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What will be your top five stock picks under ₹100 per share?
What will be your top five stock picks under ₹100 per share?Rail Vikas Nigam Ltd. (Current Price : 28 Rs.)About RVNL: Rail Vikas Nigam Ltd. engages in the development and construction of railway infrastructure. The firm also provides vital port linkage including the corridors connecting the port of Hinterlands. It railway projects include new lines, doubling, gauge conversion, railway electrification, metro projects, workshops, major bridges, construction of cable-stayed bridges, and institutional buildings. The company was founded on January 24, 2003 and is headquartered in New Delhi, India.Top Reasons:Stock is trading at 1.17 times its book value so undervalued.Promoter holding: 87.84 % (Indian Government)Stock is providing a good dividend yield of 3.84%.Pledged percentage: 0.00 %Company has good consistent profit growth of 29.85% over 5 years.Company has been maintaining a healthy dividend payout of 47.40%.Strong fundamentals: ROE: 16.83 % | Debt to equity: 0.82 | Current ratio: 3.45 | Quick ratio: 3.45 | PEG Ratio: 0.21 | Return on invested capital: 15.59 %.The company 18 times potential to pay back its short term debts like interest payments.Stock P/E: 6.28 Vs Industry PE: 25.71Sales Growth (3Yrs) is whopping 30.37 %2. Engineers India Ltd (Current Price : 73 Rs.)About EIL: Engineers India Ltd. engages in the engineering consultancy, and procurement and construction. It operates through the Consultancy and Engineering and Turnkey Projects segments. The company was founded on March 15, 1965 and is headquartered in New Delhi, India.Top Reasons:Stock is providing a good dividend yield of 4.49%.Company is debt free. (no debt).Promoter holding: 51.50% (Indian Government)Pledged percentage: 0.00 %Compounded Sales Growth of last 3 years: 17.13%Compounded Profit Growth of last 3 years: 9.94%The company has been maintaining a healthy dividend payout of 65.20%.Strong fundamentals: ROE: 15.76 % | Debt to equity: 0 | Current ratio: 1.63 | Quick ratio: 1.62 | Return on invested capital: 19.52 %The company 423 times potential to pay back its short term debts like interest payments.Stock P/E: 14.28 Vs Industry PE: 18.083. Oil & Natural Gas Corpn Ltd (Current Price: 90 Rs.)About ONGC: Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited is a global energy holding company. The Company is engaged in the exploration, development and production of crude oil and natural gas. The Company’s segments include Exploration & Production (E&P), and Refining. The Company’s geographical segments include operations in two categories: In India, which includes Onshore and Offshore, and Outside India. The Company’s business spread include various areas, such as oil field services, transportation of the oil and natural gas, and production of value-added products, such as Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Naphtha, Refining, Petrochemicals, Power, unconventional and alternate sources of energy. The Company’s subsidiaries include ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL), Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited (MRPL) and ONGC Mangalore Petrochemicals Limited. The Company’s oil and gas reserves are located internationally at Russia, Colombia, Vietnam, Brazil and Venezuela.Top Reasons:Stock is trading at 0.59 times its book value (undervalued).Stock is providing a good dividend yield of 6.64%.Promoter holding: 62.78 % (Indian Government)Pledged percentage: 0.00 %Compounded Sales Growth of last 10 years: 15.73%Company has been maintaining a healthy dividend payout of 35.62%.Fundamentals: ROE: 14.91 % | Debt to equity: 0.47 | Current ratio: .80 | Quick ratio: .57 | Return on invested capital: 75.14 %The company 9 times potential to pay back its short term debts like interest payments.Stock P/E: 4.95 Vs Industry PE: 15.95.On ONGC Nomura Maintained ‘Buy’ with a price target at Rs 1754. SpiceJet (Current Price: 84 Rs.)About Spicejet : SpiceJet Ltd. engages in the provision of air transport services for the carriage of passengers and cargo. It operates a fleet of aircrafts across India under the SpiceJet brand. The company was founded on February 9, 1984 and is headquartered in Gurgaon, India.Top Reasons:Basically SpiceJet Ltd. expects a turnaround in its cash flow in the last four months of 2020 once Boeing Co.’s grounded 737 Max aircraft returns to the fleet by mid-year, its clients should expect a return of 737 Max by mid-2020. SpiceJet grounded 13 737 Max planes in March 2019 after technical faults led to two crashes involving Lion Air and Ethiopian Airlines flights, leaving 346 people dead.“Privately, what we’ve been told is that they’re going to have a test flight in February, and they expect that certification will happen by April. After that, there’s a small process of pilot-training. With all that, we expect that the aircraft should return to service in May or June of 2020, There’s a massive financial impact, it’s tough to quantify but it has been tremendous, large. So, in every which way, the cash flow situation will dramatically improve in the last four months (of 2020). We would’ve grown more had Max been there but we’ve grown 50 percent of our capacity, Hopefully, the Max will come back in the middle of the year and we can keep growing this year as well. We have to get a level playing field with the airlines around the world and I hope that can happen.”— Ajay Singh, Chairman, SpiceJetAdditionally: Recently, the throughput tax was rescinded, giving the aviation industry close to Rs 1,000 crore relief. SpiceJet would benefit by Rs 100 croreBrent is trading at $57 so COGS will be down for Spicejet.Compounded Sales Growth of last 10 years is 18.35%The company is expected to give a good quarter.5. Ashok Leyland Ltd (Current Price: 114 Rs.)About Ashok Leyland : Ashok Leyland Ltd. engages in the manufacture of commercial vehicles. It operates though the Commercial Vehicle and Financial Service business segments. The Financial Service segment covers the vehicle and housing financing. Its products include buses, trucks, light vehicles, defense vehicles, and power solutions. The company was founded by Raghunandan Saran on September 7, 1948 and is headquartered in Chennai, India.Top Reasons:Stock is providing a good dividend yield of 3.80%.The company has good consistent profit growth of 38.99% over 5 years.Company has been maintaining a healthy dividend payout of 37.37%Promoter holding: 51.13%Compounded Sales Growth of last 5 years: 22.86%Fundamentals: ROE: 25.23 % | Current ratio: 1.63 | Quick ratio: 1.33 | Return on invested capital: 25.13 % | PEG Ratio: 0.58Stock P/E: 22.61 Vs Industry PE: 104.32.6. Firstsource Solutions Ltd (Current Price: 89.85 Rs.)About FSL: Firstsource Solutions Ltd. engages in the provision of customized business process management services. It offers contact center, transaction processing, customer management, healthcare claims administration, underwriting, consulting and debt collection services including revenue cycle management in the healthcare industry. The company was founded on December 6, 2001 and is headquartered in Mumbai, India.Top Reasons:Stock is trading at 1.08 times its book value.Promoter holding: 53.92 %.Stock is providing a good dividend yield of 4.70%.Pledged percentage: 0.00 %Compounded Profit Growth of last 10 years : 28.73%Strong fundamentals: ROE: 14.78 % | Debt to equity: 0.43 | PEG Ratio: 0.58 | Return on invested capital: 14.91 %.The company 9 times potential to pay back its short term debts like interest payments.Stock P/E: 8.48 Vs Industry PE: 12.507. Himadri Speciality Chemical Ltd (Current Price: 45.10 Rs.)About HSCL: Himadri Speciality Chemical Ltd. engages in the provision of carbon products. It operates through the Carbon Materials and Chemicals, and Power segments. The Carbon Materials and Chemicals focuses on manufacturing operations. The Power segment involves in the generation and distribution. The company was founded by Damodar Prasad Choudhary, Shyam Sundar Choudhary, Bankey Lal Choudhary, Vijay Kumar Choudhary, Anurag Choudhary, Amit Choudhary, and Tushar Choudhary on July 28, 1987 and is headquartered in Kolkata, India.Top Reasons:Strong Fundamentals: ROE: 21.29 % | ROCE: 25.49 % | Debt to equity: 0.23 | Current ratio: 1.24 | Return on invested capital: 22.69 %The company 6 times potential to pay back its short term debts like interest payments.Stock P/E: 11.75 Vs Industry PE: 12.35Pledged percentage: 0.00 %Free cash flow 5years: 1,134 Cr.Debt 3Years back: 887.36 Cr. | Debt preceding year: 660.16 Cr. | Current Debt: 399.16 Cr.Promoter holding: 48.92 %“Long term investor should only buy fundamentally strong stocks when they are in pain & in oversold territory” — My 10 years of ExperienceMost of these stocks are safe and can be invested for short as well as for the long term.You can join my telegram channel SHREE TECH ANALYSIS for completely free trading ideas for short and long term.Thank you.CREDITS: Akshay Seth – Medium
How can I do a good EVS project?
Ramnarain Ruia Jr. College, Matunga05/09/2015Environmental studies ProjectHospital Waste Management in Kurla Area:ü1.Selection of Topic (10 marks)ü2.Objectives(4 marks)ü3.Review of literature(4 marks)ü4.Relevance(4 marks)ü5.Proposed methodology(8 marks)6..Description of the method followed(8 marks)ü7.Observation(2 marks)ü8.Analysis(4 marks)ü9.conclusion(2 marks)10.Report writing(4 marks)11.viva-voice(10 marks)“Hospital (Medicinal) Waste”An Environmental Hazard and Its ManagementSelection of topic:The proper management of biomedical waste has become a worldwide humanitarian topic today. Although hazards of poor management of biomedical waste have aroused the concern world over, especially in the light of its far-reaching effects on human, health and the environment.2Now it is a well-established fact that there are many adverse and harmful effects to the environment including human beings which are caused by the “Hospital waste” generated during the patient care. Hospital waste is a potential health hazard to the health care workers, public and flora and fauna of the area. The problems of the waste disposal in the hospitals and other health-care institutions have become issues of increasing concern.Hospital is a place of almighty, a place to serve the patient. Since beginning, the hospitals are known for the treatment of sick persons but we are unaware about the adverse effects of the garbage and filth generated by them on human body and environment. Now it is a well-established fact that there are many adverse and harmful effects to the environment including human beings which are caused by the "Hospital waste" generated during the patient care. Hospital waste is a potential health hazard to the health care workers, public and flora and fauna of the area. Hospital acquired infection, transfusion transmitted diseases, rising incidence of Hepatitis B, and HIV, increasing land and water pollution lead to increasing possibility of catching many diseases. Air pollution due to emission of hazardous gases by incinerator such as Furan, Dioxin, Hydrochloric acid etc. have compelled the authorities to think seriously about hospital waste and the diseases transmitted through improper disposal of hospital waste. This problem has now become a serious threat for the public health and, ultimately, the Central Government along with state government had to intervene for enforcing proper handling and disposal of hospital waste and an act was passed in July 1996 and a bio-medical waste (handling and management) rule was introduced in 1998.A modern hospital is a complex, multidisciplinary system which consumes thousands of items for delivery of medical care and is a part of physical environment. All these products consumed in the hospital leave some unusable leftovers i.e. hospital waste. The last century witnessed the rapid mushrooming of hospital in the public and private sector, dictated by the needs of expanding population. The advent and acceptance of "disposable" has made the generation of hospital waste a significant factor in current scenario.As I live in Kurla I am very much familiar with the present day conditions regarding the above topic. The area is much crowdy as compared to other areas of the city. It is the main site where one can find slum areas, so the chances of effects due to improper hospital waste management are more in this area. Also the people are not aware of the fact that there is something called hospital waste management. Most of the people categorize all the waste under same column and that’s the worst part of it.Therefore in order to catch people’s attention towards this problem I choose this topic under environmental studies.I am sure that it may contribute a little fraction in creating awareness among the citizens.Objectives:Need of biomedical waste management in hospitals:While selecting this topic, the question aroused in my mind was “why do we need to separate this waste from household waste?” I gone through various articles and the reports served by municipality officials and came to know that how dangerous it would be if we are not separating this waste. Still separating wasn’t enough. It has to be decomposed or manage properly in order make it safeHospital waste management is a part of hospital hygiene and maintenance activities. In fact only 15% of hospital waste i.e. "Biomedical waste" is hazardous, not the complete. But when hazardous waste is not segregated at the source of generation and mixed with nonhazardous waste, then 100% waste becomes hazardous. The question then arises that what is the need or rationale for spending so many resources in terms of money, man power, material and machine for management of hospital waste?The reasons due to which there is great need of management of hospital waste such as:1.Injuries from sharps leading to infection to all categories of hospital personnel and waste handler.2.Nosocomial infections in patients from poor infection control practices and poor waste management.3.Risk of infection outside hospital for waste handlers and scavengers and at time general public living in the vicinity of hospitals.4.Risk associated with hazardous chemicals, drugs to persons handling wastes at all levels.5.“Disposable” being repacked and sold by unscrupulous elements without even being washed.6.Drugs which have been disposed of, being repacked and sold off to unsuspecting buyers.7.Risk of air, water and soil pollution directly due to waste, or due to defective incineration emissions and ash3.To make people aware of the fact, what is hospital waste?Hospital waste refers to all waste generated, discarded and not intended for further use in the hospital.According to Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 of India “Any waste which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining thereto or in the production or testing of biological.Review of literature:As this topic is very much familiar with metro cities like Mumbai I got a lot of information regarding above topic from following sources:ØRecent reports given by local municipality and state government officials.ØGuidelines given by WHO regarding hospital waste management and their disposal.ØInterviews of respected hospital officials (waste managers).ØEfforts carried out by various NGO’s in respective areas.ØAt the State level, many States are developing new standards to control medical waste disposal.ØBecause of the information need to support the implementation of the regulations, both the Federal Government and the States have conducted various studies. This paper represents a discussion of what has been learned as a result of these studies.ØEvaluation of medical waste treatment technologies conducted by private industries;ØCase study: hospital waste management (Kurla area)Relevance:Scientific Relevance:·In order to understand how this topic is related scientifically following points must be understood. The following information provides how this waste is classified:-(1) General waste: Largely composed of domestic or house hold type waste. It is non-hazardous to human beings, e.g. kitchen waste, packaging material, paper, wrappers, plastics.(2) Pathological waste: Consists of tissue, organ, body part, human foetuses, blood and body fluid. It is hazardous waste.(3) Infectious waste: The wastes which contain pathogens in sufficient concentration or quantity that could cause diseases. It is hazardous e.g. culture and stocks of infectious agents from laboratories, waste from surgery, waste originating from infectious patients.(4) Sharps: Waste materials which could cause the person handling it, a cut or puncture of skin e.g. needles, broken glass, saws, nail, blades, and scalpels.(5) Pharmaceutical waste: This includes pharmaceutical products, drugs, and chemicals that have been returned from wards, have been spilled, are outdated, or contaminated.(6) Chemical waste: This comprises discarded solid, liquid and gaseous chemicals e.g. cleaning, house keeping, and disinfecting product.(7) Radioactive waste: It includes solid, liquid, and gaseous waste that is contaminated with radionucleides generated from in-vitro analysis of body tissues and fluid, in-vivo body organ imaging and tumour localization and therapeutic procedures.·How this waste is disposed?Based on Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 1998, notified under the Environment Protection Act by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (Government of India).1. Segregation of wasteSegregation is the essence of waste management and should be done at the source of generation of Bio-medical waste e.g. all patient care activity areas, diagnostic services areas, operation theaters, labour rooms, treatment rooms etc. The responsibility of segregation should be with the generator of biomedical waste i.e. doctors, nurses, technicians etc. (medical and paramedical personnel). The biomedical waste should be segregated as per categories mentioned in the rules.2. Collection of bio-medical wasteCollection of bio-medical waste should be done as per Bio-medical waste (Management and Handling) Rules. At ordinary room temperature the collected waste should not be stored for more than 24 hours.Types of container and colour code for collection of bio-medical waste.CategoryWaste classType of containerColour1.Human anatomical wastePlasticYellow2.Animal waste-do--do-3.Microbiology and Biotechnology waste-do-Yellow/Red4.Waste sharpPlastic bag puncture proof containersBlue/White Translucent5.Discarded medicines and Cytotoxic wastePlastic bagsBlack6.Solid (biomedical waste)-do-Yellow7.Solid (plastic)Plastic bag puncture proof containersBlue/White Translucent8.Incineration wastePlastic bagBlack9.Chemical waste (solid)-do--do-3. TransportationWithin hospital, waste routes must be designated to avoid the passage of waste through patient care areas. Separate time should be earmarked for transportation of bio-medical waste to reduce chances of it's mixing with general waste. Desiccated wheeled containers, trolleys or carts should be used to transport the waste/plastic bags to the site of storage/ treatment.Trolleys or carts should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected in the event of any spillage. The wheeled containers should be so designed that the waste can be easily loaded, remains secured during transportation, does not have any sharp edges and is easy to clean and disinfect. Hazardous biomedical waste needing transport to a long distance should be kept in containers and should have proper labels. The transport is done through desiccated vehicles specially constructed for the purpose having fully enclosed body, lined internally with stainless steel or aluminium to provide smooth and impervious surface which can be cleaned. The drivers compartment should be separated from the load compartment with a bulkhead. The load compartment should be provided with roof vents for ventilation.4. Treatment of hospital wasteTreatment of waste is required:· to disinfect the waste so that it is no longer the source of infection.· to reduce the volume of the waste.· make waste unrecognizable for aesthetic reasons.· make recycled items unusable.4.1 General wasteThe 85% of the waste generated in the hospital belongs to this category. The, safe disposal of this waste is the responsibility of the local authority.4.2 bio-medical waste: 15% of hospital waste· Deep burial: The waste under category 1 and 2 only can be accorded deep burial and only in cities having less than 5 lakh population.· Autoclave and microwave treatment Standards for the autoclaving and microwaving are also mentioned in the Biomedical waste (Management and Handling) Rules 1998. All equipment installed/shared should meet these specifications. The waste under category 3,4,6,7 can be treated by these techniques. Standards for the autoclaving are also laid down.· Shredding: The plastic (IV bottles, IV sets, syringes, catheters etc.), sharps (needles, blades, glass etc) should be shredded but only after chemical treatment/microwaving/autoclaving. Needle destroyers can be used for disposal of needles directly without chemical treatment.· Secured landfill:: The incinerator ash, discarded medicines, cytotoxic substances and solid chemical waste should be treated by this option.· Incineration: The incinerator should be installed and made operational as per specification under the BMW rules 1998 and a certificate may be taken from CPCB/State Pollution Control Board and emission levels etc should be defined. In case of small hospitals, facilities can be shared. The waste under category 1,2,3,5,6 can be incinerated depending upon the local policies of the hospital and feasibility. The polythene bags made of chlorinated plastics should not be incinerated.· It may be noted that there are options available for disposal of certain category of waste. The individual hospital can choose the best option depending upon the facilities available and its financial resources. However, it may be noted that depending upon the option chosen, correct colour of the bag needs to be used.5. Safety measures5.1 All the generators of bio--medical waste should adopt universal precautions and appropriate safety measures while doing therapeutic and diagnostic activities and also while handling the bio-medical waste.5.2 It should be ensured that:· drivers, collectors and other handlers are aware of the nature and risk of the waste.· written instructions, provided regarding the procedures to be adopted in the event of spillage/ accidents.· protective gears provided and instructions regarding their use are given.· workers are protected by vaccination against tetanus and hepatitis B.6. Training· each and every hospital must have well planned awareness and training programme for all category of personnel including administrators (medical, paramedical and administrative).· all the medical professionals must be made aware of Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 1998.· to institute awards for safe hospital waste management and universal precaution practices.· training should be conducted to all categories of staff in appropriate language/medium and in an acceptable manner.7. Management and administrationHeads of each hospital will have to take authorization for generation of waste from appropriate authorities as notified by the concerned State/U.T. Government, well in time and to get it renewed as per time schedule laid down in the rules. Each hospital should constitute a hospital waste management committee, chaired by the head of the Institute and having wide representation from all major departments. This committee should be responsible for making Hospital specific action plan for hospital waste management and its supervision, monitoring and implementation. The annual reports, accident reports, as required under BMW rules should be submitted to the concerned authorities as per BMW rules format.8. Measures for waste minimizationAs far as possible, purchase of reusable items made of glass and metal should be encouraged. Select non PVC plastic items. Adopt procedures and policies for proper management of waste generated, the mainstay of which is segregation to reduce the quantity of waste to be treated. Establish effective and sound recycling policy for plastic recycling and get in touch with authorised manufactures.Social relevance:This project completely focuses on why do we need to separate this waste and why do we need to dispose them effectively.§It has a great impact on health of local citizens. So it is completely socially relevant.§A major issue related to current Bio-Medical waste management in many hospitals is that the implementation of Bio-Waste regulation is unsatisfactory as some hospitals are disposing of waste in a haphazard, improper and indiscriminate manner. Lack of segregation practices, results in mixing of hospital wastes with general waste making the whole waste stream hazardous. Inappropriate segregation ultimately results in an incorrect method of waste disposal.§Inadequate Bio-Medical waste management thus will cause environmental pollution, unpleasant smell, growth and multiplication of vectors like insects, rodents and worms and may lead to the transmission of diseases like typhoid, cholera, hepatitis and AIDS through injuries from syringes and needles contaminated with human.6§Various communicable diseases, which spread through water, sweat, blood, body fluids and contaminated organs, are important to be prevented. The Bio Medical Waste scattered in and around the hospitals invites flies, insects, rodents, cats and dogs that are responsible for the spread of communication disease like plague and rabies. Rag pickers in the hospital, sorting out the garbage are at a risk of getting tetanus and HIV infections. The recycling of disposable syringes, needles, IV sets and other article like glass bottles without proper sterilization are responsible for Hepatitis, HIV, and other viral diseases. It becomes primary responsibility of Health administrators to manage hospital waste in most safe and eco-friendly manner6.The problem of bio-medical waste disposal in the hospitals and other healthcare establishments has become an issue of increasing concern, prompting hospital administration to seek new ways of scientific, safe and cost effective management of the waste.· Municipal authority : As quite a large percentage of waste (in India upto 85%), generated in Indian hospitals, belong to general category (non-toxic and non-hazardous), hospital should have constant interaction with municipal authorities so that this category of waste is regularly taken out of the hospital premises for land fill or other treatment.· Co-ordination with Pollution Control Boards: Search for better methods technology, provision of facilities for testing, approval of certain models for hospital use in conformity with standards 'aid down.· Development of non-PVC plastics as a substitute for plastic which is used in the manufacture of disposable items• Establishment of training programs for workers to improve the quality and quantity of work.• Protection of workers against occupational risks.·Economic Relevance:Medical waste requires more amount of money as compared to household waste or any other waste as it has to be decomposed very efficiently and carefully. Regardless of how much money is being spent we need to check for whether the money spent is being used properly or not for that we need to search for cost effective and environmental friendly technology for treatment of bio-medical and hazardous waste. Also, to search for suitable materials to be used as containers for bio-medical waste requiring incineration/autoclaving/ microwaving. This project mainly focuses on reducing expenditure regarding waste management.Cost reductions can be achieved by taking particular measures at different stages in the management of wastes: On-site management• Comprehensive management of chemicals and pharmaceuticals stores.• Substitution of disposable medical care items by recyclable items.• Adequate segregation of waste to avoid costly or inadequate treatment of waste that does not require it.• Improved waste identification to simplify segregation, treatment, and recycling. Comprehensive planning• Planning collection and transport in such a way that all operations are safe and cost-efficient. • Possible cooperative use of regional incineration facilities, including private sector facilities where appropriate.• Selection of a treatment and disposal option that is appropriate for waste type and local circumstances.• Use of treatment equipment of appropriate type and capacity. Measures at personnel levelPROPOSED METHODOLOGY:In order to collect all the information and to have a descriptive look on the topic stated above, the best way was to take interviews of the respective people in the field of waste management. As most of the people in this area are not that much familiar with the things like how waste in managed and how all things take place, there was no use of taking interviews of local people. So most important task in front of me was to collect all information and put this in front of local citizens so that they would understand what this thing is.Interviewee:Hospital waste managers.Workers or handlers.Transporters.BMC officials in respective areas.Local people facing problems regarding the same.Medical students in the area stated above.Active NGO’s in above area.Citizens in damping areas.Requirements:As I have to conduct interviews I have to be prepared with all the questions.A camera is must for recording all statements given by respective people.List of prestigious hospitals in the area.List of hospital waste managers in respective hospitals.Sufficient information regarding the questions which I need to ask.Permission of hospital authorities to conduct interviews.A guide.How to proceed?As stated earlier, my motto was to conduct interviews of officials and put them in front of local citizens:Questions to officials:1.What are Biomedical wastes?2.What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes?Questions to workers:3.What is the quantum of waste that is generated by a hospital?4.What are disinfection and sterilization?5.What are the colour codes and type of containers used for disposal of biomedical waste?6.What materials can be recycled?7.How long can bio medical waste be stored?Questions to BMC officials:8.What are the hazards associated with poor health care waste management?9.Who are the persons at risk of the hazards of medical procedures?10.What are the rules and regulations governing the disposal of these wastes?Questions to medical students:11.What are the responsibilities of health care institutions regarding biomedical waste management?Questions to NGO’s:12.What are the different hospital waste categories?13.What is Biosafety?14.What are the disinfectants commonly used for disinfection of materials contaminated with blood and body fluids?15.How is disinfection of the various items commonly used in the hospital carried out?Thus, this is how I need to proceed in order to complete my project work. Along with that I may require methods like mouth publicity, pamphlets regarding the same. And most important in order to complete it effectively I need to be guided by my EVS teacher.DESCRIPTION OF THE METHOD FOLLOWED:Answers to the questions asked:1.Biomedical wastes are defined as waste that is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals, or in research activities pertaining thereto, or in the production of biological.2.Biodegradable waste means any waste that is capable of undergoing anaerobic or aerobic decomposition, such as food and garden waste, and paper and paperboard. It also includes waste from households, which because of its nature and composition is similar to biodegradable waste from households.Non-biodegradable wastes are the wastes that cannot be decomposed by bacteria eg.plastics, bottles and tins.3.The quantum of waste that is generated in India is estimated to be 1-2 kg per bed per day in a hospital and 600 gm per day per bed in a general practioner’s clinic. e.g. a 100 bedded hospital will generate 100 – 200 kgs of hospital waste/day. It is estimated that only 5 – 10% of this comprises of hazardous/infectious waste (5 – 10kgs/day)4.Proper disposal of biomedical waste is of paramount importance because of its infectious and hazardous characteristics. Improper disposal can result in the following:· Organic portion ferments and attracts fly breeding· Injuries from sharps to all categories of health care personnel and waste handlers· Increase risk of infections to medical, nursing and other hospital staff· Injuries from sharps to health workers and waste handlers· Poor infection control can lead to nosocomial infections in patients particularly HIV, Hepatitis B & C· Increase in risk associated with hazardous chemicals and drugs being handled by persons handling wastes· Poor waste management encourages unscrupulous persons to recycle disposables and disposed drugs for repacking and reselling· Development of resistant strains of microorganisms5.ProcedurePerson at riskMode of TransmissionCollection of blood samplesPatient Health workerContaminated needle, gloves, Skin puncture by needle or container,Contamination of hands by bloodTransfer of specimens (within laboratory)Laboratory personnelContamination of exterior of specimen container, Broken container,Splash of specimenHIV serology and virologyLaboratory personnelSkin puncture, splash of specimen,6.The Government of India has promulgated the Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 1998. They are applicable to all persons who generate, collect, receive, store, transport, treat, dispose or handle biomedical wastes. This includes hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, dispensaries, veterinary institutions, animal houses, pathological laboratories and blood banks.7.It is mandatory for such institutions to:Set up biomedical waste treatment facilities like incinerators, autoclave and microwave systems for treatment of the wastesMake an application to the concerned authorities for grant of authorizationSubmit a report regarding information about the categories and quantities of biomedical wastes handled during the preceding year by 31 Jan every yearMaintain records about the generation, collection, reception, storage, transportation, treatment, disposal and/or any form of handling bio medical wasteReport immediately any accident to the prescribed authority8.Biosafety is essentially a preventive concept and consists of wide variety of safety precautions that are to be undertaken, either singly or in combination, depending on the type of hazard by all medical, nursing and paramedical workers as well as by patients, attendants, ancillary staff and administrators in a hospital.9.Disinfection and sterilization are important procedures in biosafety. Disinfection refers to procedures which reduce the number of microorganisms on an object or surface but not the complete destruction of all microorganism or spores. Sterilisation on the other hand, refers to procedures, which would remove all microorganisms, including spores, from an object. Sterilisation is undertaken either by dry heat (for 2 hours at 1700C in an electric oven – method of choice for glass ware and sharps) or by various forms of moist heat (i.e. boiling in water for an effective contact time of 20 min or steam sterilization in an autoclave at 15 lb/sq inch at 1210C for 20 min)Name of DisinfectantAvailable chlorineRequired chlorineRequired chlorine Contact periodAmount of disinfectant to be dissolved in 1 ltr of waterSodium hypochlorite5%0.5%30 min100 mlCalcium hypochlorite70%0.5%30 min7.0 gmNa OCl powder-0.5%30 min8.5 gm10.OBSERVATION:Amount and composition of hospital waste generated(a) AmountAreaQuantity (kg/bed/day)SionDadarAndheriKurla22.214.171.124.0b) (Hazardous/non-hazardous)Hazardous15%a) Hazardous but non-infective5%b) Hazardous and infective10%Non-hazardous85%c) Composition(By weight):Plastic14%CombustibleDry cellublostic solid45%Wet cellublostic solid18%Non-combustible20%ANALYSIS:Following observations were made during my visit to respective clinics and hospitals in Kurla area.Major Sources§Govt. hospitals/private hospitals/nursing homes/ dispensaries.§Primary health centers.§Medical colleges and research centers/ paramedic services.§Veterinary colleges and animal research centers.§Blood banks/mortuaries/autopsy centers.§Biotechnology institutions.§Production units.Minor Sources§Physicians/ dentists’ clinics§Animal houses/slaughter houses.§Problems relating to biomedical waste§advances in this area. The need of proper hospital waste management system is of prime importance and is an essential component of quality assurance in hospitals§Blood donation camps.§Vaccination centers.§Acupuncturists/psychiatric clinics/cosmetic piercing.§Funeral services.§Institutions for disabled personsCONCLUSION:Medical wastes should be classified according to their source, typology and risk factors associated with their handling, storage and ultimate disposal. The segregation of waste at source is the key step and reduction, reuse and recycling should be considered in proper perspectives. We need to consider innovative and radical measures to clean up the distressing picture of lack of civic concern on the part of hospitals and slackness in government implementation of bare minimum of rules, as waste generation particularly biomedical waste imposes increasing direct and indirect costs on society. The challenge before us, therefore, is to scientifically manage growing quantities of biomedical waste that go beyond past practices. If we want to protect our environment and health of community we must sensitize our selves to this important issue not only in the interest of health managers but also in the interest of community.
What goods could Mars colonists export to Earth?
Elon Musk has said several times that he doesn't think there will be anything material from Mars that would be worth transporting back to Earth."I don't think it's going to be economical to mine things on Mars and then transport them back to Earth because the transport costs would overwhelm the value of whatever you mined, but there will likely be a lot of mining on Mars that's useful for a Mars base, but it's unlikely to be transferred back to Earth. I think the economic exchange between a Mars base and Earth would be mostly in the form of intellectual property"Elon Musk interview on the future of energy and transport - and more quotes like this.However he is skeptical about space mining generally thinking it probably won't be possible to export from the asteroids - "I'm not convinced there's a case for taking something, say, platinum, that is found in an asteroid and bringing it back to Earth." Of course many think that this will be possible. Myself I just don't know, I've heard the arguments on both sides and remain on the fence here.But anyway, for Mars, let's look at this a bit more closely, is there anything physical that could be worth exporting, (apart from the science value for search for life and the information returned). I can't find much by way of papers on this. So, here are a few thoughts based on online discussions and just thinking it through:Samples of Mars dust and rock . The first samples could be worth billions of dollars per kilogram to start with, at least that's how much they plan to spend on sample return for the Curiosity's successor sample returnHowever, the price would go down quickly as we get more samples from Mars of the order of tons of material. You'd only return as much as was needed for the scientific research you need to do due to the high price of return of material from Mars, once it becomes something you can do routinely.Also, individuals might also want to buy Mars rocks, but only for as long as they are rare. This would be like supporting a lunar mission by returning and selling Moon rock. The first few rocks could be valuable to collectors, and if they were issued with a certificate of authenticity as the first rocks to be returned from Mars or the Moon maybe the first few rocks would retain their value. But longer term, how many people would want to buy into something of continually reducing value?There are also the products of past life. On the surface - all of that has been pretty much completely destroyed by cosmic radiation. But - could there be deposits set down by ancient life below the surface, like our oil and gas and oil shale deposits.You'd think they must be rare or we would have spotted them on the surface. There's no sign at all of outcrops of oil shale. But on the other hand - cosmic radiation is very damaging. Would there be anything left of a surface oil shale deposit after billions of years?It's an exponential process so you get very rapid reductions. Every 650 million years you get a 1000 fold reduction in the concentrations of small organic molecules such as amino acids on the surface because of cosmic radiation. So that's a million fold reduction every 1.3 billion years.Cosmic radiation has little effect over time periods of years, decades, centuries or millennia. But over time periods of hundreds of millions of years the effects are huge. After 1.3 billion years, a thousand tons of amino acids gets reduced to a kilogram, with the rest converted mainly to gases like carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane and ammonia. After 2.6 billion years it's down to a microgram (millionth of a gram) and after 3.9 billion years you are down to less than a picogram (a millionth of a microgram) of your original thousand tons deposit.So, I don't think absence of these deposits on the surface, at least not easy to see from satellites, really shows that they don't exist below the surface. There could be millions of tons of organics from past life ten meters below the surface, and our rovers so far would probably not spot a thing. The organics of course also have to be there in the first place (surely likely to be patchy, in some places more than in others) and buried quickly - if it took several hundred million years to bury them, much of the organics would be gone also.Oil itself is surely not worth the trouble of mining to return to Earth. But if there was some unique biological product on Mars that we don't have on Earth - which you could mine to find there, maybe that could be worth returning to Earth.Ordinary Earth life on Mars, e.g. vegetables, fruit, decorative flowers or whatever. Perhaps Mars could be a "garden planet" to export food to orbit and space colonies.Mars would be competitive with Earth for export of food due to the much lower launch cost. But what about greenhouses in space.This would require it to be much easier to build a greenhouse on the surface than in space, otherwise you'd grow them in space. Since it's a near vacuum and also with the large diurnal swings in temperature, I'm not sure that it has much by way of advantages over, say, Phobos or Deimos, or indeed the Moon which has much less delta v than Mars. Even for Mars orbit, it could be as economical or more so to export from the Moon. See section above: Greenhouse construction - comparison of the Moon and MarsIt could be economical to export from Mars to Mars orbit perhaps for food that can spoil quickly. Another thought, if the natural Mars gravity was an advantage though, and easier to use than artificial gravity, perhaps it could be worthwhile.It could also be worth doing if conditions on Mars let you produce unusual food or decorative plants more easily. E.g. rare flowers that are very expensive to grow elsewhere, or unusual and rare newfood stuffs that grow best on Mars for some reason, perhaps genetically designed for Mars conditions. This is related to the next topic:Continuing toProducts of present day life. If Mars has interestingly different biology, maybe RNA based, maybe XNA, or not a DNA type chemical basis at all - you might find it worthwhile to grow Mars micro-organisms in Mars greenhouses or special habitats on Mars designed to make conditions conducive for them - to make products useful for Earth.Or genetically engineered biology that grows best in Mars conditions for some reason (actually responds well to the near vacuum, and extreme swings of temperature for instance)Products you could export could includeMedicines, if Mars life produces products of value for human healthSpices and special foods - if the extraterrestrial biology is especially tasty and is safe to eat but can't be grown on Earth, e.g. safe once processed but not safe to return to Earth and grow here while alive.Chemicals, e.g. if Mars life consists of XNA and the XNA is valuable, you could make large quantities on Mars to export to Earth.Nano structures - makes products that are unusual and useful on the nanoscale.For this to work there must be some reason they can't be grown on EarthNeeds Mars conditions of near vacuum, huge temperature differences from day to night, and it's easier to grow on Mars than simulate Mars conditions on EarthCan't be grown on Earth at all for safety reasons - e.g. photosynthetic life that's more efficient than any Earth based photosynthetic life, or depends on symbiotic microbes that would be harmful to the environment of Earth if returned here, or is the product of such microbes,Can grow on Earth but easier to grow on Mars.Especially if the life is so different that it's potentially hazardous to return the life itself to Earth - or if it depends on conditions that occur naturally on Mars or are easier to create on Mars than on Earth. This case might be another reason to be really careful not to contaminate Mars with Earth life, so that you can grow the native Mars life without interference from Earth life to make the unique products that result from Mars life.Even if you can't grow the products safely on Earth, at some point you'd have the capability to grow them in Stanford Torus type habitats, biologically isolated from Earth and designed to mimic Mars conditions. Still, by the time that's feasible, export costs from Mars could go down as prices of such habitats go down, so keeping Mars competitive.Geological deposits. With the dry ice, low atmospheric pressure, cosmic radiation, things will be different from Earth in some respects. For one clear example, its salt deposits are made up of sulfates and perchlorates rather than chlorides as on Earth. Not that those are worth returning, but could it have other more valuable deposits that we don't have on Earth, or rarely so? Could it have unique rare gemstone?Opals from Mars. In 2013, the Mars Reconnaissance orbiter found evidence of large deposits of opals (hydrated silica) on Mars. Now most of that won't be gemstones, just deposits of silica modified by water. But could it have valuable gemstones there? Might the opals have markings unique to the way they formed on Mars? This orbital discovery was backed up by discovery of trace amounts of opal in a Mars meteorite in 2015.Raw opal found in Andamooka South Australia - photo credit CR PetersIt's different from asteroids also - which don't have those ancient seas deposits you have on Mars or the climate.But right now, I don’t think we have anything that would be worth returning from Mars except scientific understanding of course.What about:Gold from Mars (or substitute platinum, or titanium, or whatever you think is especially valuable that you could find on Mars). For gold, perhaps the geological processes on Mars involving water in its past have concentrated deposits of precious metals just as they do on Earth? It's also surely had many iron / nickel asteroids hit the planet so may have deposits of platinum, gold etc for similar reasoning to Dennis Wingo's reasoning for the Moon. Indeed more so, because it is closer to the asteroid belt so gets hit by them more often.Remember, thatyou have to do all the work to actually run the gold mine on Mars, and then send it into orbit.the price of gold is going to go down as it becomes available from space - or else the amount you can sell to Earth gets regulated to keep prices artificially high.if it is viable from Mars, it’s likely to be viable from other places too, particularly, robotic mining of asteroids may undercut you, and then you’d get less for the price of your gold than you spent out mining it, if robot mining of asteroids costs less.there may be much easier of access sources of platinum, gold etc from the Moon if Dennis Wingo is right. If you can get the transport costs from the Moon down to almost zero by using Hoyt's cislunar transport system or similar, it would be very hard to compete with that from Mars.if the mines are operated by humans on Mars, you have to pay for all the supplies to the miners on Mars which could amount to trillions of dollars a year, before you can turn a profit. For telerobotic or robotic mining you have to pay for the telerobot replacement, maintenance and repair and you also have to pay for all the equipment needed, drilling machinery etc.So, in short, it has to be competitive with platinum, gold etc mined elsewhere in the solar system, and you have to bear in mind that either, the prices you can get from Earth will surely go down. On the other hand if the material you are mining is very valuable, and launch costs are low, perhaps the margin due to cost of export from Mars doesn't make such a big difference. E.g. suppose the launch costs a few hundred million dollars but you are returning tons of material, worth billions of dollars, perhaps it doesn't matter so much that a few percent of your product's price is due to transport. Maybe other elements of the price such as mining are somewhat less expensive than they are for asteroids?However for this to work, there has to be a reason why other elements of the cost of mining are low. Asteroids and the Moon have the advantages of:Iron rich asteroids consist of pure metal, not oxidized.There may be easy robotic ways to extract it e.g. using gas carbonyls, no need for drilling as this turns the metal directly into gasMuch lower delta v requirements than Mars for some of the NEOs, and in case of the Moon could even be zero delta v with Hoyt's cislunar tether transport system.Seems unlikely that the thin Mars atmosphere would help. Would the Mars gravity help, or be a hindrance? And the large temperature swings from day to night, could they help in any way?Getting colonists to pay from their fee for the passage out to Mars.If you get colonists who pay in advance for their flight out to Mars - and they use the Mars Colonial Transporter - a 100 people at a time, if SpaceX succeed in producing that spaceship - then the spacecraft has to come back to Earth after every run to transport colonists to Mars, and would be able to take exports with it, which is essentially free transport. So there would be a multiplier effect there of the original passage fee.However unless the products are already worth returning for one of the other reasons, then at most they could get back their original passage fee by selling the material. Otherwise you'd have a case for sending empty colonial transporter ships to Mars just to return the products.If this happened, you'd get exports, yes, for as long as the colony continues to expand rapidly. However, that's not a businss case, as it's not going to be sustainable, as a way of supporting a colony there. Even if they can get their money for the flight back from the goods returned from Mars, they then have to support themselves on Mars indefinitely, not just pay for the flight out. And with increasing numbers of colonists on Mars, you'd need exponentially increasing numbers of colonists going out there to support them with the passage fees. If you get increasing numbers of spaceships sent there to send them their supplies, again you need to pay for that somehow.So, I don't think relying on the nearly empty transporter as it returns to Earth as a way to support the colony is likely to work long term. It works only as long as you have exponentially increasing numbers of colonists going to Mars and nobody coming back or few people coming back.Export of water from Deimos for use as fuel in LEO if there is water ice on Deimos.This is the premise of the Deimos Water Company by David Kuck. Delta v back to Earth is much less and you can produce your own fuel for the journey.This is a closely related question - looks into what goods might exist on Mars already worthwhile for Earth - where in my answer I suggest possibility of biologically produced materials on Mars from the past, deep millions of tons deposits - wouldn't expect any trace of them on the surface because of cosmic radiation.Robert Walker's answer to What materials are there on Mars that are of value to Earth?For more background to this, seeWhy Elon Musk's Colony on Mars in 2020s is Unfeasible - What Could We Do - Really?Trouble With Terraforming MarsImagined Colours Of Future Mars - What Happens If We Treat A Planet As A Giant Petri Dish?Would Microbes From This Astronaut Make It Impossible For Anyone To Terraform Mars - Ever?How Valuable is Pristine Mars for Humanity - Opinion Piece?Why Mars is NOT a Great Place to Live - Amazing to Explore From Orbit - with RC Rovers, and Nature Inspired AvatarsThis is now one of the chapters of my Case For Moon First - an update of m previous answer here.