnswered Apr 15, 2013 · Upvoted by Mohammad Husain, worked at FacebookContinue ReadingOriginally posted as a comment (lol):Facebook and Google are two completely different companies, but i take it you're looking for a challenge. You should consider these things:Foremost, get out of the door and start interacting with potential employers. Don't restrict yourself to Facebook and Google. Find some companies that seem interesting, sharpen your interviewing skills, familiarize yourself with the companies, and see what happens. You will probably have some trouble adapting to this, but on the contrary you're most likely not going to spend 6 months learning in a room and turn around and fool a real business into thinking you're experienced. There are a huge set of socialization and business related skills that you'd be missing out on. Regardless, these interviews will at least give you a tangible sense of what you need to know.Second, start making some important social connections. You didn't mention anything about friends, which leads me to believe you're overlooking this point. The good news is that if you're in a place like San Francisco there are tons of meet ups, talks, etc that draw the crowd you're looking for. I hear that even the coffee shops host startup related and academic conversations. If you start meeting these people, you're going to open up all sorts of opportunities. You might find a co founder, an employer, or you might just learn a thing or two.Lastly, location. I assume you're living in Northern California, but if not then take a look at what your location has to offer versus other places. If you're crashing with your parents, that's free rent, which frees up a lot of time you'd need to spend working. But, if you really want to go elsewhere then start coming up with a game plan ASAP. I hear that Austin, Texas is also a pretty promising place to be these days, btw.So in a nutshell, it's probably a really bad idea for you to focus solely on academics for the next 6 months. Sure, you'll need to learn a lot to be valuable, but a workplace or startup environment can offer a better sense of the skills that actually matter.12.8k Views · 29 UpvotesUpvote · 29 Comment...RecommendedAllEkansh Preet Singh, Software Engineer, Facebook Inc.Answered Dec 11, 2012Continue ReadingOriginally Answered: How can I get a job at Facebook, Google, or Epic?Companies like Facebook, Google etc. look at how comfortable you are with programming and how in depth your knowledge is. The way you go about acquiring that knowledge is completely your own. And there are more than one ways to it.Online judges are definitely a good way to practice coding and get familiar and comfortable with it. But it is by no means a prerequisite.As for when someone says you must have good projects under your belt, I would personally define a good project as one which had a purpose (you just didn't do it so that you can put it on your resume) and, as importantly as the previous reason if not more, one which made you learn something.Either ways, its all about learning. And to be honest, one of these is not an alternative for the other. Online judges are more about problem solving and help deepen your knowledge, projects help diversify it.Most of your interviews would be based around algos and DS. So first and foremost, get your basics right. Kernighan and Ritchie, Tanenbaum, Cormen are some books which will help you here. Be thorough with them, basics are absolutely vital (you don't learn to code by just 'reading' a book). Also in almost all your interviews you would be asked typical interview questions so going through Crack the Interview and geeksforgeeks is pretty important from an interview perspective (there are other sites as well like glassdoor, careercup which you can have a look at). And given that you have time, you can pretty much try your hand at online coding and do a couple of good projects by the time you sit for placements.10.8k Views · 91 Upvotes · Answer requested by Vaibhav MittalUpvote · 91 Comment...RecommendedAllA Arun Prasath, Engineering - easy. Career management - super hard.Answered Jan 27Continue ReadingOriginally Answered: How can you get a job in Google?Nobody can give you a prescriptive secret formula for success here. But, it is fairly straightforward to understand what the ‘requirements’ and ‘expectations’ of the Google hiring process are.I have tried to cover some of these aspects in few of my past answers as below:What skills are needed to get a software engineering job at companies like Google and Facebook?In India, does Google hire engineers only from IITs?For freshers to get shortlisted, you either need - a) good grades in CS degree from a top school (or) b) top ranks in their coding contests. This becomes pretty much mandatory as it becomes super hard to reasonably shortlist otherwise. Wouldn’t everyone like to have a shot at Google? :) Thereafter, you need to clear the interviews which tests your skill sets as I have described in my other answers hyperlinked above.For people with more industry experience, academia tends to take a back seat, relatively speaking. So, grades, school and even branch of specialization gets looked into lesser. Although, being from a top school CS branch here is always a plus. For such folks, usually ‘employee referrals’ are very powerful means of being shortlisted. Engineers who are currently at Google need to refer you to the HR for initiating a hiring loop. Working in other popular big product companies is a plus here again, because the confidence increases in the candidate. If not, you may get discovered through coding contests and agency referrals. You can also try applying on their careers page directly but unless you have a strong resume, it is unlikely to get discovered.Based on prior history, the company usually has a statistical understanding of patterns - as to which schools/branches and which companies are top hits or misses for them. This usually feeds into their shortlisting intelligence.Note that - academia or previous work experience are all factors that give more confidence on the profile itself. They merely help in shortlisting. Selection or getting placed pretty much purely depends on performance in the interviews. There are loads of IIT-ians who get rejected everytime and a lot of non IIT-ians who clear it.When it comes to selection post the shortlisting process, it is all about performance. Not pedigree.To be able to get there, you need to get good at CS fundamentals and coding. And not just good. You got to get pretty damn good. The bar is amongst the highest in the industry, so you will need to work really hard, learn to solve some tough CS problems and get to write bug free clean code fast enough. The engineers take pride in solving tough problems and they like to subject you to the same experience.Experienced candidates also need to have good design fundamentals and familiarity with large system architectures. There is not much of a need to bother about any non-technical stuff really. I covered this in a recent answer to What kind of code questions are not asked in a Google code interview?That is about it. Get your hands dirty with CS fundamentals and tonnes and tonnes of coding. Participating in top coding contests is a great idea. That will really help you refine your development skills and also get you visibility in the developer community. Work towards getting shortlisted - either get to a top school or another top company. In essence, get into the community of leading engineers and then get discovered by Google. Thereafter, crack the interviews. Lastly, you need a bit of luck too. The same candidate who gets selected in one panel, if he/she were to go through a different set of interviewers may end up getting rejected. It is just about having a bad day. Usually, there is reasonably consistency in isolating the poor candidates from the good. But it is difficult to isolate the strongest ones from the good ones. Companies like Google try to error on the safe side, ie., they believe it is OK to let go of a good candidate rather than to hire a poor candidate. For this reason, lot of borderline candidates may end up getting rejected in the process. This is really how they manage to maintain a very high bar. Work hard, get good and trust your luck.Yes, I did not say it was going to be easy.Wish you all the best. If you get good enough with your skills, trust me - you’ll do well in your career even if you did not get hired by them.1.8k Views · 6 Upvotes · Answer requested by Parimal J GunjikarUpvote · 6 Comment...RecommendedAllMarc Donner, Uber Engineering Site Director; Google Eng Director (2007-14)Answered Aug 7, 2016Continue ReadingOriginally Answered: How can one get a job in google?It helps to apply.About 45 percent of Google employees are software engineers. Another 45 percent are salespeople. The remaining 10 percent work in a wide range of business operations roles to keep the company http://functioning.So, if you want to work for Google, it helps to be a software engineer or a salesperson.If you’re good at one of those things, then the Google careers site (Bring questions. Build answers) is the place for you.735 Views · 1 UpvoteYour response is private.Are you satisfied with this answer?YesNoUpvote · 1 Comment...RecommendedAllAsh Murthy, Software engineer, freelance writerUpdated Oct 2, 2015 · Upvoted by Roman Trusov, Facebook AI Research Intern 2016 and Sudhanshu Shekhar, Software Engineer at FacebookContinue ReadingThis answer is my journey from the person who was scared of programming interviews, to my present state as having cracked the Google Interview and as a programming interview coach.A slow and steady practice for several months will help you a lot more than a intense practice for a few weeks. 6 months is an awful lot of time.With tens of thousands of programming questions, hundreds of websites, and dozens of books, preparing for programming interviews may be intimidating. So I've created a checklist of the topics needed to prep for programming interviews.Topics to prepare for Programming Interview•Knowledge based questionsoJava language questionsoCore computer science concept questions•Data StructuresoArraysoLinked ListsoHash TablesoTrees, Tries and GraphsoHeapsoStacks & Queues•AlgorithmsoRecursionoDynamic programmingoTree traversal techniquesoSearching and Sorting techniques•Behavioral questions (least important)•Code complexity•Design QuestionsoSystem design questionsoObject Oriented design questions•Popular interview questionsThe details about this checklist is here:Hacking the Programming Interview - 1Once you have familiarized yourself with the basic concepts, it is time for practice. Some popular websites to practice interview questions are:Programming Interview Questions | CareerCupLeetCode Online JudgeGeeksforGeeks | A computer science portal for geeksCoding Interview preparation made easyPractice without your IDE (use online text editor - collabedit or something similar) to solve the problems and then try to run your code . With practice, see yourself getting better and better -- your code will become almost ready to compile and bug free!But of course, the long hours of problem solving can be frustrating. Network with others and solve problems in a group setting, and this won't feel so frustrating anymore.And in the last month or so:Lastly, ask a friend or better yet, hire a professional to help you with mock interviews. Identify areas of improvement and work on them.If you are in the San Francisco Bay Area, don't miss the Programming Interview Prep Meetup.The group meets every other Friday, and each meeting focuses on a specific topic. Participants form groups based on their skill level, and solve questions as a group.By participating in this meetup, you get to solve problems in a group setting (which is more effective and fun than lonely practice), and more importantly learn from other others.100k Views · 579 UpvotesUpvote · 579 Greg SkinnerI find it interesting that you say that six months is more than enough time to prepare for a Goog...Rick Viscomi, Engineer at GoogleAnswered Jul 9, 2013 · Upvoted by Sarah Smith, VP - HR, Recruiting & User Operations at Quora from 2012-20… and Fahim Sachedina, Undergraduate student, University of ManchesterContinue ReadingI completely understand how you're feeling. I graduated about three years ago with a BS in Computer Science and the only thing I wanted to do was work for Google. Before I graduated, I did well on a phone interview and was invited to interview on-site at YouTube for a Software Engineer position. I did the interview, walked out feeling great about my performance, and not too long after I got the dreaded rejection message. It took a long time and a lot of reflection to realize what went wrong.It was my very first on-site technical interview. I literally had zero experience with it. Thinking back, I did everything embarrassingly wrong.Get solid interview experience.Interviewing itself is a skill, and you don't want to be honing that skill when it matters most. The more you interview, the more comfortable you will get. Everything else will follow when you just chill out and convey your thoughts clearly.Think about how you'll answer the generic "tell me a little about yourself" question. After many many interviews, I finally learned that this question is less about me and more about the interviewer. Frame your answer around what they're looking to see from you (hint: brevity and relevance to the job). Make your pitch and sell it.A year later, with more interview experience, I reapplied for the same position in a different office. Again, I did well on the phone interviews and got invited on-site.I spent the next two weeks with a whiteboard and textbooks trying to sharpen my skills. Hours into the night I'd work on algorithms and data structures, trying not to make the same mistakes.I came in to the interview and gave it everything I had. I was proud of myself for studying so hard and answering the tough questions. But again, I got rejected.Wield your passions as strengths. This is one of the most important things I learned on my way to joining Google.What did I do wrong? I interviewed for the wrong job. Like you, I'm very passionate about web development. I thought that with my CS degree, my natural career path was software engineering. I was forcing myself to become a developer that would program in C++ or Java everyday when my interests were actually in the front-end technologies like HTML/CSS/JavaScript.I took this as a sign that I needed to realign my focus on web development and make thatmy career path. I read professional blogs, bought books, attended meetups; anything to learn more and become a better web developer.A year later, I applied to the same office as last time, but for the position of User Interface Engineer. Again, I did well on the phone interviews and got invited on-site. My recruiter told me that he almost never sees anyone invited back for a third on-site interview.Again, I studied for weeks, did the interviews, felt like I knocked them out of the park, and at the end of the day my interviewer came back in to wrap up and handed me a Google mug "for completing my third on-site interview", like a trophy. Well, it turned out to be more of a consolation prize because again, I got my third rejection.At this point several things happened. I wanted to give up. I wanted to change careers. Instead, I stopped focusing on getting one job at one place and I focused on self-improvement. I'll never know exactly what went wrong in the interviews or how I could have answered better. It doesn't matter anymore. I need to make the best of what I've got.I made two figurative career-changing decisions: I started working on open source projects in areas that I care about and I also tried to learn everything possible about web performance optimizations. Through the meetups that I was already attending, I chose to stick with the New York Web Performance Meetup Group. I changed jobs to one that focused specifically on web performance, I got a speaking opportunity at the NY meetup group, and as a result I was offered a speaking opportunity at the mother of web performance conferences (Velocity). Things were great.Maintain a healthy amount of optimistic persistence.Out of the blue, I got an email from my very first recruiter from YouTube. A position opened up for a web developer, for which she thought I was a good fit. I pursued the opportunity, took the phone interview, and advanced to the on-site round.I was back in California and went through the familiar gauntlet of tough questions. Like the three times before, there was one interview of the five that I really wished I had done better. Like a rerun, I've seen this play out a few times before and so I started to get worried.Contrary to my anxiety and the emerging pattern of rejection, I actually got the job.So, for anyone chasing their dream job:Don't rush into it. Do a hundred interviews for jobs you may not even want to prepare you for the one you actually want. Learn to sell yourself before you try to sell your technical skills.Find your niche. Identify how you can best give back to the company. Hone your technical skills and do everything you can with what you've got to keep learning and push your career forward.Don't give up on it. Put yourself on a trajectory that leads to your success and ride it out.408.7k Views · 4,845 UpvotesYour response is private.Are you satisfied with this answer?YesNoUpvote · 4.8k Domhnall O'HuiginThis is a wonderful answer, thanks for for it. ...3 more comments from Aline Lerner, Sudeep Narkar, Mohd F IrtefaKevin Lacker, ex Google Search QualityAnswered Jan 6, 2011Continue ReadingOriginally Answered: What is the best way to get a job at Google?I worked at Google and did a lot of interviews so I think I can give good advice on this, at least assuming you are looking for a software engineer job. There are two steps.1. Get an interview2. Do really well in the interviewGetting the interview is easier. If your resume can't get you an interview, you have to make your resume better. Either work on some open source or personal projects, or get a job that's a "step up" from your current job.Doing really well in the interview is harder. It helps to practice interview questions with people who are better programmers than you are. Find those people, get them to practice with you, and if they think you are nailing it, you probably are.In practice, there's not a quick fix. In the long run, try to find a job where you work with the smartest people possible, do a great job, and iterate.15.6k Views · 54 UpvotesUpvote · 54 Comment...RecommendedAllKailash More, works at Time Out LondonAnswered Sep 11, 2013Check this out, its not sufficient but still will make it more competitive to attend FB or Google interviews -1- http://www.crackingthecodinginte...2- A Handbook of Agile Software Craftsmanship Robert C. Martin: Robert C. Martin: Books4- Facebook Engineering5.7k Views · 4 UpvotesUpvote · 4 Comment...RecommendedAllSarah Jabeen, studied Jobs and Careers in Information Technology at Master of Business Administration DegreesUpdated Feb 16Continue ReadingSocial media specially Facebook & Google are the rage right now, in business and in private life. We humans like to connect with each other, and we have just discovered a wonderful venue emerging for us to use. Naturally, as with anything social, job search is a large portion of what is happening.Social media has become a fast and cheap "background check" that is often done before inviting a job applicant in for an interview. Employers search social media to verify the facts on resumes, to check out knowledge and attitudes expressed publicly (careful!), and evaluate communications skills.Employers also use social media to find qualified applicants, often a faster and cheaper method of identifying good job candidates than posting a job.LinkedIn, described below, is the number one social network for job search. If you have time for only one social network for your job search, LinkedIn is the one you should use.Why Is Social Media Important to Your Job Search?Employers and recruiters are using social media more while using job boards less, a trend that began before 2008 (LinkedIn had its 10th birthday in 2013!).As time has passed, LinkedIn has continued to dominate social networks used for recruiting. While Facebook is very popular generally, it is less popular for finding job seekers, although it is used often to promote an employer as a great place to http://work.In mid-2013, Jobvite Recruiting Softwareasked over 800 employers if they were using or planning to use social media for their recruiting, and this is the result - 94% of employers said they were!Social media is used in a number of ways. It helps recruiters have a more clear idea of who you are and what you have done before they even talk with you. They also pick up clues about your personality and how you might fit into their corporate culture.In your use of social media, employers and recruiters can see or have an indication of:1.How well you communicate (your spelling, punctuation, and grammar as well as your ability to clearly communicate ideas).2.Your work history and education.3.Your industry knowledge.4.Your use of alcohol.5.Your use of illegal substances.6.Your use of profanity.7.How you spend your non-work time.In general, the major social media associated with job search are:LinkedInThe professional's social network, LinkedIn is the network preferred by most employers. LinkedIn is a large professional network where members connect with each other, participate in Groups, connect, and interact with each other. Linkedin has over 260 million members (early 2014), and is widely viewed as the most business-like and professional of the social networks. See Guide to LinkedIn for Job Search for help leveraging LinkedIn, and join the Job-Hunt Help LinkedIn Group for help with your job search in LinkedIn.FacebookThe largest social network, Facebook is a social networking website that is operated and privately owned by Facebook, Inc. Users can add friends and send them messages, and update their personal profiles to notify friends about themselves. Additionally, users can join networks organized by city, workplace, and school or college. With over 1.2 billion members worldwide (early 2014), Facebook is the largest social network but it has a long history of issues with member privacy (or lack thereof). See Guide to Facebook for Job Search for more information on using Facebook for your job search.Google+Google+ (also known as "Google Plus" and "G+") was launched by Google in early 2011 and claimed over 540 million members by the middle of 2013. Google+ strengthens the impact of the original Google Profiles and includes "Circles" (private, user-defined groups of contacts), "Hangouts" (free user-created video chats), "Communities" (social groups), and other social functions. See Guide to Google Plus for Job Search for help with best available jobs and apply them on your behalf625 Views · 1 UpvoteUpvote · 1 Comment...RecommendedAllJimmy Saade, software engineer at FacebookUpdated Jul 8, 2015 · Upvoted by Sumeet Ungratwar, works at FacebookSome answers here are already really good, but I think it could be valuable to have the perspective from someone who trained for these interviews very recently and got a job offer as a direct result. So I'm gonna one-up your question and tell you how you can get a job at Google and Facebook in 1 month (1 month's prep, that is.) By the way, brevity isn't my strong suit, so this post might take you a while to get through, but I promise it's worth it, and I'll do my best to answer questions you post in the comments about specifics, because I'm almost definitely going to forget to mention some important things (I prepped for the interviews some 5 months ago so this is based on my memory only.)I'm going to detail how I prepared for technical interviews in ~1 month, after which I got a job at Facebook. The process of getting an interview all the way up to getting an offer will probably take 1-2 months extra after that. For my own experience during the actual interview process, see Jimmy Saade's answer to What is the software engineering interview process like at Facebook London? Note that this is for the general Software Engineering position (in my case, new grad), and nothing specific like Android/iOS developer, or Infrastructure Engineer, or so on.The cool and not-so-convenient thing about tech interviews is that you really never know what you're going to get, so you have to be prepared for a huge range of possible topics, some of which are more likely to occur than others. I'll touch on these below and then outline some very important question-types that may arise and that you should be prepared to deal with.So let's say your interview is in one month. Here's how I would plan said month (assuming a full-time schedule). Note that this is what I would do (and did, actually), so it might not be the optimum approach for you, but I suggest working similarly and switching it up a bit based on how you feel you'd grasp concepts better (e.g. solve and code in parallel, as opposed to what I did which is solve everything then code everything...)Days -∞ to 0 - PrerequisitesI assume that you have taken an algorithms course and know your way around major data structures including but not limited to: binary trees, binary search trees, hash tables, heaps, stacks, queues, graphs, lists, tries... as well as all algorithms related to them (insert, delete, search, find, find max, find min...) and the time complexity for each of these, at least at a high level. For graphs you need to know searches (BFS and its properties, DFS and its properties including cycle detection and the like) and shortest path algorithms (Dijkstra, Bellman-Ford, and A*) at a bare minimum. If you don't know all these, along with Dynamic Programming, you're going to need longer than a month. Pick up Introduction to Algorithms (CLRS) and start studying them first. (Update: I posted an answer here: Jimmy Saade's answer to What should I know from CLRS 3rd edition book if my aim is to get into Google? in regards to which parts of CLRS are relevant for technical interviews.) This is the easy part, as it's all academic and it's just expected that you know all of it. The part that follows below (Day 1 onwards) is the actually valuable part that I can offer you.I also assume that you know a programming language like C++ (or Java) and the built-in functions which actually make it useful (i.e. STL or its Java equivalents). (Update 2: I posted info relevant to this here: Jimmy Saade's answer to What are the most important concepts in C and C++ that should be learnt and understood before a programming interview?). If you don't know STL, spend time learning vectors, maps, sets, unordered maps, unordered sets, queues, stacks, and the entire "algorithm" library (seriously, all of it). These are essentially implementations of what you just learned in CLRS, so that if you need to use a heap you won't actually start to code one during an interview (just use a map or priority queue). You also need to know how to implement a linked list, BST, and a trie in 5 minutes flat, which is a lot easier than it sounds (just build a Node class and an insert function and for interview purposes, you're good.)I do not assume that you know anything about the following topics: parallel programming, computer networks (HTTP/TCP/IP/Ethernet), operating systems/scheduling, threads/processes/parallelism/concurrency, assembly, hardware and hardware-descriptive languages, or whatever else. While these are all valuable concepts to know as a computer scientist (as are machine learning and AI and others), the chances that they come up are close to none unless you state them as skills on your resume, so your time is better spent elsewhere (i.e. working on the topics below). You do need to have some awareness of distributed computing, though, so scroll down to the System Design section for that and make sure you read the MapReduce paper at the very least.Day 1 - The BookBuy this book: Elements of Programming Interviews. Phew. That was hard.In all seriousness, this is the best book on the subject in my opinion, and I'm actually really surprised so little people know about it or use it. The collection of questions is excellent and to-the-point, it is large (300+ problems, which is the most I've seen in one book), they focus on the right concepts (e.g. several problems are on binary search, which is extremely likely to come up in an interview - more so than any other algorithm), and their answers (and the code provided) are almost all correct and excellent. I say "almost" because there are 1 or 2 problems which have much simpler solutions than the book details, but it's not an issue, especially when you compare it with other programming interview books, which have several answers which are downright incorrect. Plus the online support community is pretty good, with Java code available for all problems (the book has them in C++ only) and an online forum for discussions over at Home - Elements of Programming Interviews. They also forgo all the 'teaching' stuff that other books have where they try to teach you big-O notation and data structures, and focus almost completely on the problems part, which is much, much, much, much more important. The big-O notation and data structures you should learn from CLRS, which is the best resource for them, period. No other book, especially not programming interview books, come close to its quality in teaching that stuff.I also know (through various sources) that several of these problems are actually asked as-is (or in a disguised form) during interviews, which shows how on-point it is. (I imagine a reason for that may actually be its low popularity compared to other interview books, as companies ban questions that are 'out there' from being asked in interviews, which is why you probably won't see questions from Cracking the Coding Interview.) If this happens to you, however, I suggest you tell your interviewer, as it's very easy for them to tell if you know the problem before or not, and if you just recite the answer it defeats the purpose of the interview. Luckily for me, I wasn't asked any of the problems I'd done from the book.Days 2-14 - Algorithms StageGo through the book chapter by chapter, one chapter per day[1], starting at Chapter 5, ending at Chapter 19. Do every single problem. All of them. (To be completely honest, I might've skipped a few, but this was more by accident than anything else, and I definitely did like 98%+ of them.) Don't code, solve the problems only (i.e. find the algorithm). Give yourself a deadline per problem, depending on how hard the problem is (for example, 10 minutes for non-ninja[2] problems, 20 minutes for gray-ninja problems, 30-40 minutes for black-ninja problems) - if you haven't found the solution by then, look at the answer and understand it. If you don't you won't improve. It's important to think of the problems on your own, because it's the way of thinking that matters, as you can't go and recite the book on interview day. If you found a solution, make sure it's correct, and that you have thought of all corner cases.Note 1: The new version of the book (which I linked to) has all the ninja problems in a separate chapter (Ch. 22). This, in my opinion, is a terrible idea. The book I had had the problems which are currently in Ch. 22 spread across the book, each in its relevant chapter. I suggest you go through the relevant ninja problems of each chapter while doing said chapter. For example, on Day 2, do Chapter 5, and the Chapter 5-related problems in Chapter 22. On Day 3, do Chapter 6, and the Chapter 6-related problems in Chapter 22, and so on. I believe the problems in Ch. 22 are ordered accordingly (the ninja problems of Ch. 5 come first, then those of Ch. 6, and so on), so this shouldn't be too hard, but I'm not 100% sure as I have the older copy of the book.Note 2: I sometimes spent hours on a single problem, just because I thought the problem was really interesting and I insisted on cracking it myself. I find these random endeavors useful in the long run, as it develops your critical thinking a lot more than the easier problems, but it also takes time, so you likely can't do this for every problem, if you even want to do it at all.Days 14-24 - Coding StageRepeat the book, this time with coding. You already know the answers, so you should be able to remember the algorithm for each problem pretty quickly (if you don't, look it up. It happens, and it can happen sometimes even if you'd previously figured the problem out by yourself.) This is the coding stage, so don't waste time re-deriving algorithms.I do not suggest you code all problems, especially if you're experienced with ACM-ICPC, TopCoder, or Codeforces and the like (and really, if you're familiar enough with STL, you probably have a decent skill set). Only write the code for problems you feel have complex algorithms, a new data structure you haven't used before (e.g. unordered map for hashing maybe), problems with tricky corner cases (binary search is at the top of this list as its variants are asked often and can be much trickier than you think) or a programming concept you're not comfortable with (these include, but are not limited to, operator overloading, custom comparators, custom hash functions, custom == functions, and much more...) If a problem proves tricky for you, or you implemented it in a way which you feel isn't optimal, look at the solutions the book provides, which are excellent and clean, and will teach you all of the above-mentioned concepts. I suggest you mimic their style of writing code a bit. Some important-if-obvious notes are: use descriptive variable names (none of that 1-letter-variable-name crap) and indent properly, and don't forget to close parentheses and brackets.I also suggest you code all problems from the Greedy Algorithms chapter and almost all ninja-marked problems. The Dynamic Programming chapter is also important if you're not familiar with DP, and can be tough to grasp, so make sure you give it its time.Day 25 - Onto more questionsSo now that you've exhausted the best question reserve and are comfortable enough to step into an interview, you... need to prep even more. Go to Google Interview Questions (Career Cup). This is a dangerous place. Some very good problems exist, but there's also a class of problems that my ACM trainer likes to call "Chuck Norris problems": Problems written where the OP has no idea what's going on and suggests the interviewer required linear time for problems that clearly cannot be done in linear time (like this, which is clearly not linear time:, or similar.Now that you've finished Elements of Programming Interviews, you should be easily be able to differentiate between good problems and terrible problems. On Day 25, go through "all" (the last 20 pages or so) the Google Questions (even if you're preparing for Facebook) and make a list of the ones you deem 'good', and by 'good' I mean problems you feel might have actually been asked in a Google interview. You know the question style from the book, so you should be able to tell which are legit and which are questionable. I assume you should have a list of something like 80-120 questions in the end, some simple, some not so much.Also note that very few problems actually have correct answers posted on the site, so mainly you'll have to rely on your know-how to figure them out and make sure they're correct, but given your previous prep you won't find it too difficult to know when you should be sure of your answer and when you shouldn't. This is actually valuable prep for the actual interview, which is a similar experience.Days 26-30 - Solving Career Cup QuestionsSolve all the problems you jotted down on Day 25. Find the algorithm. If you feel it's too difficult, seek help. If you feel it's impossible or the best solution is exponential time, it really might be that the OP was mistaken. Shake it off, move on to another problem. If you still feel like it, code some of the more challenging problems.Several of the Career Cup questions are similar to ones in the book, so you shouldn't have too much trouble with most problems.Day 30.5 - Skip Lists (Google-only)I've heard that Google has recently gotten into the habit of asking about Skip Lists (not sure why). Watch this video:and understand it and know the analysis of the expected run times. After that, implement and test your very own Skip List. I did this just to practice and because Skip Lists are interesting anyway.To be honest, Google can be pretty unpredictable with their questions sometimes, in my experience. They might ask general questions about object-oriented programming or computer networking, Linux commands like grep, theoretical things like the proof of the sorting lower bound, coding questions that rely on some math concept you may have forgotten to be solved, or in-depth programming language questions (e.g. functors/operator overloading in C++). I guess it depends on your resume and what you claim to be proficient in, so my advice is not to put anything on there that you’re not at least somewhat proficient in. It helps to have a degree in Computer Science or Electrical and Computer Engineering, really, just based on the huge variety in the possible questions. I suggest a read-through of Get that job at Google (Steve Yegge) and Five Essential Phone Screen Questions (Steve Yegge). You should probably know most of the topics covered here (I wouldn’t put my money on things like threads/processes/parallelism coming up unless you explicitly state it on your resume, though.) Most of the coding questions in the second link are too easy to come up in an interview, I think, so don’t get too excited by them, and I’d skip the “Special Fast Track Version” section. It’s humorous but I thought it’s way too cynical and off-point. Your choice of text editor, knowledge of OS, or knowledge of one vs. multiple languages will not, in and of themselves, make you fail an interview.On a small note, though I believe Google may ask a lot of non-algorithmic questions as above, the bulk of the interview will still be data structures/algorithms/coding, so all the other things mentioned in Yegge’s blog you should know, but they’re not the main focus.Day 31 - The Non-Technical StuffOkay, so I'm cheating a bit by adding Day 31, but you should also take a day or so to prepare for the non-technical part of the interviews, especially if you're interviewing at Facebook, where there's a non-technical interview. First, prepare questions you want to ask your interviewers about Facebook and about their job and what they do all day. See my Facebook London post for more examples on this. Second, think over your experiences in college/work/whatever - projects you've worked on, teams you've worked with or managed, conflicts you've addressed, hard bugs you've had to deal with, etc. Google-search "behavioral questions" and you'll find thousands of possible questions.Prepare a non-generic answer for "Why Facebook" (hint: the fast pace and culture, the great talent in the company, the mission to connect the world...) and "Why Google" (hint: the diversity of the endeavors, the awesomeness of search and Android, the mission to do awesome things, the company culture...). I wasn't asked these questions in either company (to my disappointment since I was really passionate about both and couldn't wait to show it), but I squeezed in my interest while asking my questions to the interviewer, so use that opportunity if you really want to impart something that you didn't get the chance to.Tips for the InterviewsNumbers 3,4,7,8,9 are the most important points.You might be nervous before an interview, but it'll pass. I was nervous before every single interview. Once the interviewer stepped in and we started talking, I generally had a blast because I really loved talking with them and solving these kinds of problems. Try your best not to be too nervous: do mock interviews and the like. I also recommend scheduling interviews in an increasing-priority order, so that you get used to it and find out your shortcomings by the time you reach your most-wanted company.Practice coding without a compiler/on a whiteboard/paper. I did neither, but I have the C++ syntax memorized and I'm used to coding on a paper in ACM competitions, so you might not need to do this if you're already comfortable enough with your favorite language (you only need to know one language well, by the way, as long as it's reasonably well-known, like C++/Java/Python. They let you use whatever language you like during the interview.)Corner cases can kill you. You really have to practice on finding and dealing with corner cases, and/or recognizing what I call "corner-case-prone problems". Some problems are dead simple algorithmically but can be very tricky to code, and I got 2 of these problems, once in my Google phone interviews, and once in my Facebook phone interviews.After finding the algorithm, stop, pause, and think about how to code it, before you actually do. This is especially true for the harder problems, and I would've failed one of my interviews had I not done this, and as a result, would never have gotten a job at FB. I also might've passed an interview at Google which I failed, if I'd taken my advice in this step at the time.Think out loud about algorithms/ideas as you come up with them. It's fine to pause and think quietly for a bit, but don't stand there for 3 minutes without a word. Always at least give the simple solution, which very well might not have a great run-time, but it won't hurt. I did it in all my interviews no matter how simple the answer was, but I said them directly and noted that there's probably a better solution, then proceeded to think of that. (e.g: Okay, to search a sorted array, we can scan it linearly, but this is an O(n) solution and there's likely something faster). Also, don't be cocky about it (question yourself out loud until you're sure of your method and have a rough proof that your method works). Don't argue with your interviewer. 99.99% of the time, they're right, and you're wrong. One possible exception to this is if they’re challenging your code: they’re either really pointing out a bug to you, or trying to make it seem that way to see how confident you are in your code and if you’ll agree blindly or protest that your code is actually correct (if this happens, don’t panic, just think well about your answer before you give it.)Don't talk through your code line by line as you write it. Interviewers know how to read your code and what if-statements and for-loops are. Only speak about the general structure of the code (which you should've mentioned before anyway, as per Tip #4) while coding. Do, however, mention what you're doing in intricate lines of code (for example, if you want to test if 'x' is a power of 2 via "if(x & (x-1))==0", you might want to mention that.)Questions are so often underspecified, and this is a huge weakness of Elements of Programming Interviews: all problems are specified completely, so you have next to no training on this. Always think of questions you might ask or conditions that might make your algorithm fail if not true. Some examples are: Are all numbers positive? Are they distinct? What is the type of the input (integer/double...)? Can you revisit a grid cell? The book has questions where these properties are specified explicitly in the question: think about what would happen if these conditions weren't there: the solution often breaks down.Don't give up if you don't think of the answer directly. In my last Facebook interview, I got the most challenging problem yet, and it took me about 5 minutes to get to the answer, and I ended up hired. That was actually possibly *the* interview that got me hired, and it was also the one I most enjoyed.Two really important concepts to know well are binary search (and its variants) and searching the state-space using Breadth-First-Search to find some shortest sequence of 'moves' (like this problem: ACM-ICPC Live Archive - Kermit the Frog). Both come up very often.Luck matters. The interview process isn't perfect, and you might not pass it even if you're really good, as it depends on your interviewers and what questions you get (and what type of questions you're strong in, etc.) You can mitigate this factor a lot by prepping a huge amount, but it's always there, and it's important to know. I suggest you read Get that job at Google (Steve Yegge's blog) if you want some more detail about this factor.Ignore Ch. 20 and 21 in the book. They're not great. (Maybe read through Ch. 21 a bit to get an idea but that's it.) Scroll down to the System Design section if you also have to prepare for a system design interview.Undersell yourself on your CV (or at least, don't oversell yourself), especially if applying through a referral. If you write 'expert in C++', they're going to call up their senior-most C++ engineer to get you to crash and burn. I've never met anyone who got anything related to multithreading and parallelism in an interview for SWE, except one person who listed it as a skill. And lo and behold, he was asked about it, and it didn’t go so well.Oftentimes, you'll get a problem which is a variant of a problem you've seen before in the book or on Career Cup, or is the same problem but in a "disguised form" (i.e. it's worded differently but it has the same or a mostly similar solution.) Be careful about these subtle differences; you might figure out (or think that you've figured out) the solution for the problem because you found it very similar to one you've seen before, but a small difference in the problem statement actually means its solution is really really different. As an example, check out question 17.5 - Search for a sequence in a 2D array - in Elements of Programming Interviews. It includes the statement "It is acceptable to visit an entry in A more than once." With it, the solution is DP. If that statement is not included (i.e. it's not acceptable to visit an entry more than once), the solution is branch-and-bound, and there's no DP involved at all. If you wrongly answer DP instead of branch-and-bound or vice versa, the interviewer will know you've seen the other problem before and think you've just memorized the solution, so that's probably enough by itself to give you a "no-hire" recommendation from that interviewer. (I'd also venture a guess that that statement wouldn't be stated by the interviewer at all first, exactly for this reason, and you'd have to ask whether or not you can visit an entry more than once, as per tip #7. The goal is to see whether or not you'll figure out that there's a huge difference in solutions depending on the interviewer's answer to this question.)Again, I probably forgot a whole lot of stuff, so if there's anything specific you want to know, leave a comment. I'll also do my best to keep this post updated with whatever other important things I remember later.System DesignEven though I didn't have one myself, I did prepare for the System Design interviews. I prepared by visiting this site: Hired In Tech, which is decent (not great) and by reading several papers on this site, straight from Google: Distributed Systems and Parallel Computing, mainly the first MapReduce paper (near the very end of the page) and the Chubby paper. MapReduce is very important and I really suggest you read it and understand how it works. After those steps, look up databases, specifically SQL and NoSQL, get acquainted with the CAP theorem, scalability topics, and maybe read up on Hadoop and some problems you can solve with it (Hadoop In Practice is a decent book for these purposes). Try some questions like the "Design a URL shortener" question on Hired In Tech, or something larger scale like "Design a web search engine" or "Design Google Maps", all questions which may be asked (also check Ch. 21 of the book for possible questions and a small idea of how to answer them - though the book's answers aren't great.) But in general, for the system design interview, practicing on questions is less meaningful than fundamentally understanding the above concepts and knowing how to discuss them, as the entire interview is something like a quick conversation between you and the interviewer, where he/she will change the question specifications on the fly to see how you deal with different scenarios.Final AdviceSo, if you really want that job, it’s going to take some time and dedication, but hopefully it’s the enjoyable kind. I personally really enjoyed preparing these kinds of questions and found that, job aside, I really learned a lot and got a good deal of knowledge out of the preparation, and you probably will too.My final piece of advice is to just go into the interview and not be stressed out (this is obviously easier said than done). The engineers want you to be good and they wantto hire you – hiring is a pretty expensive process. Some may be easygoing, and some may be less forgiving, but in all cases, the interview is very similar to a conversation between two engineers, and that’s exactly what these companies strive for the interview to be, so just treat it that way, and if you’ve prepared well, it’ll show.[1] - One chapter per day is actually a bit slow since you're not coding, so for shorter chapters such as Chapters 5, 7, 8, 9, I suggest you do 2 per day, which is feasible.[2] - In Elements of Programming Interviews, non-ninja problems are standard problems, gray-ninja problems are somewhat difficult, and black-ninja problems are difficult.Disclaimer: This is my own opinion/advice, and is not endorsed by anyone else in any way

How do I sell my house fast in San Diego?

Choosing the Best Time to Sell Your San Diego HouseMarket trends, seasonal perks, and personal needs all influence the timeline for selling your home in San Diego. If you're pinched for time, then now is the time to sell. Period. If you're waiting for market trends, be careful as the market shifts quickly. But if you want to show your property in the best light possible and don't mind a bit of competition, then spring is your best option.Many potential buyers come out of hibernation in the spring. You can imagine that when seeking out a lifestyle in The Golden State, house-hunters are attracted to bright sunshine - and in spring, nature does much of the decorating with rays of sunlight, blossoming flowers, budding trees, and the energy of new life.Deciding to sell your home can be rough. Rougher still is determining the best price for your house. And above the decision to sell and for how much, you have to determine when it’s the right time to sell. Selling at the right time can encourage multiple offers, competing bids, fast selling time, and other benefits. Selling at the wrong time could mean lengthier stays on the market, several price reductions, and a lower sales price. So, when is the best time for you to sell your San Diego Home?There’s No Wrong TimeThe first thing to realize when listing your home in San Diego is that there’s not a bad time to sell. In areas other than San Diego, March and April are the most beneficial times to list houses. In spring, the days are longer than other seasons, the sun is brighter, the weather is warmer, and more people are stretching out of winter hibernation in search of new ways to make dreams come true. But in San Diego, you can pretty much sports shorts and a tank top year-round. Winter doesn’t keep people indoors in San Diego as it does in other areas. In fact, some studies show that November is the best time for San Diego Sales. So, when the home you’re selling is in San Diego, any time is the right time.Selling the LifestyleUnderstanding that there’s no wrong time to sell a San Diego home, there is a more productive time to sell a lifestyle. San Diego summers represent fun in the sun, especially if the property you’re selling is on the waterfront. Memorial Day signifies the onset of summer when people start craving that summer vibe, which supports the theory that March and April are the best times to sell.If There’s No Time to LoseSometimes, you aren't afforded the luxury of waiting until an ideal time to maximize profit and minimize stress. In fact, there are times when the get-up-and-go strikes fast, you find yourself in a crunch, and you don’t have options for waiting until spring to list your property for sale. In the case of limited time, now is the best time to sell.Weekends | Specifically SaturdayIf you’re serious about drilling down into every minute detail of when to sell your house, then you may also want to consider which day of the week you list your property. People are occupied during the week with work, school, errands, and the hustle and bustle of daily life. However, more people browse the web on weekends, Saturday specifically. If your goal is to have as many people view your listing as soon as possible, then listing it on a Saturday may bring you the best results.Market TrendsAlthough there is no science to determining when a market may shift from a buyers’ market to a sellers’ market, you can wait it out until the tides turn. In a buyer’s market, houses outnumber buyers, so there’s less competition, and values may decrease. However, in a sellers’ market, inventory is low, values can increase, and homes sell faster. If you can wait, a sellers’ market is the best time to sell your home.Interest RatesLeaving season, days of the week, and market trends out of the equation, you can look to interest rates. If your home currently has a high-interest rate and you can sell your existing home to purchase one with a lower rate, then now is an ideal time to sell.It can be said that certain seasons bring higher sales than others. Certain days of the week outperform other days for drawing out buyers. But the reality of the situation is that the best time to sell your San Diego home is when you’re ready to move. Whether you’re upsizing, downsizing, relocating for work, or looking for a lateral move, when you’re ready to pack up and move on, that’s the best time to sell your home.How to Update and not Renovate Your Property to Sell FastRipping out walls and gutting the rooms in your house to make it sell fast isn't necessary. There are simple updates, easy upgrades, and quick-fixes that can add charm to your home, inside and out.Spacious, open floorplans are all the rave, and formal dining areas are losing their status. Remove bulky furniture, re-arrange remaining furniture into conversational areas away from the walls, and add light. Dark rooms feel smaller whereas bright rooms seemingly enlarge a space. Mirrors can also brighten a room by reflecting light. Evaluate your current window dressings as thick, dark drapes can not only block light but can also make a room feel dated.Nothing makes a room feel dated like old doorknobs, cabinet handles, and drawer pulls. Replacing these items in kitchens and bathrooms can add an elegant touch of new and modern.Start with the OutsideBegin with the curb appeal, the flirtatious charm a house has upon potential buyers on the first impression. You don't need to gut the yard and put in all new greenery, but it may help to get rid of any weeds, dead plants, or debris. A few bucks for a few live flowers could add a splash of color under windows and entryways. It's interesting how "well cared for" or "neatly manicured" translates to higher values in real estate.Make sure the exterior of the property is clean, give it a good power wash or, if needed, a coat or two of vibrant paint. Replace window screens. Add a new layer of caulking around windows, and make sure windows open, close, lock, and unlock with ease.You can also give the impression of added living space by creating an outdoor room with a seating area such as on the patio, a usable living space outdoors.The front door holds a lot of power in establishing the feel of a home. Strong, solid, oak doors give one impression while bright, pastel doors invite another. Replacing or painting the front door could add a fresh new charm to the entryway.Let There Be LightLight works magic indoors. Bright light makes rooms appear large, airy, and open. Update window coverings, make sure they're correctly installed from ceiling to floor, and keep window dressings open during showings.In situations where rooms lack windows, then add light in the way of ceiling lights, mounted fixtures, etc.In rooms that are small and naturally dark, consider adding mirrors in addition to light fixtures. The mirrors will reflect the light and give the appearance of enlarging the room.Paint and floor colorings should also be kept light, airy, and neutral in color.Clean and PaintThe two most important activities in which you can engage to add energy and life to a room is to clean and to paint. Cleanliness sells, and with a clean foundation, a fresh coat of light, neutral paint can make a small, dark room seem open and airy in no time and minimal money.Once everything is clean and fresh, you can assess what updates need your attention next.Doorknobs, Door Locks, Drawer Pulls, Cabinet HandlesAn elegant touch makes a lasting impression, which you can generate with a high-end doorknob, fancy drawer pulls, or a modern cabinet handle. The investment for these fittings is minimal and takes almost no effort to install but can bring significant returns in the way of offers to buy your house.Look at the electrical socket and light switch covers throughout your property. These, too, can be a simple and cheap fix with high returns.Kitchens and BathroomsKitchens and bathrooms have long been the most important rooms when showing properties. Spending a little extra time, attention, and money in finding clever and creative ways to update these spaces could pack a powerful punch in delivering the wow factor to potential buyers who are eager for project-free, move-in-ready living conditions. Replace the caulking. Use crisp, white linens. Update cabinet handles, drawer pulls, doorknobs, towel racks, and other little projects that could translate into big bucks.You don't have to rip up floors, tear down walls, and gut rooms to update a house for sale to increase its perceived value. In fact, in many cases, a few dollars and a simple project could significantly add to the perceived worth of your house.Colors that Sell Your Home FastSuccessfully selling a house is usually an endeavor influenced by varying factors affecting the real estate environment of wherever the sale is taking place. Also, it is universally known that the way a house looks is fundamentally the leading variable. From the design to the color scheme and the landscaping, the aesthetics of a house significantly influences how fast a house sells.Real estate professionals know this, which is why they put in extra emphasis and effort to ensure the property is in the best aesthetic condition possible to attract the most interest. Let’s look at how colors influence the selling prospect of a house and most importantly what colors will help you achieve this when looking to sell a house in San Diego.What is color psychology?Color psychology is a study based on colors and what effects they have on sighted people mentally and emotionally. It has been proven that colors have varying mental and emotional effects on a person. The color and tone of a place or thing can evoke a certain emotion or feeling from you by just looking at it or being around it for a duration of time.This means whether we are conscious of it or not, the colors surrounding us affect how we feel about something and maybe the underlying reasons why we are drawn to certain colors at certain times and repelled by others.Though each color evokes different emotions from different people, there are those that have been proven to have an overall universal effect on people. These are the ones that you should consider applying to a house when trying to sell it.Best Exterior ColorsWhile considering a color scheme for the exterior of the house, you should consider multiple variables such as the neighborhood to the external fittings of the house. With that in mind, your selection options should also factor in the three main hues which are the accents, trim, and siding.Siding – This is the largest area to be covered while painting the exterior. Consider the color of permanent fixtures when choosing a color for this area. Best examples include brick brown, grey, and beige.Accents – These include places like the front doors and the shutters. It allows more freedom to add personality. For a house in the beautiful atmosphere of San Diego, consider sun-washed colors. The best-recommended colors include brown, rusty red, blue, black, etc.Trims – They should complement the siding. Use color in the same color family of the siding color but a shade lighter. Other recommended include whites, creams, and light greys.Best Interior ColorsLiving Room – This is the most used space in the whole house. Usually, colors differ depending on personality, and the mood one is trying to achieve. Lighter shades tend to create the illusion of more space while the opposite is true for darker shades. The best colors are warm tones that are thought to stimulate conversation as well as create a welcoming space. These include browns, orange, yellows, etc.Dining Room – Used for meals, the best colors to use are earthy tones such as orange and red. Apart from stimulating conversation, they are thought to whet appetites as well. Not recommended is blue as it suppresses the appetite.Kitchen – As with dining room colors, you can use the same colors for this room for the same reason.Bedroom – As places used for relaxation and reconnecting with a partner, the best colors recommended are cool tones, as they are thought to have a calming effect, such as blue, lavender, green, etc. Bright and dramatic colors are avoided in this space as they are too stimulating for relaxation.Bathroom – Warm colors have always been used for these places and continue to remain popular. These include whites, light blues, greys which symbolize cleanliness. Even though more people have been infusing unconventional colors to make these spaces unique, when looking to sell a house it is safer to stick to the classics.Here we have given you a basic rundown on what colors to use in your home when selling in the San Diego area. Taking into consideration the psychology of color helps with selecting colors that best speak for the mood each room is trying to achieve and the emotion it is trying to evoke in the potential buyer. Putting these into practice will help in closing that sale.How to Market Your Home to Sell FastWhen deciding to market your San Diego home, the faster you come up with a plan the less stressful the experience of selling a home will be. Using a real estate agent to help sell your home will take out a lot of guesswork, so it is worth looking around to find a reputable one.It can be tempting to try and sell your home independently but think about the money you may lose out on if you don't know how much your home is worth. A real estate agent will know how to value your home and help you navigate the home selling process.Let's look at the benefits of using a real estate agent.Taking out the guessworkThere is no such thing as beginner’s luck in the real estate market. Hiring somebody to help you will eliminate any guesswork that may be shrouding the quest to sell your home. Paperwork and legalities are important, and you need somebody on your side who knows the ins and outs of the real estate market.Negotiating can be a stressful process. With a professional real estate agent on your side, you have someone who is skilled in negotiations and can get positive results.Speed of SaleA real estate agent will promote your property with due cause. Their good name is important, and they will work with your best interest in mind. Real estate professionals have many tools in their arsenal including internet listings, mailing lists, newspaper ads, and social media connections. They have the power to make your property visible to hundreds if not thousands of potential buyers.The Art of NetworkingYour real estate agent helps sell houses every single day. For this reason, they have a broad network that includes other agents and potential home buyers.Ask your potential real estate agent these questions to help you decide on who the best person will be to hire in San Diego to help sell your home fast.1. What will you provide me with that other agents don't to A) ensure I get the best possible deal and B) Make you the best possible candidate?2. How will you keep in contact with me throughout the entire process of selling my home?3. How long have you worked in the real estate profession?4. Do you work solely or as part of a team?5. Can you have reviews from past clients?6. Do you upkeep a performance guarantee?7. Can I have a list of all payments and fees?8. What marketing strategies do you use?Marketing your home to sell can be an exciting part of the home selling process if you have the right real estate professional on your side. Make it a priority to add an agent to your home-selling team today.Tax Implications When SellingSelling a home anywhere can be overwhelming. Between finding a reliable real estate agent and worrying about what improvements you may have to make to earn a respectable profit, most of us forget to investigate what selling can mean for your taxes. To avoid any unfavorable surprises in the future, it's advised that you understand exactly what type of taxes you'll have to pay after selling your home.California has one of the highest capital gains tax rates in the United States to date. At a maximum rate of 13.3%, California will tax any capital gain on the sale of your home above $250,000, if you qualify for a primary residence exemption; couples who file jointly will be taxed after $500,000. When you include the fact that the IRS can also levy a maximum of 39.6%, it becomes clear how important it is to have your taxes in order before putting your home on the market.To help lower the cost of capital gain tax, the primary home exemption will help drastically. For your property to qualify as a primary residence, it will have to meet the following requirements.How long have you owned your home? To qualify, you'll have to have owned your home for a minimum of two years; therefore, anyone who had purchased a house for a quick profit will have to look for another option.How long have you lived in your home? A primary residence is categorized as a home that you've lived in year-round for a minimum of two years out of the last five. For those with multiple places of residency, it's worth noting that the two years do not have to be consecutive.Have you used this tax exemption before? Keep in mind, this tax exemption can only be used every two years. For those with multiple homes, you may have to speak with a tax advisor to know what's best for your situation.What is Capital Gain Tax?The amount you make after accounting for the cost of acquiring and selling the property is known as your capital gain. You will also include in your calculation the cost of any permanent improvements you made around the home; for example if you had built an addition to the property. For additional information, it's advised you contact your local CPA or review IRS Publication 523.When selling your home in San Diego, any capital gain above $250,000 -- $500,000 for couples filing together --- can be taxed up to the rate of 13.3%.Selling as a Non-ResidentWith the high tax rates Californians face, it's not a surprise to hear that a 2014 report from the IRS had reported over 250,000 residents leaving the state. It's also not surprising to hear that more than 10% of those moved to Texas, a state known for its low state tax. For those moving to lower tax states, it might seem like the perfect plan to sell your California home after you've settled into your new state. Unfortunately, California taxes may follow you to your next state when deciding to sell your home.It's worth keeping in mind that if you are in California for more than nine months, the state will presume you are a resident. In addition, you will be considered a resident of California for up to 18 months after leaving the state, resulting in you being charged taxes as a resident.Offering a Home Warranty When Selling a HouseUnderstanding what a home warranty entails will help you to decide whether you want to offer it when selling your home. A home warranty ultimately provides financial protection to the person purchasing your home. Oftentimes this can lead to a faster sell as it gives the buyer peace of mind that they won't have unexpected expenses soon after moving in.What Would a Home Warranty Cover?A home warranty is not homeowners' insurance as that is something the buyer would need to purchase for themselves. However, offering a home warranty that covers all repairs or replacements for systems or appliances that are included in the sale, maybe a great idea.A home warranty generally covers:Plumbing systemsHeating and cooling systemsElectrical systemsWasher/dryerKitchen appliancesHow much do these warranties cost?Basic coverage would start around $300 and go up to $600 for more comprehensive plans. Warranty plans are offered at the time of the real estate transaction and most often are given the best price at this time. That's why as a seller, it is important to consider whether you will be offering this feature to the buyer of your home or commercial building.This home warranty can even cover these items during the listing period. This means if something breaks while you're selling the place, it is covered. Talk about a win-win. By offering to cover the first year of the warranty, you may entice buyers to bite faster than they would have without this bonus.Read the fine print closely to ensure that everything is covered as you would like. Each appliance will be covered up to a certain dollar amount or replaced with one that is the same size/efficiency. Understand items aren't replaced by the brand solely. Also, in some instances, the warranty company may even require you to upgrade an appliance before agreeing to cover that appliance in the warranty. This will vary on a case-by-case basis.Also, as the homeowner, you're responsible for all maintenance and the warranty company may ask for proof of any service/maintenance records before they agree to a repair should it be required of the home buyer.How a Home Warranty Benefits SellersUltimately whether it is worth it for your home depends on the age of your home and the age of the systems and/or appliances involved. If most things are new, there really isn't much risk for the buyer. However, if you have older elements to your home and people have been unsure of whether to purchase or not, this warranty may seal the deal. By increasing the buyer's confidence, you're more likely to sell your home faster.Also, this home warranty will create interest in your home especially for first-time homebuyers who may not be prepared for future repair expenses after saving up for their down payment.Ultimately, anything you can do to garner more interest in your home while it is on the market is a benefit for you as a seller.How to Choose the Right Real Estate AgentReal estate agents play a role in the successful sale of residential properties, but they’re not all created equal. Some agents excel in some areas while others have a more relaxed approach. The agent you choose to work with will be a deciding factor in how much money you can earn for the sale of your home, and how quickly your house will sell.Referrals, Recommendations, Ratings, and ReviewsStart simple. Ask. Check with your friends, family members, co-workers, and associates to find out if anyone has a real estate agent they can recommend. Social media networks have made it super simple to garner recommendations online. Eliminate any agents from your list whose ratings or reviews leave a sour taste.Location is ImportantYou can narrow down your list of potential real estate agents by refining the possibilities to a location. It’s important that the agent representing your house for sale is familiar with your community enough to be able to highlight selling points such as nearby schools, parks, access to public transportation, and other nuances. An agent who is an expert in your area will also be more familiar with real estate trends, prices, and competition in your community.Specialties and DesignationsReal estate agents hone in on and specialize in specific niches within their industry. For example, some real estate agents focus on luxury properties, others on waterfront homes, single-family homes, condominiums, and townhouses. There are even agents who specialize in short sales and foreclosure properties. Reduce your list once more to only agents who specialize in the type of property you’re selling.Interview Potential AgentsYou’ve now crafted a list of real estate agents in your area who specializes in the type of property you’re selling. You’ve read the ratings and reviews and you’re ready to move to the next step. You’re ready to interview potential agents to find the agent who can sell your house for the most money in the shortest amount of time.When interviewing agents, is by asking about the asking price versus the sales price of the last three homes sold. This can help you understand how close the agent’s estimate is when suggesting a sales price for your home, as well as giving you a realizing idea of what you might receive.Another question to ask agents is how many times the price was reduced between list and close for the last three homes sold. Knowing what’s “normal” for price reductions can help eliminate frustration during the process when the agent calls and suggests a price drop.Next, ask the agents how long each home remained on the market from the list to close. Creating a timeline of the agent’s productivity can help you gauge how long it will take you to sell your house from start to finish.Other questions to ask involve communication preferences, expectations, marketing strategies, termination policies, commission rates, etc.When you’re finished conducting your interviews, you should be confident in your selection of an agent who knows your neighborhood like the back of his or her hand, specializes in your type of property, has an excellent track record, clear communication skills, a direct marketing plan, and policies with which you can agree and work.Giving Your Agent the AssistMany sellers make the mistake of hiring an agent and then washing their hands of the process. Realistically, the more involved you are with the preparation of your home for sale, the higher the chances are that you’ll sell fast and for top dollar.Your agent will advise you on how to price your home for sale. Pricing is important because if you miss your mark and the price too high or too low, you could lose thousands of dollars and find your home on the market for extended periods of time. Next, your agent may suggest ways you can improve the perceived value of the property through staging. When you stage your home, you dress it for success by getting it into the best condition possible for showings.When you take the time and the steps to find the right real estate agent, and then you work with your agent as a team with the goal of selling your house, you’ll sell quickly and for top dollar.Do Open Houses Sell Houses?The concept of successful open house showings is debatable. While it's true that many real estate agents use open houses to grow their database of buyers, there is some success with open house offers. For an open house to be successful, you need to prepare for and market your event. The attraction for home-shoppers is the ability to walk through and get a feel for the environment without the pressure of a potential sale. It's a window-shopping, browsing opportunity that can and does convert to sales when properly conducted.Work with your agent to determine the best course of action for marketing your open house to the right audience. Stage your home, so shoppers view it in its best condition.Back Yard and Curb Appeal Affect ValueDressing your home's exterior appearance could increase its value. From flowers and trees in the yard to exterior doors and windows, yards and curb appeal increase a home's value to buyers.Some projects like swimming pools and decks, do not provide such a return on investment. Before digging into your yard and changing your home's exterior, talk with your real estate agent and research to determine which projects are right to increase your home values with landscaping and curb appeal.How to Buy a Home While Selling AnotherWhen you need to sell your existing home before you purchase your next property, there are several options to consider.You may choose to obtain a new mortgage on your next house while still carrying your existing on your current house. While this may pose some risks, it also provides the benefit of being able to move into your new home, so you focus on selling a house that's vacant.You may consider listing your existing property as a lease with an option to buy. This method of "try it before you buy it" could be a smooth transition from rental to purchase while still covering your mortgage payments.Renting your house is another option, but that idea also comes with pros and cons.Should I Rent My Home or SellWhen you choose to rent your home, you may be able to recover your mortgage payment and a potential profit without having to concern yourself with selling the property, but at what risk? There are some situations where renters do more harm than good by causing damage to the property.You may also find yourself responsible for maintenance and repairs on a rental property. However, there are rental managing companies that can take care of the hassles of finding renters, evicting tenants, and overseeing maintenance and repair projects. Of course, that comes with a fee.No one can tell you for certain if you're better off selling your house or renting it out. Do the research, talk with your real estate agent and financial advisers before making your decision.What Happens During an Open HouseOnce you've decided to sell your home, you may want to think about hosting an open house. This will allow potential buyers to swing by at their convenience to check out your home. An open house provides many benefits to you and the potential buyers.What is an Open HouseAn open house gives potential buyers the opportunity to casually view your home without needing an appointment. It is an excellent way to have many showings at one time. Buyers can walk through your home and take their time. They don't need to feel rushed and can determine what they like about your home without having you or the realtor there which could make them feel pressured.Benefits of Having an Opening House Open HouseThere are many benefits to having an open house. The most obvious benefit is being able to show your home to many buyers at one time rather than having to prepare your home each time someone books an appointment. Traditional appointments often give the homeowner little time to prepare for the showing. Other benefits include:The hustle and bustle of many buyers congregated at your home at once will motivate them to buy.You can assure your home is "show ready". You set the date and time for the open house allowing you to prepare.Most open houses take place on the weekends which allows buyers to attend several open houses to compare. You can take this opportunity to make your home stand out.Preparing for an Open HouseGive your home a good cleaning. Make sure the floors are clean and the beds are made. Declutter so that space looks bigger. You will also want to straighten up the exterior by making sure the grass is cut and the landscaping is well-kept. If there are any small repairs, either inside or outside, take care of those before buyers have a chance to notice.Unique Open House IdeasYour main goal should be to attract buyers to your open house. Some creative ideas to accomplish that include:Provide drinks and refreshments for your potential buyers.Spotlight a local business such as having a mortgage lender on-hand to prequalify buyers.Give your guests a clipboard with a checklist to allow them to highlight features they like and provide you with valuable feedback.Have a garage sale while you host the open house. You are sure to get more visitors and you'll be able to sell items you no longer need, making packing a little easier.Open house ideas are endless. You want to make your open house an event that people will want to attend, and sometimes that takes a little extra incentive such as the previously mentioned ideas.What is a Broker's Open House?You should consider hosting a broker's open house. You'll want to prepare as you would for a regular open house. But, the difference is who is on the invite list. You'll be inviting real estate agents and other real estate professionals. The purpose of this type of open house is for those in the real estate industry to view your home to determine if they have clients who may be a good fit for your home.When selling your home, you should certainly take advantage of an open house. You'll be able to cluster buyers together and get them motivated in a relaxed environment. It's an ideal way to show your home at your convenience. But, it is also convenient for the buyers as they do not need an appointment. Everybody wins with an open house.Backyard and Curb Appeal to Improve Your Home’s Value When SellingCurb appeal and landscaping are essential components of whether or not your home will sell for the amount you hope it will. When a prospective buyer pulls up to the home, he or she instantly forms an opinion of it. Is it a fixer-upper? Does it need a lot of work? Or, is it well maintained, organized, and neat? To get the very most for your home, invest time in staging not only the interior but also the exterior of the home.How much of a return you get from what you put into landscaping depends on who you ask and your location. Generally, you can get as much as a 100 percent return on your investment. However, what you invest in is critical. It's not necessary to have a complex, detailed landscape. On the other hand, a boring grass yard may be limiting as well.Why Should I Stage My Home Before Selling?The goal of staging is to create a blank canvas from which homebuyers can visualize themselves within the space. For example, removing items of personal importance to you – such as plaques from the grandkids or personalized statues is important. It allows a person to see the space as something they can be a part of or make their own. The more specialization a property has, the more limiting it will be to your potential buyers. Instead, create a space that is:Easy to maintainEasy for homeowners to see the benefit ofClean, organized, and beautifulWhy Is Curb Appeal Important When Selling a House?Curb appeal creates that initial spark of interest. If someone looking for a home they can step into pulls up to a home with overgrown landscaping, an un-mowed lawn, and piles of debris, he or she already thinks the property is too much work for them. It does not matter what is happening inside – they already see the home as a project.With good curb appeal, your visitor wants to step inside to see and experience more. They are intrigued by the home. It's welcoming to them. Most of today's homeowners are not looking to fix or clean another person's problem before they can make a home their own. That's why it is important for you to ensure the landscape and overall curb appeal is set before listing.How Do I Create Curb Appeal Before Listing My Property?Creating curb appeal means working to achieve an attractive exterior to the home. This should be specialized to your home's needs as well as to what is expected in the neighborhood. If your home is lacking landscaping, but is overall orderly, in a neighborhood where homeowners are spending $20,000 or more on landscaping, your buyer is going to look the other way. To create curb appeal, consider the following:Declutter and clean up any area in need. This includes flowerbeds, driveways, curbs, and foundation areas.Trim trees and shrubs. Let the home's structure show.Paint the exterior of the home if it is faded, damaged, dirty, or not a neutral color. Be sure the gutters are clean.Keep the front door vibrant – it should be a focal point welcoming people into space.If desired, invest in new plants and flowers – add color, spacious depth, and contrast.Limit big projects requiring a lot of ongoing work, such as fountains or complex tree designs.How Do I Improve My Backyard When Selling My Home?Do not forget the backyard. Instead, treat it as an extension of your home. It can add a lot of value to the home when this space offers function. This could be an outdoor kitchen, a patio with ample dining space, a meditation area, or even a simple garden with a pathway. The key here is to keep specialization to a minimum. Get rid of an old hot tub – it is not adding value. Above ground, pools take away from a home's value as well. If you have raised planters or gardens, ensure the space is very organized and cleaned out.How Can a Real Estate Agent Help with Staging?Work closely with your real estate agent to pinpoint areas of concern. Talk about the types of investments you should make to improve the property's overall attractiveness and curb appeal. There is no value in adding a lot of detail, but you will benefit from simplifying, cleaning, decluttering, and maintaining the home. Make it attractive, perhaps even a home creating instant attention for its beautiful landscaping when someone pulls up to the curb. You want them to smile and step inside for more.How to Buy a Home When You Need to Sell Your Current HomeIn today's marketing, selling a home can happen quickly. However, in some markets, the property remains for sale for weeks or months before an offer is received. This brings up several good questions. Should you buy a home before you sell your current home? Or, should you list your home for sale and wait for offers before you find your home? This really depends on the market conditions, but there are a few key things you should know about the process and the options available to help you sell and buy effectively.How Long Do I Have to Live in The House Before Selling?Everything comes down to the contract. When you list your home for sale, your real estate agent will talk to you about your plans for moving out:Do you plan to buy a new home?Do you plan to leave the home before you list it for sale?Do you need time after you list the home before you can show it?Do you need time to move into a new home? Will renovations at a new home require you to need more than usual time?Once this is understood, the agent will work closely with you to find the best terms for your contract. You can specifically note what is important to you in the listing. For example, if the home is vacant, you can entertain a fast close. If, on the other time, you need 30 days to move out, be sure to include this in the listing as well.How Can a Real Estate Agent Help Me Understand the Market?Your agent will talk to you about your market. This isn't just the city's conditions, but also what is happening in your neighborhood. Together, you will determine what your options are for listing and expectations for length of time. Your agent will discuss days on the market with you, for example. This is a calculation of the average days a home is on the market before it sells within your area. The shorter this time is, the more likely you are to get an offer on your home once you list it.Your agent also needs to discuss the demands most buyers in your area have. For example, in a buyer's market – which means buyers are more in control over closing circumstances. In these areas, meeting the buyer's goals is important to ensure you get offers and can close on them. In other areas, seller's markets exist in which buyers are scrambling to find homes, and homes are typically selling at higher rates than previously. In this case, you have more control over what you can demand of the buyer, including a longer period of time before you move out.What Is a Contract Contingency, and Do I Need One?A contract contingency can help you with these gaps. It is wording included in any contract specifying the length of time you have to move out. For example, if you need 30 to 45 days to move out, you can include this language in your contract. The buyer can agree to it or move on. At the same time, buyers can also put contingencies in contracts. They may need the home to be vacated within 30 days, limiting your time.You always have the ability to determine what is right for your needs. If you do not want or need a contingency, don't accept one. At the same time, if you need more time, you cannot promise to move out before it is possible to do so. Violating the terms of a contract like this can void the sale.Do I Need a Bridge Loan?The other component of this process is the financial side. While you may be reached another component of this process is the financial side. While you may be ready and willing to move out within 30 days, your lender may put the brakes on the process. Most people cannot financially carry and afford the mortgage on their existing home and a new mortgage on a new home. Many times, you need to be able to pay off your first loan to pay for the second home purchase.Bridge loans can provide some help here. They can help you to create a bridge from selling to buying by providing the necessary funds to help you with a new down payment before the previous loan is sold. With a bridge loan, you do not have to use a contingency to sell.There are very specific areas of concern with selling timelines. Be sure to work closely with your real estate agent to ensure they are addressed.Should I Rent My Home or Sell?Financial ConsiderationsDetermining if renting your home will be a good investment requires analyzing and research. It is a rule of thumb not to rush this process. You will be forced to examine your financial situation and your vulnerability to risk.Carefully examine your home's current property condition and its location. Figure out the demand for properties for rent like yours in comparable neighborhoods. Consider contacting your real estate agent to conduct a comparative market analysis.The report can help in two ways,1. Determines the value of properties in the neighborhood.2. Prices properties like your home that rented within the last six months.What Does it Take to Be a Landlord?Before you can go any further in this process, you must determine if you are prepared to be a landlord. If your tenant's heat pump fails at 2 AM on the coldest day of the year, are you ready to handle that? The burden of responsibility to solve the problems will fall on you. If your tenant breaks the lease and does not pay you, will you be ready to evict a tenant that cannot pay?Renting your home is more than just a financial decision. Becoming a landlord means making a personal time commitment, and not everyone is able or willing to step up to that responsibility. It is the inconvenient phone calls in the early hours of the morning, or it is an appliance that is now broken and needs immediate repair. Events like these are often occurrences for landlords.You can consider hiring a property management company. Be careful that could be an expensive decision. It may be necessary in cases where you must move to another state or travel extensively fora job.Can I Afford to Rent My House?Determine whether the costs are worth the trouble. Miscellaneous fees can multiply fast - expenses such as lawn services, insurance, and HVAC service, to name a few. Add up approximately how much time are you willing to spare on your property as a landlord and determine if the ROI will be worth the time sacrifice. Keep in mind that single-family homes usually demand your attention at some point in time.Before turning your residence into a rental property, there are significant tax considerations to consider. As a landlord, you will have to report the rental income you receive as taxable income, even if there is a mortgage on the property. If you decide to sell the rental property, the basis for calculating a loss or gain is a bit different from a primary residence sale.As a landlord, the IRS will allow you to claim depreciation deductions on your income taxes. It helps to use the deduction to offset the income the rental property generates. Let's look at possible deductions of rental properties:Maintenance and repairsUtilitiesHOA feesInsuranceProperty TaxesMortgage InterestWhen it comes to depreciation, there is a specific formula for a rental property converted from a personal residence. Generally, the primary residences' adjusted tax basis is the price of the purchase plus any amount spent on capital improvement. Capital improvements to the property are enhancements that add value to the home, such as adding square footage, fences, or even notable improvements to the landscaping. Please note, the IRS does not include maintenance and repairs as a capital improvement.Taxes are complicated whether selling your home or choosing to rent it out. Make sure to speak with an accountant to get a clear understanding of how tax laws may impact you.When possible, take your time when it comes to deciding on whether to rent or to sell your property. Always seek guidance from professionals like local realtors and accountants to get an accurate understanding of your options and to assist with making the best-educated decision possible. ;Your real estate agent is the best source of information about the local community and real estate topics. Give the Team Macias a call today at 619-995-5792 to learn more about local areas, discuss selling a house, or tour available homes for sale.

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