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What are the future prospects after becoming a CMA?

Thanks for A2A but I think institute has provided answer in detail ,Pls go through the same!The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory body under an Act of Parliament)Career ProspectsProfessional Avenues In this globalised world, organizations require professionals such as Cost Accountants (CMAs) who have specialized knowledge on business strategy and value creation. The Cost Accountant being the foundation on which the enterprises are built, the specialized education and training by the Institute make the Cost Accountant a multi-faceted professional. CMAs are driving force in all economic activities, as they are the value creator, value enabler, value preserver and value reporter.Cost Accountants are in great demand in government sector, private sector, banking & finance sector, developmental agencies, education, training & research sector as well as in service and public utility sector. Further, in view of their specialized knowledge and training, CMAs may hold top management position in public and private sectors’ enterprises like Chairman cum Managing Directors, Managing Director, Finance Director, Financial Controller, Chief Financial Officer, Cost Controller, Marketing Manager and Chief Internal Auditor and other important positions.Those CMAs managing their own businesses have found themselves as a Manager and as an Accountant can control and thereby flourish their businesses. There is no doubt that a Cost Accountant can attain the highest ladder of professional career.There is a sustained demand for qualified, trained and experienced cost accountants in India and abroad in different industries and Government Departments. Many members of the Institute are also engaged in providing professional and cost consultancy services and in teaching cost and management accountancy in Universities and Colleges.Cost accountancy edges over financial accounting. Cost accounting promotes study and adoption of scientific methods to secure maximum efficiency in industrial, commercial and other spheres, as compared to financial accounting. Financial accounting mainly draws conclusions on the basis of post facto data long after the operations are put through and expenditure were incurred enabling score keeping or at best statistical analysis. Therefore, role of cost accountants go beyond a financial accountant and they help the management in regulating production operations and processes of production.The members of the Institute are the driving force in the team of management while in employment, and as Cost Auditors, Internal Auditors, Auditors in case of VAT, Excise, SEBI, NSDL and under other statutes/ Regulatory requirements, Advisors and Consultants in practice. There are several areas of practice available for Cost Accountants, a list of which is given below:Independent practiceThere is vast scope for practice by a Cost Accountant for which he has to obtain Practice Certificate from the Institute. Details in this regard are available in the “Membership Section” of the Institute website: A Cost Accountant may set up the practice at his own as Proprietor or set up a new partnership firm with like-minded Cost Accountants in practice or may be admitted as new partner in the existing firm of Cost Accountants in practice. His clientele include private and public companies, large, medium and small scale undertakings, partnership and proprietary concerns, industrial, commercial and service undertakings etc. For practicing Cost Accountants the Institute issued suggested fees guidelines, which may be seen at are several areas of practice available for Cost Accountants, which are as follows:Professional Avenues for CMAs in PracticeS. No.Statute/AuthorityDescriptionAAudit Assignments(i)Central Goods & Services Tax Act, 2017Audit of Accounts & Records under Section 35(5) of Central Goods & Service Tax Act, 2017.Special Audit under Section 66(1) of Central Goods & Service Tax Act, 2017.Access to business premises under Section 71.(ii)Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC)Special Audit under Section 14A & 14AA of the Central Excise Act, 1944 of Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC).Special Audit in certain cases under Section 11 of Customs Act, 1962, as authorized by Central Board Excise and Customs.(iii)Companies Act, 2013 Section 148 (2)Vide Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014, G.S.R. No. 425 (E) dated 1st July, 2014 under section 148(2), ibid Cost Accountants are exclusively authorized to appoint as Cost Auditor and conduct Cost Audit as per the provisions of the Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014.(iv)Companies Act, 2013 Section 138 (1)Section 138(1) of the Companies Act, 2013 empowers the Cost Accountants/Firms of Cost Accountant to conduct the Internal Audit of the Class of Companies. Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 issued by the Government vide GSR 239 (E) dated 31st March, 2014 defines the class of companies in which the Cost Accountants/Firms of Cost Accountant can be appointed/empanelled as Internal Auditor.(v)Ministry of FinanceSpecial Audit under Customes Act, 1962 vide Circular no. 88/98-Customs., Dated 02/12/1998 issued by Ministry of Finance, Department of Revenue for Liberalisation of bonding procedures in respect of 100% EOUs;(vi)Ministry of Health & Family WelfareInternal Audit/Concurrent Audit under National Health Mission (NHM) as empowered by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, New Delhi.(vii)Ministry of Road Transport and HighwaysModel Concession Agreement (MCA) on infrastructure for PPP Projects in Highways empowered by Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.(viii)National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)Stock audit for Working Capital Finance as prescribed by National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD).(ix)National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL)Internal and Concurrent Audit for depository operations under National Securities Depository Ltd (NSDL).(x)Respective Bank CircularsStock Audit, Concurrent Audit, Forensic Audit and other professional services of various Public Sector and Private Sector Banks in India. Please referAnnexure – I.(xi)State Co-operative Societies ActFinancial Audit of Cooperative Societies in states Maharashtra, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh and West Bengal.(xii)State Co-operative Societies ActSpecial Audit i.e. Cost Audit and Performance Audit of co-operative societies under the respective Co-operative Societies Act of West Bengal, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Punjab, and Delhi.(xiii)Respective State Govt. CircularsInternal Audit in various State Public Sector Enterprises in Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh & Odisha.(xiv)Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI)Half-yearly Internal Audit of Stock Brokers and Credit Rating Agencies as prescribed by Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI).(xv)Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI)Stock Brokers and Credit Rating Agencies as prescribed by Securities Exchange Board of India.(xvi)Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI)Internal audit of Registrars to an Issue / Share Transfer Agents (RTAs) .(xvii)Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI)Audit for Metering and Billing Accuracy – authorised to conduct audit for Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI).(xviii)Various State VAT Act/ RulesStatutory Auditors under Value Added Tax Act of States. Please referAnnexure – II.BCertification Areas(i)Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Department of Industrial Policy and PromotionCertificate for verification of Local content in case of procurement for a value in excess of Rs. 10 Crores. ( Order No. P-45021/2/2017-B.E.-II dated 15th June, 2017 on Public Procurement (Preference to Make in India), Order, 2017).(ii)Companies Act, 2013Certifying e-forms which are to be filled by companies under Companies Act and Rules.(iii)Central Excise Act, 1944Certificate of Cost of production of captively consumed goods as per Rule 8 of Central Excise Act, 1944 in accordance with Cost Accounting Standard CAS – 4 issued by the Institute.(iv)Central Excise Valuation (Determination of Price of Excisable Goods) Rules, 2000Certificate for Average Cost of Transportation as per Rule 5 of the Central Excise Valuation (Determination of Price of Excisable Goods) Rules, 2000.(v)Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC)Certification of various forms prescribed under the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC).(vi)Customs Act, 1962Certificate towards the amount of duty paid on the materials used for the manufacture of exported goods as indicated in Forms DBK-I,II, IIA,III, IIIA under Customs Act, 1962.(vii)Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity (DAVP)Certificate towards the authenticated figures of circulation, as per the Annexure XII of the DAVP guidelines representing a statement signed by the both publisher and Cost Accountant with their officials seals giving the details of newsprint and ink stored and consumed during the period.(viii)Fertilizer Industry Coordination Committee (FICC)Certificate of product wise position of production dispatches stock etc. for the year (Annexure III–A) under FICC.(ix)Fertilizer Industry Coordination Committee (FICC)Issuance of various certificates as prescribed by Fertilizer Industry Coordination Committee (FICC) in respect of certifying Cost Data for Subsidy Scheme, Transportation Claims, Escalation Claims and Equalize Freight Claims.(x)Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999Valuation Certificate under Notification No. FEMA.298/2014-RB: Foreign Exchange Management (Transfer of Issue of Security by a Person Resident Outside India) (Third Amendment) Regulations, 2014 dated 13th March, 2014.(xi)Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA)Certification of Application for License and renewal thereof to act as Surveyor and Loss Assessor under Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA)(xii)Ministry of Commerce and IndustryIssuance of various certificates under Foreign Trade Policy & Procedures 2015-20 and Aayat Niryat (Import and Export) Forms (ANF). Vide http://F.No.01/94/180/468-Appendices/AM12/PC4 dated 11th October 2012, Cost Accountants are authorized to authenticate various forms and statements, under Foreign Trade Policy & Procedures 2015-20 issued by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Please referAnnexure – III.(xiii)Ministry of Commerce and IndustryCertifying Performa CI & C2 under Anti–Dumping as prescribed by Ministry of Commerce & Industry.(xiv)Ministry of Commerce and IndustryCertifying Statement of cost of production for Anti-dumping petition to Government of India.(xv)Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public DistributionAnnual utilization certificate under Incentive Scheme for New Sugar Factories and Expansion Projects vide Notification No. F.3 (4)/89-PC/Vol.IV of Ministry of Food Dated 28th February, 1997.(xvii)Ministry of TextileCertificate of fulfillment of Hank Yarn obligation for Textile Industry and Textile Committee Cess – Monthly Return in Form – A.(xviii)National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA)Certification of various Forms as mentioned in SECOND SCHEDULE of Drugs (Prices Control) Order, 1995;(xix)Reserve Bank of India (RBI)Compliance Certificate of Reserve Bank of India for Scheduled Banks/ Urban Development Banks/ Urban Co-operative Banks in respect of Consortium Arrangement / Multiple Banking Arrangements.(xx)Reserve Bank of India (RBI)Valuation Certificate as per RBI Circular No.2006-2007/224 DBOD.BP.BC No. 50 / 21.04.018/ 2006-07 dated January 4, 2007 for valuation of different classes of assets (e.g. land and building, plant and machinery, agricultural land, etc.)(xxi)Rubber Board Rubber Rules, 1955Certifying half yearly return in Form ‘N’ for Quantity of Rubber purchased & consumed by manufacturers under rule 33 (f) of the Rubber Rules, 1955.(xxii)Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI)Reporting and Audit for System on Accounting Separation- Certification Work Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI).(xxiii)e-MudhraJoin us as a Partner for issuing e-Mudhra Digital Certificates. of Finance, Department of ExpenditureCertification regarding average annual financial turnover of bidder :Annexure 9 Sample Prequalification Criteria of Manual for Procurement of Goods 2017CCompanies Act, 2013(i)Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014As per Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014, the class of companies which also include foreign companies, are required to maintain “Cost Records”. Cost accountant in practice may assist the company to maintain the Cost Records as per the Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014.(ii)Section 2(38)An expert who has the power or authority to issue a certificate in pursuance of any law for the time being in force.(iii)Section 7(1)(b)Declaration in the prescribed form no. INC.8. form no.INC 14 that the memorandum and articles have been drawn as per the provisions and in conformity.(iv)Form DIR – 12Sections 7(1)(c), 168 & 170(2) and rule 17 of the Companies (Incorporation) Rules 2014 and 8, 15 & 18 of the Companies (Appointment and Qualification of Directors) Rules, 2014 – Particulars of appointment of Directors and the Key Managerial Personnel and the changes among them in form no. DIR 12.(v)Form INC – 14Declaration that the draft memorandum and articles of association have been drawn up in conformity with the provisions of section 8 in form No. INC.14.(vi)Form INC – 21Section 11(1)(a) read with Rule 24 of the Companies (Incorporation) Rules, 2014- Declaration prior to commencement of business or exercising borrowing powers in form No. INC 21.(vii)Form INC – 22Section 12(2) & (4) and Rule 25 and 27 of The Companies (Incorporation) Rules 2014- Notice of situation or change of situation of registered office in form no. INC 22.(viii)Form – PAS 3Section 39(4) and 42 (9) and Rule 12 and 14 Companies (Prospectus and Allotment of Securities) Rules, 2014- Return of Allotment in form no. PAS 3.(ix)Form – SH7Section 64(1) and pursuant to Rule 15 of the Companies (Share Capital & Debentures) Rules, 2014 - Notice to Registrar of any alteration of share capital in form no. SH 7.(x)Form – CHG 9Sections 71(3), 77, 78 & 79 and pursuant to Section 384 read with 71(3), 77, 78 and 79 and Rule 3 of The Companies (Registration of charges) Rules 2014 Application for registration of creation or modification of charge for debentures or rectification of particulars filed in respect of creation or modification of charge for debentures in form no. CHG 9.(xi)Form – CHG 1Sections 77, 78 and 79 and pursuant to Section 384 read with 77, 78 and 79 andRule 3(1) of the Companies (Registration of Charges) Rules 2014- Registration of creation, modification of charge (other than those related to debentures) including particulars of modification of charge by Asset Reconstruction Company in terms of Securitization and Reconstruction of Finance Assets and Enforcement of Securities Act, 2002 (SARFAESI) in form no. CHG 1.(xii)Form – CHG 4Section 82(1) and Rule 8(1) of the Companies (Registration of charges) Rules 2014- Particulars of satisfaction of charges thereof in form no. CHG 4.(xiii)Form – MGT 14Section 94(1), 117(1) and section 192 – The Companies Act, 1956- Filing of resolutions and agreements to the Registrar in form no. MGT 14.(xiv)Section 137Under form no. AOC – 4 disclosures of related party transactions.(xv)Section 143Report to the Central Government if a fraud is being or has been committed against the company by officers or employees of the company.(xvi)Section 149(4)Section 149 (4) read with Rule 5 of the Companies (Appointment and Qualification of Directors) Rules, 2014: Independent Director Possess skills, experience and knowledge in one or more fields inter alia finance to be an Independent Director.(xvii)Section 153Section 153 and & Rule 9(1) of The Companies (Appointment and Qualification of Directors) Rules, 2014 & Rule 10 of Limited Liability Partnership Rules, 2009: Digital verification of the Form DIR-3: Application for allotment of Director Identification Number(xviii)Section 196Section 196 read with Section 197 and Schedule V of the Companies Act, 2013 and pursuant to Rule 3 of the Companies (Appointment and Remuneration of Managerial Personnel) Rules 2014- Return of appointment of key managerial personnel in form no. MR 1(xix)Section 196, 197, 200, 201(1), 203(1)Section 196, 197, 200, 201(1), 203(1) and Schedule V & Rule 7 of the Companies (Appointment and Remuneration of Managerial Personnel) Rules 2014- Form of application to the Central Government for approval of appointment and remuneration or increase in remuneration or waiver for excess or over payment to Managing Director or Whole Time Director or Manager and commission or remuneration to Directors in form no. MR 2.(xx)Section 232(7)Declaration of compliance alongwith Statement to be filed with Registrar of Companies.(xxi)Section 247(1)Eligible to apply for being registered as a valuer.(xxii)Section 259(1)Appointment as Company Administrator by the tribunal.(xxiii)Section 275(1)Appointment as Company liquidator for winding up of the Company.(xxiv)Section 366Application by a company for registration in Form No. URC–1.(xxv)Section 409(3)Appointment as Technical person of Tribunal (15 years of experience is required)(xxvi)Section 432Appearance in the Tribunal for public examination of promoters/directors.(xxvii)Section 455(1)Section 455(1) read with Rule 3 of The Companies (Miscellaneous) Rules, 2014 – Application to Registrar for obtaining the status of dormant company in form no. MSC 1(xxviii)Section 455(5)Section 455(5) and Rule 7 and 8 of the Companies (Miscellaneous) Rules, 2014- Return of dormant companies in form no. MSC 3.(xxix)Rule 5(2)Nidhi Rules, 2014- Return of statutory compliances in form no. NDH 1.(xxx)Rule 5(3)Nidhi Rules, 2014- Application for extension of time in form no. NDH 2.(xxxi)Rule 21Nidhi Rules, 2014- Half yearly return in form no. NDH 3.(xxxii)Rule 8(8)As per Companies (Registration Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014, documents or form or application filed may contain a power of attorney issued to Cost Accountant.(xxxiii)Form GNL – 1Rule 12(2) of the companies (Registration offices and Fees) Rules, 2014- Form for filing an application with Registrar of Companies in form no. GNL 1.(xxxiv)Form GNL – 3Rule 12(3) of the Companies (Registration offices and Fees) Rules, 2014 – Particulars of person(s) or key managerial personnel charged or specified for the purpose of sub-clause (iii) or (iv) of clause 60 of Section 2 in form no. GNL 3.(xxxv)Rule 20(3)(ix)Rule 20(3)(ix) of the Companies (Management and Administration) Rules, 2014: Scrutinizer for supervising the Voting through electronic means (e-voting) process.(xxxvi)Form INC – 28Rule 31 of Companies (Incorporation) Rules, 2014 – Notice of the order of the Court or any other competent authority in form no. INC – 28.DOther Statutory Work(i)Calcutta High CourtValuer: Members can now apply directly as ‘Valuer’ for empanelment of Calcutta High Court.(ii)Securities and Exchange Board of India Infrastructure Investment Trusts Regulations, 2014Authorized to act as “Valuer” in respect of financial valuation under section 2(zzf) of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Infrastructure Investment Trusts Regulations, 2014 as amended on 30.11.2016.(iii)Securities and Exchange Board of India (Real Estate Investment Trusts) Regulations, 2014Authorized to act as “Valuer” in respect of financial valuation under section 2(zz) of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Real Estate Investment Trusts) Regulations, 2014 as amended on 30.11.2016.(iv)Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT)Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT): CBDT vide their Notification no. S.O. 2670(E) recognized Cost Accountants as e-return intermediaries;(v)Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC)Accepting of services of the Cost Accountant’s may also be considered by the respective Commissionrates depending upon the extent of complexity of the cases as provided under Circular No.04/2006 dated 12th January, 2006 modified and its inclusion in the assessed value as extended cost of transportation;(vi)Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC)Audit of accounts of SEZ developer as directed by the Commissioner of Customs/Central Excise [refer Circular No. 52/2002-Customs dated 14th August, 2002];(vii)Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC)Certified Facilitation Centers (CFCs) – under ACES-CBEC Scheme: As per MOU with CBEC, Ministry of Finance, Cost Accountants in whole-time practice are authorized to set up Certified Facilitation Centers (CFCs) under Certified Facilitation Centre Scheme in filing various Excise and Service Tax Returns under the provisions of Central Excise Act and Service Tax Act;(viii)Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC)Computation of freight of time chartered/daughter vessel and its inclusion in the assessed value as extended cost of transportation [refer Circular No.04/2006 dated 12th January, 2006].(ix)Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC)Custom Broker: Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC) Amended Customs Brokers Licensing Regulations, 2013 and included the Cost Accountant qualification for Customs Brokers Examination to be held from the year 2017 onwards;(x)Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC)Ministry of Finance amended Circular No.18/2010 Customs dated 08.07.2010 vide Circular No 01/ 2012-Customs dated 5th January 2012 to authorize inter alia Cost Accountants to issue a certificate, certifying that burden of 4% CVD has not been passed on by the importers to any other person;(xi)Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC)The Commissioner of Customs/Central Excise may direct the concerned developer to get his accounts audited by a Cost Accountant nominated by him in this behalf. The expenses of and incidental to such audit shall be borne by the concerned developer, vide Circular No. 52/2002-Customs dated 14th August, 2002;(xii)Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC)Under Rules 6 and 7 of the Customs and Central Excise Duties Drawback Rules, 1995, the exporters may be asked to furnish the purchase invoice as to the procurement of the raw hides/wet blue leather. They should also furnish a certificate inter alia from the Cost Accountant as to the consumption and cost of processing chemicals used for its processing and other incidental overhead charges incurred;(xiii)Customs Act, 1962Certification of refund of additional duty of Customs on the goods imported for subsequent sale under Indian Customs Act;(xiv)Central Excise Valuation (Determination of Price of Excisable Goods) Rules, 2000Valuation Certificate for Cost of goods produced for Captive Consumption, in accordance with Cost Accounting Standard CAS – 4 issued by the Institute, under Rule 8 of the Central Excise Valuation (Determination of Price of Excisable Goods) Rules, 2000;(xv)Central Excise Valuation (Determination of Price of Excisable Goods) Rules, 2000Certificate for Average Cost of Transportation, in accordance with Cost Accounting Standard CAS – 5 issued by the Institute, under Rule 5 of the Central Excise Valuation (Determination of Price of Excisable Goods) Rules, 2000;(xvi)Customs Valuation (Determination of Value of Export Goods) Rules, 2007Under Rule 5 of Customs valuation (Determination of Value of Export Goods) Rules, 2007, the proper officer shall give due consideration to the cost-certificate issued by a Cost Accountant;(xvii)Customs Act, 1962Under the Fixation of brand rate of Drawback without pre-verification – Simplified procedure Scheme, unless there are any special reasons, drawback rates are to be fixed without pre-verification of the date filed, (which should be duly verified by the applicant and Cost Accountant or Chartered Accountant or Chartered Engineers) and the exporter would be authorised by provisional brand rate letters issued by the Ministry to claim the drawback rate considered admissible from the concerned Customs House(s);(xviii)Indian Council of ArbitrationAs Arbitrator: The Indian Council of Arbitration authorizes Cost Accountants and Cost Accounting Firms for empanelment in the panel of arbitrators under the category of financial experts;(xix)Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016Regulation 5 and 9 of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Insolvency Professionals) Regulations, 2016authorized to act as an Insolvency Professional as per the section 206 and 207 of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016;(xx)Foreign Exchange Management (Transfer or Issue of Security by a Person Resident Outside India) Regulations, 2017Regulation 11 of the Foreign Exchange Management (Transfer or Issue of Security by a Person Resident Outside India) Regulations, 2017 authorises Cost Accountant in practice for valuation of capital instruments of an Indian company and also under Schedule 2 - Purchase/ Sale of capital instruments of a listed Indian company on a recognised stock exchange in India by Foreign Portfolio Investors and Schedule 6 - Investment in a Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) for valuation on an arm’s length basis as per pricing methodology.(xxi)Companies (Registered Valuers and Valuation) Rules, 2017Under Annexure IV of the Companies (Registered Valuers and Valuation) Rules, 2017, the Member of the Institute of Cost Accountants of India are recognised as Registered Valuer for valuation of Securities or Financial Assets.(xxii)Indian Banks Association (IBA)Recognized Firms of Cost Accountants for Empanelment as Forensic Auditor for frauds.Reserve Bank of India mandated that in respect of all borrowing arrangement exceeding Rs. 500 crores, an Independent Evaluation Committee (IEC) would carry out an evaluation of the Techno-Economic Viability (TEV) and the proposed restructuring package. Number of Cost Accountants are members of “Independent Evaluation Committees (IEC) “.Advised all members Banks to engage Cost Accountants/Firms of Cost Accountants for Stock Audit and Risk Based Internal Audit and other Banking operations.(xxiii)Maharashtra unaided Private Professional Educational ( Regulation of Admissions and Fees ) Act,2015Member of Fee Regulating Authority under Maharashtra unaided Private Professional Educational ( Regulation of Admissions and Fees ) Act,2015EAppearance as an Authorized Representative(i)Companies Act, 2013(a) Right to legal representation: Section 432 of the Companies Act 2013;(b) Rights of a party to appear before the Bench: Regulation 19(2) of Company Law Board Regulations, 1991;(ii)Competition Commission of India (CCI)(a) Appearance before Commission:Section 35 of the Competition (Amendment) Act, 2007;(b) Right to legal representation: Appeal to the Appellate Tribunal: Section 53(1) of the Competition (Amendment) Act, 2007;(iii)Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC)(a) Appearance by Authorized Representative: Section 35Q of the Central Excises Act, 1944;(b) Appearance by Authorized Representative: Section 146A of the Customs Act, 1962;(c) Appearance by Authorized Representative: Rule 2(c) of Customs, Excise and Gold (Control) Appellate Tribunal (Procedure) Rules, 1982;(iv)Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC)Authority to represent before the Commission: vide Notification No. 8/ (1)/99/CERC dated 27th August, 1999;(v)Depositories Act, 1996Right to Legal Representations: Section 23C, Explanation (c) of Depositories Act, 1996;(vi)Income Tax Act, 1961Appearance by Authorized Representative:Section 288 of the Income Tax Act 1961 read with Rule 50 of the Income Tax Rules, 1962;(vii)Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016Right to legal representation: Section 56 of the Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016;(viii)Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI)Right to Legal Representations: Clause 22C under Conditions for listing: Chapter IV of Listing of Securities;(ix)Service TaxAppearance by Authorized Representative:Section 96D (5) of the Service Tax Act 1994;(x)Special Economic Zone (SEZ)Rights of appellant to appear before the Board: Rule 61 of the Special Economic Zone Rules 2006;(xi)Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI)Right to Legal Representation before Appellate Tribunal as per Section 17 of TRAI Act, 1997;(xii)Value Added Tax Acts/ RulesCost Accountants are authorized to appear before authorities under VAT Acts/ Rules of various State Government(s).(xiii)Central Goods & Services Tax Act, 2017.Appearance by authorized representative under Section 116 of Central Goods & Services Tax Act, 2017.FReserve Bank of India(a)For Valuation of Properties - Empanelment of Valuers. (Circular no. RBI No.2006-2007/224 DBOD.BP.BC No. 50/21.04.018/ 2006-07 January 4, 2007).(b)For certification of borrowal companies in respect of Lending under Consortium Arrangement/ Multiple Banking Arrangements. (Circular No. RBI/2008-2009/379 DBOD. No. BP.BC.110/08.12.001/2008-09 dated 10thFebruary, 2009).(c)For certification of borrowal companies in respect of Lending under Consortium Arrangement / Multiple Banking Arrangements. (Circular No. RBI/2008-2009/382 UBD. PCB.No. 49 /13.05.000/2008-09 dated 12thFebruary, 2009)(d)In respect of the Forensic Scrutiny – Guidelines for prevention of frauds (Circular no. RBI/2010-11/555 DBS. CO.FrMC.BC.No.10/ 23.04.001/2010-11 dated 31stMay, 2011 read with Circular no. RBI/2008-09/508 DBS.CO.FrMC.Bc.No.8 /23.04.001/2008-09 dated June 24, 2009 on Frauds in borrowal accounts having multiple banking arrangements and Circular no. RBI/2008-2009/183 DBOD No BP BC 46 / 08.12.001/2008-09 dated September 19, 2008 on Lending under Consortium Arrangement/ Multi Banking Arrangements).(e)For Certificate indicating fair price of capital contribution/profit share of an LLP and a valuation certificate- Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) (Circular no. RBI/201314/566 A.P. (DIR Series) Circular No. 123 dated April 16, 2014).(f)For Certificate in respect of Foreign Investment in India (Circular no. RBI/2014-15/6 Master Circular No.15/2014-15 July 01, 2014 (Amended upto February 09, 2015).(g)For certification in respect of Loans and Advances – Statutory and Other Restrictions for Lending under Consortium Arrangement/Multiple Banking Arrangement (Circular no. RBI/2014-15/64 DBOD.No.Dir.BC. 16/13.03.00/2014-15 July 1, 2014).(h)For Certification in respect of Guarantees, Co-Acceptances & Letters of Credit – UCBs (Circular no. RBI/2013-14/19 UBD.BPD.(PCB) MC No.4/09.27.000/2013-14 July 1, 2013).(i)For Certification in respect of Management of Advances – UCBs for Exchange of information–Lending under Consortium Arrangement/Multiple Banking Arrangements (Circular No.RBI/2014-15/21 UBD.BPD.(PCB) MC No.5/13.05.000/2014-15 July 1, 2014).(j)Valuation Certificate in respect of Foreign Exchange Management (Transfer of Issue of Security by a Person Resident Outside India) (Third Amendment) Regulations, 2014 (Notification No. FEMA.298/2014-RB: dated 13th March, 2014).(k)Valuation Certificate for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) under Master Circular No. 15/2014-15 dated 1st July, 2014.Cost Accountants in Employment:As mentioned in the beginning, the Cost Accountants are most sought in the business world. There services are deemed vital in investment planning, profit planning, project management and overall managerial decision making process. Many members of the Institute are occupying the top positions in the organizations, as Chairman & Managing Director, Managing Director, Finance Director, Financial Controller, Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Cost Controller, Marketing Manager and Chief Internal Auditor etc.Cost Accountants in Government Department:Realising the importance of the profession of the Cost and Management Accountancy in the economic development of the nation, the Central Government has constituted an all-India cadre known as Indian Cost Accounts Service (ICoAS) at par with other Class-I services such as IAS, IFS etc. to advise the government in cost pricing and in framing the appropriate fiscal and tax policies.Cost Accountants in Education:University Grants Commission (UGC) has notified “UGC Regulations on Minimum Qualifications for Appointment of Teachers and Other Academic Staff in Universities and Colleges and Measures for the Maintenance of Standards in Higher Education, 2010 vide its Circular No. F.3-1/2009 dated 30th June 2010.The Regulations prescribe the minimum qualification for appointment of teaching faculty in universities and colleges in the area of Management/ Business Administration. The qualifications specified for appointment of Assistant Professor, Associate Professor and Professor in the above area and Principal/Director/Head of the Institution include First Class Graduate and professionally qualified Cost Accountant among other qualifications and subject to other requirements including qualifying NET/SLET/SET as the minimum eligibility condition for recruitment and appointment of Assistant Professors.Further Academic pursuits:A member of the Institute can get enrolled as a member of IMA USA.Recognised by the Academic Councils of many Universities in India for the purpose of admission to the Ph.D. courses in Commerce. Various Universities have recognized CMA qualification for registration as M.Phil. and Ph.D. candidates in commerce and allied disciplines.The MoU between CIMA (The Chartered Institute of Management Accountants), UK and The Institute of Cost Accountants of India introduces a new CIMA Professional Gateway examination (available from May 2009) for the students who have successfully completed the whole of the Institute’s professional examination, enabling a ‘fast track’ route into CIMA’s Strategic level examinations, final tests of professional competence and ultimately CIMA Membership.MOU between Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU): As per MOU dated 11th July, 2008, IGNOU offers specialized http://B.Com and http://M.Com Programs for the students. The Students can simultaneously study the specialized http://B.Com (Financial & Cost Accounting) programme with the Institute’s Intermediate Course and specialized http://M.Com (Management Accounting & Financial Strategies) with the Institute’s final course.

How is being a real estate developer different than it was 20 years ago?

I speak from the experience of a South African property developer who has been in the industry for about 20 years, mostly developing residential apartment blocks.Yes, I would say it is somewhat harder currently than when I started in the business, mostly because of our position in the economic cycle, and the current bank attitude to credit extension. But I would also say it is significantly easier now than it was during the last two recessions of 1998 and 2008.Economic CycleThe property development business is hugely dependent on macro economic cycles. It seems to experience an amplified version of the boom and bust cycle of the general economy. When the economy is in recession there is no building whatsoever, you cannot borrow money, and many development companies are going into liquidation. When the economy is booming the project workload becomes unsustainably high, company overheads rocket, construction skills and materials go into short supply, and available land becomes overpriced and scarce. So boom and bust times are both hard to do business in, for different reasons. Right now we are between the extremes, and business feels controlled and slowly expanding.Development is almost impossible in a recession because it becomes too hard and expensive to borrow money, both for developers and for the purchasers of their property. In boom times the converse is true and it is very easy to find money, but it becomes surprisingly hard to find sensibly priced land and the competition to do business becomes very hard as the market becomes flooded with new developers attracted by banks' relaxed lending criteria. The good builders also become too busy, and so construction can only be carried out by inexperienced or over-extended builders, leading to a poor construction quality with many comebacks and resultant loss of reputation.South Africa was in a very sharp recession in 1998 and was dragged down by the global credit crunch in 2008. In 1998 the prime lending rate climbed to 25.5% (by way of comparison it is now 9.25%). When you consider that perhaps 80% of the cost of development is borrowed from a bank at close to that rate, it’s really very, very difficult to launch a development and make money in that sort of climate. Consumers were facing a doubling of all their home-loan and car repayments, and were lucky to hold onto their existing properties, let alone thinking about buying new ones. Developers were faced with doubling interest rate payments on their construction loans, with a sudden shortage of purchases, and were unable to make good o their loans in many cases.Both land and construction prices are on similar cycles that don’t quite align with the economic cycles. Right now, between cycles, land is getting expensive in anticipation of an upturn, and construction prices are still low, as builders try and keep their companies going, coming out of several lean years.What hasn't changed is that buildings still take a long time to design, approve, build, and sell. The developer's profit is all at risk until the very end, years in the future, and any downturn in the economy that arrives during those years can more than erase that profit. Even if you can see a downturn coming, if you have started building already, you can't just stop the project.Bank extension of creditBorrowing money reached the hardest point that I have experienced in about 2008 to 2010. Certain legislation, such as Basel 3, has made it harder for banks to lend money, nor do they have as much to lend as they used to. It is still tougher than any time before 2008, but is easing a little. This feels like a structural change to the system that is unlikely to get much better in a hurry.Leading up the 2008 crash, we were able to borrow up to 100% of the cost of a development, with extremely small contingencies in place in case things went wrong. In one surprising case, the lending was even unsecured. And to be honest, any mistakes in costing could be covered up by the rapidly increasing sales prices that could be achieved. But of course that only works while prices are rising rapidly.In about 2010 we did a project where the bank lent 65% of the project cost. Currently they will lend about 80%. Of course the balance has to be found in cash. The more cash that needs to be applied to projects, the harder it is to do many projects at the same time. With construction projects being as expensive as they are, finding up to 35% of projects costs in cash is a very big challenge.Banks also used to lend any shortfalls on their project lending by introducing you to their investment division, who would often make up some of all of the cash balance required. These departments have all been shut down now as the banks have become more risk-averse.End purchasers of homes and apartments experience similar levels of bank lending, from perhaps 80% to 100% depending on the cycle. The criteria to borrow for a property, especially a second property, have also tightened up considerably. This has effectively reduced the market size in which we can sell apartments, and means that any sales required off-plan before construction can commence take considerably longer. So when credit is hard to get, not only can you build fewer projects, but they take far longer as well.Property speculation maniaThis was something peculiar to the lead up to the 2008 crash, and I don't expect to ever see anything like it again in my career. It made launching developments stupidly easy, though there were many delivery problems as mentioned above.Compare these sales rates: in 2006 we sold 280 apartments on a single project in a fortnight; in 2010 we took two years to sell 120 similarly priced apartments. The marketing spend of the second project was four times higher than the first.At the 2006 launch purchasers were actually fighting to get their hands on one of these properties, and pushing each other away from the signing-up tables. This was near the peak of the mania. A couple of years later, many of these same purchasers were angry with us because their property values had declined so much.Corporate governance and complianceThis is one aspect of business that has grown significantly harder over the years, and shows no sign of abating. This has affected all business, not just property development, but I feel we have it harder than most. Almost every aspect of business now seems to require more forms, more registrations, more fees, inept bureaucracies, and vast tomes of every-changing legislation to be complied with. Getting it wrong, which is very easy, means fines and delays. There are many days that I feel like Kafka trying to get into the Castle.One of the most onerous here is something called FICA, which is legislation enacted to prevent money-laundering. It is simple in concept, in that anyone providing money must fully identify themselves, their address, and the source of their money. In practice, the legislation is vague and poorly written, but the penalties are onerous. The banks, who are obliged to comply with and enforce the legislation, have all come up with their own differing interpretations. If a person buys an apartment from us through a company whose shares are held by a trust, we are obliged to provide legally certified documentation on the purchasing company, its directors, its shareholders, the trustees and the beneficiaries. No mater that a beneficiary might be a toddler living halfway across the world, we need certified identity documents and proof of residence. Only certified utility bills in the name of the person are accepted as proof of residence. The various documents go stale after three months, so in theory need to be re-aquired, but in practice never are. Now multiply that by a hundred purchasers on each development and you can see what a nightmare this has become.

What does it cost to start a brewery?

MICROBREWERYA microbrewery or craft brewery is a brewery that produces a small amount of beer. Exact definitions vary, but the terms are typically applied to breweries that are much smaller than large-scale corporate breweries and are independently owned. Such breweries are generally characterized by their emphasis on quality, flavor and brewing technique.The market for microbreweries is still developing. Today, only 4-5 states have established microbreweries that are essentially resto-bars where one can consume fresh-off-the-tap beer that has been brewed in-house. These microbreweries produce between 5,000 and 50,000 litres of beer, a day. It takes about seven hours to brew each variety of beer using imported ingredients. None of it is bottled and there are no preservatives added in the process. Those who tasted the full-bodied beer offered at microbreweries abroad were left craving for freshly brewed stuff. A few decided to take matters into their hands, and set up their own microbreweries here in India. According to industry estimates, the market for such finely crafted beers currently ranges between Rs75 crore to Rs 125 crore microbeweries and it takes about Rs 6 crore on an average to set up a microbrewery., it takes about seven hours to brew each variety of beer using imported ingredients.With liquor being a state subject, microbrewery operators have to obtain a separate licence from the excise department which is a very strenuous task to say the least. To make matters worse, there are only a handful of states such as Haryana , Karnataka and Maharashtra, Punjab and West Bengal that give out microbrewery licences.THE LEGALITIESExcise, License, tax, duty & other legal requirements:Up till now we only have 3-4 Indian states with complete excise policy, but Maharashtra and Haryana were the first ones in this field. Excise policies deal with any kind of narcotics or intoxicants in alcohol/liquor industry, for which they levy taxes on the production based on fixed set of standards and guidelines. Generally this is done on per bulk liter for packaged beer in cartons and for microbreweries where there is no packaging involved. These taxes are put over the weekly or monthly production and also depend on the alcohol by volume (ABV), which is fixed for a tax rate and goes up with increase in ABV, but generally ABV in beers in microbreweries is not allowed over 8%.A microbrewery or a brewpub license is issued by the state excise government which allows the company to start operations in its microbrewery for commercial use. Earlier the price for this license was over around Rs. 10 lacs/ year which was similar to the normal commercial large scale breweries, however due to recent developments it has gone to as much as Rs. 25,000/ year. But these figures may vary from state to state, because the excise regulations are state regulated and not centralized. An average of Rs. I -2 lac/ year should be taken in to account while planning the investment of the project.If the microbrewer aspires to outset a pub in the premise, he needs to apply for a separate bar license, so that it follows the established state regulations of the respected state where he wants to establish the brewery.Importing fabrication equipments from a different state in India involves some excise over the stainless steel used and in case the equipments are imported from china, or some European countries, a custom duty will be levied upon the goods from 10-30% of the total purchase, depending on the nature of equipments, the shipment location and their use. In case of imported raw materials an excise also need to be paid for them along with the customs duty for the nature of materials that are used in the production of alcohol.Other licenses required for the setup:Commercial Electricity lineCommercial water line- Municipality/ under ground bore waterLand registration/ Lease sanctionCompany registrationWaste water disposal certificate from pollution control boardFabricated equipment quality certificate from third party inspection (loyds, SGS, etc.)Water quality testing certificate from quality control labs (SGS, etc.)Quality Control (QC) certificate of finished beer from govt. approved QC labs, on random inspection basis.EXCISE POLICIES OF DIFFERENT STATES:WEST BENGAL (came to force in 2007)The rules laid down by the Excise Department of West Bengal are as follows:Rule 79 provides that“(1) Breweries may be established for manufacture of beer for—(a) sale within West Bengal by wholesale;(b) export outside West Bengal;(c) supply out of India; and(d) for all or any of the above purposes.’Rule 80 provides that, “Any person desiring to obtain license to work a brewery or a micro-brewery in any place in West Bengal shall apply in writing to the Excise Commissioner with receipted original Challan showing deposit of a non-refundable application fee of Rs. 50,000/- for a brewery and Rs. 25,000/- for a micro-brewery. The provisions of rules 4 and 6 shall apply mutatis mutandis to such application for license.” in case of micro-brewery the fees as aforesaid shall be at the rate of Re.0.10 per bulk litre subject to a minimum of Rs. 30,000/-“HARYANAHaryana excise department provided for the following rules of microbrewery projects in clause 9.10 of the “Excise Policy for the year 2013-14 & 2014-15”L-10C LICENSE FOR PROMOTION OF MICROBREWERY PROJECT: In order to promote healthy drinking habit of liquor with low alcoholic content a license in form L-10C is granted for retail and sale of beer to be manufactured by Microbrewery Project. The license shall be granted to holders of L-4 license which deals with ‘Retail vend of foreign liquor in a Restaurant’ and L-5 license which deals with ‘Retail vend of foreign liquor in a bar attached to a restaurant’ on payment of Annual License Fee of Rs. 2.50 Lac. The excise duty shall be charged on the basis of its daily installed capacity @ Rs 18 per Bulk Litre (BL).KARNATAKA (came in force in 2010)In 2010, it was one of the first states in the country to come up with corresponding rules and policies. The city now has only four microbreweries. The Karnataka Brewery Rules, 1967 was amended to allow bars, clubs and hotels to open microbreweries. Apart from a one-time permit fee of Rs 2.5 lakh, microbreweries are required to pay excise duty of Rs. 17.5 per litre. The excise department imposed a flat tax on 50 per cent of the installed. The Rules also specify that the minimum space between the floor and ceiling of the microbrewery should be 14 feet.Excise minister MP Renukacharya said that micro-breweries were very popular in foreign countries as people preferred to savour fresh beer. “Bangalore is a fast developing global city, attracting huge visitors from abroad. Keeping these factors in mind we have decided to give micro-brewery licences for Bars (CL-9) Clubs (CL-4) Lodges and Hotels (CL-7) and Star Hotels (CL-6A),” he said.MAHARASHTRAFor a microbrewery manufacturing upto two lakh litres of beer peryear a licence in FORM BRL shall be granted. the BRL licensee manufacturing beer upto two lakh litres per year in a microbrewery, shall be allowed to sell the beer manufactured in an unbottled andunpackaged form in the premises.To know more about the Maharashtra’s state excise policies you may refer to: in India is not a prevalent culture though, but people are gradually developing their taste towards freshly made crafted beer. Earlier, not much was known about beer as its market in India was not really expanded. As the time is passing by, people are acquiring more awareness and fondness towards beer. Freshly made beer is leading the charts as nothing beats crafted beer. Some handful of states in India such as Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal and Punjab has given licenses to run microbreweries. Despite of having such license, no trace of microbrewery can be found in West Bengal. Delhi being a metropolitan, still doesn’t have a license to run their own microbrewery. Proposals have been made to the government by five star hotels, malls and private individuals for granting the license of microbreweries in Delhi to which the government says that it will consider the said issue after the Delhi State Elections in February. While Punjab got its first microbrewery in 2013.‘Microbreweries’ are not as such a distant dream it has become a reality now because steadily the states are granting licenses to run microbreweries as the people are getting more interested in the beer culture. Some believe it to be an unexplored profitable business while some are just happy with consuming its fresh and diverse flavors.

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