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Why do the Romans seem so much more similar to us than the Greeks?

George Washington (February 22, 1732[b][c]– December 14, 1799) was an American political leader, military general, statesman, and Founding Father who also served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriotforces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, and he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government. He has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation.Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War. He was later elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington led American forces, allied with France, in the defeat and surrender of the British at Yorktown, and resigned his commission in 1783.Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was then elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections. He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty. To pacify the South and preserve national unity, the president and Congress passed legal measures that protected slavery. He set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", and his Farewell Address is widely regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism.Washington utilized slave labor, owning and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will. He endeavored to assimilate Native Americans into Western culture, but responded to their hostility in times of war. He was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, and he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, art, geographical locations, stamps, and currency, and many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents.Contents1Early life (1732–1752)2Colonial military career (1752–1758)2.1French and Indian War3Marriage, civilian, and political life (1759–1775)4American Revolution (1765-1783)5Commander in chief (1775–1783)5.1Siege of Boston5.2Battle of Long Island5.3Crossing the Delaware, Trenton, and Princeton5.4Brandywine, Germantown, and Saratoga5.5Valley Forge and Monmouth5.6West Point espionage5.7Southern theater and Yorktown5.8Demobilization and resignation6Early republic (1783–1789)6.1Return to Mount Vernon6.2Constitutional Convention 17876.3First presidential election7Presidency (1789–1797)7.1Cabinet and executive departments7.2Domestic issues7.2.1National Bank7.2.2Jefferson–Hamilton feud7.2.3Whiskey Rebellion7.3Foreign affairs7.4Indian affairs7.5Second term7.6Farewell Address8Retirement (1797–1799)8.1Final days9Burial and aftermath10Personal life10.1Religion and Freemasonry11Slavery12Historical reputation and legacy12.1Memorials12.1.1Places and monuments12.1.2Currency and postage13See also14References14.1Notes14.2Citations14.3Bibliography15External linksEarly life (1732–1752)Further information: Ancestry of George Washington and British AmericaWashington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginiawhere he accumulated 5,000 acres (2,000 ha) of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River. George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County, Virginia,[4]and was the first of six children of Augustineand Mary Ball Washington.[5]His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler.[6]The family moved to Little Hunting Creek, then to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited Ferry Farm and ten slaves; his older half-brother Lawrence inherited Little Hunting Creek and renamed it Mount Vernon.[7]Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics, trigonometry, and surveying, and he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."[8]Washington often visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, and Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.[9]He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of William & Mary; Fairfax appointed him surveyor of Culpeper County, Virginia, and he thus familiarized himself with the frontier region. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought almost 1,500 acres (600 ha) in the Valley, and he owned 2,315 acres (937 ha) by 1752.[10]In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis.[11]Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face slightly scarred.[12]Lawrence died in 1752, and Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow; he inherited it outright after her death in 1761.[13]Colonial military career (1752–1758)Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, and Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts. The British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing likewise, between Lake Erie and the Ohio River.[14]In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.[d]Dinwiddie also appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces.[16]Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, and his party reached the Ohio River in November. They were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, and he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia.[17]Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London.[18]French and Indian WarMain articles: French and Indian War, George Washington in the French and Indian War, and Seven Years' WarIn February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia Regiment, with orders to confront French forces at the Forks of the Ohio.[19]Washington set out for the Forks with half of the regiment in April but soon learned that a French force of 1,000 had begun construction of Fort Duquesne there. In May, Washington had set up a defensive position at Great Meadows when he learned that the French had made camp 7 miles (11 km) away. Washington decided to take the offensive in pursuit of the French contingent.[20]Lt. Col. Washington holding night council at Fort NecessityThe French detachment proved to be only about 50 men, so Washington advanced on May 28 with a small force of Virginians and Indian allies to ambush them.[21][e]What took place was disputed, but French forces were killed outright with muskets and hatchets. French commander Joseph Coulon de Jumonville, who carried a diplomatic message for the British to evacuate, was mortally wounded in the battle. French forces found Jumonville and some of his men dead and scalped and assumed that Washington was responsible.[23]Washington placed blame on his translator for not communicating the French intentions.[24]Dinwiddie congratulated Washington for his victory over the French.[25]The "French and Indian War" was ignited—which later became part of the larger Seven Years' War.[26]The full Virginia Regiment joined Washington at Fort Necessity the following month with news that he had been promoted to command of the regiment and to colonel upon the death of the regimental commander. The regiment was reinforced by an independent company of 100 South Carolinians, led by Captain James Mackay, whose royal commission outranked Washington, and a conflict of command ensued. On July 3, a French force attacked with 900 men, and the ensuing battle ended in Washington's surrender.[27]In the aftermath, Colonel James Innes took command of intercolonial forces, the Virginia Regiment was divided, and Washington offered a captaincy which he refused, with resignation of his commission.[28]Washington the SoldierPainting of Lt. Col. Washington on horseback during the Battle of the Monongahela — Reǵnier, 1834In 1755, Washington served voluntarily as an aide to General Edward Braddock, who led a British expedition to expel the French from Fort Duquesne and the Ohio Country.[29]On Washington's recommendation, Braddock split the army into one main column and a lightly equipped "flying column".[30]Suffering from a severe case of dysentery, Washington was left behind, and when he rejoined Braddock at Monongahela, the French and their Indiann allies ambushed the divided army. The British suffered two-thirds casualties, including the mortally wounded Braddock. Under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Gage, Washington, still very ill, rallied the survivors and formed a rear guard, which allowed the remnants of the force to disengage and retreat.[31]During the engagement he had two horses shot from under him, and his hat and coat were bullet-pierced.[32]His conduct under fire redeemed his reputation among critics of his command in the Battle of Fort Necessity,[33]but he was not included by the succeeding commander Colonel Thomas Dunbar in planning subsequent operations.[34]The Virginia Regiment was reconstituted in August 1755, and Dinwiddie appointed Washington its commander, again with the colonial rank of colonel. Washington clashed over seniority almost immediately, this time with John Dagworthy, another captain of superior royal rank, who commanded a detachment of Marylanders at the regiment's headquarters in Fort Cumberland.[35]Washington, impatient for an offensive against Fort Duquesne, was convinced Braddock would have granted him a royal commission, and pressed his case in February 1756 with Braddock's successor, William Shirley, and again in January 1757 with Shirley's successor, Lord Loudoun. Shirley ruled in Washington's favor only in the matter of Dagworthy; Loudoun humiliated Washington, refused him a royal commission and agreed only to relieve him of the responsibility of manning Fort Cumberland.[36]In 1758, the Virginia Regiment was assigned to Britain's Forbes Expedition to take Fort Duquesne.[37][f]Washington disagreed with General John Forbes’ tactics and chosen route.[39]Forbes nevertheless made Washington a brevet brigadier general and gave him command of one of the three brigades that would assault the fort. The French abandoned the fort and the valley before the assault was launched, with Washington seeing only a friendly-fire incident which left 14 dead and 26 injured. The war lasted another four years, but Washington resigned his commission and returned to Mount Vernon.[40]Under Washington, the Virginia Regiment had defended 300 miles (480 km) of frontier against 20 Indian attacks in 10 months.[41]He increased the professionalism of the regiment as it increased from 300 to 1,000 men, and Virginia's frontier population suffered less than other colonies. Some historians have said this was Washington's "only unqualified success" during the war.[42]Though he failed to realize a royal commission, he gained valuable knowledge of British tactics, self-confidence, and leadership skills. The destructive competition Washington witnessed among colonial politicians fostered his later support of strong central government.[43]Marriage, civilian, and political life (1759–1775)Colonel George Washington, by Charles Willson Peale, 1772On January 6, 1759, Washington, at age 26, married Martha Dandridge Custis, the 28 year-old widow of wealthy plantation owner Daniel Parke Custis. The marriage took place at Martha's estate; She was intelligent and gracious, and experienced in managing a planter's estate, and the couple created a happy marriage.[44]They raised John Parke Custis and Martha Parke (Patsy) Custis, children from her previous marriage, and later their grandchildren Eleanor Parke Custis and George Washington Parke Custis. Washington's 1751 bout with smallpox is thought to have rendered him sterile, and they lamented the fact that they had no children together.[45]They moved to Mount Vernon, near Alexandria, where he took up life as a planter of tobacco and wheat and emerged as a political figure.[46]The marriage gave Washington control over Martha's one-third dower interest in the 18,000-acre (7,300 ha) Custis estate, and he managed the remaining two-thirds for Martha's children; the estate also included 84 slaves. He became one of Virginia's wealthiest men and increased his social standing.[47]At Washington's urging, Governor Lord Botetourt fulfilled Dinwiddie's 1754 promise of land bounties to all volunteer militia during the French and Indian War.[48]In late 1770, Washington inspected the lands in the Ohio and Great Kanawha regions, and he engaged surveyor William Crawford to subdivide it. Crawford allotted 23,200 acres (9,400 ha) to Washington; Washington told the veterans that their land was hilly and unsuitable for farming, and he agreed to purchase 20,147 acres (8,153 ha), leaving some feeling that they had been duped.[49][50]He also doubled the size of Mount Vernon to 6,500 acres (2,600 ha) and increased its slave population to more than 100 by 1775.[51]As a respected military hero and large landowner, Washington held local offices and was elected to the Virginia provincial legislature, representing Frederick County in the House of Burgesses for seven years beginning in 1758.[51]He plied the voters with beer, brandy, and other beverages, although he was absent while serving on the Forbes Expedition.[52]He won election with roughly 40 percent of the vote, defeating three other candidates with the help of several local supporters. He rarely spoke in his early legislative career, but he became a prominent critic of Britain's taxation and mercantilist policies in the 1760s.[53]Martha Washingtonbased on a 1757 portrait by John WollastonBy occupation Washington was a planter, and he imported luxuries and other goods from England and paid for them by exporting tobacco.[54]A poor tobacco market in 1764 left him £1,800 in debt, so he diversified and monitored his finances.[55]He changed Mount Vernon's primary cash crop from tobacco to wheat, and further expanded operations to include flour milling, fishing, and other pursuits.[56]Washington took time for leisure with fox hunting, fishing, dances, theater, cards, backgammon, and billiards,[57]Washington soon was counted among the political and social elite in Virginia. From 1768 to 1775, he invited some 2,000 guests to his Mount Vernon estate, mostly those whom he considered "people of rank". He became more politically active in 1769, presenting legislation in the Virginia Assembly to establish an embargo on goods from Great Britain.[58]Washington's stepdaughter Patsy Custis suffered from epileptic attacks from age 12, and she died in his arms in 1773. The following day, he wrote to Burwell Bassett: "It is easier to conceive, than to describe, the distress of this Family".[59]He canceled all business activity and remained with Martha every night for three months.[60].American Revolution (1765-1783)Further information: American Revolution, American Revolutionary War, and George Washington in the American RevolutionWashington played a central role before and during the American Revolution. His disdain for the British military had begun when he was abashedly passed over for promotion into the Regular Army. He was opposed to the continuing taxes imposed by the British Parliament on the Colonies without proper representation.[61]He and other colonists were also angered by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 which banned American settlement west of the Allegheny Mountains and protected the British fur trade.[62]Washington believed that the Stamp Act of 1765 was an "Act of Oppression", and he celebrated its repeal the following year.[g][64]In March 1766, Parliament passed the Declaratory Act asserting that Parliamentary law superseded colonial law.[65]Washington helped to lead widespread protests against the Townshend Acts passed by Parliament in 1767, and he introduced a proposal in May 1769 drafted by George Mason which called Virginians to boycott English goods; the Acts were repealed in 1770.[66]Parliament sought to punish Massachusetts colonists for their role in the Boston Tea Party in 1774 by passing the Coersive Acts, which Washington referred to as "an Invasion of our Rights and Privileges".[67]He said Americans must not submit to acts of tyranny since "custom and use shall make us as tame and abject slaves, as the blacks we rule over with such arbitrary sway".[68]That July, he and George Mason drafted a list of resolutions for the Fairfax County committee which Washington chaired, and the committee adopted the Fairfax Resolves calling for a Continental Congress.[69]On August 1, Washington attended the First Virginia Convention where he was selected as a delegate to the First Continental Congress.[70]As tensions rose in 1774, he assisted in the training of county militias in Virginia and organized enforcement of the Continental Associationboycott of British goods instituted by the Congress.[71]The American Revolutionary War began on April 19, 1775 with the Battles of Lexington and Concord and the Siege of Boston.[72]The colonists were divided over breaking away from British rule and split into two factions: Patriots who rejected British rule, and Loyalists who desired to remain subject to the British King.[73]General Thomas Gagewas commander of British forces in America at the beginning of the war.[74]Upon hearing the shocking news of the onset of war, Washington was "sobered and dismayed",[75]and he hastily departed Mount Vernon on May 4, 1775 to join the Continental Congress in Philadelphia.[76]Commander in chief (1775–1783)Further information: Military career of George WashingtonGeneral WashingtonCommander of the Continental ArmyCharles Willson Peale (1776)Congress created the Continental Army on June 14, 1775, and Samuel Adams and John Adams nominated Washington to become its commander in chief. Washington was chosen over John Hancock because of his military experience and the belief that a Virginian would better unite the colonies. He was considered an incisive leader who kept his "ambition in check."[77]He was unanimously elected commander in chief by Congress the next day.[78]Washington appeared before Congress in uniform and gave an acceptance speech on June 16, declining a salary—though he was later reimbursed expenses. He was commissioned on June 19 and was roundly praised by Congressional delegates, including John Adams who proclaimed that he was the man best suited to lead and unite the colonies.[79]Congress chose his primary staff officers, including Major General Artemas Ward, Adjutant General Horatio Gates, Major General Charles Lee, Major General Philip Schuyler, Major General Nathanael Greene, Colonel Henry Knox, and Colonel Alexander Hamilton.[80]Washington was impressed by Colonel Benedict Arnold and gave him responsibility for invading Canada. He also engaged French and Indian War compatriot Brigadier General Daniel Morgan. Henry Knox also impressed Adams with ordnance knowledge; Washington promoted him to colonel and chief of artillery.[81]Siege of BostonMain article: Siege of BostonWashington taking command of the Continental Army, just before the SiegeEarly in 1775, in response to the growing rebellious movement, including the Boston Tea Party, Parliament sent British troops, commanded by General Thomas Gage, to occupy Boston, disband the local provincial government, and quell the growing state of rebellion. The British set up fortifications about the city, making it impervious to attack. In response, various state militias surrounded the city and effectively trapped the British, resulting in a standoff.[82]As Washington headed for Boston, word of his march preceded him, and he was greeted by local officials and statesmen, gradually becoming a symbol of the patriot cause.[83][h]Upon arrival on July 2, 1775, two weeks after the patriot defeat at nearby Bunker Hill, he set up his Cambridge, Massachusetts headquarters and inspected the new army there, only to find an undisciplined and badly outfitted militia.[84]After consultation, he initiated Benjamin Franklin’s suggested reforms—drilling the soldiers and imposing strict discipline, floggings, and incarceration.[85]Washington ordered his officers to identify the skills of recruits to ensure military effectiveness, while removing incompetent officers.[86]He petitioned Gage, his former superior, to release captured Patriot officers from prison and treat them humanely.[87]In October 1775, King George III declared that the colonies were in open rebellion, relieved General Gage of command for his incompetence, and replaced him with General William Howe as acting commander.[88]In June 1775, Congress ordered an invasion of Canada, led by Benedict Arnold who, despite Washington’s strong objection, drew volunteers from the latter’s force during the Siege of Boston, . The move on Quebec failed, the American forces were reduced to less than half, and retreated.[89]The Continental Army, further diminished by expiring short-term enlistments, and by January 1776 was reduced by half to 9,600 men, had to be supplemented with militia, and was joined by Knox with heavy artillery, captured from Fort Ticonderoga.[90]When the Charles River froze over Washington was eager to cross and storm Boston, but General Gates and others were opposed to untrained militia striking well garrisoned fortifications. Washington reluctantly agreed to secure Dorchester Heights, 100 feet above Boston, in an attempt to force the British out of the city.[91]On March 9, under cover of darkness, Washington's troops brought up Knox's big guns and bombarded British ships in Boston harbor. By March 17, 9,000 British troops and Loyalists began a chaotic 10-day evacuation of Boston aboard 120 ships. Soon after, Washington entered the city with 500 men, with strict orders not to plunder the city. He ordered vaccinations against smallpox to great effect, as he did later in Morristown, New Jersey.[92]He refrained from exerting military authority in Boston, leaving civilian matters in the hands of local authorities.[93][i]Battle of Long IslandMain article: Battle of Long IslandBattle of Long IslandAlonzo Chappel (1858)Washington proceeded to New York City, arriving on April 13, and began constructing fortifications to thwart British attack. He ordered his occupying forces to treat civilians and their property with respect, to avoid the abuse suffered by civilians in Boston at the hannds of British troops.[95]A plot to assassinate or capture him was discovered amidst the tensions, but failed, though his bodyguard Thomas Hickey (soldier) was hanged for mutiny and sedition.[96]General Howe took his resupplied army, with the British fleet, from Nova Scotia to the city, considered the key to securing the continent. George Germain, who ran the British war effort in England, believed it could be won with one "decisive blow."[97]The British forces, including more than 100 ships and thousands of troops, began reaching Staten Island on July 2 to lay siege to the city.[98]After the Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, Washington informed his troops in his general orders of July 9 that Congress had declared the united colonies to be "free and independent states."[99]Howe's troop strength totaled 32,000 regulars and Hessians, and Washington's consisted of 23,000, mostly raw recruits and militia.[100]In August, Howe landed 20,000 troops at Gravesend, Brooklyn and approached Washington's fortifications, as King George III proclaimed the rebellious American colonists to be traitors.[101]Washington, opposing his generals, chose to fight, based on inaccurate information that Howe's army had only 8,000 plus troops.[102]Howe assaulted Washington's flank and inflicted 1,500 Patriot casualties, with the British suffering 400.[103]Washington retreated, instructing General William Heath to acquisition river craft in the area. General William Alexander held off the British and gave cover while the army crossed the East River under darkness to Manhattan Island without loss of life or material, although Alexander was captured.[104]Howe, emboldened by his Long Island victory, dispatched Washington as "George Washington, Esq.", in futility to negotiate peace. Washington declined, demanding to be addressed with diplomatic protocol, as general and fellow belligerent, not as a "rebel", lest his men be hanged as such if captured.[105]The British navy bombarded unstable earthworks on lower Manhattan Island.[106]Washington, with misgivings, heeded the advice of Generals Greene and Israel Putnam to defend Fort Washington. They were unable to hold it, and Washington abandoned it despite General Charles Lee's objections, as his army retired north to White Plains.[107]Howe's pursuit forced Washington to retreat across the Hudson River to Fort Lee to avoid encirclement. Howe then landed his troops on Manhattan in November, and captured Fort Washington, inflicting high casualties on the Americans. Washington was responsible for delaying the retreat, though he blamed Congress and Nathanael Greene. Loyalists in New York considered Howe a liberator and spread a rumor that Washington had set fire to the city.[108]Patriot morale reached its lowest when Lee was captured.[109]Crossing the Delaware, Trenton, and PrincetonMain articles: George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, Battle of Trenton, and Battle of PrincetonWashington Crossing the Delaware, December 25, 1776, Emanuel Leutze (1851)[j]Washington's army, reduced to 5,400 troops, retreated through New Jersey, and Howe broke off pursuit, delaying his advance on Philadelphia, and set up winter quarters in New York.[111]Washington crossed the Delaware River into Pennsylvania, where Lee's replacement John Sullivan joined him with 2,000 more troops.[112]The future of the Continental Army was in doubt for lack of supplies, a harsh winter, expiring enlistments, and desertions. Washington was disappointed that many New Jersey residents were Loyalists or skeptical about the prospect of independence.[113]Howe split up his British Army and posted a Hessian garrison at Trenton to hold western New Jersey and the east shore of the Delaware,[114]but the army appeared complacent, and Washington and his generals devised a surprise attack on the Hessians at Trenton, which he code named "Victory or Death".[115]The army was to cross the Delaware River to Trenton in three divisions: one led by Washington (2,400 troops), another by General James Ewing (700), and the third by Colonel John Cadwalader (1,500). The force was to then split, with Washington taking the Pennington Road and General Sullivan traveling south on the river's edge.[116]Washington first ordered a 60-mile search for Durham boats, to transport his army, and he ordered the destruction of vessels that could be used by the British[117]He crossed the Delaware River at sunset Christmas Day and risked capture staking out the Jersey shoreline. His men followed across the ice-obstructed river in sleet and snow at McKonkey's Ferry, with 40 men per vessel. Wind churned up the waters, and they were pelted with hail, but by 3 A.M. they made it across with no losses.[118]Henry Knox was delayed, managing frightened horses and about 18 field guns on flat-bottomed ferries. Cadwalader and Ewing failed to cross due to the ice and heavy currents, and a waiting Washington doubted his planned attack on Trenton. Once Knox arrived, Washington proceeded to Trenton, to take only his troops against the Hessians, rather than risk being spotted returning his army to Pennsylvania.[119]The troops spotted Hessian positions a mile from Trenton, so Washington split his force into two columns, rallying his men: "Soldiers keep by your officers. For God's sake, keep by your officers." The two columns were separated at the Birmingham crossroads, with General Nathanael Greene's taking the upper Ferry Road, led by Washington, and General John Sullivan's advancing on River Road. (See map.)[120]The Americans marched in sleet and snowfall, many were shoeless with bloodied feet, and two died of exposure. At sunrise, Washington led them in a surprise attack on the Hessians, aided by Major General Henry Knox and artillery. The Hessians had 22 killed (including Colonel Johann Rall), 83 wounded, and 850 captured with supplies.[121]The Capture of the Hessians at Trenton, December 26, 1776John TrumbullWashington retreated across the Delaware to Pennsylvania but returned to New Jersey on January 3, launching an attack on British regulars at Princeton, with 40 Americans killed or wounded and 273 British killed or captured.[122]American Generals Hugh Mercerand John Cadwalader were being driven back by the British when Mercer was mortally wounded, then Washington arrived and led the men in a counterattack which advanced to within 30 yards (27 m) of the British line.[123]Some British troops retreated after a brief stand, while others took refuge in Nassau Hall, which became the target of Colonel Alexander Hamilton's cannons. Washington's troops charged, the British surrendered in less than an hour, and 194 soldiers laid down their arms.[124]Howe retreated to New York City where his army remained inactive until early the next year.[125]Washington's depleted Continental Army took up winter headquarters in Morristown, New Jersey while disrupting British supply lines and expelling them from parts of New Jersey. Washington later said that the British could have successfully counter-attacked his encampment before his troops were dug in.[126]The British still controlled New York, and many Patriot soldiers did not reenlist or had deserted after the harsh winter campaign. Congress instituted greater rewards for re-enlisting and punishments for desertion in an effort to effect greater troop numbers.[127]Strategically, Washington's victories were pivotal for the Revolution and quashed the British strategy of showing overwhelming force followed by offering generous terms.[125][128]In February 1777, word reached London of the American victories at Trenton and Princeton, and the British realized that the Patriots were in a position to demand unconditional independence.[129]Brandywine, Germantown, and SaratogaMain articles: Battle of Brandywine, Battle of Germantown, and Battle of SaratogaIn July 1777, British General John Burgoyne led the Saratoga campaign south from Quebec through Lake Champlain and recaptured Fort Ticonderoga with the objective of dividing New England, including control of the Hudson River. But General Howe in British-occupied New York blundered, taking his army south to Philadelphia rather than up the Hudson River to join Burgoyne near Albany.[130]Meanwhile, Washington and Lafayette rushed to Philadelphia to engage Howe and were shocked to learn of Burgoyne's progress in upstate New York, where the Patriots were led by General Philip Schuyler and successor Horatio Gates. Washington's army of less experienced men were defeated in the pitched battles at Philadelphia.[131]Howe outmaneuvered Washington at the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777 and marched unopposed into the nation's capital at Philadelphia. An October Patriot attack failed against the British at Germantown. Major General Thomas Conway prompted some members of Congress (referred to as the Conway Cabal) to consider removing Washington from command because of the losses incurred at Philadelphia. Washington's supporters resisted and the matter was finally dropped after much deliberation.[132]Once exposed, Conway wrote an apology to Washington, resigned, and returned to France.[133]Washington was concerned with Howe's movements during the Saratoga campaign to the north, and he was also aware that Burgoyne was moving south toward Saratoga from Quebec. Washington took some risks to support Gates’ army, sending reinforcements north with Generals Benedict Arnold, his most aggressive field commander, and Benjamin Lincoln. On October 7, 1777, Burgoyne tried to take Bemis Heights but was isolated from support by Howe. He was forced to retreat to Saratoga and ultimately surrendered after the Battles of Saratoga. As Washington suspected, Gates's victory emboldened his critics.[134]Biographer John Alden maintains, "It was inevitable that the defeats of Washington's forces and the concurrent victory of the forces in upper New York should be compared." The admiration for Washington was waning, including little credit from John Adams.[135]British commander Howe resigned in May 1778, left America forever, and was replaced by Sir Henry Clinton.[136]

Which of the world's brightest minds are opposed to fossil fuel use?

I don not know whom you consider to be "the world's brightest minds," but I have listed a few below that would oppose fossil fuel use because of the effects of CO2 emissions on the Earth's atmosphere and the Climate Change that results from increasing CO2 levels in the Earth's atmosphere.Who Are the Smartest People in the World?(from Left to Right: Stephen Hawking, Garry Kasparov and Noam Chomsky)Who Are the Smartest People in the World?Stephen Hawking, renowned theoretical physicist and cosmologist“As we stand at the brink of a second nuclear age and a period of unprecedented climate change, scientists have a special responsibility, once again, to inform the public and to advise leaders about the perils that humanity faces…As scientists, we understand the dangers of nuclear weapons and their devastating effects, and we are learning how human activities and technologies are affecting climate systems in ways that may forever change life on Earth…"Stephen Hawking: Human-Caused Climate Change Dire Threat To Future Of WorldNoam Chomsky, “world’s top public intellectual” (renaissance intellectual)Philosopher, cognitive scientist and political observer Noam Chomsky has been called the “father of modern linguistics,” and his revolutionary work has had an impact on everything from artificial intelligence to music theory.It is the first time in human history when we not only--we have the capacity to destroy the conditions for a decent survival. And it's already happening. I mean, just take a look at species destruction. Species destruction now is estimated to be at about the level of 65 million years ago when an asteroid hit the earth and ended the period of the dinosaurs, wiped out huge numbers of species. Same level today, and we're the asteroid. And you take a look at what's happening in the world, I mean, anybody looking at this from outer space would be astonished.Chris Hedges Interviews Noam Chomsky (3/3)Page on 3news.co.nzNeil Degrass Tyson, astrophysicist, cosmologist, Director of the Hayden Planetarium"The good thing about science is that it's true whether or not you believe in it."“Now we have a time where people are cherry picking science,” he said. “The science is not political. That’s like repealing gravity because you gained 10 pounds last week.”“When politicians start analyzing the science, I don’t know what to say at that point,” Tyson said on CNN in 2014. “Are we going to wait until the coastlines get redrawn as the glaciers melt off of Antarctica and Greenland?”Neil DeGrasse Tyson Has Some Choice Words For Anyone Who Votes For A Climate DenierSir David Attenborough, English broadcaster and naturalist“I have been lucky enough to spend my life exploring the world’s oceans, forests and deserts. But the Earth, with its spectacular variety of creatures and landscapes, is now in danger. Just one thing, however, would be enough to halt climate change. If clean energy became cheaper than coal, gas or oil, fossil fuel would simply stay in the ground.”David Attenborough backs huge Apollo-style clean energy research planLeave fossil fuels buried to prevent climate change, study urgesRichard Dawkins, evolutionary biologist and authorWorld-famous scientist Richard Dawkins is no stranger to controversy. The evolutionary biologist shot to fame with his book The Selfish Gene and cemented his reputation as a strident atheist with another best-seller, The God Delusion. Professor Dawkins has just published the second volume of his memoirs, Brief Candle in the Dark. In it, he discusses his job as Oxford University's Professor of Public Understanding of Science. Yet recent research suggests a growing gulf between the views of scientists and the public on issues like vaccines and climate change. So I asked him, does he fear people are losing their faith in science?Richard Dawkins: I’m not that pessimistic. I think that we have a job to do. I think scientists have a job to do to try to get the message across. There may be a certain amount of organised opposition. In the case of climate change, the organised opposition comes from industry, perhaps especially the oil industry. I’m not sure. And in the case of creationism, of course, it comes from religion. Not sure where it comes from in the case of the anti-vaxers.RAW DATA: Lisa Owen interviews evolutionary biologist and author Richard DawkinsSir Richard Branson, English businessman and investor. He is best known as the founder of Virgin Group, which comprises more than 400 companies.Branson said he was "enormously impressed" with Apple's chief executive for telling climate change sceptics to ditch shares in the technology company.At Apple's annual meeting last month, Tim Cook responded angrily to questions from a rightwing thinktank, the National Center for Public Policy Research (NCPPR), about the profitability of investing in renewable energy, saying: "If you want me to do things only for ROI [return on investment] reasons, you should get out of this stock."Writing on his blog, Branson said he "wholeheartedly" supported Cook's comments and that every business in the world should emulate Cook's goal of wanting "to leave the world better than we found it", an aim Branson said Virgin shared too."The NCPPR stated there is an 'absence of compelling data' on climate change. If 97% of climate scientists agreeing that climate-warming trends over the past century are due to human activities isn't compelling data, I don't know what is," Branson said, referring to a survey last year of thousands of peer-reviewed papers in scientific journals that found 97.1% agreed climate change is man-made.Branson said that businesses should take a stand against climate scepticism. "More businesses should be following Apple's stance in encouraging more investment in sustainability. While Tim [Cook] told sustainability sceptics to 'get out of our stock', I would urge climate change deniers to get out of our way," he said.Richard Branson tells climate deniers to 'get out of the way'Virgin Earth ChallengeThe risk of doing nothing - Virgin.comCarbon War RoomWe are urging country and business leaders alike to strive towards net-zero greenhouse-gas emissions by 2050 through committing to long-term targets and developing strategies to reduce emissions.Page on bteam.orgTim Cook, Apple CEOUnder Cook’s leadership Apple has stepped up its commitment to curbing its environmental impact, pledging to supply 100% of its power from renewable sources and crack down on the use of minerals mined in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) that can fund war and human rights abuses.At the meeting last week, shareholders voted down a resolution by the National Center for Public Policy Research (NCPPR) - an avid campaigner against action to tackle climate change - that would force Apple to disclose more information about the costs of its investment in tackling climate change.However, Justin Danhof of the NCPPR pursued the line by asking Cook if Apple’s environmental investments increased or decreased the company’s bottom line. He also asked Cook to commit Apple to only investing in measures that were profitable.Cook became visibly angry at Danhof’s questions and categorically rejected the NCPPR’s climate scepticism, according to the Mac Observer’s Bryan Chaffin, who attended the event. He told shareholders that securing a return on investment was not the only reason for investing in environmental measures.“When we work on making our devices accessible by the blind, I don’t consider the bloody ROI,” Cook said, adding that the same sentiment applied to environmental and health and safety issues.Tim Cook tells climate change sceptics to ditch Apple sharesSteven Pinker, Johnstone Family Professor in the Department of Psychology at Harvard UniversityStephen Pinker is an experimental psychologist and one of the world’s foremost writers on language, mind, and human nature. Currently Johnstone Family Professor of Psychology at Harvard University, Pinker has also taught at Stanford and MIT. His research on vision, language, and social relations has won prizes from the National Academy of Sciences, the Royal Institution of Great Britain, the Cognitive Neuroscience Society, and the American Psychological Association. He has also received eight honorary doctorates, several teaching awards at MIT and Harvard, and numerous prizes for his books The Language Instinct, How the Mind Works, The Blank Slate, and The Better Angels of Our Nature. He is Chair of the Usage Panel of the American Heritage Dictionary, and often writes for The New York Times, Time, and other publications. He has been named Humanist of the Year, Prospect magazine’s “The World’s Top 100 Public Intellectuals,” Foreign Policy’s “100 Global Thinkers,” and Time magazine’s “The 100 Most Influential People in the World Today.”http://stevenpinker.com/biocvEven climate change, that archetypal case of humanity remaining inert in the face of scientific knowledge, doesn’t do it. “I think it would be foolhardy to say we’ll solve it, but I don’t think it’s foolhardy to say we can solve it,” Pinker says. “History tells us there have been cases in which the global community has adopted agreements to better collective welfare: the ban on atmospheric nuclear testing would be an example. The ban on commercial whaling. The end of piracy and privateering as a legitimate form of international competition. The banning of chlorofluorocarbons.”In this domain as elsewhere, in Pinker’s judgement, science plus judicious optimism may yet win the day. Or, as he puts it: “We’re not on a trolley-track to oblivion.”In conversation with… Steven PinkerLawrence Krauss, theoretical physicist and cosmologist who is Foundation Professor of the School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University and director of its Origins, also named the 2015 Humanist of the Year by the American Humanists AssociationKrauss lauds the Pope for the his no-nonsense acceptance of anthropogenic global warming, and his warning that climate change has the most severe impact on the poor. But then Krauss faults Francis for his solution, which is apparently to blame consumerism and rule population control out of bounds.Krauss and Pinker on the Pope's misguided climate-change bicyclePope FrancisAt the end of the day, business is a human enterprise and must strive for true human development and the common good. In the years ahead, the challenges will be large. How can we develop the technologies so that we can move to a zero-carbon economy? How can we boost living standards of the developing world in a sustainable way and give all people the ability to live the lives God intended them to live? How can we make sure all have access to nutrition, energy, healthcare and education? These are huge challenges, but we must face up to them. The answer lies with all working together—governments, international institutions, businesses, NGOS, and religions. It lies in forthright and honest debate and dialogue. But it begins in the call to ecological conversation outlined so clearly in this great encyclical.Business insights from Laudato Si'Laudato si' (24 May 2015)Pulitzer Prize winning author Chris Hedges“The system of corporate capitalism, or what political philosopher Sheldon Wolin called inverted totalitarianism, is not only not sustainable, but it is unravelling. We can’t continue this kind of assault on the climate, we can’t continue these kinds of wars, we can’t continue the reconfiguration of the global economy into a global neo-feudalism, where money is concentrated into the hands of an all-powerful, tiny, oligarchic elite at the expense of everyone else. We are already seeing the signs of disintegration. You look at the political farce that is happening in the United States because the system has been seized by corporate oligarchs and no-longer responds to the grievances, needs, justices, or rights of the citizenry. You see it in the refugee crisis that is besetting Europe, you see it in the wildfires that are sweeping across California. We better wake up and we better respond quickly, or we’re headed for massive societal breakdown. It is already beginning.”Chris Hedges to tell Vancouver the world needs rebels to lead a revolutionDavid Suzuki, C.C., O.B.C.Professor Emeritus, University of British ColumbiaScience broadcaster and environmental activistCo-Founder of the David Suzuki FoundationFor nearly 35 years, David Suzuki has brought science into the homes of millions on the Canadian television series, The Nature of Things. He has become a godfather of the environmental movement, and in a poll of his fellow Canadians last fall he was named that country’s most admired figure. Nonetheless, his outspoken views on climate change and the government’s collusion with the petrochemical industry in developing Canada’s oil-rich tar sands have made him the target of relentless attacks from his nation’s prime minister, corporations and right-wing ideologues.“Our politicians should be thrown in the slammer for willful blindness. …I think that we are being willfully blind to the consequences for our children and grandchildren. It’s an intergenerational crime,” Suzuki tells Moyers.Time to Get Real on Climate Change | Moyers & Company | BillMoyers.comMauri Pelto, GlaciologistProfessor of Environmental Science, Science Program ChairDirector, North Cascade Glacier Climate Project, Nichols CollegeScientists, Tribe Study Shrinking Washington State Glacier - Flathead BeaconMeet Mauri Pelto, GlaciologistFrom a Glacier's Perspective - By Mauri PeltoFrom a Glaciers PerspectiveNorth Cascade Glacier Climate ProjectMauri Pelto | More Than ScientistsPine Island Glacier hypothesis to emergent eventDr. Eric ChivianDr. Eric Chivian is Founder of the Center for Health and the Global Environment and directs the Biodiversity and Human Health Progam. He is also an Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. In 1980, he co-founded (with Professors Bernard Lown, Herbert Abrams, and James Muller) International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, recipient of the 1985 Nobel Peace Prize. During the past 18 years, he has worked to involve physicians in the United States and abroad in efforts to protect the environment, and to increase public understanding of the potential human health consequences of global environmental change.Dr. Eric ChivianRichard A. Muller, professor of physics at the University of California,Berkeley and a faculty senior scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley NationalLaboratory.Physicist Richard Muller became a hero to the climate denial community a few years ago, after saying some pretty harsh things about climate science, and scientists.He started the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature project to double check estimates of global warming and, in his mind, answer the criticisms of existing temperature reconstructions. Not surprisingly to the mainstream community, he came up with the same answer as all other groups over the last 40 years. The planet is warming, and the only plausible explanation is increased greenhouse gases.http://climatecrocks.com/2015/01/09/richard-muller-i-was-wrong-on-global-warming/Richard Muller (E)Home - Berkeley EarthRichard A. MullerRobin ChaseRobin Chase is a transportation entrepreneur. She is co-founder and former CEO of Zipcar, the largest carsharing company in the world; Buzzcar, a peer to peer carsharing service in France (now merged with Drivy); Peer Inc.; and GoLoco, an online ridesharing community. She is also co-founder and Executive Chairman of Veniam, a vehicle communications company building the networking fabric for the Internet of Moving Things.http://www.robinchase.org/#about-robinFavorable economics today cloud the minds of many legislators and business interests to cling to our system of underpriced fossil fuels. Despite the best efforts of Congressmen Waxman and Markey, the climate bill out of Congress proposed 2020 goals of only 17 percent reductions in CO2 over 2005 levels and passed by the narrowest of margins. Science tells us our 2020 goals need to 25 to 40% reductions over 1990 levels. Senators Boxer and Kerry have proposed 20%, a step in the right direction.This fall, Congress continues the debate over how quickly our country addresses our broken energy status quo. Just as in moral battles fought before, the correct action and way of life will ultimately prevail. Let's pass a climate bill that reduces CO2 emissions, on a timetable and in a quantity that science dictates, to avert the terrible calamity and suffering that lies ahead if we don't.Fossil Fuel Is the New Slavery: Morally and Economically CorruptJames HansenAdjunct Professor, Columbia University Earth InstituteFormer Director of NASA Goddard Institute for Space StudiesJames Hansen, NASA’s top climate scientist, is one of the most impassioned and trusted voices on global warming. People listen closely to what he says about how drastically the climate is changing.In 1981, Hansen led a team of NASA scientists in a seminal article in Science, “Climate Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide.”They warned: “Potential effects on climate in the 21st century include the creation of drought-prone regions in North America and central Asia as part of a shifting of climatic zones, erosion of the West Antarctic ice sheet with a consequent worldwide rise in sea level, and opening of the fabled Northwest Passage.”James Hansen Spells Out Climate Danger Of The ‘Hyper-Anthropocene’ AgeBut when Hansen suggests what to do about it, many of those same people tune him out. Some even roll their eyes. What message is he peddling that few seemingly want to hear? It’s twofold: No. 1, solar and wind power cannot meet the world’s voracious demand for energy, especially given the projected needs of emerging economies like India and China, and No. 2, nuclear power is our best hope to get off of fossil fuels, which are primarily responsible for the heat-trapping gases cooking the planet.Can Nuclear Energy Really Solve Climate Change?September 16, 2015: 33 prominent climate scientists and advocates join calls for MIT to heed its own committee’s advice to divest from fossil fuels as part of a multi-faceted climate action plan.Open Letter - MIT Climate CountdownAn open letter signed by 33 hugely-prominent names has called on MIT to divest fossil fuel investments from its $12.4 billion endowment.Climatologist James Hansen, actor Mark Ruffalo, MIT Professor Noam Chomsky, and Rockefeller Brothers Fund President Stephen Heintz are among the 33 names signed to the open letter, which urges “the world’s foremost citadel of science” to divest from fossil fuels.The letter, addressed to MIT President Rafael Reif, who is serving as the 17th President of MIT since July 2012, is in no way hesitant to label the issue as “the singular great issue of our time,” and that MIT has “an opportunity … to provide great leadership by divesting the Institute’s endowment from fossil fuels as part of a comprehensive climate action plan.”These 33 signatories are not the only ones calling for MIT to take a stand on climate change by divesting, however. Over 3,000 MIT community members, including students, undergrads, and 43% of the Class of 2017, signed a petition “telling MIT to take the lead against climate change by divesting from the fossil fuel industry.” 83 members of the MIT faculty wrote their own open letter, as did a group of 29 student groups.And in a striking display, the Cambridge City Council, of Massachusetts, passed resolution R-10 officially “commending MIT’s Presidential Advisory Committee on Climate Change on their bold endorsement of divestment.”MIT Under Mounting Pressure To Divest From Fossil FuelsWilliam F. RuddimanPROFESSOR EMERITUS · PH.D., COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY"Since entering ’semi-retirement’ in 2001, my research has concentrated on the climatic role farmers played during the last several thousand years by clearing land, raising livestock, and irrigating rice paddies, all of which put increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This led to the ‘early anthropogenic hypothesis’ that early agriculture caused the observed (and anomalous) reversals in the natural declines of atmospheric CO2 (carbon dioxide) near 7000 years ago and CH4 (methane) near 5000 years ago."Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, U.Va.Paleoanthropologist Rick Potts is the director of the Smithsonian’s Human Origins Program and curator of anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History.“Now we find ourselves where the planetary scale of human influence is unquestionable,” Potts said. “We have the rapidity of change in landscape that is quite different from anything that has ever been experienced before in human history. The planet is packed with people. Our ways of changing our immediate surroundings and also … the atmosphere and oceans affect people we have never met and will never meet.“We have before us a grand societal project, and that grand societal project is to be carried out by the first species that has awareness of extinction – including its own extinction but also the extinction of other forms of life on Earth.“It seems to me that many of the problems we have addressed here haven’t yet brought up the matter of whether the scale of the problem can be matched by the scale of our compassion. We are a species capable of developing principles, of living in a purposeful and meaningful world, and acting according to those principles and values – depending upon how much we care.”“The future will be a world of our own making.”Exploring a 'future world of our own making' - Yale Climate ConnectionsThe Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins ProgramOver recent years, various organizations have set out to estimate just how widespread the supposed “scientific consensus” on AGW actually is. Two recent efforts were conducted by the Statistical Assessment Service (STATS) at George Mason University and by the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. The STATS survey found that 84% of climate scientists surveyed “personally believe human-induced warming is occurring” and that “Only 5% believe that that human activity does not contribute to greenhouse warming.” The STATS survey involved a random sampling of “489 self-identified members of either the American Meteorological Society or the American Geophysical Union” and it has a theoretical sampling error of +/- 4%.The Pew survey was taken in early 2009 and asked over 2000 members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) their opinion on various scientific issues, including climate disruption. 84% of AAAS respondents felt that “warming is due to human activity” compared to only 10% who felt that “warming is due to natural causes.” The AAAS has over 10 million members, and the results of the survey are statistically valid for the entire population with a theoretical sampling error of +/- 2.5%.84% of 10 million scientist members of the AAAS is 8.4 million scientists who agree that climate disruption is human-caused. 84% of the climate scientists (conservatively just the members of the atmospheric science group of the AGU) is, conservatively, 6,000 scientists who have direct and expert knowledge of climate disruption.Over 31,000 scientists signed the OISM Petition Project"The regular process of economic evolution is that businesses are left with stranded assets all the time," says Nick Robins, who runs HSBC's Climate Change Centre. "Think of film cameras, or typewriters. The question is not whether this will happen. It will. Pension systems have been hit by the dot-com and credit crunch. They'll be hit by this." Still, it hasn't been easy to convince investors, who have shared in the oil industry's record profits. "The reason you get bubbles," sighs Leaton, "is that everyone thinks they're the best analyst – that they'll go to the edge of the cliff and then jump back when everyone else goes over."Global Warming's Terrifying New MathSee Also:Brian DunningAbout That 1970s Global Cooling...The Science and Politics of Global WarmingIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (ipcc)Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeClimate Debate DailyNature Climate ChangeMoney Men Tally Cost Of Climate Change2015: the year businesses recognize that climate change is realInvesting in Climate Change Study l Mercerhttp://climatevoices.org/speakers/http://blogs.agu.org/about-the-blogosphere/Earth's Future - Wiley Online Libraryhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2013EF000226/fullThe Clean Revolutionhttp://www.science.gov/browse/w_119A1.htm

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