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What was life like in British India?

Short Answer first -The term ‘British India’ can broadly cover a long period of 350 years, starting from the early 1600s when East India Company ships landed on coastal India, until 1947. However, I have covered the 90 year period call the ‘British Raj’ from 1857–1947.They were the best of times - This period witnessed the creation and explosive growth in Infrastructure that came to define modern India (and Pakistan, Bangladesh) - Major Urban Centers, Hill Stations, Cantonments, Railroads, Major Highways, Bridges, Communication system (Post, Telegraph, Telecom), Irrigation system (Canals), Legal system, Major Universities and Colleges, Institutions, Archaeological Department, Political system, Bureaucracy, Armed forces, Police forces, and even some of the largest Business and Industrial Groups. There prevailed an air of intellectual curiosity, and many bright people and ideas from Europe flowed into India. The great Middle Class of India which numbers around 300 million today has roots in this period. People could own land or transfer ownership while being protected by law. First time in thousands of years, the lowest castes got an opportunity to improve their lot and were covered by law rather than customs. Lastly, India managed to escape from the clutches of a foreign power after hundreds of years.They were the worst of times - OTOH this period witnessed the most savage massacre of Indian rebels at the hands of the British after the 1857 Rebellion was suppressed. Over a 100,000 were butchered, many blown directly from the cannons. In 1919, General Reginald Dyer ordered his troops to fire on a peaceful demonstration that left over 1,000 dead. The British introduced Indenture system which was sort of Debt Bondage under which they sent 3.5 million Indian laborers to far away colonies like Mauritius, Guyana, Trinidad, Jamaica, Fiji, etc. Around 200,000 Indian soldiers died in the 2 World Wars fighting for the British Indian Army. The Partition in 1947 lead to the largest population migration in the human history with 15 million people getting uprooted and anywhere from 200,000 to 2 million killed in riots. There was widespread discrimination against Indians, including the elite Indians, and mingling with the natives was strongly discouraged. Though the caste divide has been ingrained in the subcontinent for thousands of years, the British rule formalized and accentuated the divide. However, the most shocking part of this period was the reckless management that was a major cause of several Famines and lead to anywhere from 30 million to 50 million people dying of starvation or subsequent epidemic.So how was life in this 90 year period? It depended on who you were. If you were one of the top ranking British officials or one of the 1,000 odd British Civil servants, you literally lived like a king. The remainder of British officials, soldiers, businessmen lived a very comfortable life too as a superior. The rulers of the Princely states lived luxurious lives too, some of them living like Sheikhs of the Middle East. The minority elite Indians who got access to Western education and worked closely with the British lived a life full of opportunities too. Then there was the newly emerging Middle Class comprising of thousands of Zamindars and Jagirdars, Moneylenders, Government Clerks, Army men, Railway employees, Supervisors, Engineers, Lawyers, Academics, Printers, small businessmen catering to the British, who were living in urban centers lived reasonably comfortable lives. However, the bottom 90% Indians or more were tied to agriculture, toiled in the fields, often looking up towards the sky for rains, worrying about debt, the village moneylender, and worst case starvation and disease.Yes, that was the short one :-)Now the long answer. Just to warn you, this turned out to be much longer than I had planned for. Appreciate any feedback on what can be removed. (Bonus: it comes with pictures) -British India (1857 - 1947) - During this period, the Provinces (called Presidencies or Presidency towns earlier) were collectively referred to as British India. The major provinces were Bengal, Madras, Bombay, United Provinces, Central Provinces, Punjab, Assam, and Burma.Then there were 600 odd Princely states or Native states in the Indian subcontinent with major ones being Hyderabad, Mysore, Travancore, Jammu and Kashmir, Baroda, Gwalior. The British Crown had suzerainty over 175 of these Princely states that were generally the largest and most important. The remaining approximately 400 states were influenced by Agents answerable to the provincial governments of British India. Wonder why they were called Princely states? After all, their rulers had the native titles of Raja, Raje, Rana, Rao, Rawal, Sardar, Sardesai, Deshmukh, Thakur and none of these translate to the word Prince. It was meant to keep them a level or two below the Queen!Population - The British started the first census of India in 1871. As of 1881, there were estimated to be 255 million people. By 1947, the population had grown by 50% to 390 million. Note that in the next 70 odd years (1947 till date), the population of the region has quadrupled to 1.6 billion! Of course, the advancements in healthcare, better sanitation, and green revolution have contributed to this growth. During the British Raj, the 50 million odd deaths due to Famines had put brakes on the population growth.Indian Rebellion of 1857 - The rebellion had enraged towns like Meerut, Delhi, Kanpur (called Cawnpore), Lucknow, Jhansi, Indore with Hindu and Muslim soldiers joining hands.British finally managed to suppress the rebellion. Bahadur Shah Zafar was captured at Humayun’s Tomb in Delhi in September, 1857 and exiled to Burma, while several of the Mughal princes were executed.The Indian army was completely reorganised: units composed of the Muslims and Brahmins of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, who had formed the core of the rebellion, were disbanded. New regiments, like the Sikhs and Baluchis, composed of Indians who, in British estimation, had demonstrated steadfastness, were formed.British soldiers as well as people back in Britain were hungry for revenge and the rebels who were caught were hanged or shot or worst case blown from cannons. Around 100,000 Indians were executed.The rebellion saw the end of the East India Company's rule in India. In 1858, the company was formally dissolved and its ruling powers over India were transferred to the British Crown.After the British victory in Revolt of 1857, they confiscated the Jama Masjid in Delhi and stationed their soldiers here. They also wanted to destroy the mosque to punish the people of the city. But due to opposition faced, the demolition was not done. The period after 1857, put the Muslim community in India at a disadvantage and some of the damage has lasted till date.Education Infrastructure -Universities in Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras were established in 1857, just before the Rebellion. The Government College, University in Lahore, was established in 1864. The institution was initially affiliated with the University of Calcutta for examination. The prestigious University of the Punjab, also in Lahore, was the fourth university established in the year 1882.Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, founded in 1875, was the first modern institution of higher education for Muslims in India. By 1920 it became The Aligarh Muslim University and was the leading intellectual center of Muslim political activity.The Thomason College of Civil Engineering was set up at Roorkee in Uttarakhand in 1847, that later became University of Roorkee and then IIT, Roorkee.The Allahabad University was set up in 1875. The institute was once termed as the 'Oxford of East' due to its scholarly alumni and vast potential.In Delhi, St. Stephen's College was founded in 1881, Hindu College in 1899 and Ramjas College in 1917.By 1880, a new middle class had arisen in India and spread thinly across the country. And by 1890, some 60,000 Indians had matriculated, chiefly in the liberal arts or law. About a third entered public administration, and another third became lawyers. The result was a very well educated professional state bureaucracy. By 1887, of the 21,000 mid-level civil service appointments, 45% were held by Hindus, 7% by Muslims, 19% by Anglo Indians (European father and Indian mother), and 29% by Europeans. Of the 1000 top-level positions, almost all were held by Britons, typically with an Oxbridge degree.The government, often working with local philanthropists, opened 186 universities and colleges of higher education by 1911; they enrolled 36,000 students (over 90% men). By 1939 the number of institutions had doubled and enrollment reached 145,000.Growing awareness for the need of technical education in India gave rise to establishment of institutions such as the Indian Institute of Science, established by philanthropist Jamshetji Tata in 1909. By the 1930s India had 10 institutions offering engineering courses.One of the great aspects in those days was the faculty who would bring the best ideas from Europe and Indians (at least some Indians) had first hand access to them.For instance, the famous Hungarian-British Archaeologist, Sir Marc Aurel Stein, (26 November 1862 – 26 October 1943) who is known for his explorations and archaeological discoveries in Central Asia, left Hungary in 1884 and went to England to study oriental languages and archaeology. In 1887, Stein came to India, where he joined the Punjab University as Registrar. Later, between 1888 and 1899, he was the Principal of Oriental College, Lahore.Railways and Highways - During Lord Dalhousie’s period, the first railway line was built and the train ran between Bombay and Thane in 1853. Then the Calcutta-Raniganj Railway line was built and later on the Madras-Arcot railway. Similarly, right from the time of Lord William Bentinck, the highway building activities were carried on. In 1839, the Grand Trunk Road was built, that connected Delhi and Calcutta Later on it was connected with Lahore and Peshawar.The route mileage of this network increased from 1,349 km (838 mi) in 1860 to 25,495 km (15,842 mi) in 1880 – mostly radiating inland from the three major port cities of Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta.The Railways started to generate employment in large numbers, and to this date I believe is the largest Employer of India with 1.4 million on payrolls. It also figures in the Top 10 largest employers in the world. Note that the Indian Armed Forces is the next in line with 1.3 million personnel.Urban Centers - Cities of Calcutta, Madras, Bombay had anyways grown as urban centers and they continued to see more and more city infrastructure being built.Victoria Terminus (VT), now called Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST), and a UNESCO World Heritage Site and an historic railway station was built in Bombay (now called Mumbai) in 1887 to commemorate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria.The Victoria Memorial of Calcutta was built between 1906 and 1921 by the banks of the Hooghly River to commemorate Queen Victoria.New Delhi - From 1911 onward, fortunes of Delhi changed too as they decided to shift the capital from Calcutta to Delhi and built the city of New Delhi over a 20 year period till 1931.Cantonments and Hill Stations - As part of the reorganization measures after the 1857 Rebellion, the British decided to leverage the Rail Network and built over 100 Cantonment towns (also called Cantts in short form), that are key centers for the current Indian Army (as well as in Pakistan and Bangladesh).The accounts of the Britain-like climate started attracting several British officers to the area during the hot Indian summers. By 1826, some officers had started spending their entire vacation in Shimla. Shimla thus became a hill station famous for balls, parties and other festivities. Subsequently, residential schools for pupils from upper-class families were established nearby. By the late 1830s, the city also became a center for Theatre and Art exhibitions. The presence of many bachelors and unattached men, as well as the many women passing the hot weather there, gave Shimla a reputation for adultery, and at least gossip about adultery.After the revolt of 1857 the British sought further distance from what they saw as a disease-ridden land by escape to the Himalayas in the north and Nilgiri Hills in the south. Other factors included anxieties about the dangers of life in India, among them "fear of degeneration brought on by too long residence in a debilitating land." The hill stations were meant to reproduce the home country.and thus The British Raj, and in particular the British Indian Army, founded around 50 odd hill stations in the Indian subcontinent.In 1863, the Viceroy of India, John Lawrence, decided to shift the summer capital of the British Raj to Shimla. He took the trouble of moving the administration twice a year between Calcutta and this separate centre over 1,000 miles away, despite the fact that it was difficult to reach.Many Hill stations were the summer capitals of their Province. For instance, Murree (now in Pakistan) was the summer capital of the Punjab Province of British India until 1864. Ooty served as the summer capital of the Madras Presidency; Soldiers were sent to nearby Wellington to recuperate.The Dalhousie is a hill station in Himachal Pradesh, was established in 1854 by the British Empire's government in India as a summer retreat for its troops and officials.Around 1860s, the British civil servants started using Gulmarg as a retreat to escape summers in North Indian plains. Hunting and golfing were their favorite pastime and three golf courses were established in Gulmarg including one exclusively for women. In 1927, British established a ski club in Gulmarg and two annual ski events were hosted one each during Christmas and EasterMussoorie was founded in 1840s by Lt. Frederick Young and being close to Dehradun, it became a popular destination for the British. In 1850 the first beer brewery in India was built in Mussoorie. By 1894 there were 22 breweries in India producing 6 million gallons a year.I have heard of racist signs posted on the Hill stations during the British Raj, expressly stating that Indians are not allowed. Not sure how true these stories are, however a dress code was enforced on the Mall Roads. Probably not very different from the upscale shopping malls in India, where you come across only those who seem a certain income level.Darjeeling was developed as a sanatorium initially but as the station was developed, the population grew rapidly between 1835 and 1849.Founding of the Indian National Congress - Allan Octavian Hume, helped conceive the idea of the Indian National Congress in 1881 - the political party that would eventually lead the country to Independence. In 1883, Surendranath Banerjee organised a national conference - the first of its kind in 19th century India. This conference heralded the birth of The Indian National Congress.Legal system - Following the First War of Independence in 1857, the control of company territories in India passed to the British Crown. Being part of the empire saw the next big shift in the Indian legal system. Supreme courts were established replacing the existing mayoral courts. These courts were converted to the first High Courts through letters of patents authorized by the Indian High Courts Act passed by the British parliament in 1862. Superintendence of lower courts and enrollment of law practitioners were deputed to the respective high courts.The High Court of Calcutta is the oldest High Court in India and was built in 1862.Famines in India - Famines in India resulted in more than 60 million deaths over the course of the 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries. Famines in British India were severe enough to have a substantial impact on the long term population growth of the country in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Timeline of major famines in India during British ruleAmartya Sen found that the famines in the British era were not due to a lack of food but due to the inequalities in the distribution of food. He links the inequality to the undemocratic nature of the British Empire.The famines were a product both of uneven rainfall and British economic and administrative policies. Colonial polices implicated include rack-renting, levies for war, free trade policies, the expansion of export agriculture, and neglect of agricultural investment. Indian exports of opium, rice, wheat, indigo, jute, and cotton were a key component of the economy of the British empire, generating vital foreign currency, primarily from China. These export crops displaced millions of acres that could have been used for domestic subsistence, and increased the vulnerability of Indians to food crises.But then suddenly, the famines disappeared after 1943 even though India’s (or rather subcontinent’s) population quadrupled from 400 million to 1.6 billion today. Of course, Green revolution of 1970s has much to do with it as well as the increase in irrigated land. But the leadership change in 1947 seems to surely have something to do with it.I am not posting any pictures, as there already are many depressing ones circulated on Quora :-(Mark Twain’s visit to India in 1896 - Mark Twain traveled through India and Sri Lanka from January to April, 1896. Twain's three months in India were the highlight of his year-long trek and the intriguing centerpiece of his revealing 700 page book, Following the Equator.Many members of Indian audiences, accustomed to British speech and pronunciation and formality, found in his American accent a certain piquancy. They liked it. America was something of a mystery for most people he encountered. They knew about George Washington, about Chicago and its World's Fair that made Swami Vivekananda a world figure. That was about the extent of general knowledge in those days.Most of the theaters where he appeared accommodated about 1,000 people and in some extra seats had been provided. In Bombay the Novelty Theater held 1,400. Prices in India were Rs 1, 2, 3 and 4, depending on how close one wished to be to the celebrity. He collected about Rs 2,600 (or $650 in those days) for each evening.As he traveled through Bombay, Poona, Allahabad, Banaras, Calcutta, Darjeeling, Agra, Jaipur, Delhi and other cities, mostly by train, the American humorist gathered impressions and crafted them into descriptions. He later wrote about the animals in India, with special reference to the crows and lions and an elephant ride that made him feel quite regal. He gave quaint tales of life in Indian hotels, of fancy parties and horrible long names, of street scenes and fakirs, of the fancy Indian costumes that made him wax poetic and even of long-forgotten historical events. An example:A two-day visit to Banares presented Twain and his party with an opportunity to explore Hinduism and investigate especially its contradictions, orthodoxy and superstition. The filthy waters of the Ganges disgusted him and the fact that pilgrims looked upon it as pure and purifying and drank it eagerly absolutely repelled him.He noted that wherever there was room for one more Linga, a Linga was there. "If Vishnu had foreseen what this town was going to be, he would have called it Idolville or Lingamburg."Despite the crowded and often funereal experiences, Banares was not entirely a disappointment to Mark Twain. He called it "the Oxford of India" for its wealth of Hindu and Sanskrit studies.It is all the more remarkable that he wrote cheerfully and with great humor about India and her peoples, that he was able to watch dhobys laundering their master's clothes at the river and inquire: "Are they trying to break those stones with clothes?"British people in India - Despite the country's vast population, there were never more than 100,000 British people in India. At the top of the hierarchy were the Viceroy, Governors of Provinces, 1,000 odd Oxbridge educated British Civil Servants. A large number of the British people were Soldiers, followed by Entrepreneurs, and then Employees of the Raj machinery.Given the fact that there were 50 hill stations built and the prestigious Gymkhanas, Clubs, Cricket clubs, Golf courses, Ski resorts, Lounges, Bungalows built for a very small group of people, you can imagine the lifestyle.An average Sahib’s morning would start with elaborate breakfast, a horse ride, reading, a beer or a whiskey drink at the club in the evening, while the Memsahibs had an army of servants working on the garden.Some of India’s current VIP culture of Politicians, Army leaders, and Senior Bureaucrats seems directly inherited from the days of the Raj.While the popular imagination leads us to the Sahibs and Memsahibs, David Arnold, a respected scholar of South Asia, has estimated almost 50% of the European population in India in the last decades of the nineteenth century could be classified as poor whites. There were low class soldiers, seamen, adventurers and chancers, and many semi-skilled workers, especially in the railways.Just as Indian society was divided by caste, class and religion, the British too were not a homogeneous group. They were divided, principally by class, and, to a lesser extent, by the English/Scottish/Irish distinction. ‘Whiteness’ and ‘Britishness’ were stratified, and full possession of ‘whiteness’ depended on superior social class. The elite saw the very poor, or the ‘great unwashed’ of the nineteenth century as a different race, and they applied a similar understanding to poor, white ‘riff-raff’ in India.In 1869, the European Vagrancy Act established a network of workhouses, and a system for deporting white beggars and ‘loafers’.Indians who prospered during the British Raj - Many Indians grew immensely in their rapid fields. Upper class Bengali Hindus were the first ones to get into the Civil Service and many became Judges, Lawyers as well as Academics. Parsis had been in India for few hundred years but had lived an unnoticed life in Gujarat. The British realized their potential and the ethical values that they were endowed with. As a result, the minority Parsi community reached new heights. Likewise, Punjabis and Marwaris, found business opportunities and created large enterprises.Here are few instances/success stories -Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata (3 March 1839 – 19 May 1904) was an Indian pioneer industrialist, who founded the Tata Group, India's biggest conglomerate company. He was born to a Parsi Zoroastrian family in Navsari then part of the princely state of Baroda.He founded what would later become the $100 billion worth in revenues, Tata Group of companies. Tata is regarded as the legendary "Father of Indian Industry"He founded a trading company in 1868 with 21,000 capital, bought a bankrupt oil mill at Chinchpokli in 1869 and converted it to a cotton mill, which he renamed Alexandra Mill. He sold the mill two years later for a profit. He set up another cotton mill at Nagpur in 1874, which he christened Empress Mill when Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India on 1 January 1877.The Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO), headed by his son Dorabji Tata (1859–1932), opened its plant at Jamshedpur in Bihar in 1908. It became the leading iron and steel producer in India, with 120,000 employees in 1945.JRD Tata - He guided the destiny of India’s largest Industrial house for well over half a century.Headed Tata Sons in 1938; Tata Chemicals in 1939; Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (TELCO) in 1945.M. S. Oberoi was born in a Punjabi Sikh family in a minor village of Jhelum District, Punjab, British India. In 1922, he came to Shimla to escape from the epidemic of Plague and got a job as front desk clerk, at The Cecil Hotel at a salary of Rs 50 per month. The manager of Cecil, Mr. Ernest Clarke and his wife Gertrude took a great liking to the honesty of a hardworking of young Mohan Singh Oberoi. During their six months absence, he doubled up the occupancy to eighty percent which gave them enough reason to offer the hotel - on a decided amount to Oberoi, as they wanted to return to England.After continuous hard work for five years, on 14 August 1934, Mohan Singh Oberoi became the sole and absolute owner of Hotel Carlton, Shimla. Subsequently, it grew from one hotel to an empire of it’s own, and today the Oberoi group of hotels owns the Top rated hotels of India.Ghanshyam Das Birla laid the foundation of the his industrial empire by establishing GM Birla Company, trading in jute, in 1911. The First World War began in 1914 greatly increasing the demand for jute sacks. It is estimated that during the war, the Birla worth rose from Rs 20 lakh to 80 Lakh. In 1919 he became among the first group of Indian entrepreneurs to become owner of a Jute mill named Birla Jute.[12] In the next few years he acquired several cotton mills. He later started several sugar mills. The publication Hindustan Times was co-founded by GD Birla in 1924 and fully acquired it in 1933. Hindustan Motors was started in 1942.Now Aditya Birla group operates in more than 33 countries, employs over 133,000 people and has annual revenues of over $35 billion.Sir Ganga Ram Agrawal (April 1851 – 10 July 1927) was born in Mangtanwala, a village of Punjab Province inBritish India. He graduated from Thomason College of Civil Engineering in 1873. After a brief Service in Punjab P.W.D devoted himself to practical farming. He obtained on lease from Government 50,000 acres of barren, un-irrigated land in Montgomery District, and within three years converted that vast desert into smiling fields, irrigated by water lifted by a hydroelectric plant and running through a thousand miles of irrigation channels, all constructed at his own cost. This was the biggest private enterprise of the kind, unknown in the country before. Sir Ganga Ram earned millions most of which he gave to charity.Wadias - In 1879, Bombay was next only to New Orleans as the world's largest cotton port. It was at this time that Nowrosjee Wadia, the second generation Wadia, set his sights on India's mushrooming textile industry. In a humble redbrick shed, he began a small operation. Here, cotton yarn spun in India was dip dyed by hand in three colors-turkey red, green and orange-and laid out in the sun to dry. The Bombay Dyeing & Manufacturing Co. Ltd. had been born. A modest beginning for a company that was to grow in the following 115 yr. into one of India's largest producer of textiles.Sir Sobha Singh (1890–18 April 1978) was a civil contractor and a prominent builder of Lutyens' Delhi and real estate owner of Delhi. He is the father of famous Indian writer Khushwant Singh. When Hardinge, the Viceroy of India, announced the plan to move the British Indian capital city to Delhi was along with the Coronation Durbar for King George V and the Queen Mary, would take place in Delhi in December 1911, Sujan Singh and 22-year-old Sobha Singh, who was then a contractor working on the Kalka-Shimla railroad, shifted base to Delhi as building contractors. Building contracts then being given out. Sujan Singh-Sobha Singh were accepted as senior-grade contractors.Sir Sobha bought as much land in Delhi as he could. He bought several extensive sites at as little as Rs 2 per square yard, freehold. There were few other takers, and he came to be described as adhi dilli da malik (the owner of half of Delhi),Ardeshir Burjorji Sorabji Godrej (1868–1936) was an Indian businessman. With his brother Pirojsha Burjorji, he co-founded the Godrej Brothers Company, the precursor of the modern Godrej Group. Taking a loan from his father's friend he started to manufacture medical equipment used in surgery, such as scalpels, surgeon's scissors, forceps, etc. Later, one morning he read in the newspaper that burglary rates in Bombay were increasing and that locks weren't working as well as they should. He saw that as a business opportunity and started to research lock making. This venture was so successful he is now known as the lock-master of India.Govindram Seskaria - Not many people may know about him, but he is one of the most famous businessman of pre-independence India. At that time, British rule made it difficult for Indians to enter into business. Foreign businesses controlled most of India’s trade and those businesses were in turn supported by the government. But that didn’t deter Govindram. Govindram first joined the Bombay Cotton Exchange and was so successful as a cotton trader that he became known as the Cotton King of the World. After his success in the cotton market, Govindram diversified and began trading in bullion and other commodities. A founding member of the Indian Stock Exchange, Govindram founded Govindram Brothers Private Limited in 1937. This company got into the sugar, textile, minerals, banking, printing, and movie businesses.K.C. Mahindra was born in 1894 in the Punjab, the second of nine children. After studying at Cambridge, he worked at Messrs. Martin & Company editing INDIA and the Hindustan Review. In the 1940s, he went into the energy business, and helped develop the nation’s coal policy by implementing the latest methods of coal mining. In 1946, he moved to Bombay to found Mahindra & Mohammed, which later became Mahindra & Mahindra, an industrial powerhouse in many sectors of the economy.Religion in India - From early on, the British found the Indian culture and religions at odds with the rationality of the West and considered it to be regressive. Some practices like Sati were bizarre and abhorrent to them and were finally banned by efforts of Indian elite as well as the British. However, at one point they realized that the traditions and customs in India were too strong and too rigid to be changed easily; Consequently, no more British social interventions were made, especially in matters dealing with religion.Therefore, the holy pilgrimage sites like Banaras, Haridwar, Ujjain, Pushkar, Chitrakoot, Kishkindha, Somnath for the Hindus, Amritsar and other major Gurudwaras of the Sikhs, and Muslim centers of Delhi, Lahore, Ahmedabad, Bhopal, Hyderabad, etc continued their customs unhindered. The Missionaries from Britain and Europe worked with zeal, as they did worldwide and established many Churches and Missionary schools. As a result, the Christian population grew in India during the Raj.Literature and Writings of that period - One key difference between writers of India and the West has been that the Western scholars, travelers, observers have been really good at capturing objective information, as in a Travelogue or describing Geographical features of a region or Cataloging of anything, be it Flora, Fauna, People, etc. As a result, there’s a wealth of information that was gathered by the British and other Westerners on all the aspects of India. Of course, the motivation to write about a foreign land is higher than writing about your own homeland.You may think that Indians were mostly illiterate, and hence we have to rely on the works of Westerners. It’s probably not true. If you look at the lists of Indian writers who wrote in the Vernacular (Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Marathi, Gujarati, Urdu, Telugu, etc), there’s amazing amount of work that was written. More than often, the native writing is in the story form or poetry or some form of fiction. However, you can still draw a lot of insight from these works.Here are few names that came to mind -Premchand (31 July 1880 – 8 October 1936), better known as Munshi Premchand, was an Indian writer famous for his modern Hindi-Urdu literature. He is one of the most celebrated writers of the Indian subcontinent, and is regarded as one of the foremost Hindustani writers of the early twentieth century. His works include more than a dozen novels, around 250 short stories, several essays and translations of a number of foreign literary works into Hindi. Notable works Godaan, Bazaar-e-Husn, Karmabhoomi, Shatranj ke khiladi, Gaban.Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay (1838–1894) is considered one of the leading Bengali novelist and essayist of the 19th century. His first novel Durgeshnandini, considered a benchmark in the history of Bengali literature, was published in 1865. He also wrote "Vande Mātāram", the national song of India, which appears in his novel Anandamath (1882).Rabindranath Tagore, Asia's first Nobel laureate - Possibly the most prolific writer in Bengali. Tagore dominated both the Bengali and Indian philosophical and literary scene for decades. His 2,000 Rabindrasangeets play a pivotal part in defining Bengali culture, both in West Bengal and Bangladesh. He is the author of the national anthems of both India and Bangladesh, both composed in Bengali. Other notable Bengali works of his are Gitanjali, a book of poems for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913, and many short stories and a few novels.Uttamadhanapuram Venkatasubbaiyer Swaminatha Iyer (1855–1942) was a Tamil scholar and researcher who was instrumental in bringing many long-forgotten works of classical Tamil literature to light. His singular effort over five decades brought to light major literary works in Tamil and contributed vastly to the enrichment of its literary heritage. Iyer published over 91 books in his lifetime, on a variety of matters connected to classical Tamil literature, and collected 3,067 paper manuscripts, palm-leaf manuscripts and notes of various kinds. He is affectionately called Tamil Thatha (Grandfather of Tamil)Devaki Nandan Khatri (June 18, 1861 – 1913) was an Indian writer, who belonged to the first generation of popular novelists in the modern Hindi language. Also known as Babu Devakinandan Khatri, he was the first author of mystery novels in Hindi. Chandrakanta and Bhootnath is the most popular of his works.Michael Madhusudan Dutt, (25 January 1824 – 29 June 1873) was a popular 19th-century Bengali poet and dramatist. He was a pioneer of Bengali drama and his famous work Meghnad Bodh Kavya, is a tragic epic. It consists of nine cantos and is exceptional in Bengali literature both in terms of style and content. He also wrote poems about the sorrows and afflictions of love as spoken by women.Ghalib, Iqbal, Zauq, … - The language of Urdu got its pinnacle under the British Raj, and it received official status. All famous writers of Urdu language including Ghalib and Iqbal were given British scholarships.**************************************************************************Few Random pictures from the British Raj -A ship arriving at a ghat in Calcutta -2. Calcutta in 1902 -3. Tram in Chandni Chowk, Delhi4. Delhi Durbar of 1911 -5. Hyderabad in late 1800s -6. Muharram procession in Calcutta -7. Women protesting in Bombay -8. Random scene on a street -Resources -Poor whites - Loafers, Vagrants and 'Low Europeans'

What do I need to start a local business?

16 Pro Tips for Running a Successful businessAnyone can start a business.Fill out a few forms. Get the necessary permits or licenses. Advertise in some way, shape, or form.Running a successful business, though, is an entirely different story.For example, in the United States roughly 9% of businesses both new and old close each year. On the flip side, only 8% are opened. We're losing more than we're gaining for the first time since those statistics have been tracked, and the crossover coincided with the recession of 2007-2009.Source: CapterraAccording to the U.S. Census Bureau, the overall number of business applications began to recover in late 2009 and has been trending up for the past ten years. That's good.But, the census data shows the number of planned wages (WBA) and high-propensity (HBA) business applications have not shown the same level of bounce-back. That's not so good.The failure rate for new businesses is somewhere around half, with about 50% calling it quits after the first five years.Not a great stat, but it does mean that 50% are surviving past the five-year mark. The outlook depends on how you view the proverbial glass.The Small Business Administration says that almost 80% of new businesses make it through their first 12 months. Although that might surprise you, it's definitely a much better statistic to focus on.The specific number changes depending on the industry. Some, like healthcare and social assistance, have a much higher-than-average survival rate. Others, like construction and transportation, have rates that are lower.Why Businesses FailThere are, of course, a myriad of reasons why a business might fail. According to research, though, there are a few that are more common than others:No need: A great service or product will get you nowhere if there's zero need for it. Due diligence and market research are essential in the early stages.No money: Launching and building a business is expensive. You need capital, investments, loans, and/or revenue to get you through the lean times.The wrong people: The most successful business owners and entrepreneurs know to surround themselves with people smarter than them. You need a strong team.Too much competition: If the market is already saturated, and there are already plenty of established providers, you're fighting an uphill battle.Pricing: If your prices are too high and you limit your customer base. If they're too low and you're not pulling in enough revenue to stay afloat. It's a very, very fine line.But that's not all. there are plenty of other reasons, like bad location, poor business plan, ineffective marketing, expanding too fast, and so on.If you go into business hoping for the best, you're most likely going to fail. It's harsh, but true. You have to actively work to make a business successful. You need to research, study, and learn.And you need to look to the pros for the tips and tricks that have helped them succeed before you.How to Run a BusinessUnderstand the marketplace and define clear KPIs.Draft a business plan.Set revenue and profitability goals.Create a human resources team.Hire the right employees.Offer benefits for staff.Implement the right tools for your growth strategy.You have to start at the beginning. The old adage that you must look before you leap applies not just to your business (i.e., market research, professional goals, buyer personas) but also to you personally.1. Understand the marketplace and define clear KPIs.Don't underestimate the importance of conducting careful, detailed market research.You need concrete data on your ideal customers, the existing competition, expected growth and demand, market trends, and more. These types of insights are invaluable and help you make informed business decisions and goals.And you need to be clear on the 4 Ps: product, price, promotion, and place. They can guide the creation of your market research, marketing plan, and customer personas, and serve as a fantastic jumping-off point if you're not sure where to begin.The 4 Ps of the marketing mix are evolving, and you might want to explore the 8 Ps that more accurately reflect modern marketing. They include product, price, place, promotion, people, process, physical evidence, and performance.With business goals and research in hand, don't forget to think about what you want personally, too. There's a reason why airlines instruct us to place our own oxygen mask on before helping others: if we don't take care of ourselves, we can't take care of someone else.Likewise, if you don't have personal goals and plans for your own mental health, you won't be as effective in running your business. Period.2. Draft a business plan.Whether you create a formal business plan, or simply document professional goals, workflows, or anything else, these thoughts need to be written down somewhere and shared with all the digital age, this is easier than ever before. A living document stored in the cloud and accessible to everyone not only allows for consistency and collaboration but for evolution over time. Changes can be made, saved, and shared automatically.Need help? Look online. There are guides, how-tos, templates, formats, and frameworks a-plenty.However, the key here is to write it all down. It's not enough to simply set goals and processes. Research reveals that we are actually more likely to achieve and remember them when we write them down. We learn better when we create rather than just read.Make a plan. Set goals. Create workflows. And write them down.3. Set revenue and profitability goals.For a business to be successful, it has to make enough money to sustain operations and turn a profit to re-invest for future growth. As a business owner, it is critical you understand what this looks like for your business.Factoring in your business costs including sourcing, production, staff, capital, and more, determine how much money your business needs to bring in on a monthly, quarterly, and annual basis to succeed.This is also a great time to revisit your pricing structure. Are your products priced appropriately? How many units will you need to sell each period to reach your revenue and profitability goals? Document and lay this information out clearly so you know exactly what you need to do to keep your business running and thriving.4. Create a fantastic Human Resources team.Businesses often overlook the power that culture and employee engagement can have on all fronts of the company, from recruiting to exit interviews."Good HR teamed with an arsenal of great tools can change your company for the better," says Ali Anderson of BambooHR. "Happy, engaged employees do great work, and company growth will quickly follow."According to Anderson:When companies invest in their training and onboarding processes, they'll find their employees are more prepared to do great work and take on the challenges of the business.Taking steps to measure and improve employee engagement and employee net promoter scores can increase productivity, improve employee sentiment, and make your employees more likely to recommend your business to their friends.Monthly or quarterly performance discussions build team camaraderie and improve employee mental health. These meetings can also create an environment of trust, which leads to greater innovation.Small businesses can attract rare candidates by having a positive culture, a strong career track, and well-trained, unbiased recruiters. "A supportive culture and a strong career track are key to attracting the best of the best," agrees Taylor Dumouchel of Peak Sales Recruiting."Top professionals seek respect, not just within their immediate teams, but throughout an organization; they want to work for companies that value what they do. In order to recruit top talent, executives need to highlight their positive and supportive culture and underscore how they recognize that their positions are a part of the major drivers for company growth."Good HR teams with an arsenal of great tools can change your company for the better. Happy, engaged employees do great work, and company growth will quickly follow.5. Hire the right employees.Don't just build any team — build a superteam.As budget and demand allow, surround yourself with experts in things that you are not. Ask for input and feedback from them. Involve them in decisions that will impact them directly and indirectly to foster greater investment in what you're building, and to make better, more informed decisions together. When you win, you all win.But that's not all. "It's important to develop a clear onboarding strategy for employees and a system for measuring results," says Nico Prins of Launch Space. "Putting systems in place will help as you scale the business, especially if you're expanding quickly, and reduce the amount of time and work associated in dealing with inevitable staff turnover."The number one mistake entrepreneurs make is trying to do too much. Don't try and do everything yourself. No matter your stage or size, there are low-cost and accessible ways to get some things off of your plate."Outsource to experts and pay by the hour when you can't afford or don't need full-time staffing for a skill set," suggests Giles Thomas of Whole Design Studios. "Productized services are the simplest thing to buy as you see what you get upfront and don't get any nasty bill-by-the-hour invoices at month's end."Many new businesses neglect to take care of their employees — and what the business leaders don't realize is that the company culture is created when the company is still new.Successful business owners and leaders delegate to employees, freelancers, and consultants as necessary. This lightens the load on full-time employees and lets you and your team focus on your specific areas of expertise.6. Offer benefits for staff.A key part of building a strong team is making sure your team feels motivated, incentivized, and well taken care of so they can effectively do their job. This is why offering benefits for your staff is so http://important.As you make hiring decisions, factor in how much budget you have to cover employee benefits. Once you know your budget, consider what benefits are required on a federal, state, and local level for your business. Some required benefits may include:Unemployment taxes and insuranceTime off for voting, jury duty, and active military serviceWorkers’ compensationCompliance with Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)After factoring in the costs of required benefits, you can determine what elective benefits you would like to offer. Know that these benefits are often what keeps an employer competitive, especially in a hot job market. Additional benefits can include:Health insuranceRetirement savingsPaid vacation and/or holidaysDisability insurance (required for some states)Life insurancePerforming competitive analysis to see what other companies in your industry are offering their employees is a good practice to help you understand what benefits to offer.7. Implement the right tools for your growth strategy.The number of apps, products, and SaaS solutions available is growing exponentially. Identify and use those tools that can help you optimize your business.Thanks to the ever-decreasing cost of technology, even small businesses have all the tools they need at their fingertips. But choosing the right ones can be challenging. According to Manvi Agarwal of SocialPilot, there are a few things you should consider when deciding which tool is the 'right one':Zero in on the processes you want to use each tool for.See how each one of those tools can make that process easier or more efficient.While it might be tempting to go for an all-in-one tool, it's better to choose one that performs a very specific task.Compare how much value the tool is providing vs. the amount it will cost you.Ensure the tool is scalable – that it grows along with your business and can meet your business's changing needs.If you haven’t implemented a stack of tools to streamline your business processes, using a CRM is a great place to start. HubSpot CRM is the perfect foundation for an effective growth strategy.How to Run a Successful BusinessFocus on the customer experience.Remember to listen.Become a better leader.Cultivate trust.Spread your message.Develop your platform.Refine your sales process.Take notes.Get out of the office.Ready to take it to the next level? Try these battle-tested tips from the pros.1. Focus on the customer experience.The customer experience (CX) is poised to become the key differentiator in the next year or so, if it hasn't already, more than the price, and more than the product itself.Customer experience is defined as the impression you leave with your customer. And this impacts their perception of your brand across each stage and touchpoint of the customer journey.And customers want and expect a great experience from beginning to end. 86% of consumers are willing to pay a premium for it, 73% list it as an important factor in any purchase decision, and 65% say it's more influential than amazing advertising.Source: SuperOfficeAre you ready to provide that experience? Are you over-delivering on your CX? You need to be.2. Remember to listen.You're spoiled for choice when it comes to listening to and gathering feedback. You can engage in social listening, conduct surveys, gather data on customer sentiment via net promoter score (NPS), or collect feedback by calling or emailing and simply asking.People are talking about you and your brand whether you ask them to or not. Are you listening and considering what they're saying?Listen to the market and your customers. Adapt and be flexible, but don't waver on your core values, beliefs, and objectives."As the founder of an indie startup, I've come to embrace a few core values," says Eugene Woo, CEO of Venngage. "This includes realizing our mission over a long period of time instead of a quick exit, creating value for our customers by helping them solve real problems, being responsible for our own financial sustainability, scaling at our own pace and doing the right thing over 'it's just business.' This philosophy has guided every aspect of my decision-making process as I've made Venngage into an independent, growing and profitable business over the past four years."3. Become a better leader.Before anything else, develop the leadership qualities necessary to build your business's long-term vision. Great leaders exhibit integrity, accountability, empathy, humility, vision, influence, and organizational direction to drive ideas to completion.Even as a new business owner with no other employees, you are responsible for leading your business to success. As you (hopefully) grow and others come on board, that becomes increasingly http://important.Do you have the necessary skill set of a leader? If not, get it. If so, hone it.4. Cultivate trust.The very foundation of your business is built on trust with your customers. 91% of consumers report they are more likely to buy from a brand they trust. To develop that, make sure your business is available above and beyond their minimum expectations, build a loyal community, and make sure your product does exactly what you say it does.5. Spread your MESSAGE.IT's all about getting the right message to the right people at the right time.And in 2020, that means embracing the digital revolution in both your communication and marketing. Where are your customers? Online. How do they prefer communicating and engaging with businesses and others? Digitally.Here are the most common methods for communicating with potential customers:Email outreach and marketingSocial mediaBusiness websitePPC adsContent marketingIt's more important than ever to be active in omnichannel marketing if you want to attract prospects and keep customers happy.You need to integrate the various channels used by modern consumers into one seamless experience.They want to browse, connect, engage, purchase, communicate, and advocate on their terms and in their preferred ways. And if you don't provide that for them, they'll find someone else who will.6. Develop your platform.Successful businesses develop a primary platform to share their message to their audience.Yes, we recommend using channels such as Facebook, email marketing, digital ads, and search engines to attract new customers, however, strong businesses also focus their energy on a primary platform that they own.A new company's branding, design, tone, and personality all need to be aligned across every marketing channel and point to a newly-created website. Additionally, having your own website gives you a channel that you own to promote your content. High-quality, valuable content drives traffic and leads to you.Just make sure that content is solving an existing problem or itch. "One way to validate that people are looking for solutions to their 'problems' is through keyword research," says Nathan Gotch of Gotch SEO. "You can find the exact keywords your prospective customers are using with tools like UberSuggest or the Google Keyword Planner. You then need to create content around the keywords you find."But it doesn't stop there. "Content is also a valuable sales tool," says Valerie Turgeon of Brandpoint. "While a strong sales team is essential for closing the deal, buyers are more likely to self-educate and engage with digital content before conversing with sales. According to Forrester research, 68% of B2B buyers have expressed a 'don't call us, we'll call you' preference. A content strategy will help guide your content creation and distribution efforts to get in front of buyers first and help capture leads for your sales team."Furthermore, having an effective content marketing strategy is one of the best ways to stand out in today's crowded online marketplace, according to marketing specialist Isaac Justesen of Constant Content. "But consistently creating high-quality content isn't easy," he says. "That's why many successful businesses outsource content creation instead."7. Refine your sales process.Perfect your sales process and scale your efforts with the right team and software to get more done with less.Instead of disparate platforms, spreadsheets, and email tools, condense your sales process into one distinct CRM and sales platform. By leveraging a combination of the right sales tools, you can save hours of time every week and you could increase your close rate by 28%.The right tools make you better able to meet and exceed customer expectations. For example, HubSpot research indicates that 82% of customers rate an "immediate" response as important or very important when they have a marketing or sales question, and 90% expect an instant reaction in the case of customer service meet these expectations, give your digital visitors the ability to get in touch with you within seconds by implementing a callback solution like CallPage. This tool, implemented on your web page, encourages an immediate conversation and connects a potential client with a consultant in 28 seconds, having a direct, positive influence on conversion rate and sales results. And live chat software can help address the need for an immediate response.8. Take notes.Keep a detailed list of everything you do, and break it all down into simple steps. What tasks and activities can you outsource or delegate without sacrificing quality? Do so.This will allow you to focus on the 20% that delivers 80% of your results, as explained by the Pareto Principle. "Focus on workflows, not work," suggests Gal Dubinski of Poptin. "The moment your business is based on repeatable pattern activities, you'll have more time for growth."9. Get out of the office.Almost everything we do can be done online, so it's tempting to just hide out behind your computer screen. But don't forget to get out of the office from time to time. Engaging in personal, face-to-face communication, attending events, and networking are all critical parts of business success.Entrepreneurs are the only people who will work 80 hours a week to avoid working 40 hours a week. -Lori GreinerStarting a business is easy.But running a successful one takes time, effort, commitment, and a willingness to constantly learn from others and improve.

How is it fair that some states provide better public universities than others?

Q. How is it fair that some states provide better public universities than others?When going to a state university, prices are much lower for residents. Residents of states that have higher quality options (ex. California, Michigan, Virginia… etc.) have an advantage over residents of other states. Is this simply the case? How is this fair?A. You vote with your feet. The U.S. Census Bureau reports that the average American moves 12 times during his lifetime, according to Mayflower Transit. Many reasons contribute to the need to move, such as buying or renting a new residence, pursuing a job opportunity, attending college or a change in marital status.Below are some advantages for moving out of state and how to go about establishing new residency and enjoy the benefits. If you prefer the public universities of other states, you can move and take advantage of low in-state tuition, higher acceptance rates to superior public college/university systems, and also favorable change in tax rates.How to Establish Residency in Another StateTax Benefits of Living in Different US StatesBecause every state has its own tax policies, you may want to take advantage of certain financial benefits available in another US state through establishing residency there.For example, for lower personal taxes, business taxes, or to eliminate state tax altogether, you may want to claim residency in a state other than your own. You might alternatively wish to incorporate your business in a state having no state income tax.In addition, you may choose to seek residency in a different state for the purpose of securing in-state tuition at a university or college that you would be unable to attend otherwise, because of the expense of out-of-state tuition and fees.Establishing Residency for in-State TuitionYou may be interested in paying lower, in-state college fees rather than higher, out-of-state tuition.In this case, check with the college or university you plan to attend and determine their specific requirements for state residency. These must be followed exactly for you to reap their benefits.Some schools require proof that you have lived in the surrounding local community for at least two years prior to even applying to the college or university. Check your chosen school's website or call its Registrar's Office in order to make sure that you understand these types of residency requirements. On handy alternative is to enroll in and complete online classes while you decide on a move and for a short time after moving, if you are waiting for time requirements of residency to be fulfilled.Refrain from taking advantage of in-state residency status for college in two US states at once, because this will create a problem. A student may claim residency for in-state tuition and fees in only one state at a time. If a student is found to be double registered for residency status in two states, cost privileges will end and a fine or prosecution for fraud may result. Further, this double residency may raise a red flag for voter fraud.However, if you are in the US military, many universities and colleges will offer you nonresident (out-of-state) tuition waivers. This benefit is often extended to dependent relatives living with you as well. This lowers the cost of an education for the entire family at once.Higher Education Facilities in States in Yellow Provide Lower Costs to Neighboring States in YellowSome groups of states offer in-state tuition to neighbors. | SourceHow to Establish Residency in Another StateEstablishing residency in a new state can be performed generally in the same manner in all of the 50 US states. However, you need to check any specific state and the particular part of the state that interests you for more details, which include the length of time one must live in that state in order to qualify legally as a state resident. Be sure to examine a state's specifications for making actual residency complete. Some US states require that you live in the location for only six months, while others require a full year to establish residency.You will need an actual street address in your new state, and not a P.O. box or a private mail box (PMB) address, which is often listed as only a street address. The US Postal Service can determine fraudulent residencies in this way and it can cost you at least a hefty fine.You may not claim residency in two different US states at the same time, because this could lead to multiple voting in federal elections, which is a crime. Even if you own homes in two or more states, you must choose one as your primary residence.To Establish Legal Residency in Another US State•Locate a place to live in the new state. Find an apartment or purchase a home if you can.•Spend substantial time in the new state during vacations and holidays.•Maintain social and business relations in the new state.•Have at least one bank account in the new state.•Establish a living address with the U.S. Postal Service by going to the nearest post office and filing a change of address form.•Have your important documents transferred to your new address (insurance, memberships, licenses, etc.).•You will then need to find a job, pay taxes, and file tax returns in the US state in which you seek residency.•Obtain a driver's license and car registration in your new US state, or apply for a non-driver's state ID card if you do not drive.•Register to vote in your new state.•If you have professional licenses, have them transferred to your new state. Do this by contacting the governing board of your occupation in the new state (nurses, physicians, social workers, attorneys, etc.). Temporary licensing can often be granted immediately while you are waiting for the permanent license.You may be able to cut your taxes by incorporating in a different state.You may be able to cut your taxes by incorporating in a different state. | SourceOfficial College Guide to Residency•Guide to State ResidencyComplete guide offered by University & College Search ToolWhich States Offer Which Tax Credits?Different states offer different kinds of tax credits for businesses, which may include breaks for job creation, research and development, and/or investment.Changing State Residency After RetirementIf you're planning your retirement and thinking about moving, you may want to consider the tax burden you'll take on in different states. Of course, state taxes are important to everyone, but retirees must take extra care since their income may be fixed.

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