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How can I get a central OBC NCL certificate?

you may have to apply first in the following format to district magistrateOBC‐NCL Certificate Format FORM -OBC -NCL FORM OF CERTIFICATE TO BE PRODUCED BY OTHER BACKWARD CLASSES (NCL) APPLYING FORADMISSION TO CENT RAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS (CEIs), UNDER T HE GOVERNMENT OF INDIAThis is to certify that Shri/Smt./Kum*Son/Daughter* of Shri/Smt.* of Village/ Town*District/Division* in the State/Union Territorybelongs to thecommunity that is recognized as a backwardclass under Government of India**, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment’sResolution No.dated***Shri/Smt./Kum.and/orhis/her family ordinarily reside(s) intheDistrict/Division of theState/Union Territory. This isalso to certify that he/she doesNOT belong to the persons/sections (CreamyLayer)mentioned in Column 3 of the Schedule to the Government of India, Department ofPersonnel & Training O.M. No. 36012/22/93‐Estt. (SCT) dated 08/09/93 which ismodified vide OM No. 36033/3/2004 Estt.(Res.) dated 09/03/2004, further modifiedvide OM No. 36033/3/2004‐Estt. (Res.) dated 14/10/2008, again further modified vide OMNo.36036/2/2013‐Estt (Res) dtd. 30/05/2014.Dated:SealDistrict Magistrate /Deputy Commissioner /Any other Competent Authority*Please delete the word(s) which are notapplicable.**As listed in the Annexure (forFORM‐OBC‐NCL)***The authority issuing the certificate needs to mention the details of Resolution of GovernmentofIndia, in which the caste of the candidate is mentioned asOBC.NOTE:(a)The term ‘Ordinarily resides’ used here will have the same meaning as in Section 20 of the Representation ofthe People Act, 1950.(b) The authorities competent to issue Caste Certificates are indicated below:(i) District Magistrate/ Additional Magistrate/ Collector/ Deputy Commissioner/ Additional DeputyCommissioner/ Deputy Collector/ Ist Class Stipendiary Magistrate/ Sub‐Divisional magistrate/ TalukaMagistrate/ Executive Magistrate/ Extra Assistant Commissioner (not below the rank of Ist ClassStipendiary Magistrate).(ii) Chief Presidency Magistrate / Additional Chief Presidency Magistrate / Presidency Magistrate.(iii) Revenue Officer not below the rank of Tehsildar’ and(iv) Sub‐Divisional Officer of the area where the candidate and/or his family residesANNEXURE for FORM ‐OBC ‐NCL Sl. No.Resolution No.Date of Notification 1 No.12011/68/93‐BCC(C) 13.09.19932 No.12011/9/94‐BCC 19.10.19943No.12011/7/95‐BCC 24.05.19954No.12011/96/94‐BCC 09.03.19965 No.12011/44/96‐BCC11.12.19966No.12011/13/97‐BCC03.12.19977No.12011/99/94‐BCC11.12.19978No.12011 /68/98‐BCC27.10.19999No.12011/88/98‐BCC06.12.199910No.12011/36/99‐BCC04.04.200011No.12011/44/99‐BCC21.09.200012No.12015/9/2000‐BCC06.09.200113No.12011/1/2001‐BCC19.06.200314No.12011/4/2002‐BCC13.01.200415No.12011/9/2004‐BCC16.01.200616No.12011/14/2004‐BCC12.03.200717No.12011/16/2007‐BCC12.10.200718No.12018/6/2005‐BCC30.07.201019No. 12015/2/2007‐BCC18.08.201020No.12015/15/2008‐BCC16.06.201121 No.12015/13/2010‐BC‐II08.12.201122No.12015/5/2011‐BC

Which are the best watches that are at affordable price?

Best budget smart watches of the year 2017.Today we will talk about gadgets that will attract the attention of others. This is a smart watch or as they are called, smart watches. More recently, these gadgets are basically just duplicated the functionality of your Smartphone. Now many electronics manufacturers more emphasis on sports clock function. Virtually all smart clocks can already be found pedometer, calorie counter pulse sensor and many more functions from fitness trackers.To date, the choice of smart watches big enough and in this range can be easily confused. In this article we have collected the best smart watches of the year 2017Smart Watches DZ09.Start this list bestseller sales website Alijekspress — DZ-09. This is one of the most budget smart watches, which cost about $10.This watch with a screen diagonal of 1.56 "and a resolution of 240 * 240px. The battery on these built-in 380mAh hours, gives the opportunity to use those hours up to 7 days without recharging. It's true, if you do not connect them to the phone.In this model, there is even a built-in 0.3 MEGAPIXEL camera. The quality of this camera, gently say, not very. In these hours has a pedometer, voice recorder, calculator, players, audio and video files. Also in these hours there is an opportunity to add memory by installing micro SD up to 32 GB, and there is a SIM card slot. Setting that you can use it almost as a full mobile phone.The functionality of these hours is restricted, and indeed they dampish. But are popular due to their low cost. Learn more about DZ-09 can be found in this article .Smart Watch GT 88.The following smart gadget-budget Apple copy Smart Watch-GT88.This is an advanced model of the previous series GT08. But unlike the previous series, all function in GT 88 works fine. But the cost of this watch. You can purchase them on the site Alijekspress for about $35.This model of smart watches waterproof, but bathe in them still not desirable.Screen these hours 1.54 inches diagonally, with a resolution of 240 * 240px. You can activate it by shaking hands. These watches have battery 350mAh. The battery should be enough for 7 days standby time and mode for two days of normal use. They can be used in a mode the headset to your phone, either as a separate mobile phone with SIM card watch.These watches have functions fitness bracelet. They can measure the pulse, sleep duration and count the steps. Of deficiencies, it may be noted that not all functions will work with IOS smartphones.Charging this gadget by using the magnetic charge. On the one hand it is comfortable and practical. But on the other hand magnet is weak. For normal charging need to ensure complete immobility for hours.Smart Watches G6.Another model of low-cost smart-Smart Watch No. 1 G6. This model is made in a classical style. Watch case has a round form. You can buy this watch and silicone and metal bracelet.These clocks only work in conjunction with your Smartphone. In them it is not possible to use the SIM card and memory card.Screen resolution 240 * 240px, screen size 1.2 inches. Battery charge is enough for about 5 days. Same as previous hours there are plenty of fitness functions.The build quality and materials at a fairly high level. Nothing creaks and not falling off. Screen and almost without brakes. Cons-a quiet speaker. But for the price very decent option. You can buy them at this time for $35.Smart Watches IP 68.Another model of the smart brand watches from Naiku-waterproof IP 68 model.These watches are designed for extreme conditions of use. They are not afraid of anything, no water (manufacturer declared to 30 meter dive), no dust, no temperature.Power supply from batteries, which roughly comparable capacity 550mAh battery. According to the manufacturer the battery charge should be enough for 1 year of work hours in standby mode.The screen is black and white, with a diameter of 1.1 inches. In addition to the hours on this screen displays the height above sea level, air pressure levels of UV radiation, air temperature, pedometer, still a lot of useful information.The main disadvantage of these intelligent hours that they are without Smartphone practically useless. Apart from their Smartphone can only be used as a conventional watch. Its sensors hours there, and all the data taken from the application of the sensors and the phone.But the pluses of these hours you can list very long.· First is the price. This model can be found for around $20· The quality of the materials. Indeed, everything was very soundly.· Incredible endurance.It was a selection of the best smart watches in the budget year 2017 up to 50 dollars.

Are Congressional Republicans and the Trump Administration setting up the courts to rule that Social Security is unconstitutional?

Are Congressional Republicans and the Trump Administration setting up the courts to rule that Social Security is unconstitutional?This article covers the time of Pre-Social Security Period until now and is super long.Traditional Sources of Economic Security from the time of the ancient Greeks. I am skipping all the "before" our known modern day Social Security as it has nothing to do with today. I will admit it was an interesting read though. Now to today's Social Security Act from the beginning until now.The Threshold of ChangeSo as 1934 dawned the nation was deep in the throes of the Depression. Confidence in the old institutions was shaken. Social changes that started with the Industrial Revolution had long ago passed the point of no return. The traditional sources of economic security: assets; labor; family; and charity, had all failed in one degree or another. Radical proposals for action were springing like weeds from the soil of the nation's discontent. President Franklin Roosevelt would choose the social insurance approach as the "cornerstone" of his attempts to deal with the problem of economic security.The Social Security Act--Passage and DevelopmentThe Committee on Economic Security (CES)On June 8, 1934, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in a message to the Congress, announced his intention to provide a program for Social Security. Subsequently, the President created by Executive Order the Committee on Economic Security, which was composed of five top cabinet-level officials. The committee was instructed to study the entire problem of economic insecurity and to make recommendations that would serve as the basis for legislative consideration by the Congress.The CES assembled a small staff of experts borrowed from other federal agencies and immediately set to work. In November 1934 the CES sponsored the first-ever national town-hall forum on Social Security. The CES did a comprehensive study of the whole issue of economic security in America, along with an analysis of the European experience with these perennial problems. Their full report was the first comprehensive attempt at this kind of analysis in many decades and it stood as a landmark study for many years. In slightly more than six months, the CES developed a Report to the Congress and drafted a detailed legislative proposal."Security was attained in the earlier days through the interdependence of members of families upon each other and of the families within a small community upon each other. The complexities of great communities and of organized industry make less real these simple means of security. Therefore, we are compelled to employ the active interest of the Nation as a whole through government in order to encourage a greater security for each individual who composes it . . . This seeking for a greater measure of welfare and happiness does not indicate a change in values. It is rather a return to values lost in the course of our economic development and expansion . . ."Franklin D. Roosevelt:Message of the President to Congress, June 8, 1934.The Social Security ActIn early January 1935, the CES made its report to the President, and on January 17 the President introduced the report to both Houses of Congress for simultaneous consideration. Hearings were held in the House Ways & Means Committee and the Senate Finance Committee during January and February. Some provisions made it through the Committees in close votes, but the bill passed both houses overwhelmingly in the floor votes. After a Conference which lasted throughout July, the bill was finally passed and sent to President Roosevelt for his signature.The Social Security Act was signed into law by President Roosevelt on August 14, 1935. In addition to several provisions for general welfare, the new Act created a social insurance program designed to pay retired workers age 65 or older a continuing income after retirement. (Full Text of President Roosevelt's Statement At Bill Signing Ceremony.)"We can never insure one hundred percent of the population against one hundred percent of the hazards and vicissitudes of life, but we have tried to frame a law which will give some measure of protection to the average citizen and to his family against the loss of a job and against poverty-ridden old age."--President Roosevelt upon signing Social Security ActMajor Provisions Of The ActThe Social Security Act did not quite achieve all the aspirations its supporters had hoped by way of providing a "comprehensive package of protection" against the "hazards and vicissitudes of life." Certain features of that package, notably disability coverage and medical benefits, would have to await future developments. But it did provide a wide range of programs to meet the nation's needs. In addition to the program we now think of as Social Security, it included unemployment insurance, old-age assistance, aid to dependent children and grants to the states to provide various forms of medical care.(Full text of 1935 Act)The two major provisions relating to the elderly were Title I- Grants to States for Old-Age Assistance, which supported state welfare programs for the aged, and Title II-Federal Old-Age Benefits. It was Title II that was the new social insurance program we now think of as Social Security. In the original Act benefits were to be paid only to the primary worker when he/she retired at age 65. Benefits were to be based on payroll tax contributions that the worker made during his/her working life. Taxes would first be collected in 1937 and monthly benefits would begin in 1942. (Under amendments passed in 1939, payments were advanced to 1940.)The significance of the new social insurance program was that it sought to address the long-range problem of economic security for the aged through a contributory system in which the workers themselves contributed to their own future retirement benefit by making regular payments into a joint fund. It was thus distinct from the welfare benefits provided under Title I of the Act and from the various state "old-age pensions." As President Roosevelt conceived of the Act, Title I was to be a temporary "relief" program that would eventually disappear as more people were able to obtain retirement income through the contributory system. The new social insurance system was also a very moderate alternative to the radical calls to action that were so common in the America of the 1930s.The Social Security BoardAnother provision of the Act established a Social Security Board (SSB) comprised of three members appointed by the President, with the chairman reporting directly to the President. The original members were John G. Winant, Chairman; Arthur J. Altmeyer; and Vincent M. Miles. (Winant was a former three-time Republican Governor of New Hampshire; Miles was a Democratic Party official in Arkansas; and Altmeyer was a civil servant working in Labor Department.)During the first year, SSB was faced with the tasks of providing employers, employees and the public with information on how earnings were to be reported, what benefits were available and how they were to be provided. In addition, sites for field installations had to be chosen and personnel to staff these offices had to be selected and trained.First meeting of the Social Security Board, September 14, 1935. Left to right: Arthur J. Altmeyer, John G. Winant (Chairman), and Vincent M. Miles.Operation of the new program was hampered for several months when the budget bill for the Act was killed by a Senate filibuster at the end of August 1935. The new Social Security Board had to borrow money from other federal agencies to operate until January 1936 when the Congress reconvened and passed an appropriation to fund the programs and operations under the Social Security Act.The Social Security Board begin as an independent agency of the federal government. In 1939 it became part of the cabinet-level Federal Security Agency, and in 1946 the SSB was abolished and replaced by the current Social Security Administration.Early Work- Social Security NumbersThe monumental first task was the need to register employers and workers by January 1, 1937, when workers would begin acquiring credits toward old-age insurance benefits. Since the new Social Security Board did not have the resources available to accomplish this, they contracted with the Post Office Department to distribute the applications. The first application forms were distributed in late November 1936. The numbers were assigned in the local post offices. There is no record of who received the first Social Security number (SSN).John David Sweeney, Jr.The post offices collected the completed forms and turned them over to Social Security field offices located near major post office centers. The applications then were forwarded to Baltimore, Maryland, where SSNs were registered and various employment records established. The first SSN account number record established in Baltimore was assigned to John David Sweeney, Jr. of New Rochelle, New York.Although, John Sweeney received the first SSN account, his was not the lowest number ever issued. That distinction fell to New Hampshire resident, Grace Dorothy Owen. Ms. Owen received number 001-01-0001.(The process of issuing Social Security numbers is called "enumeration," and over the years it has been one of the most interesting topics involving Social Security.)Over 30 million SSN cards were issued through this early procedure, with the help of the post offices. By June 30, 1937, the SSB had established 151 field offices, with the first office opening on October 14, 1936, in Austin, Texas. From that point on, the Board's local office took over the task of assigning SSNs.Trust FundsAfter Social Security numbers were assigned, the first Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) taxes were collected, beginning in January 1937. Special Trust Funds were created for these dedicated revenues. Benefits were then paid from the money in the Social Security Trust Funds. Over the years, more than $8.7 trillion has been paid into the Trust Funds, and more than $7.4 trillion has been paid out in benefits. The remainder is currently on reserve in the Trust Funds and will be used to pay future benefits.First PaymentsFrom 1937 until 1940, Social Security paid benefits in the form of a single, lump-sum payment. The purpose of these one-time payments was to provide some "payback" to those people who contributed to the program but would not participate long enough to be vested for monthly benefits. Under the 1935 law, monthly benefits were to begin in 1942, with the period 1937-1942 used both to build up the Trust Funds and to provide a minimum period for participation in order to qualify for monthly benefits.The earliest reported applicant for a lump-sum benefit was a retired Cleveland motorman named Ernest Ackerman, who retired one day after the Social Security program began. During his one day of participation in the program, a nickel was withheld from Mr. Ackerman's pay for Social Security, and, upon retiring, he received a lump-sum payment of 17 cents.The average lump-sum payment during this period was $58.06. The smallest payment ever made was for 5 cents!Ernest Ackerman"Long before the economic blight of the depression descended on the Nation, millions of our people were living in wastelands of want and fear. Men and women too old and infirm to work either depended on those who had but little to share, or spent their remaining years within the walls of a poorhouse . . .The Social Security Act offers to all our citizens a workable and working method of meeting urgent present needs and of forestalling future need . . . One word of warning, however. In our efforts to provide security for all of the American people, let us not allow ourselves to be misled by those who advocate short cuts to Utopia or fantastic financial schemes. We have come a long way. But we still have a long way to go. There is still today a frontier that remains unconquered--an America unclaimed. This is the great, the nationwide frontier of insecurity, of human want and fear. This is the frontier--the America--we have set ourselves to reclaim."-- President Franklin Roosevelt August 14, 1938, Radio address on the third anniversary of the Social Security Act1939 Amendments"It is impossible under any social insurance system to provide ideal security for every individual. The practical objective is to pay benefits that provide a minimum degree of social security—as a basis upon which the worker, through his own efforts, will have a better chance to provide adequately for his individual security." -- From the Report of the Social Security Board recommending the changes which were embodied in the 1939 Amendments.The original Act provided only retirement benefits, and only to the worker. The 1939 Amendments made a fundamental change in the Social Security program. The Amendments added two new categories of benefits: payments to the spouse and minor children of a retired worker (so-called dependents benefits) and survivors benefits paid to the family in the event of the premature death of a covered worker. This change transformed Social Security from a retirement program for workers into a family-based economic security program.The 1939 Amendments also increased benefit amounts and accelerated the start of monthly benefit payments to 1940.Monthly BenefitsIn 1950 all Social Security beneficiaries received a general "cost-of-living" increase--for the first time since benefits began in 1940. Ida May Fuller is seen here receiving her first increased benefit check on October 3, 1950.Payment of monthly Social Security benefits began in January 1940, and were authorized not only for aged retired workers but for their aged wives or widows, children under age 18, and surviving aged parents.On January 31, 1940, the first monthly retirement check was issued to Ida May Fuller of Ludlow, Vermont, in the amount of $22.54. Miss Fuller, a Legal Secretary, retired in November 1939. She started collecting benefits in January 1940 at age 65 and lived to be 100 years old, dying in 1975.(Examining the first batch of checks)Ida May Fuller worked for three years under the Social Security program. The accumulated taxes on her salary during those three years was a total of $24.75. Her initial monthly check was $22.54. During her lifetime she collected a total of $22,888.92 in Social Security benefits.The Atlantic CharterIn mid-August, 1941, Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt met secretly aboard a warship off the coast of Newfoundland in the North Atlantic. On the sixth anniversary of the Social Security Act, they announced a joint-declaration known as the Atlantic Charter. The 383-word Charter was an expression of "certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they base their hopes for a better future for the world." This brief charter would be the founding document of the United Nations and among its eight principles was a call for social insurance. Former Social Security Board Chairman John Winant was then serving as the U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain. Although Winant did not attend the Conference, the social insurance provision was a suggestion he made from London which was instantly accepted by Churchill and FDR.Although social insurance began in Germany in the 19th century, in the years following World War II the United States was the leading model for nations around the world who were interested in designing Social Security systems. This movement toward the internationalization of Social Security can be symbolically fixed with the issuance of the Atlantic Charter in 1941.1950 AmendmentsFrom 1940 until 1950 virtually no changes were made in the Social Security program. Payment amounts were fixed, and no major legislation was enacted. There was a significant administrative change in 1946, however, when the three-person Social Security Board was abolished and replaced by the Social Security Administration, headed by a single Commissioner.Because the program was still in its infancy, and because it was financed by low levels of payroll taxation, the absolute value of Social Security's retirement benefits were very low. In fact, until 1951, the average value of the welfare benefits received under the old-age assistance provisions of the Act were higher than the retirement benefits received under Social Security. And there were more elderly Americans receiving old-age assistance than were receiving Social Security.Because of these shortcomings in the program, in 1950 major amendments were enacted. These amendments increased benefits for existing beneficiaries for the first time (see The Story of COLAs), and they dramatically increased the value of the program to future beneficiaries. By February 1951 there were more Social Security retirees than welfare pensioners, and by August of that year, the average Social Security retirement benefit exceeded the average old-age assistance grant for the first time.The Story of COLAsMost people are aware that there are annual increases in Social Security benefits to offset the corrosive effects of inflation on fixed incomes. These increases, now known as Cost of Living Allowances (COLAs), are such an accepted feature of the program that it is difficult to imagine a time when there were no COLAs. But in fact, when Ida May Fuller received her first $22.54 benefit payment in January of 1940, this would be the same amount she would receive each month for the next 10 years. For Ida May Fuller, and the millions of other Social Security beneficiaries like her, the amount of that first benefit check was the amount they could expect to receive for life. It was not until the 1950 Amendments that Congress first legislated an increase in benefits. Current beneficiaries had their payments recomputed and Ida May Fuller, for example, saw her monthly check increase from $22.54 to $41.30.These recomputations were effective for September 1950 and appeared for the first time in the October 1950 checks. A second increase was legislated for September 1952. Together these two increases almost doubled the value of Social Security benefits for existing beneficiaries. From that point on, benefits were increased only when Congress enacted special legislation for that purpose.In 1972 legislation the law was changed to provide, beginning in 1975, for automatic annual cost-of-living allowances (i.e., COLAs) based on the annual increase in consumer prices. No longer do beneficiaries have to await a special act of Congress to receive a benefit increase and no longer does inflation drain value from Social Security benefits.Social Security Benefit Increases 1950-2013Effective PercentDate Increase9/50 77.09/52 12.59/54 13.01/59 7.01/65 7.02/68 13.01/70 15.01/71 10.09/72 20.03/74* 7.0*6/74 11.06/75 8.06/76 6.46/77 5.96/78 6.56/79 9.96/80 14.36/81 11.26/82 7.412/83 3.512/84 3.512/85 3.112/86 1.312/87 4.212/88 4.012/89 4.712/90 5.412/91 3.712/92 3.012/93 2.612/94 2.812/95 2.612/96 2.912/97 2.112/98 1.312/99 2.5**12/00 3.512/01 2.612/02 1.412/03 2.112/04 2.712/05 4.112/06 3.312/07 2.312/08 5.812/09 None12/10 None12/11 3.612/12 1.712/13 1.7* The increase in 3/74 was a special, limited-duration increase. It was effective for only 3/74-5/74. In June 1974, all payment levels reverted to their 2/74 level and the 11% increase was permanently applied on this base.** The COLA for December 1999 was originally determined as 2.4 percent based on CPIs published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Pursuant to Public Law 106-554, however, this COLA is effectively now 2.5 percent.When you think of how much the cost of living and how far your money would stretch for those on social security back in teh 1960s-1080s compared to now. Every dollar buys less and less, houses and apartments cost much more for shelter look at how little the cost of living a recipient of social security gets now. Today the cost to live is out of sync with wages so that some people working two jobs can’t put food on the table. Instead of telling women to have more babies to support the government when they become working age, raise the minimum wage, tax the millionairs and billionaires, and especially all the big corporations that are paying $0 federal taxes each year but can give the CEO billion dollar bonuses and million dollar bonuses to their board members.!DisabilityThe Social Security Amendments of 1954 initiated a disability insurance program which provided the public with additional coverage against economic insecurity. At first, there was a disability "freeze", (here being signed by President Eisenhower) of a worker's Social Security record during the years when they were unable to work. (First application for disability freeze being filed.) While this measure offered no cash benefits, it did prevent such periods of disability from reducing or wiping out retirement and survivor benefits. On August 1, 1956, the Social Security Act was amended to provide benefits to disabled workers aged 50-64 and disabled adult children. In September 1960 President Eisenhower signed a law amending the disability rules to permit payment of benefits to disabled workers of any age and to their dependents. By 1960, 559,000 people were receiving disability benefits, with the average benefit amount being around $80 per month.Medicare & Other ChangesThe decade of the 1960s brought major changes to the Social Security program. Under the Amendments of 1961, the age at which men are first eligible for old-age insurance was lowered to 62, with benefits actuarially reduced (women previously were given this option in 1956). This created an additional workload for the Agency as more beneficiaries entered the rolls. The number of people receiving disability benefits more than doubled from 1961 to 1969, increasing from 742,000 to 1.7 million.The most significant administrative change involved the signing of the Medicare bill on July 30, 1965, by President Lyndon Johnson In the presence of former President Truman, who received the first Medicare card at the ceremony, Lady Bird Johnson, Vice-President Hubert Humphrey, and Mrs. Truman. With the signing of this bill, SSA became responsible for administering a new social insurance program that extended health coverage to almost all Americans aged 65 or older. Nearly 20 million beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare in the first 3 years of the program.President Johnson Regarding Medicare:"Thirty years ago, the American people made a basic decision that the later years of life should not be years of despondency and drift. The result was enactment of our Social Security program. . . . Since World War II, there has been increasing awareness of the fact that the full value of Social Security would not be realized unless provision were made to deal with the problem of costs of illnesses among our older citizens. . . . Compassion and reason dictate that this logical extension of our proven Social Security system will supply the prudent, feasible, and dignified way to free the aged from the fear of financial hardship in the event of illness."-January 7, 1965SSIIn the 1970s, SSA became responsible for a new program, Supplemental Security Income (SSI). In the original 1935 Social Security Act, programs were introduced for needy aged and blind individuals and, in 1950, needy disabled individuals were added. These three programs were known as the "adult categories" and were administered by State and local governments with partial Federal funding. Over the years, the State programs became more complex and inconsistent, with as many as 1,350 administrative agencies involved and payments varying more than 300% from State to State.In 1969, President Nixon identified a need to reform these and related welfare programs to "bring reason, order, and purpose into a tangle of overlapping programs." In 1971, Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare, Elliot Richardson, proposed that SSA assume responsibility for the "adult categories." In the Social Security Amendments of 1972, Congress federalized the "adult categories" by creating the SSI program and assigned responsibility for it to SSA.SSA was chosen to administer the new program because of its reputation for successful administration of the existing social insurance programs. SSA's nationwide network of field offices and large-scale data processing and record-keeping operations also made it the logical choice to perform the major task of converting over 3 million people from State welfare programs to SSI.The 1972 & 1977 AmendmentsIn 1972 two important sets of amendments were enacted. These amendments created the SSI program and introduced automatic Cost-of-Living-Adjustments (COLAs).The bill creating the SSI program also contained important provisions for increasing Social Security benefits for certain categories of beneficiaries (primarily aged widows and widowers). It also provided: a minimum retirement benefit; an adjustment to the benefit formula governing early retirement at age 62 for men, in order to make it consistent with that for women; extension of Medicare to those who have received disability benefits for at least two years and to those with Chronic Renal Disease; liberalized the Retirement Test; and provided for Delayed Retirement Credits to increase the benefits of those who delayed retirement past age 65.The separate bill creating automatic COLAs also provided for automatic increases in the earnings subject to Social Security taxes and an automatic adjustment in the wage-base used in calculating benefits. This second adjustment was put in the law as a sort of companion to the COLA. The COLA adjusts for increases in prices, whereas the wage-base adjustment corrects for increases in wages. The purpose of the COLA was to maintain the purchasing power of benefits already awarded. The purpose of the automatic adjustment in the wage base was to maintain the relative value of Social Security benefits for future applicants. Unfortunately, the procedure for adjusting for price and wage increases contained a flaw which resulted in future benefit levels soaring out of control. Indeed, it became apparent that if the trends of the mid-1970s continued, future Social Security beneficiaries could end up receiving more in their monthly retirement benefit than their gross salaries while working. This problem was corrected in the 1977 Amendments. However, the correction led to the appearance of what came to be known informally as "The Notch."The Notch spawned a political protest movement of aggrieved "Notch Babies" who believe they have been the victims of unfair treatment.The main purpose of the 1977 Amendments was to address the financing of the program. Shortly after passage of the 1972 legislation, it became apparent that Social Security faced a funding shortfall, both in the short-term and in the long-term. The short-term problem was caused by the bad economy, and the long-term problem by the demographics associated with the baby boom. By their 1975 report the Trustees said the Trust Funds would be exhausted by 1979. This financing shortfall was addressed by the 1977 Social Security Amendments. These amendments raised the payroll tax slightly (from 6.45% to the current 7.65%), increased the wage base; reduced benefits slightly; and "decoupled" the wage adjustment from the COLA adjustment. These fixes restored the long-term balance of the program for the next 50 years (but not the full 75 years used by the actuaries). It was hoped the amendments would prevent an expected short-term financing problem in the early 1980s. This hope would prove elusive as the major amendments in 1983 would be needed to avoid the short-term problem, and to address the remaining long-range program deficit.Disability In The 1980sThe Social Security Amendments of 1980 made many changes in the disability program. Most of these changes focused on various work incentive provisions for both Social Security and SSI disability benefits.The 1980 Amendments also required SSA to conduct periodic reviews of current disability beneficiaries to certify their continuing eligibility. This was to become a massive workload for SSA and one that was highly controversial. By 1983, the reviews had been halted, and in 1984, Congress passed the Disability Benefits Reform Act modifying several aspects of the disability program.The 1983 AmendmentsIn the early 1980s the Social Security program faced a serious short-term financing crisis. President Reagan appointed a blue-ribbon panel, known as the Greenspan Commission, to study the financing issues and make recommendations for legislative changes. The final bill, signed into law in 1983, made numerous changes in the Social Security and Medicare programs, including the taxation of Social Security benefits, the first coverage of Federal employees under Social Security and an increase in the retirement age in the next century. (Summary of the provisions of the '83 Amendments)Program GrowthFrom its modest beginnings, Social Security has grown to become an essential facet of modern life. One in seven Americans receives a Social Security benefit, and more than 90 percent of all workers are in jobs covered by Social Security. From 1940, when slightly more than 222,000 people received monthly Social Security benefits, until today, when over 50 million people receive such benefits, Social Security has grown steadily. The SSI program has grown as well from its inception in 1974.There is a large chart showing the Social Security and SSI, Year, Beneficiaries and Dollar amounts.Independence For SSAThe Social Security Board (SSB) began its life in 1935 as one of the federal government's "independent agencies." This means that it was not part of a larger cabinet-level organization. In 1939 this status changed when the SSB became part of the new cabinet-level Federal Security Agency. Ultimately, the Social Security Board became the Social Security Administration and it would finally become an operating component of the Department of Health & Human Services. (See SSA Organizational History.)Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, there was growing bipartisan support for removing SSA from under its departmental umbrella and establishing it as an independent agency. Finally, in 1994 the Social Security Independence and Program Improvements Act of 1994 (P.L. 103-296) was passed unanimously by Congress and, in a ceremony in the Rose Garden of the White House, on August 14, 1994, President Bill Clinton signed the act into law.Legislative Changes in 1996 & 1997Contract With America Advancement Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-121).This bill, signed by the President on March 29, 1996, made a change in the basic philosophy of the disability program. Beginning on that date, new applicants for Social Security or SSI disability benefits could no longer be eligible for benefits if drug addiction or alcoholism is a material factor to their disability. Unless they can qualify on some other medical basis, they cannot receive disability benefits. Individuals in this category already receiving benefits, are to have their benefits terminated as of January 1, 1997. Previous policy has been that if a person has a medical condition that prevents them from working, this qualifies them as disabled for Social Security and SSI purposes--regardless of the cause of the disability. Another significant provision of this law doubled the earnings limit exemption amount for retired Social Security beneficiaries, on a gradual schedule from 1996 to 2002. In 2002, the exempt amount will be $30,000 per year in earnings, compared to $14,760 under previous law.The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.This "welfare reform" legislation, signed by the President on 8/22/96, ended the categorical entitlement to AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) that was part of the original 1935 Social Security Act by implementing time-limited benefits along with a work requirement. The law also terminated SSI eligibility for most non-citizens. Previously, lawfully admitted aliens could receive SSI if they met the other factors of entitlement. As of the date of enactment, no new non-citizens could be added to the benefit rolls and all existing non-citizen beneficiaries would eventually be removed from the rolls (unless they met one of the exceptions in the law.) Also effective upon enactment were provisions eliminating the "comparable severity standard" and reference to "maladaptive behavior" in the determination of disability for children to receive SSI. Also, children currently receiving benefits under the old standards were to be reviewed and removed from the rolls if they could not qualify under the new standards.Omnibus Consolidated Rescissions and Appropriations Act of 1996.Requires that all federal payments (including Social Security and SSI) be made by electronic funds transfer (no more paper checks) effective January 1, 1999, unless a waiver is granted by the Secretary of the Treasury.The Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1997This massive omnibus spending bill contained SSA's budget as well as numerous legislative changes relating to the SSI program and to issues involved in fighting fraudulent documents in connection with obtaining Social Security numbers. The major SSI provision makes sponsorship agreements legally enforceable for the first time. In the area of identification-related documents, the law requires the establishment of federal standards for state-issued birth certificates and requires SSA to develop a prototype counterfeit-resistant Social Security card.The Balanced Budget Act of 1997This bill passed the House on 7/30/97 by a vote of 346 to 85, and passed the Senate the next day on a vote of 85 to 15. This law restored SSI eligibility to certain cohorts of non- citizens whose eligibility otherwise would be terminated under the "welfare reform" of 1996. It also extended for up to one year the period for redetermining the eligibility of certain aliens who may ultimately not be eligible for continued benefits.The Social Security Advisory BoardFrom the very beginning, the Social Security program has had the services of periodic Advisory Councils composed primarily of non-government members whose function was to represent the public at large in advising government officials on Social Security policy. The first such Advisory Council was convened in 1934 in support of the work of the Committee on Economic Security. Over the years, the Advisory Councils have been very influential in setting the agenda for changes in Social Security. The Councils were especially influential in shaping the pivotal 1939 and 1950 amendments. Eventually, the tradition of periodic Social Security Advisory Councils was made a standard provision of the law, with a requirement that such a Council be appointed every four years. This law stayed in effect until 1994, when it was repealed as part of the legislation which made SSA an independent agency. The 1994-1996 Advisory Council was thus the final Council, signaling the end of a long tradition in Social Security. Under that 1994 law, the Councils are abolished and a permanent 7-member Advisory Board was formed to serve many of the same functions.Work IncentivesOn December 17, 1999 the President signed the "Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999"--one of the most significant changes in disability policy in the last 20 years. This law creates a Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency Program which will provide disability beneficiaries with a ticket they may use to obtain vocational rehabilitation services, employment services, and other support services from an employment network of their choice. In addition to allowing beneficiaries to purchase vocational services, the law provides incentive payments to providers for successful rehabilitation in which the beneficiary returns to work. The new provisions also provide a number of safeguards to the beneficiaries to protect their benefits and health Taken together, the Ticket to Work initiative seeks to shift the emphasis in the disability program away from mere maintenance of benefits more toward rehabilitating the disabled and assisting them in returning to productive work.Repeal of the Retirement Earnings Test (RET)On April 7, 2000"The Senior Citizens' Freedom to Work Act of 2000" was signed into law, eliminating the Retirement Earnings Test (RET) for those beneficiaries at or above Normal Retirement Age (NRA). (The RET still applies to those beneficiaries below NRA.)The legislation began its swift march through Congress on March 1, 2000 when the full House of Representatives passed H.R. 5 by a vote of 422 to 0. The Senate, on March 22, 2000 then passed the bill by a vote of 100-0 (with a technical amendment). On March 28, 2000 The House agreed to the Senate amendment by a vote of 419-0 and cleared the measure for transmission to the President.This was a historic change in the Social Security retirement program. From the beginning of Social Security in 1935, retirement benefits have been conditional on the requirement that the beneficiary be substantially retired. This requirement was carried out by the provisions of the RET.The RET has changed considerably over the years. The requirement was first scaled-back in the 1950 Amendments, which exempted workers age 75 and older from the RET. The exempt age was reduced to 72 in 1954, and to age 70 and older in 1977. With the new legislation, starting at the NRA, Social Security retirement benefits will be paid to beneficiaries who are still working. Effectively, for those who have reached full retirement age, this repeals the requirement that the beneficiary be substantially retired in order to receive full Social Security retirement benefits.Social Security in the George W. Bush AdministrationIn his Inaugural Address, President George W. Bush announced his intentions to reform Social Security and Medicare. Throughout the early months of his presidency the President made many speeches and addresses in which this was a major recurring theme. In his first speech to a joint-session of Congress in February 2001, the President announced his intention to appoint a Presidential Commission to recommend ways to address Social Security reform. The President stated the Commission would operate under three broad principles:It must preserve the benefits of all current retirees and those nearing retirement.It must return Social Security to sound financial footing.And it must offer personal savings accounts to younger workers who want them.On May 2, 2001 the President announced the appointment of his Social Security Commission, the "President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security." The Commission issued its final report in December 2001.At the beginning of his second term, President Bush made it clear that Social Security reform would be a top priority of his Administration. Although the President pushed for major changes in Social Security, none were enacted into law during the President's second term.There were several relatively minor legislative changes enacted into law during the period 2001-2008. Among these were:P. L. 107-117 (H.R. 3338) was signed into law on January 10, 2002. This law eliminated deemed wage credits for members of the uniformed services for all years after calendar year 2001.P.L. 107-171 (H.R. 2646) the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 was signed into law on May 13, 2002. The law provides Federal funding of up to $5 million for each fiscal year 2003-2007 for access and outreach pilot projects. The law also restored eligibility for food stamps for all legal immigrant children; restored food stamp eligibility for qualified alien adults who are receiving disability benefits; and provides food stamp eligibility to any otherwise eligible qualified aliens who have continuously resided in the United States for 5 years or more.Medicare Prescription Drug BenefitsA major change in the Medicare program was enacted into law during this period. P.L. 108-173, the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (H.R. 1), was signed into law on December 8, 2003. The law amends title XVIII of the Social Security Act to provide for a voluntary prescription drug benefit under the medicare program. This was the largest single expansion of the Medicare system since its creation in 1965.Social Security in the Obama AdministrationOn February 17, 2009, the President signed H.R. 1, the "American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009" (Public Law 111-5). This law appropriated an additional $1 billion to the Social Security Administration's administrative budget, $500 million of which is to be used to replace the National Computer Center, and the information technology costs associated with such Center; and $500 million for processing disability and retirement workloads, including information technology acquisitions and research in support of such activities. The bill also provided special a one-time economic recovery payment of $250 to adults who were eligible for benefits from one of the four following Federal benefit programs: Social Security, Railroad Retirement, Veterans Disability, and Supplemental Security Income (SSI).On September 18, 2009, the President signed into law H.R. 3325, the “" which became Public Law 111-64.This legislation extends, through fiscal year 2010, funding authorization for the Work Incentives Planning and Assistance program and the Protection and Advocacy for Beneficiaries of Social Security program.On December 15, 2009, President Obama signed H.R. 4218, the “No Social Security Benefits for Prisoners Act of 2009”, which became Public Law 111-115.The bill prohibits the payment of any retroactive Title II and Title XVI benefits to individuals while they are in prison, are in violation of conditions of their parole or probation, or are fleeing to avoid prosecution for a felony or a crime punishable by sentence of more than one year.The rest of the page contains the following:To assist students and other researchers we have grouped the reference sources into three categories: Classic Sources, which are the earliest published works and which are likely to be out-of-print and available only in larger libraries; Academic Treatments, which is meant to indicate a more scholarly approach to the subjects, and may be more suitable for advanced students and in-depth researchers; and Popular Accounts, which are works that seem suitable for a broad general audience. These categories are arbitrary, imprecise, and flexible. They are intended as a rough guide only and should not be taken too literally.Social Security HistoryThe Social Security Act is a law enacted in 1935 and has amendments added to it. So how can any court, even the Supreme Court call Social Security unconstitutional. What are they going to do? Tell the government that not only can an administration take SNAP (food stamps) away from millions of people, take free school lunches away from children that haven’t any food at home, that they can now confiscate all the money in the Social Securiy fund plus the Social Security Trust Fund has no direct connection to the stock market. On a daily basis, funds left after payment of all benefits are invested in special-issue government bonds. ... These interest-bearing bonds are a form of IOU to be paid from future FICA tax receipts.In my opinion it should not be called entitlement, even though we are entitled to the money from Social Security since not only did our money go into the program but so did our employers money, to guarantee that money would be saved for every person that worked had retirement money. I think it should have be called Workers Retirement Fund.A2A by Judith DonovanAs a bonus:No, the federal government didn't raid Social SecurityAs for Social Security's most pervasive and borderline irritating myth, that goes to the belief that the federal government raided Social Security's coffers and never put the money back. As a financial journalist of nearly eight years, I can confirm that the comment section on most Social Security articles over the years has been riddled with allegations that Congress stole money from Social Security and never put it back -- and that this is the primary reason why the program's asset reserves will be depleted within the next 16 years.In reality, none of this is true.The folks who perpetuate this myth strongly believe that Social Security's current asset reserves of nearly $2.9 trillion is a sham. In other words, they don't believe the money is there. They believe lawmakers on Capitol Hill absconded with this money, and that seniors and future retirees will suffer as a result.The truth is that the Social Security Administration takes this extra cash, which would be earning nothing if it were sitting around in a trust, and invests it in various special-issue bonds, and to a lesser extent certificates of indebtedness, with staggered maturity dates ranging from a year to perhaps longer than a decade from now. By placing this excess cash -- which has been built up since 1983 as a result of Social Security being a cash-flow positive program -- into special-issue bonds and certificates of indebtedness, it earns interest. In 2016, $88.4 billion of the $957.5 billion in revenue that was generated came from interest income earned on its bonds and certificates of indebtedness.Does the federal government use the cash that's invested in these bonds, as well as non-special-issue bonds, for regular revenue items? Absolutely! Selling Treasury notes is a common way Congress raises money to pay the bills. The thing is, these bonds are backed by the full faith of the U.S. government, and the federal government is legally obligated to honor both the interest payments and maturities as they come along. Every single interest payment on Social Security's special-issue bonds has been paid, and every last maturity has been met with a full repayment.Just because Congress uses this cash for its everyday expenditures in no way means that lawmakers raided Social Security. The program operates now as it has for decades, and the excess cash that's been built up since 1983 will be there through 2034, according to estimates.About the only true concern is the U.S. debt level. If national debt continues to climb in relation to GDP, then it could become difficult, many decades down the road, for the federal government to meet its interest and maturity obligations on bonds. The thing is, with Social Security expected to deplete its asset reserves by 2034, it won't have any excess cash in 16 years, so this really isn't an issue.Long story short, the federal government didn't steal from Social Security. If you want to accuse lawmakers of shorting the American public, slight them for not having yet fixed Social Security's long-term cash shortfall, despite having no shortage of possible solutions on the table.Did Congress Really Steal From Social Security? | The Motley FoolThe thing is, the way this adminsitration is spending money while cutting taxes on the people and businesses that can afford to pay a lot more in taxes the US debt is climbing faster than ever. 23 trillion now! Do you know what foreign country owns most of the US debt? China!

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