College Of Business And Law Application For Conference Funding In 2011 University Of: Fill & Download for Free


Download the form

How to Edit Your College Of Business And Law Application For Conference Funding In 2011 University Of Online Free of Hassle

Follow the step-by-step guide to get your College Of Business And Law Application For Conference Funding In 2011 University Of edited in no time:

  • Select the Get Form button on this page.
  • You will enter into our PDF editor.
  • Edit your file with our easy-to-use features, like adding date, adding new images, and other tools in the top toolbar.
  • Hit the Download button and download your all-set document for reference in the future.
Get Form

Download the form

We Are Proud of Letting You Edit College Of Business And Law Application For Conference Funding In 2011 University Of Seamlessly

Explore More Features Of Our Best PDF Editor for College Of Business And Law Application For Conference Funding In 2011 University Of

Get Form

Download the form

How to Edit Your College Of Business And Law Application For Conference Funding In 2011 University Of Online

When you edit your document, you may need to add text, put on the date, and do other editing. CocoDoc makes it very easy to edit your form in a few steps. Let's see how do you make it.

  • Select the Get Form button on this page.
  • You will enter into our free PDF editor webpage.
  • Once you enter into our editor, click the tool icon in the top toolbar to edit your form, like inserting images and checking.
  • To add date, click the Date icon, hold and drag the generated date to the field you need to fill in.
  • Change the default date by deleting the default and inserting a desired date in the box.
  • Click OK to verify your added date and click the Download button to use the form offline.

How to Edit Text for Your College Of Business And Law Application For Conference Funding In 2011 University Of with Adobe DC on Windows

Adobe DC on Windows is a popular tool to edit your file on a PC. This is especially useful when you do the task about file edit on a computer. So, let'get started.

  • Find and open the Adobe DC app on Windows.
  • Find and click the Edit PDF tool.
  • Click the Select a File button and upload a file for editing.
  • Click a text box to change the text font, size, and other formats.
  • Select File > Save or File > Save As to verify your change to College Of Business And Law Application For Conference Funding In 2011 University Of.

How to Edit Your College Of Business And Law Application For Conference Funding In 2011 University Of With Adobe Dc on Mac

  • Find the intended file to be edited and Open it with the Adobe DC for Mac.
  • Navigate to and click Edit PDF from the right position.
  • Edit your form as needed by selecting the tool from the top toolbar.
  • Click the Fill & Sign tool and select the Sign icon in the top toolbar to make you own signature.
  • Select File > Save save all editing.

How to Edit your College Of Business And Law Application For Conference Funding In 2011 University Of from G Suite with CocoDoc

Like using G Suite for your work to sign a form? You can integrate your PDF editing work in Google Drive with CocoDoc, so you can fill out your PDF in your familiar work platform.

  • Add CocoDoc for Google Drive add-on.
  • In the Drive, browse through a form to be filed and right click it and select Open With.
  • Select the CocoDoc PDF option, and allow your Google account to integrate into CocoDoc in the popup windows.
  • Choose the PDF Editor option to begin your filling process.
  • Click the tool in the top toolbar to edit your College Of Business And Law Application For Conference Funding In 2011 University Of on the applicable location, like signing and adding text.
  • Click the Download button in the case you may lost the change.

PDF Editor FAQ

What little known objectivist thinkers do you know of which you think deserve to be more widely known?

Most Objectivist thinkers are ‘little known’ outside of Objectivist circles so I will post a list of the ones I know.Objectivist Intellectual’s Biographies (85) last updated 10/14/18 (not complete)Amesh AdaljaMD, 2002, American University of the CaribbeanDr. Adalja, a board-certified physician in infectious disease, critical care medicine, emergency medicine and internal medicine, specializes in the intersection of national security with catastrophic health events. He publishes and lectures on bio-terrorism, pandemic preparedness and emerging infectious diseases. He has been a guest on national radio and television programs.John AllisonMBA, Management, 1974, Duke UniversityMr. Allison is president and CEO of the Cato Institute. He was previously chairman and CEO of BB&T Corporation, the 10th-largest financial services holding company headquartered in the United States. During Allison’s tenure as CEO from 1989 to 2008, BB&T grew from $4.5 billion to $152 billion in assets.Carl BarneyCarl Barney is a businessman who, among other business activities, owns and manages several private business colleges.Rituparna BasuBS, Biology, 2010, Pennsylvania State UniversityMs. Basu is a health care policy analyst at ARI. Her work has appeared in publications such as Forbes and The Daily Caller, and she has been interviewed on radio and TV programs, internationally. Ms. Basu has briefed congressional staffers and speaks regularly at university campuses, including Georgetown, Emory and Temple.Ben BayerPhD, Philosophy, 2007, University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignDr. Bayer teaches philosophy at Loyola University New Orleans. His research focuses primarily on questions about the foundations of knowledge and the freedom of the will.Robert BegleyRobert Begley is a writer for The Objective Standard. He is the founder and president of the NY Heroes Society, an organization dedicated to promoting heroism in the culture. Robert is also a judge in Anthem, The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged essay contests. He was the host and producer for the Manhattan Cable TV program, The Voice of Reason. Robert is currently writing a book about the history of New York heroes.Michael S. BerlinerPhD, Philosophy, 1970, Boston UniversityDr. Berliner is the founding executive director of the Ayn Rand Institute and served as co-chairman of ARI’s board of directors. He is editor of "Letters of Ayn Rand", "Understanding Objectivism" and a recent biography of operetta composer Emmerich Kálmán. Dr. Berliner taught philosophy and philosophy of education for many years at California State University, Northridge.ANDREW BERNSTEINPhD, Philosophy, 1986, City University of New YorkAndrew Bernstein holds a Ph.D. in Philosophy from the Graduate School of the City University of New York. He has taught at Hunter College, the New School for Social Research, Pace University and Marymount College, where he was chosen Outstanding Faculty Member for 1995. He currently teaches at the State University of New York at Purchase, where he was selected Outstanding Faculty Member for 2004.Dr. Bernstein has lectured at universities across the United States, including at Harvard, Yale, Stanford, the United States Military Academy at West Point and many others; and at philosophical conferences both in America and abroad. He is the author of The Capitalist Manifesto: The Historic, Economic and Philosophic Case for Laissez-Faire, to be published in the spring of 2005 by University Press of America. His first novel, Heart of a Pagan, was released in 2002. He is currently writing Objectivism in One Lesson, an introduction to the philosophy of Ayn Rand. His website is Andrew Bernstein | Philosopher and TeacherDr. Bernstein is the author of "The Capitalist Manifesto" (2005), "Objectivism in One Lesson" (2008), "Capitalism Unbound" (2010), "Capitalist Solutions" (2011), and of numerous essays. He is currently writing “Heroes and Hero Worship” for the Clemson Institute for the Study of Capitalism. Dr. Bernstein lectures widely on Ayn Rand’s novels and Objectivism.DAVID BERRYD.M.A., Composition, 2002, University of South CarolinaDavid Berry is an associate professor of music. He teaches courses across a wide range of historical and theoretical musical subjects including film music. He is a recorded and published (BMI) composer with performances of his music in America and Europe in both fine art and popular music genres.CRAIG BIDDLEB.A., Fine Arts, 1988, Virginia Commonwealth UniversityCraig Biddle is the author of Loving Life: The Morality of Self-Interest and the Facts That Support It and is currently writing another book, Good Thinking for Good Living: The Science of Being Selfish. In addition to writing, he lectures on the Objectivist ethics and teaches workshops on thinking in principles. Editor and Publisher of “The Objective Standard”Specialties: Ethics, ObjectivismHARRY BINSWANGERPh.D., Philosophy, 1973, Columbia UniversityDr. Binswanger is the author of The Biological Basis of Teleological Concepts, the editor of The Ayn Rand Lexicon and co-editor of the second edition of Ayn Rand’s Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology. Dr. Binswanger is a professor of philosophy at the Ayn Rand Institute’s Objectivist Academic Center and is a member of ARI’s board of directors. He is currently working on a book on the nature of consciousness.Dr. Binswanger is the author of "How We Know" and "The Biological Basis of Teleological Concepts", the editor of "The Ayn Rand Lexicon" and co-editor of the second edition of Ayn Rand’s "Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology". He is an instructor of philosophy at the Ayn Rand Institute’s Objectivist Academic Center and a member of ARI’s board of directors.TORE BOECKMANNWriterMr. Boeckmann has written and lectured extensively on Ayn Rand’s fiction and philosophy of esthetics. He edited for publication Rand’s The Art of Fiction. His own fiction has been published in Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine and Alfred Hitchcock’s Mystery Magazine. He is currently writing a book on Romantic literature.Thomas A. BowdenSpecialties: Legal issues, physician-assisted suicide, abortion rights, mandatory community service.Mr. Bowden, an attorney in private practice in Baltimore, Maryland, taught at the University Of Baltimore School Of Law from 1988 to 1994. Author of a booklet against multiculturalism, “The Enemies of Christopher Columbus,” he has also published op-eds in the Fort Lauderdale Sun-Sentinel, Philadelphia Inquirer, Portland Oregonian, Los Angeles Daily News, Minneapolis Star Tribune, and Charlotte Observer. He is a former member of the board of directors of The Association for Objective Law, a non-profit group whose purpose is to advance Objectivism, the philosophy of Ayn Rand, as the basis of a proper legal system. In that connection, Mr. Bowden has filed amicus curiae briefs in the U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeal for the Second and Third Circuits, challenging mandatory community service for high school students on legal and moral grounds.YARON BROOKPh.D., Finance, 1994, University of Texas at AustinDr. Brook is president and executive director of the Ayn Rand Institute. A former finance professor, he has published in academic as well as popular publications, and is frequently interviewed in the media. He has appeared on CNN, Fox News Channel and PBS among others. On college campuses across America and in the boardrooms of large corporations, he has lectured on Objectivism, business ethics and foreign policy.Dr. Brook is executive director of the Ayn Rand Institute. He is the coauthor of the national best-seller “Free Market Revolution: How Ayn Rand’s Ideas Can End Big Government” and a contributing author to both “Neoconservatism: An Obituary for an Idea” and “Winning the Unwinnable War: America’s Self-Crippled Response to Islamic Totalitarianism.”ANDY CLARKSONMBA University of MarylandMr. Clarkson is a decades-long Objectivist He has focused on researching the history of ideas and published The Impact of Aristotle Upon Christian, Islamic, and Jewish Cultures : A Compilation of Notes and Quotes From A Variety of Sources Plus Commentary, published in December 2016.PAT CORVINIPh.D., Electrical Engineering, 1995, University of California at Santa BarbaraDr. Corvini recently left a twenty-year career in semiconductor optoelectronics to work full time in the history of science and mathematics. She lectured on Archimedes at the 2003 Objectivist Summer Conference.SUSAN CRAWFORDB.S.N, Nursing, 1982, Marymount College, VirginiaSusan Crawford is a registered nurse. She has given two parenting courses and wrote the pamphlet “The Reading Habit/Money Management.” Susan is married to Jack Crawford and the mother of two sons, Jason and DavidERIC DANIELSPh.D., American History, 2001, University of WisconsinDr. Daniels is a visiting assistant professor of history at Duke University’s Program on Values and Ethics in the Marketplace. He has lectured at summer conferences and to numerous Objectivist community groups. He is an alumnus of ARI’s Objectivist Graduate Center (precursor to the Objectivist Academic Center). A contributor to the Oxford Companion to United States History, he is currently working on a book about American politics andDr. Daniels works at LePort Schools, teaching science and history, and as a curriculum developer. Previously, he was a professor at Clemson, Duke and Georgetown Universities. Dr. Daniels has published book chapters and articles on antitrust, individualism and economic freedom.John DennisPhD, Psychology, 2010, University of Texas at AustinDr. Dennis teaches at Catholic University in Milan, University of Perugia and University of Alberta. His research on motivation is funded by the EU and Templeton Foundation. He is a licensed psychologist trained in CBT. In 2013 Dr. Dennis started Melioravit, a scientific communication company that helps researchers get funded, published and cited.Robert van DortmondMSc in Applied Physics, Delft University of Technology; Executive Program, Stanford Graduate SchoolMr. van Dortmond teaches entrepreneurship at the University of Amsterdam/The Amsterdam Centre for Entrepreneurship. He is an active mentor, shareholder and board member of various startups. He speaks on Ayn Rand’s ideas and is an advisory board member of ARI Europe of which he was one of the initiators.Dianne DuranteSpecialties: Esthetics, painting, sculpture, homeschooling.Dr. Durante is a freelance writer on art and current events. She has lectured on painting and sculpture at Objectivist conferences; several of these lectures are available on tape from the Ayn Rand Bookstore. She has also just finished a book on New York sculpture, Forgotten Delights: The Producers. Dr. Durante and her husband homeschool their daughter in Brooklyn, NY.Alex EpsteinSpecialties: Current Affairs, racism, and moral defense of businessmen.Alex Epstein is an Objectivist speaker and writer living in Richmond, VA. His Op-Eds have been published in dozens of newspapers around the country, including The Houston Chronicle, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, The Miami Herald, The Philadelphia Inquirer, and The Washington Times. He is also a regular contributor to The Intellectual Activist, a monthly magazine analyzing political and cultural issues from an Objectivist perspective. Mr. Epstein holds a BA in philosophy from Duke University, where he was editor and publisher of The Duke Review for two years.STUART MARK FELDMANM.A., Art, 1975, Rowan University, New JerseyStuart Feldman works in bronze, stone and wood, creating sculptures of the human figure expressing man’s most noble and inspiring qualities. A former instructor at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art, he is cofounder of the Schuylkill Academy of Fine Art, in Philadelphia. His sculptures are held in private collections, and he has created a number of commissioned pieces.ROBERT GARMONGPh.D., Philosophy, 2002; University of Texas at AustinDr. Garmong is a graduate of the Objectivist Graduate Center, and has lectured on philosophy at many Objectivist conferences. He is the author of “J.S. Mill’s Re-Conceptualization of Liberty,” currently under submission to publishers. Dr. Garmong teaches philosophy at Texas A&M University and at Texas State University.MARILYN (GEORGE) GRAYB.S., Child Development, 1961, Iowa State UniversityMarilyn George is a retired Montessori teacher, school owner and administrator. She holds teaching certificates from both the American Montessori Society and the International Association of Progressive Montessorians and was a Montessori teacher for twenty-five years. She owned, administered and taught for ten years in her own school, which had an international reputation for excellence. She taught Montessori courses at Seattle University for more than ten years and has consulted for schools nationwide. Marilyn has been ballroom dancing since she met Ted Gray at a conference in 1989, at her first lesson, and today they compete at the Silver level.Debi GhateLLB, Law, University of Calgary, 1995Ms. Ghate is vice president of Education and Research at the Ayn Rand Institute, where she heads up a variety of educational and policy-related programs. She is also director of the Anthem Foundation for Objectivist Scholarship, an organization that supports academic scholarship based on Ayn Rand’s work.Onkar GhatePhD, Philosophy, 1996, University of CalgaryDr. Ghate is senior fellow and chief content officer at the Ayn Rand Institute. He specializes in Rand’s philosophy, Objectivism, and is ARI’s senior instructor and editor. He publishes and lectures on Rand’s philosophy and fiction, including application of Objectivism in the culture, and has been a guest on national radio and television programs.GENA GORLINPhD, Clinical Psychology, 2012, University of VirginiaMs. Gorlin has two years of experience conducting individual psychotherapy with anxious and depressed young adults. Her research has been published in highly regarded academic journals. She is also a graduate of the Objectivist Academic Center and a former board member of The Undercurrent, a national campus publication.Allan Gotthelf (deceased)Specialties: Love, self-esteem, happiness, Objectivism, AristotleAllan Gotthelf is emeritus professor of philosophy at The College of New Jersey. He is an internationally recognized authority on the philosophy of Aristotle, with many scholarly publications. He has lectured on Objectivism and Aristotle — including their views on love and sex, self-esteem, and individual happiness — throughout North America and in Europe and Japan. He has been a visiting professor at Swarthmore College, Georgetown University, Oxford University, Tokyo Metropolitan University, and most recently, the University of Texas at Austin. In 1987, Dr. Gotthelf was one of the founders of the Ayn Rand Society; a professional organization affiliated with the American Philosophical Association, Eastern Division, and has headed it since 1990. He enters his second year as Visiting Professor of Historyand Philosophy of Science (HPS) at the University of Pittsburgh. Prof. Gotthelf holds the Pitt Fellowship for the Study of Objectivism, funded by the Anthem Foundation and he will be working throughout the year on various projects in connection with his Fellowship. He is the author of On Ayn Rand (Wadsworth Publishing, 2000), the best-selling book in the Wadsworth Philosophers Series.4-19-2007 from his website:Visiting Professor, under the university's new Fellowship for the Study of Objectivism (Member: Classics, Philosophy and Ancient Science Program). A specialist on Aristotle's biology and philosophy, and on the philosophy of Ayn Rand, Gotthelf is emeritus professor of philosophy at The College of New Jersey, and has taught on a visiting basis at Swarthmore, Oxford, Georgetown, Tokyo Metropolitan, and the University of Texas at Austin. He is a life member of Clare Hall Cambridge, and was a visiting member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. Gotthelf is author of On Ayn Rand (Wadsworth Philosophers Series, 2000); co-editor of Philosophical Issues in Aristotle's Biology (Cambridge 1987); editor of Aristotle on Nature and Living Things (Pittsburgh 1985); and has prepared for publication D.M. Balme's posthumous editions of Aristotle's Historia Animalium (Cambridge 2002, Cambridge MA 1991). His collected Aristotle papers will by published next year by Oxford University Press, under the title: Teleology, Scientific Method, and Substance: Essays on Aristotle's Biological Enterprise. He is currently working on several Aristotle projects and an extended study of Rand's theory of concepts, essences, and objectivity.TED GRAYB.S., Mechanical Engineering, 1965, Northeastern University;M.S., Mechanical Engineering, 1971, Brooklyn Polytechnic InstituteTed Gray, an engineer, has been dancing since his teens. They both consider dancing primarily a social and romantic activity. Occasionally, they enter amateur dance competitions. As a couple they have given many formal and informal group lessons—at home, at conferences and on a cruise ship. Ted is a mechanical engineer with forty years experience in design and analysis of structures, and prevention of vibration. He is an amateur student of history, enjoying especially the biographies of great Americans and the history of technology. He has been a student of Objectivism for thirty-eight years.Hannes HackerSpecialties: history and politics of the space program, science and technology.Mr. Hacker graduated from the University of Notre Dame with a BS degree in aerospace engineering in May 1988. He earned a MS degree in aerospace engineering at the University of Texas at Austin December 1990. He has eleven years of space-flight operations experience including work on the space shuttle, international space station and commercial communications satellites.DAVID HARRIMANB.S., Physics, 1979, University of California at Berkeley;M.S., Physics, 1982, University of Maryland;M.A., Philosophy, 1995, Claremont Graduate University, CaliforniaDavid Harriman is the editor of Journals of Ayn Rand and a senior writer for the Ayn Rand Institute. He has lectured extensively on the history and philosophy of physics. He is currently developing the physical science curriculum at VanDamme Academy and working on two books: one demonstrating the influence of philosophy on modern physics (The Anti-Copernican Revolution) and the other presenting Leonard Peikoff’s theory of induction (Induction in Physics and Philosophy).David HolcbergSpecialties: Environmentalism, science, capitalism. David Holcberg holds a degree in civil engineering and is a senior writer for the Ayn Rand Institute.JONATHAN HOENIGCommunications and Philosophy, 1999, Northwestern UniversityMr. Hoenig manages Capitalistpig Hedge Fund, LLC. A former floor trader, his first book, Greed Is Good, was published by HarperCollins. Mr. Hoenig has written for publications including The Wall Street Journal, Wired andMarketWatch: Stock Market News - Financial News. He was named one of Crain’s Forty Under Forty and appears regularly on Fox News Channel.Gary HullSpecialties: Philosophy, multiculturalism, business ethics, education.Dr. Hull is director of the Program on Values and Ethics in the Marketplace at Duke University. His op-eds have been published in numerous newspapers, including the Los Angeles Times, the San Francisco Chronicle, the Orange County Register, the Philadelphia Inquirer, and the Chicago Tribune. He has made numerous television and radio appearances to discuss Ayn Rand’s philosophy, multiculturalism, affirmative action, the Elian Gonzalez affair, sex, ethics, politics. He has lectured on Ayn Rand’s philosophy at conferences around the world and, as a member of the Ayn Rand Institute’s Speakers Bureau, has spoken at universities across the country, including Harvard, Michigan at Ann Arbor, Wisconsin at Madison, Texas at Austin. Dr. Hull is the author of A Study Guide to Leonard Peikoff’s book Objectivism: the Philosophy of Ayn Rand, and is co-editor of The Ayn Rand Reader (Penguin/Plume, 1999), a collection of fiction and non-fiction writings by Ayn Rand.MARTIN F JOHANSENMS, Computer Science, 2009, University of OsloMr. Johansen is a PhD research fellow at SINTEF, the largest independent research institute in Scandinavia. He is currently completing his PhD studies at the University of Oslo as part of an international research project on software testing.Elan JournoBA, Philosophy, 1997, King's College, LondonMr. Journo, director of policy research at ARI, is completing a book on American policy toward the Israeli/Palestinian conflict. His 2009 book, “Winning the Unwinnable War,” analyzes post-9/11 U.S. foreign policy. His writing has appeared in “Foreign Policy,” “Journal of International Security Affairs” and “Middle East Quarterly.”ELLEN KENNERPh.D., Clinical Psychology, 1992, University of Rhode IslandDr. Kenner, a clinical psychologist, has taught university courses in introductory psychology, abnormal psychology and theories of personality. She gives talks on romance, self-improvement, psychological self-defense, parenting and communication skills. She is in her eighth year as host of the nationally syndicated radio talk show The Rational Basis of Happiness®.Ryan KrausePhD, Strategic Management and Organization Theory, 2013, Indiana UniversityDr. Krause is an assistant professor at Texas Christian University’s Neeley School of Business. He researches corporate governance and has published in “Academy of Management Journal,” “Strategic Management Journal” and “Journal of Management.” His research has been covered by the “Wall Street Journal,” “USA Today,” “Businessweek” and Fox Business Network.Andrew LaymanAndrew Layman is a Senior Program Manager at Microsoft where he works on Internet and database technologies. Prior to joining Microsoft in 1992, he was a Vice President of Symantec Corporation and original author of the Time Line project management program.Peter LePort, M.D.Specialties: Medicine, free market reform of healthcare, medical savings accountsDr. LePort, a full-time surgeon, lectures nationwide on free market reform in healthcare, particularly on the benefits of medical savings accounts. He is a member of the board of directors of Americans for Free Choice in Medicine. He co-wrote a healthcare reform proposal that discusses voluntary, tax-free medical savings accounts and high-deductible personal health insurance and which includes a method to privatize Medicare. He earned his medical degree from Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, and is a former assistant professor of surgery at that institution. He is a member of the Faculty of the American College of Surgeons and of the Orange County Surgical Society.Andrew LewisPostgraduate Diploma of Philosophy, 1994, University of Melbourne, AustraliaMr. Lewis has studied philosophy at the Objectivist Academic Center, the University of Melbourne and the University of Southern California. He worked with Leonard Peikoff on his radio show, has lectured at Objectivist conferences, and is principal at VanDamme Academy, where he teaches a three-year history curriculum covering ancient, European and American history.JOHN LEWIS (deceased)Ph.D., Classics, 2001, University of CambridgeDr. Lewis is assistant professor of history at Ashland University, where he holds an Anthem Fellowship for Objectivist Scholarship. He is Assistant Professor of History in the Department of History and Political Science. He has published in several professional journals, and has been a visiting scholar at Rice University and Bowling Green State UniversityEDWIN A. LOCKEPh.D., Industrial Organizational Psychology, 1964, Cornell University.Dr. Locke is Dean’s Professor of Leadership and Motivation (Emeritus) at the Robert H. Smith School of Business at the University of Maryland, College Park. He is internationally known for his research and writings on work motivation, leadership and related topics, including the application of Objectivism to psychology and management. He is a senior writer for the Ayn Rand Institute and has published numerous op-eds.Keith LockitchPhD, Physics, 1999, University of Wisconsin at MilwaukeeDr. Lockitch is an ARI fellow and director of advanced training. In addition to speaking and writing for ARI on issues related to energy, climate and environmentalism, he teaches writing for the OAC and has developed courses on Ayn Rand’s ideas and novels for a variety of audiences.ROBERT MAYHEWPh.D., Philosophy, 1991, Georgetown UniversityDr. Mayhew is associate professor of philosophy at Seton Hall University. He is the author of Aristotle’s Criticism of Plato’s Republic and The Female in Aristotle’s Biology and the editor of Ayn Rand’s Marginalia, Ayn Rand’s The Art of Nonfiction, Essays on Ayn Rand’s “We the Living” and (forthcoming) Ayn Rand’s Q & A. He has completed a book on Ayn Rand’s HUAC testimony and is preparing for publication a collection of essays on Ayn Rand’s Anthem.Arline MannArline Mann is an attorney. She is vice president and associate general counsel of Goldman, Sachs & Co.John P. McCaskey, Ph.D. in history, is the founder and chairman of the Anthem Foundation for Objectivist Scholarship. He spent twenty years in the computer business, most recently as founder of Epiphany, Inc., before returning to academia in 2001. He studies and teaches history and philosophy of science at Stanford University.Scott McConnellSpecialties: Volunteerism, Communism in America, Ayn Rand's life. Mr. McConnell is a former literature teacher and high school English teacher. He has a BA in behavioral sciences and worked in Hollywood as a script reader. He has given several lectures on Ayn Rand's life.Shoshana MilgramPhD, Comparative Literature, 1978, Stanford UniversityDr. Milgram, associate professor of English at Virginia Tech, specializes in narrative fiction and film. She has lectured on Ayn Rand at Objectivist and academic conferences and has published on Ayn Rand, Hugo and Dostoevsky. Dr. Milgram is editing the draft of her book-length study of Ayn Rand’s life (to 1957).Ken Moelis. Mr. Moelis is founder and chief executive officer of Moelis & Company, a global investment bank that provides financial advisory, capital raising and asset management services to a broad client base including corporations, institutions and governments. Mr. Moelis has over thirty years of investment banking experience. Prior to founding Moelis & Company, he worked at UBS from 2001 to 2007, where he was most recently president of UBS Investment Bank and, previously, Joint Global Head of Investment Banking. Mr. Moelis serves on the University of Pennsylvania Board of Trustees, the Wharton Board of Overseers, the Board of the Tourette Syndrome Association, and the Board of Governors of Cedars Sinai Hospital.Jean MoroneyCertificate, 1996, Objectivist Graduate Center, Ayn Rand Institute;MS, Psychology, 1994, Carnegie Mellon University;MS, Electrical Engineering, 1986, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyMs. Moroney is president of Thinking Directions, a business that develops and teaches methods in applied psycho-epistemology. She has given her flagship course, Thinking Tactics, to corporate and public audiences across North America. She is writing a book titled “Smarter: How to Achieve Your Goals When Nothing Goes as Planned.”Adam Mossoff is Professor of Law at George Mason University School of Law. He is also Co-Director of Academic Programs and a Senior Scholar at the Center for the Protection of Intellectual Property at George Mason, which he co-founded in 2012. He teaches and writes in the areas of patent law, trade secrets, trademark law, property law, and internet law. He has published extensively on the theory and history of how patents and other intellectual property rights are fundamental property rights. His article on the very first patent war, the Sewing Machine War of the 1850s, has been widely cited in today's public policy debates concerning patent litigation, patent licensing, and patent pools. He has testified before the Senate, and he has spoken at numerous congressional staff briefings, professional association conferences, and academic conferences, as well as at the PTO, the FTC, the DOJ, and the Smithsonian Institution. He is Co-Chairman of the Intellectual Property Committee of the IEEE-USA, and he is a member of the Amicus Committee of the American Intellectual Property Law Association, the Public Policy Committee of the Licensing Executives Society, and the Academic Advisory Board of the Copyright Alliance. ADAM MOSSOFF is an expert in patent law and property theory. He has published numerous law review articles and book reviews on topics in legal philosophy, patent law, and property law, including in law reviews at the University of Arizona and UC-Hastings, and in the interdisciplinary law journal, the University of Chicago Law School Roundtable. He was a visiting lecturer and John M. Olin Fellow in Law at Northwestern University School of Law, where he taught a seminar on property theory. Immediately prior to coming to MSU College of Law, he clerked for the Hon. Jacques L. Wiener, Jr., of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. Professor Mossoff graduated from the University of Chicago Law School with honors in 2001. He has a M.A. in philosophy from Columbia University, where he specialized in legal and political philosophy, and a B.A. in philosophy from the University of Michigan, where he graduated magna cum laude and with high honors in philosophy. Hi is now an Associate Professor of Law at George Mason University School of LawSpecialties: Philosophy of Law, Constitutional Law, Intellectual Property Rights, Patent RightsJ. PATRICK MULLINS is a doctoral candidate in the history department of the University of Kentucky. He is in the last stages of writing his doctoral dissertation with the help of a generous grant from the Ayn Rand Institute.Travis NorsenSpecialties: Physics, science, history and philosophy of science, science education.Mr. Norsen is a physics and philosophy double-major at Harvey Mudd College in Claremont, CA. He is currently attending his final year of a PhD program in physics at the University of Washington in Seattle. Mr. Norsen is also a former adjunct instructor of physics at DigiPen Institute of Technology in Redmond, WA.JOHN E. OPFER, who still tops the list of Amazon Reviewers on the CyberNet Scoreboard, is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Ohio State University where he specializes in cognitive and developmental psychology. Nowadays he's too busy reviewing his research findings to review books. His work at OSU's Concepts and Learning Lab explores how young children form and change their concepts, such as concepts of living things and number. His website is at <Department of Psychology - John Opfer> where you will find links to several of his fascinating papers.Michael PaxtonMFA, 1984, New York UniversityMr. Paxton directed the world premiere of Ayn Rand’s Ideal (1989) and adapted and directed a dramatic presentation of Anthem (1991). His documentary, Ayn Rand: A Sense of Life, won an Academy Award nomination and a Golden Satellite Award for Best Feature Documentary. He teaches production design and film history at the Art Institute in Hollywood.Lee PiersonPhD, 1982, Psychology, Cornell UniversityDr. Pierson, director of the Thinking Skills Institute at Fairleigh Dickinson University, teaches students and business professionals how to keep any thought process moving toward its goal by activating the right knowledge as needed. He has a long-standing interest in and recently participated in life-extension research.AMY PEIKOFFJ.D., 1998, University of California, Los Angeles School of Law;Ph.D., Philosophy, 2003, University of Southern CaliforniaDr. Amy Peikoff is an Anthem fellow at the University of Texas at Austin, where she is teaching undergraduate courses in ethics and epistemology. Her writings on legal and philosophical issues have appeared in academic journals and leading newspapers. She has taught for the Objectivist Academic Center and lectured for Objectivist organizations and at conferences. Visiting Fellow at Chapman University’s Law School.Leonard PeikoffPh .D., Philosophy, 1964 New York UniversityFrom 1957 until 1973, Peikoff taught philosophy at Hunter College, Long Island University, New York University, the University of Denver and the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn.After that, he worked full-time on The Ominous Parallels (published 1982) and gave lectures across the country. He gave courses on Ayn Rand's philosophy regularly in New York City, which were taped and played to groups in some 100 cities in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. In addition, he spoke frequently before investment and financial conferences on the philosophic basis of capitalism.Dr. Peikoff, who is a naturalized American citizen, was born in Winnipeg, Canada, in 1933. His father was a surgeon and his mother, before marriage, was a band leader in Western Canada. He has been a contributor to Barron's and an associate editor, with Ayn Rand, of The Objectivist (1968-71) and The Ayn Rand Letter (1971-76).He is author of Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand (Dutton, 1991), the definitive statement of Objectivism.Steve PlafkerJ.D., 1973 USCPh.D., Math, 1966 UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOISBS, MATH, MIT, 1961Dr. Plafker is a retired Los Angeles County deputy district attorney. His teaching experience includes teaching law to law students and to undergraduates. Before becoming a lawyer, he taught mathematics at Tulane University. He is a founder and member of the Board of Directors of The Association For Objective Law (TAFOL).Richard RalstonSpecialties: Ayn Rand’s life, Objectivism (General), Projects of the Ayn Rand Institute, Volunteerism, Foreign Policy, Journalism and MediaAfter serving seven years in the U.S. Army, Mr. Ralston completed an M.A. in International Relations at the University of Southern California in 1977. He then began a career in newspaper publishing and direct marketing. He has been the circulation director and publisher of The Christian Science Monitor, a radio producer, a national television news business manager, and a book publisher. As an independent direct marketing consultant, his clients included IBM, British Airways, CNN, and the Los Angeles Times. His book Communism: Its Rise and Fall in the 20th Century was published in 1991. Mr. Ralston is now Managing Director for the Ayn Rand Institute.JOHN RIDPATHPh.D., Economics, 1974, University of VirginiaDr. Ridpath (York University, retired) writes and speaks in defense of capitalism, and on the impact throughout Western history—including the American Founding era—of the ideas of the major philosophers. A recipient of numerous teaching awards, and nominee for Canadian Professor of the Year, he continues to lecture throughout Europe and North America.Jonathan Paul Rosman, MDSpecialties: Medicine, psychiatry.Dr. Rosman is a board certified psychiatrist, with additional qualifications in the subspecialties of addiction psychiatry and forensic psychiatry. Prior to entering full-time private practice in California in 1989 he was an assistant professor at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. For several years, Dr. Rosman has been a psychiatric consultant to the City of Hope National Medical Center in Duarte, California, and is the psychiatric consultant to the Sleep Disorders Center at Huntington Memorial Hospital in Pasadena, California. He is also medical director for the Eating Disorder Center of California, a private, intensive outpatient clinic in Brentwood, California, devoted to the treatment of patients with anorexia and bulimia.Dr. Rosman is a published writer and lecturer on various aspects of psychiatry. Dr. Rosman's theoretical orientation is broad-based, drawing on and integrating aspects of cognitive-behavioral, short-term psychodynamic and biologic theories with Objectivist epistemological principles. He practices as both a psychotherapist and a psychopharmacologist.GREG SALMIERIB.A., Philosophy, 2001, The College of New JerseyPhD, Philosophy, 2008, University of PittsburghDr. Salmieri is a philosophy fellow at the Anthem Foundation and co-secretary of the Ayn Rand Society (a professional group affiliated with the American Philosophical Association). He teaches at Rutgers University. He has published and lectured on Aristotle and Ayn Rand and is co-editor of forthcoming books on both thinkers.Richard M. SalsmanSpecialties: Banking, free market economics, economic forecasting, capitalism, investmentsRichard M. Salsman is president and chief market strategist of InterMarket Forecasting, which provides quantitative research and forecasts of stocks, bonds, and currencies to guide the asset allocation decisions of institutional investment managers, mutual funds, and pension plans. He is the author of numerous books and articles on economics, banking, and forecasting from a free-market perspective, including Breaking the Banks: Central Banking Problems and Free Banking Solutions (American Institute for Economic Research, 1990) and Gold and Liberty (American Institute for Economic Research, 1995). Mr. Salsman’s work has appeared in The Intellectual Activist, the New York Times, Investor’s Business Daily, The Wall Street Journal, Forbes, and Barron’s. From 1993 to 1999, he was a senior vice president and senior economist at H. C. Wainwright & Co. Economics. Prior to that he was a banker at Citibank and the Bank of New York. Mr. Salsman is an adjunct fellow at the American Institute for Economic Research and the founder of The Association of Objectivist Businessmen.Lee Sandstead received his B.A. Philosophy/B.S. Mass Communication from Middle Tennessee State University in December 1996, when he was awarded the prestigious award for “Outstanding Magazine Journalism Graduate.” He has studied art history at the University of Memphis’ graduate program, and most recently, the art history doctoral program at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, New York City. He is a popular writer/photographer/lecturer of art-historical subjects. He has delivered almost 50 keynote lecture-addresses to such prestigious institutions as: Yale, Duke, University of Michigan, Penn State, NYU and the Academy of Realist Art in Toronto. Articles of his have been published in numerous journals, and his photography has been seen in publications such as: The New York Times, Fortune, and Ms. Magazine. He currently teaches art history at Montclair State University and is author of the forthcoming book on American master-sculptor Evelyn Beatrice Longman (1874-1954DINA SCHEIN FEDERMAN (deceased) is completing her article on "Integrity in The Fountainhead_" for ROBERT MAYHEW's upcoming collection of essays. She will also be delivering two lectures at the European Objectivist conference in London this month. Her writing projects include severalarticles on Virtue Ethics, a movement in academic ethics.DANIEL SCHWARTZBA, Liberal Arts, 2006, St. John’s CollegeMr. Schwartz is a doctoral candidate in philosophy at UC San Diego, where he is working on a dissertation titled “Baconian Foundationalism and the Problem of Certainty.” He specializes in early modern philosophy and the history of the philosophy of science.PETER SCHWARTZM.A., Journalism, 1972, Syracuse UniversityPeter Schwartz is the founding editor and publisher of The Intellectual Activist. He is the editor and contributing author of Ayn Rand’s Return of the Primitive: The Anti-Industrial Revolution, and is chairman of the board of directors of the Ayn Rand Institute.Thomas ShoebothamMM, Orchestral Conducting, 1996, University of New MexicoMM, Cello Performance, 1992, Eastman School of MusicMr. Shoebotham is music director of the Palo Alto Philharmonic. Previous conducting engagements have included Berkeley Opera, Opera San José, Peninsula Symphony Orchestra and many other groups. He has lectured on music, taught in school music programs and performed numerous recitals as a cellist and pianist over the last twenty years.Stephen SiekPhD, Musicology, 1991, University of CincinnatiDr. Siek, professor emeritus at Wittenberg University, has recently publishedEngland’s Piano Sage: The Life and Teachings of Tobias Matthay. For many years he has lectured and written about the early work of Frank Lloyd Wright, including a scholarly study of Wright’s 1909 home for Burton Westcott in Springfield, Ohio.BRIAN P. SIMPSONPhD, Economics, 2000, George Mason UniversityDr. Simpson is a professor at National University in San Diego. He is author of the book Markets Don’t Fail! and he has a number of papers published in academic journals. He is currently working on another book titled “Money, Banking, and the Business Cycle,” which he hopes to publish soon.Steve SimpsonJD, 1994, New York Law SchoolMr. Simpson is director of legal studies at the Ayn Rand Institute. A former constitutional lawyer for the Institute for Justice, he writes and speaks on a wide variety of legal and constitutional issues, including free speech and campaign finance law, cronyism and government corruption, and the rule of law.Aaron SmithPhD, Philosophy, 2010, Johns Hopkins UniversityDr. Smith is an instructor at the Ayn Rand Institute where he teaches in the Objectivist Academic Center and the Summer Internship program. He lectures for ARI and develops educational content for the Institute’s e-learning programs.Tara SmithPhD, Philosophy, 1989, Johns Hopkins UniversityDr. Smith, professor of philosophy at the University of Texas, holds the BB&T Chair for the Study of Objectivism and the Anthem Foundation Fellowship. She has published books on values, virtues, and individual rights. Her latest, “Judicial Review in an Objective Legal System,” is forthcoming in fall 2015 (Cambridge University Press).MARY ANN SURESM.A., Art History, 1966, Hunter College, New YorkMary Ann Sures taught art history at Washington Square College of N.Y.U. and at Hunter College. She applied Objectivist esthetics to painting and sculpture in a ten-lecture course, “Esthetics of the Visual Arts,” which was written in consultation with Ayn Rand. Her philosophical approach to art history is presented in “Metaphysics in Marble” (The Objectivist, February/March, 1969). She is co-author with her (late) husband Charles of Facets of Ayn Rand (published by the Ayn Rand Institute), memoirs of their longtime friendship with Ayn Rand and her husband Frank O’Connor.C. BRADLEY THOMPSONPh.D., History, 1993, Brown UniversityC. Bradley Thompson is the BB&T Research Professor at Clemson University and the Executive Director of the Clemson Institute for the Study of Capitalism. He has also been a visiting fellow at Princeton and Harvard universities and at the University of London.Professor Thompson is the author of Neoconservatism: An Obituary for an Idea and the prize-winning book John Adams and the Spirit of Liberty. He has also edited The Revolutionary Writings of John Adams, Antislavery Political Writings, 1833-1860: A Reader, co-edited Freedom and School Choice in American Education, and was an associate editor of the four-volume Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment. His current book project is on the ideological origins of American constitutionalism.Dr. Thompson is also an occasional writer for The Times Literary Supplement of London. He has lectured around the country on education reform and the American Revolution, and his op-ed essays have appeared in scores of newspapers around the country and abroad. Dr. Thompson's lectures on the political thought of John Adams have twice appeared on C-SPAN television.LISA VANDAMMEB.A., Philosophy, 1994, University of Texas at AustinLisa VanDamme is the owner and director of VanDamme Academy, a private elementary and junior high school in Laguna Hills, California. She specializes in the application of Objectivism to educational theory. Her previous lectures on homeschooling, hierarchy and the teaching of values will be included in a forthcoming education anthology featuring Leonard Peikoff’s “Philosophy of Education.”Don WatkinsBA, Business Administration, 2005, Strayer UniversityMr. Watkins is a fellow at the Ayn Rand Institute. He is the author of “RooseveltCare: How Social Security Is Sabotaging the Land of Self-Reliance” and coauthor, along with Yaron Brook, of the national best-seller “Free Market Revolution: How Ayn Rand’s Ideas Can End Big Government.”KEITH WEINERPh.D., Economics, 2012, New Austrian School of Economics (non-accredited)Dr. Weiner is the founder and CEO of Monetary Metals, a company on a mission to pay interest on gold, and the president of the Gold Standard Institute USA.He makes the economic arguments, as well as the moral, for a free market in money and credit. There has never been an unadulterated gold standard in history, as all governments (including the U.S.) have regulated and interfered with banking, even when other enterprises were unshackled. Today our monetary system is failing, and Keith describes the mechanics in detail, why making the passionate case for gold as the money of free markets.He is also the founder of DiamondWare, a software company sold to Nortel in 2008.Glenn WoiceshynSpecialties: Education, ethics, environmentalism, science, politics.Mr. Woiceshyn is currently developing curriculum and teaching materials for grades 4 to 6 based on his understanding of Objectivism and his experience in "homeschooling" his son and other children. As a freelance writer, Mr. Woiceshyn's op-eds have appeared in numerous newspapers, including the Los Angeles Times, Houston Chronicle, Philadelphia Inquirer, Baltimore Sun and Miami Herald.JAANA WOICESHYNM.B.A., 1983, Helsinki School of Economics and Business Administration; Ph.D., Organization and Strategy, 1988, University of Pennsylvania (Wharton School)Dr. Woiceshyn is an associate professor at the Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary. She has taught business ethics and strategic management to undergraduate, MBA and executive MBA students and to various business audiences since 1987.BARRY WOODPh.D., History of Art and Architecture, 2002, Harvard UniversityDr. Wood is curator of the Islamic Gallery Project at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London. He has lectured and published on subjects ranging from Persian poetry to Web design.Darryl WrightSpecialties: Ethics, political philosophy, ObjectivismDarryl Wright is associate professor of philosophy at Harvey Mudd College, a member of the Claremont Colleges consortium. He received his Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Michigan in 1991, and his A.B. in philosophy from Princeton University in 1985. Dr. Wright has published scholarly articles and/or lectured on the history of ethics, early twentieth-century philosophy, value theory, coercion, and other topics in philosophy.

What is your review of Chandigarh University, Gharuan?

In my view CU is institution which as made good reputation in INDIA with their ranks and Awards here is some information regarding CUChandigarh university is is a leading Indian Institution offering its students a unique amalgamation of professional and academic excellence. The University has been accredited with the prestigious A+ grade by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC). Chandigarh University has become Youngest and the only private university in India to bag A+ grade in the first cycle of the accreditation process and has also become the only state private university of Punjab to be accredited by NAAC.Also, ranked among Asia’s best and fastest growing universities, CU has coupled the experience of top industry leaders and renowned academicians to foster a global approach.In the times of COVID 19 also everything was taken care a software was introduced by the university “blackboard” on which all the classes and work is done its new platform of teaching that had helped so many students as they did not lose there precious time and continued to study and there evaluation was also done.CU also provide various platforms for students so that they can explore their talents along with education and at the times of COVID 19 proper precautionary measures are taken so that students don't have any difficulty in their curriculum.Platforms are like - CU fest, CU parade, AAGAAZ,1st AIU INTERNATIONAL YOUTH FESTIVALDANCE WORLD CUPNothing is more worth than a healthy body. Sports and games are an essential part of an individual's life, contributing in enhancing the quality of life. Understanding the importance of sports, Chandigarh University promotes the sports activities and ensures the student participation. The university organizes inter university and inter college/department events that foster team spirit among the participants and make them disciplined.Playing competitive sports has also proven to increase the rate of positive academic achievement among the students. Dedicated sports department of Chandigarh University provides students with a plethora of opportunities to maintain healthy & active lifestyle while pursuing academic goals. This dedication makes sports an integral part of the University's academic structure. Chandigarh University has many accolades to its credit both nationally & internationally.SportsMeet Chandigarh University’s Roll Ball Champions! - WUSHU CHAMPION SUPRIYA SAH - Asian Rowing Champion from Chandigarh University - Sports Achievements● Gold Medal for India in 3rd ASIAN ROLL BALL (M)Championship 2018-19● Gold Medal for India in Asian Powerlifting Championship 2018● Gold Medal for India in 2nd International Kukkiwon Cup 2018● Silver Medal for India in Asian Rowing Championship● Silver in World Taekwondo Challenge Tournament● Gold in Senior National Taekwondo Championship● Silver Medal at AIU for American Football● Overall All India Inter-University Weightlifting Championship Trophy● Overall Inter-Polytechnic State Basketball Championship Trophy● Overall All India Inter-University Weightlifting Championship Trophy● Overall Inter-Polytechnic State Basketball Championship TrophySportsMAKING INDIA PROUDNot only in academics, but CU have been scaling new heights in sports as well. CU is home to winners in Asian Games, Commonwealth games and many national competitions.InternationalNational87 MEDALS IN THE YEAR 2018-19GOLD 24SILVER 28BRONZE 35Chandigarh University Department of SportsYouth Summit | EVOKE - Chandigarh UniversityCulturalUniversity Fest - - Festival - Celebration - Champions for 4th Year in a Row.International and National Conferences - Chandigarh UniversityInternational Credit Transfer- International ProgramsPrerequisites for Articulation Program through Chandigarh UniversityWhat are the other benefits for students?Answer. 1. Up to 100% scholarship2. Save 2 years of tuition fees in dollars3. Up to 3 years work permit4. An opportunity for Permanent Residency5. In-built IELTS program6. Higher Probability of Visa ApprovalBYTEInternational Credit Transfer Programs at Chandigarh University is your best opportunity to study abroad in the current scenario.Spend 1 or 2 years at CU and move to foreign University to attain your overseas education.Take a step closer at Reviews about the International Credit Transfer Program at Chandigarh UniversityChandigarh University is a full-fledged university established by the Punjab State Legislature and is recognized by University Grants Commission under Section 2(f) with the right to confer degrees as per Section 22(1) of the UGC Act, 1956.Chandigarh University, Punjab Ranking and AwardsChandigarh University, Punjab enjoys high standing among many national rating services that evaluate quality of education, research activity, affordability and athletic excellence. These rankings recognize not only CU as a whole, but also our many respected schools and departments. Chandigarh University, Punjab is proud to be recognized by the organizations and publications listed below for our excellence in education.Chandigarh University Gharuan Has Been Ranked ‘A+’ by NAACChandigarh University has been awarded the prestigious A+ grade by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC). The A+ grade has placed Chandigarh University amongst the India’s most elite and prestigious Higher Educational Institutions (HEI) which is maintaining top standards in delivering and disseminating of quality education to its students.CU awarded Diamond rating by QS I-GAUGEChandigarh University has now received ‘Diamond’ Rating from QS I-Guage Ratings based on globally recognized QS World Rankings. A unique rating system, QS I-GAUGE brings together the global expertise, experience and reputation of UK based QS (Quacquarelli Symonds) & captures the essence of the dynamic Indian higher education system & conforms to international standards & best practices.CU awarded Diamond rating by QS I-GAUGEChandigarh University has now received ‘Diamond’ Rating from QS I-Guage Ratings based on globally recognized QS World Rankings. A unique rating system, QS I-GAUGE brings together the global expertise, experience and reputation of UK based QS (Quacquarelli Symonds) & captures the essence of the dynamic Indian higher education system & conforms to international standards & best practices.Chandigarh University is now certified by E-LEADChandigarh University has received another major certification with QS I GAUGE E-LEAD (E-Learning Excellence for Academic Digitisation) certifying the preparedness of the intitution to conduct online Teaching & Learning. The certification involves rigorous data collection, evaluation and assessment of performance metrics as set out in the methodology.Ranked 10thAmong Top 50 Private State Universities of IndiaRanked 7thin Top 25 Young Universities of IndiaRanked 3rdAmong Top Private Universities of IndiaOur consistent hard work have made us climb the ladder of success . Here we are in Top 3rd private University as per India Today 2017National Award for Highest Number of Companies – Limca Book of Records (2017)Chandigarh University is now in Limca Book of Records for Highest Number of Companies for Campus Placements in a single academic year.Best Student Friendly University – Star Group (2017)Chandigarh University has stepped up the ranking ladder by bagging a title of “BEST STUDENT FRIENDLY UNIVERSITY” from India's leading Rating Agency - Star Group.University with Best Placements – By WCRC (2016)For providing impeccable placements to its students since inception, Chandigarh University has been honored with the award of "University with Best Placements" by WCRC Leaders.Top 10% Educational Institutes for providing Employability – Aspiring Minds (2015 & 2016)Chandigarh University has been ranked amongst the best Educational Institutes for providing Employability by Aspiring Minds.Asia’s Fastest Growing Private University – By WCRC (2015)Chandigarh University has been honored with the title of Asia’s Fastest Growing Private Education Institute by WCRC Leaders.7th Among Top Socioversities of India - By A Career is a life (2015)Chandigarh University has been ranked 7th among Top 25 Socioversities of India by Careers 360 for its popularity on various social media platforms.Eduprenuers Award – By Discovery Watch (2014)Chandigarh University has been awarded with "Edupreneurs Awards" for Ensuring Collaboration with Government/NGOs/Other Developmental Agencies.Ranked 2nd among Private Engineering Colleges in North Zone – The WeekUniversity Institute of Engineering (UIE) has been ranked #2 for the Best Private Engineering College in North Zone by The Week College Rankings 2020 and ranked #42 overall.Ranked 14th among Private Engineering Colleges in all Over India – The WeekUniversity Institute of Engineering (UIE) has been ranked #14 for the Best Private Engineering College in all over India by The Week College Rankings 2020 and ranked #42 overall.Ranked among India’s Top 30 Engineering Institutions - Times Engineering (2020)University Institute of Engineering (UIE), Chandigarh University has been ranked amongst the "Top 30 Engineering Institute Rankings 2020" by Times Engineering. In the Top private Engineering Institutions, UIE, Chandigarh University has managed to bag All India 19th rank, while in North Zone, UIE emerged as Top 6th Engineering Institution and 1st in Punjab.Ranked among India’s Top Engineering Research INSTITUTIONS - Times Engineering (2020)Banking on quality research and 700 patents filed in just 7 years, University Institute of Engineering (UIE), Chandigarh University has been ranked amongst the "Top 5 Engineering Institutions with outstanding research capabilities.Ranked among India’s Top 50 Private Engineering Institutes on Placements - Times Engineering (2020)Registering record placements in 2020 with more than 691 multi national companies selecting 6617 students, UIE Chandigarh University is ranked 35th in ALL India Top 50 Private Engineering Institutions ranking in placements domain.UIE Ranked 16th among the Top 25 Emerging Colleges in the Country – India TodayThe University Institute of Engineering (UIE), Chandigarh University has been ranked 16 among the Top 25 Emerging Colleges in the country by India Today.UIE Ranked 45th among Top Private Engineering Colleges in the Country – India TodayThe University Institute of Engineering (UIE), Chandigarh University has been ranked #45 among the Top Private Engineering Colleges in the country by India Today.Youngest University to be Ranked by NIRF India 2019Ranked 117th Engineering Institute of India by NIRF Our constant hard-work has made us hike to the top most level of success. We have been ranked 117th for our excellence in education by NIRF, Govt. Of India.AAA+ Ranking by Careers360 (Engineering)Assessing more than 3500 institutes nationally on various parameters such as faculty quality, student quality, research and innovation, India's only Education Magazine Careers360 in its annual Engineering Rankings has given University Institute of Engineering, Chandigarh University AAA+ Ranking.Ranked 16th Among Top Engineering Institute of India – THE OUTLOOK (2017)University Institute of Engineering (UIE), Chandigarh University is ranked 16th among the Top Engineering Institutes of India by The Outlook Magazine.Ranked 1st Among Private Engineering Institutes of North India – THE OUTLOOK (2017)University Institute of Engineering (UIE), Chandigarh University is ranked 1st among the private Engineering Institutes of North India by The Outlook Magazine.Ranked 1st Among Private Engineering Institutes of North India for Industry Interface– THE OUTLOOK (2017)University Institute of Engineering (UIE), Chandigarh University is ranked 1st among private Engineering Institutes of North India for Industry Interface by The Outlook Magazine.Ranked 8th Among Top Private Engineering Institutes of India – THE OUTLOOK (2016)University Institute of Engineering (UIE), Chandigarh University got ranked 8th among the Top private Engineering Institutes of India in the year 2016 by The Outlook Magazine.Ranked 5th Among Top Private Engineering Institutes of India – THE WEEK (2016)University Institute of Engineering (UIE), Chandigarh University grabbed another ranking in the year 2016 i.e. 5th among the Top Engineering Institutes of India by The Outlook Magazine.Ranked among India’s Top 5 Emerging Engineering Institutes - Times Engineering (2015)University Institute of Engineering (UIE), Chandigarh University has been ranked amongst the "Top 5 Emerging Engineering Institutes" by Times Engineering.Outstanding Engineering Institute - ABP News (2014)University Institute of Engineering (UIE), Chandigarh University has been honored with the title of "Outstanding Engineering Institute" in the year 2014 by India's leading News Channel - ABP News.Outstanding Engineering Institute - ET NOW (2013)University Institute of Engineering (UIE), Chandigarh University has also been honored with the title of "Outstanding Engineering Institute" in the year 2013 by India's leading English Business News Channel- ET NOW.#9 among Top 15 Private Universities in the Country (2020) by Times B-SchoolUniversity School of Business (USB) at Chandigarh University ranked #9 among Top 15 Private Universities in all over India by the Times B-School in Times B-School Rankings 2020.University School of Business ranked #25 among Top 100 Management Institutes (2020) by Times B-SchoolUniversity School of Business (USB) at Chandigarh University ranked #25 among Top 100 Management Institutes in all over India by the Times B-School in Top 100 Management Institutes Overall Ranking (2020) by Times B-SchoolUniversity School of Business ranked #12 among Management Institutes in North Zone (2020) by Times B-SchoolUniversity School of Business (USB) at Chandigarh University ranked #12 among Management Institutes in North India by the Times B-School in their 2020 Survey.USB Ranked 59th among Top Colleges in the Country for offering World-Class BBA – India TodayThe University School of Business (USB), Chandigarh University has been ranked #59 among Top Colleges in the country for offering World-Class BBA (Bachelor of Business Administration) by India Today.Youngest University to be Ranked by NIRF India 201964th Management Institute of India by NIRF Chandigarh University has been ranked 64th among fully fledged Universities (Management) of India by NIRF for continuous efforts to escalate quality education to the students.5th Among Emerging B-Schools of India – Times of India (2017)University School of Business (USB), Chandigarh University is ranked 5th among Emerging B-Schools of India by the third-largest Indian newspaper - Times of India.2nd Best MBA-Finance B-School in Non-metros category – Outlook Money (2016)Chandigarh University's Apex Institute of Technology MBA is ranked 2nd Best MBA- Finance B-School in Non-metros category in North by the OUTLOOK MONEY.3rd Among 'Top-5 Women Friendly B-School' - OUTLOOK MONEY (2016)Apex Institute of Technology (AIT), Chandigarh University has been ranked 3rd among 'Top-5 Women Friendly B-School' by OUTLOOK MONEY.AAA Ranking by Careers 360 Magazine (2015)University School of Business (USB), Chandigarh University has been given AAA ranking by leading education portal - Careers 360.AA+ Ranking by Digital Learning (2015)Digital Learning Magazine has ranked University Business School (USB), Chandigarh University as AA+.Ranked 3rd among Private Hotel Management Colleges in North Zone – The WeekUniversity Institute of Tourism and Hospitality Management (UITHM) has been ranked #3 for the Best Private Hotel Management College in all over India by The Week College Rankings 2020 and ranked #23 overall.Ranked 7th among Private Hotel Management Colleges in North Zone – The WeekUniversity Institute of Tourism and Hospitality Management (UITHM) has been ranked #7 for the Best Private Hotel Management College in all over India by The Week College Rankings 2020 and ranked #23 overall.UITHM Ranked 2th among all Colleges to offer Best Value for Money – India TodayChandigarh University's UITHM (University Institute of Tourism & Hotel Management) has been ranked #2 among all colleges in Hotel Management to offer best value for money by India Today.UITHM Ranked 25th among Top Colleges in the country – India TodayApart from being #2 ranked college to offer Best Value for Money, Chandigarh University's UITHM (University Institute of Tourism & Hotel Management) has been ranked #25 among the Top Colleges in the country.Ranked 7th Among Top Pvt. Hotel Management Institutes of North India – The Week (2017)University Institute of Tourism & Hospitality Management (UITHM), Chandigarh University is ranked 7th among the Top Pvt. Hotel Management Institutes of North India by the Indian newsmagazine - The Week.Ranked 25th Among top Pvt. Hotel Management Institutes of India – The Week (2016)University Institute of Tourism & Hospitality Management (UITHM), Chandigarh University has been ranked 25th Among Top Private Hotel Management Institutes of India by "The Week" magazine.Best Hotel Management Institute 2014-2015. (Awarded for consecutive 2 years by Indian Restaurant Congress)University Institute of Tourism & Hospitality Management (UITHM), Chandigarh University added another feather to its cap by grabbing the title of Best Hotel Management Institute consecutively for two years (i.e. 2014 & 2015) by Indian Restaurant Congress.ComputingBCA Ranked 50th among Top Colleges in the country for offering World-Class BCA – India TodayThe University Institute of Computing (UIC), Chandigarh University has been ranked #50 among Top Colleges in the country for offering World-Class BCA (Bachelor of Computer Application) by India Today.CommerceRanked 45th in Commerce College Rankings 2020 – The WeekUniversity School of Business-CommerceRecognitionsUniversity Grants Commission (UGC)Chandigarh University is recognized by University Grants Commission (UGC), a statutory body of the Government of India established for the coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of university education in India.All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)The engineering programs at CU are approved by AICTE. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up in November 1945 as a national level Apex Advisory Body to conduct survey on the facilities on technical education and to promote development in the country in a coordinated and integrated manner.Membership & Approvals12 B status to Chandigarh UniversityBar Council of India (BCI)All programs of Law at Chandigarh university are approved by Bar Council of India (BCI), body established under the Advocates Act 1961 that regulates the legal practice and legal education in India. It prescribes standards of professional conduct, etiquettes and exercises disciplinary jurisdiction over the bar. It also sets standards for legal education and grants recognition to Universities whose degree in law will serve as a qualification for students to enroll themselves as advocates upon graduation.National Council for Hotel Management and Catering Technology (Society) was set up in the year 1982 by Govt. of India as an autonomous body for coordinated growth and development of hospitality management education in the country.Aims and objectives of National Council for Hotel Management & Catering Technology and its role as the apex formation in the country to ensure coordinated growth and development of hospitality education through its affiliated institutes.Pharmacy Council of India (PCI)All programs related to Pharmacy at Chandigarh University are approved by PCI. The Pharmacy education and profession in India upto graduate level is regulated by the PCI, a statutory body governed by the provisions of the Pharmacy Act, 1948 passed by the Parliament.Council of Architecture (COA)All the architecture programs at Chandigarh University are approved by COA. The Council of Architecture (COA) has been constituted by the Government of India under the provisions of the Architects Act, 1972, enacted by the Parliament of India, which came into force on 1st September, 1972.The COA oversees the maintenance of the standards periodically by way of conducting inspections through Committees of Experts.National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)All the programs of education and physical education at Chandigarh University are approved by NCTE. The National Council for Teacher Education, in its previous status since 1973, was an advisory body for the Central and State Governments on all matters pertaining to teacher education, with its Secretariat in the Department of Teacher Education of the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT).Association of Indian Universities (AIU)Chandigarh University is a member of Association of Indian Universities. AIU serves as the representative of universities in India and undertakes various programs as would help to improve standards of instruction, examination, research, textbooks, scholarly publications, library organisation and such other programs which may contribute to the growth and propagation of knowledge.Computer Society of India (CSI)Chandigarh University is a member of CSI. Formed in 1965, the CSI has been instrumental in guiding the Indian IT industry down the right path since its formative years. Today, the CSI has 73 chapters all over India, over 500 student branches, and more than 100000 members including India's most famous IT industry leaders, brilliant scientists and dedicated academicians.Chandigarh University joins Association of Universities of Asia and The PacificChandigarh University stands amongst Nation's most prestigious higher education institutions. With Memberships in National & International associations and bodies already in place, Chandigarh University is now a member of the Prestigious Association of Universities of Asia and The Pacific. Chandigarh University's membership with AUAP will help explore more possibilities at international level.PETEX donates Chandigarh University with Software worth Multi-million PoundsIn recent development, Chandigarh University has received a multi-million pound software donation from Petroleum Experts (PETEX). The donation by the Edinburgh-based Petroleum Experts is worth £2,025,307.17 and aims to undertake relevant research activities and to support the teaching receiving first-hand experience of industry-standard software.Kappa signs Software License Agreement with Chandigarh UniversityChandigarh University has signed the Software License Agreement with Petroleum Engineering Software Company, KAPPA. Availing a boost to Engineering programs at Chandigarh University, KAPPA has granted the educational type network license to use 6 softwares - Saphir, Topaze, Rubis, Azurite, Emeraude, Citrine, valued at €4,500,000.Rock Flow Dynamics grant tNavigator Software Licenses worth $14, 080, 000 to Chandigarh UniversityChandigarh University has received a donation of tNavigator software licenses from Rock Flow Dynamics to enrich the learning experience of Petroleum Engineering & allied streams students and to boost the Engineering programs. RFD has granted free-of-charge 88 Single-User licenses valued at $14,080,000.International MembershipsInternational Association of Universities (IAU)The International Association of Universities (IAU) is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)-based worldwide association of higher education institutions.It brings together institutions and organisations from some 120 countries for reflection and action on common concerns and collaborates with various international, regional and national bodies active in higher education. Chandigarh University is honored to have received the membership of the global association of institutions and organizations of higher education.Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU)Established in 1913, the Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU) is the world's first & oldest international university network. A UK-registered charity, ACU has over 500 member institutions in over 40 countries across the Commonwealth. It brings together many of the most prestigious and well-funded universities internationally with relatively new institutions in some of the world’s least developed countries with a common belief to enhance excellence in everything that ACU and its member universities do.Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)IEEE is the world's largest professional association dedicated to advancing technological innovation and excellence for the benefit of humanity. IEEE and its members inspire a global community through IEEE's highly cited publications, conferences, technology standards, and professional and educational activities.The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)The American Society of Mechanical Engineers promotes the art, science & practice of multidisciplinary engineering and allied sciences around the globe. ASME is a not-for-profit membership organization that enables collaboration, knowledge sharing, career enrichment, and skills development across all engineering disciplines, toward a goal of helping the global engineering community develop solutions to benefit lives and livelihoods. Founded in 1880 by a small group of leading industrialists, ASME has grown through the decades to include more than 130,000 members in 151 countries.Indo US Collaboration for Engineering Education (IUCEE)The Indo US Collaboration for Engineering Education (IUCEE), with headquarters at University of Massachusetts Lowell, was conceptualized by over 150 leaders of engineering education and businesses from US and India in 2007. The vision of IUCEE is to improve the quality and global relevance of engineering education and research in India and related benefits to US engineering educators, with focus on faculty development, student development, curriculum development, as well as improved teaching technologies & research.American Chemical Society (ACS)ACS is a congressionally chartered independent membership organization which represents professionals at all degree levels and in all fields of chemistry and sciences that involve chemistry.CU ScholarshipsChandigarh University is fully committed to its Institutional Social Responsibility. The University, besides being pioneers of quality education is proactive in uplifting the education standard and qualification of students of the nation in general and North region in particular, is ever enthusiastic to encourage and motivate bright students by providing additional benefits and facilities to shining stars and super achievers. As a sequel to this, it is proposed to introduce a more attractive Scholarship scheme for those seeking fresh admission from Academic session 2021.Chandigarh University Common Entrance Test (CUCET) For The Academic Year 2021-2022To provide an opportunity to bright and inquisitive young minds from across the country to study in most challenging and diverse academic environment, Chandigarh University has launched CUCET, a common entrance exam with double benefits. The scholarships worth Rs. 33 Crores is aimed at rewarding the brilliance and potential of young aspirants to win scholarships and study in futuristic courses of their choice.Click here to view more about CUCETMerit Scholarship Schemes for the Academic Session 2021-2022‘Let your hard work pay off your university fees›The Merit Based Scholarship is particularly designed for meritorious students who had displayed an outstanding level of academic achievement in their previous years.Click here to view the policyOther Concessions for the Academic Year 2021-2022Click here to view the policyScholarship Scheme for Wards of Defence Personnel for the Academic Year 2021-2022Click here to view the policyCU Sports Policy for the Academic Year 2021-2022Click here to view the policyARCHITECTURE SCHOLARSHIP ON THE BASIS OF NATA/JEE (Main) SCOREClick here to view the policyScholarship for Family Members of Chandigarh University Staff for Session 2020-2021Click here to view the policyNote:-All Eligible students can avail one scholarship at one time.Get in TouchFor any information please contact the below mentioned helpline nos:General Inquiries:+91-160-3044444Mobile: +91-99159-99223, +91-99159-99224Toll Free: 1800 1212 88800Email: [email protected]: Although CU endeavors to ensure the accuracy of this information, there is no guarantee it will remain accurate all year. Applicants are advised to confirm program details before making an application.Institutional Social ResponsibilityInstitutional Social Responsibility (ISR) is one of the mainstays of Chandigarh University and we as an institution believes that our role involves something more than simply imparting of knowledge and skills to the students. As an active agent of social change, CU takes on voluntary actions in the creation of a culture of social responsibility in society through a myriad of activities that address both our own competitive interests & welfare of the society.Hunar Se RozgarThe Ministry of Tourism launched a special initiative called Hunar Se Rozgar Tak (HSRT). This Short-term course is being run at Chandigarh University which Started in 2011.Students trained by CU so far:Year (2012-2013)60 studentsYear (2013-2014)60 studentsYear (2013-2014)210 studentsYear (2014-2015)320 studentsTotal students trained 650Areas:CookeryBakeryHouse KeepingFood ProcessingProject for upgradation of roadside eateriesChandigarh University Collaborated with Punjab Heritage & Tourism Promotion Board (PHTPB).CU is offering six months training+ six monthshandholding of Dhabas in the areas forfollowing aspects -Guest satisfactionSanitationHygieneFood presentationGrooming of staffThis project has in turn benefitted Dhabas as following -Certification by PHTPBQuality AssuranceIncrease in SalesEnvironment ProtectionChandigarh University has launched ‘Save Me- My Environment, My Earth’ Campaignin collaboration with National Green Tribunal (NGT)Chandigarh University is maintaining a green belt of 2 KMS (1kms either side of the university)New trees have been planted and the old trees has been preserve by the universityUniversity has also Practical based Environment Training Course in Curriculum from academic year 2016Jyot-e- Haryaval (Mission green)Project Jyot-e- Haryaval is an initiative of Chandigarh University to heal the planet, where every student contributes something that aggregates into a colossal protection for life on the planet. It aims to increase the green cover of the State of Punjab. The project is bringing respite to the ecology without imposing any financial burden on the state.SEE MORETree PlantationMother earth that has already lost much of its forestlands - is the major concern of the hour. As an initiate to make the world a greener place, Chandigarh University solely or in association with different organizations often organizes a couple of Tree Plantation Drives. The purpose of initiative is to grow more and more trees in the campus and surrounding areas.SEE MORENo CrackersAs the festival of light comes, there come the exorbitant firecrackers that give us nothing but massive air pollution - this is what volunteers of Chandigarh University attempt to spread. Under ISR, they are spreading the message among the natives to avoid crackers and take the festival as an opportunity to reconnect with family.SEE MORECleanliness at KhararExhorting to fulfill Mahatma Gandhi's vision of Clean India, Chandigarh University often organizes cleanliness drives in varied areas of Kharar, Mohali under the Swachh Bharat initiative that seeks to create a Clean India. CU believes that the best place to start the Cleanliness is from the home itself. Therefore, we ensure that our campus and nearby places are clean and healthy.A SMART Junior ProgramThe SMART Junior program is an initiative of Chandigarh University, which is aimed at transforming the school students into the smart juniors by providing them skills and platform to exhibit their talents.The sole purpose of this program is to motivate the children so that they could confidently bring out their innate capacity, further contributing to the betterment of the Indian society.SEE OUR PROGRAMSenior Citizen WelfareAgeing is an inevitable process of life. Thus to support the physical and holistic wellness of elderly, Chandigarh University has launched Senior Citizen Welfare that provides more effective provision for the welfare of senior citizens.Seminar for Senior Citizen CareTo shore up the integral wellness of elderly, Chandigarh University organizes Seminars for Senior Citizen Care, which is dedicated to aware senior citizens about good physical and mental health, essential for happiness.SEE OUR PROGRAMNeighborhood School ProgramKnowledge is power and has been the significant in the growth and development of the youth. Paving the path to the same, CU runs a Neighborhood School Program that organizes various quizzing, mind grilling, dancing, music and more competitions under its umbrella.Quiz CompetitionThe objective of initiative is to encourage students to look beyond their textual knowledge and establish a relationship between theory and practical of the learnt concepts.Stationery Distribution Education, we believe is the greatest wealth that one can ever have. But, the basic cost incurred on educating a child is so high that it becomes difficult for poor people to provide necessary educational materials to their wards. Therefore, from the past few years Chandigarh University has been reaching the needy children in the nearby villages and made it a mission to donate books, pencils and uniforms to the underprivileged

What is the capital of Silicon Valley?

This answer has been re-published on Forbes.Paul Graham of Y Combinator is fond of saying that the center of Silicon Valley is:"wherever there is at this moment the greatest concentration of the people who are going to make the next generation of stuff."I humbly disagree.The center of Silicon Valley, the capital, has a long and illustrious history proving its embodiment in a permanent physical space. We can use the principles of economic geography and the mechanics of industrial cities and regions to better locate this core. Lastly, a brief history of the San Francisco Bay Area at large will help us explain why and how that physical core isn't so permanent, and why it's shifting within this region. [1]Silicon Valley encompasses an industry over a particular geography, in this case, the high-tech industry as it's headquartered in the San Francisco Bay Area.The capital of this region is going to be defined differently from the capital of a governmental region, like a state/province or nation.Wikipedia defines a capital city as:the area of a country, province, region, or state considered to enjoy primary status ... a capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of the seat of government...So we can say that a capital city is where decision-making authority is physically located. When we compare this criterion to the capital city of an industry, such as the one Silicon Valley encompasses, we find that there is no central decision-making authority for that industry and thus no way to reach an answer by that definition. [2]A center of power is the more appropriate criterion by which to decide where an industry's capital might be located.For example, everyone knows the entertainment industry ("Hollywood") is located in Southern California. But within this region, it's not actually in Hollywood (not anymore). The centers of power--film, television, and music studios--are spread out across a few cities, notably Burbank, Studio City, Century City, Culver City, and yes, some parts of Hollywood. The people that matter, those with power and influence, live mostly in and amongst the same areas, across West L.A., typically Beverly Hills and the Hollywood Hills and everything in between. So where the power is concentrated, where people congregate to share ideas, fund them, and bring them to life, mostly, are in a small, 10-mile radius in an area that locals call the Westside.In fact, Southern California is actually an industrial capital for other industries too, they're just located in other parts of town. Aerospace and fashion also round out the city's economy, but despite being spread out, the main centers are by the airport and Downtown respectively.^ The 'capital' of the entertainment industry is this blob on the Westside. SoCal/LA may get the overall credit, but this red blob is what people refer to by 'Hollywood.'Even other regions defined by an industry, like New York is by "Wall Street," are confined to a specific geographic area because that's where the power is concentrated. Wall Street is basically Lower Manhattan, not all of New York City. The major banks and financial institutions are for the most part located there.^ The tip of Manhattan is the capital of 'Wall Street.'So when it comes to Silicon Valley, where is the power concentrated? If we go by where the largest technology companies are headquartered, we're in a bit of an odd situation. The world's pre-eminent tech company, Apple, is in Cupertino. Google (company) is in Mountain View and Intel (company) is in Santa Clara. Like Southern California, these power centers are spread out in a small area of an even larger industry-region. But there is a big difference: Hollywood doesn't pull actors and actresses from top university engineering and business programs and doesn't need venture capital firms to back productions.In fact, it's important to note that Silicon Valley is in the business of innovation, which is a complex labor process requiring: [3]massing of technical competencefirms and skilled labor (which are willing to share knowledge to some extent)free movement of workerstechnical interaction (problem solving / learning-by-doing / experimentation)These processes are best fostered by a strong clustering effect among universities, research institutions, investors, companies, and workers in close proximity. Thus we can focus on the true capital of Silicon Valley, the exact location where the power of the industry is concentrated, where talent is nurtured and ideas are forged and funded: Stanford, Palo Alto, and Menlo Park.^ The little purple blob center-south above has been the capital of Silicon Valley since the region got its name (if you go by my definition). There is a lot of power to the south and to the east, but this kernel of land is the 'promise-land.'Stanford University produces the talent and the attitude to start tech companies. Harkening back to our definition of innovation-based businesses, the students that come out of Stanford are not only technically competent, they share the attitude that certain competencies should be shared and expanded upon experimentally for the betterment of everybody (these days this ethos is embodied in "hacking " and "hacker culture"). Look no further than the Homebrew Computer Club spawning the personal computer revolution in the 70s. The traditions established by hackers then continues today, and it's physically embodied in this area.Palo Alto is the city where much of these student-entrepreneurs live, and companies are founded and based there because of that (at least till they grow large enough to seek accommodations elsewhere). Menlo Park is home to Sand Hill Road, where every marquee venture capital firm has an office. Over time, these specialized cities created a name for themselves, attracting auxiliary professional services like financiers, attorneys, accountants, and other business consultants. Today this specific cluster has become the de facto capital of Silicon Valley, independent of anything it originally offered. [4]There isn't one building, one campus, one location, but rather, a small little cluster of cities where the power lies, and that is the capital of Silicon Valley.Now, the story doesn't end there. We've so far ignored the role San Francisco has to play in possibly being the capital of Silicon Valley, and there is a fair bit of history to explain its role.San Francisco has always been the capital of the Bay Area, and for much of its history from the mid-19th century onwards it served as the capital of the region. The city's port made it a center of commerce, and people emigrated in droves to capitalize on the bounty of the West Coast: industry and finance were booming. There was no Silicon Valley in sight.By the mid-20th century, San Francisco had lost its claim to main port of the region. Across the Bay, the Port of Oakland was better suited for the age of containerized shipping. There was still no Silicon Valley.It was at this point that two things happened that will help explain why San Francisco was not, but now may be, the capital of Silicon Valley.When the shipping industry moved across the Bay, large swaths of warehouses and industrial space south of Market Street (and elsewhere) went unoccupied, and the area began to experience significant urban decay. Industries like banking and law were still prominent SF fixtures, but things weren't as glorious as 50-100 years prior.Scientific advances that had emerged out of a need for sophisticated radar/electronics technology for World War II had led to a booming new industry just south of the city, in the Santa Clara Valley. By the 1960s, innovations led to silicon transistors which started a new industrial boom, giving the region the name 'Silicon Valley.'To support the new high-tech ventures, a new class of financial support known as 'venture capital' emerged simultaneously to serve the needs of budding entrepreuners. They mostly located around where the innovation was taking place, in the Santa Clara Valley. From the 1970s till about now (the early 2010's), the capital of Silicon Valley, as I said earlier, is in and around the Stanford/Palo Alto/Menlo Park area.But things may be changing...A series of factors are coming together to help make San Francisco the capital of Silicon Valley. [5] Notably five main trends:SOMA: Remember the urban decay mentioned earlier? The city and its residents were driven to reverse the situation, and starting in the early to mid 1990s, diverted significant resources to turn things around. This was the birth of SoMa (South-of-Market) as it exists now: a hub of high-tech startups in repurposed warehouses and lofts. Part of this effort included spending a lot on public spaces like the Moscone Center and the Yerba Buena Gardens, places where tech companies from the 'real' Valley could host conferences and events. [6]Take this very interesting photograph below.It's shot from the Bay Bridge in 1971. If you click on it and expand it for a detailed look, you'll see that SoMa is basically just a downtrodden industrial area. Notice all those warehouse-wharfs to the left of the bridge? Most of those are gone now. Oracle Park is of course not even built, and the little marina nearby is absent. All the attractions that make SoMa lively and 'modern' are yet to be built.At the moment this photo was captured, Silicon Valley was flourishing to the south. The dawn of the personal computer was yet 5 years away. SF was in decay, but now, 40 years later, SoMa is as close to a 'capital' of Silicon Valley as you can get.All the restaurants and coffee shops are aflutter with startup talk, people walk to and from their startups and lofts. The dense urban landscape of SoMa has a higher concentration of power now than the suburbia down south, if measured by serendipitous collisions of entrepreneurs and investors on sidewalks. Even Michael Arrington, a self-made Silicon Valley power broker, confesses as much in his blog post entitled, "San Francisco or Palo Alto?" where he says:Most people, though, just want to meet in San Francisco....Specifically, most meetings are in SOMA. And a huge percentage of those meetings, especially the informal ones, are at The Creamery (San Francisco restaurant) in San Francisco....Part of why I like the bay area is because so many people there are in tech that it’s the center of all conversation. Even a few years ago San Francisco didn’t feel like part of the party. Somehow it stole the show. [7]Tax Exemptions: Further on in the decade, tax exemptions were made to make the city more attractive to tech companies (or at least retain the big ones that had already located there). Zynga (company) and Twitter (product) are the big beneficiaries so far, but there is likely to be more over time. [8]Software vs Hardware: The hottest startups of the day are now software/Internet companies, not the hardware companies of the older Silicon Valley. These new companies don't need large, industrial spaces, warehouses, R&D offices, etc that had been developed in the 'real' Valley. Software is a relatively lean operation (in terms of industrial capital), and you could base it out of lower-footprint office buildings if need be.Silicon Valley luminary Marc Andreessen, in an op-ed for the Wall Street Journal entitled, "Is Software Eating the World?" proves the point when he writes:On the back end, software programming tools and Internet-based services make it easy to launch new global software-powered start-ups in many industries—without the need to invest in new infrastructure and train new employees. In 2000, when my partner Ben Horowitz was CEO of the first cloud computing company, Loudcloud, the cost of a customer running a basic Internet application was approximately $150,000 a month. Running that same application today in Amazon's cloud costs about $1,500 a month. [9]Younger Founders & Lifestyle: Startup founders are now also younger than before, and they care about the hustle-and-bustle of city life, which San Francisco provides. Startup founders from the 1960s and 70s were older gentlemen, and it took longer for companies to reach maturity, so even if they were young when they started, by the time they wanted office space, they were old enough where the constraints of boring old suburbia didn't matter. In fact, they were preferable: a safer, quieter place to raise children and grow old.There is a more exaggerated form of this argument as well. Back in the 'golden days' of early Silicon Valley, entrepreneurs likely had PhD's in electrical engineering and related fields, or were working towards them. These days, there is an entire movement in the Valley to convince young college kids (or at least an elite subset) to drop out of school and found companies. [10] There are huge lifestyle differences between these age groups, and the younger in age, the more likely to prefer the city.Transit Options: San Francisco has more transit connections than any other region. You can take CalTrain, BART, the freeway system, or ferries. No other city has as many transit options linking it with the rest of the Bay Area. This is ipso facto a strong indicator of SF's importance.Depending on what your definitions of an industry-region's capital are, you may or may not be partial to viewing San Francisco as the hub of all power, but you can't ignore the trends. Then again, why does there have to be one capital in the first place? Just like nations have multiple capitals (the financial capital of the U.S. is New York and the governmental capital is Washington D.C.), so can an industry-region like Silicon Valley. What may emerge in the coming decade is that the startup/entrepreneur's capital becomes San Francisco, and the financial/VC capital remains in the original 'Valley.'UPDATE [05/2014]: According to a new study (Startup City: The Urban Shift in Venture Capital and High Technology), on a per capita basis, San Francisco now attracts more venture capital than Silicon Valley proper. This is attributed to "walkable, mixed-used [urban environments] ... the newest and most innovative developments in the industry are likely to emerge from urban and urban-like locations."Footnotes[1] I didn't feel it necessary to address whether Silicon Valley itself is the capital of the technology industry. That is already established with a long line of work that details the historical development of this technopolis. Annalee Saxenian's book Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128 discusses at great length why Silicon Valley became the technological capital of the U.S. See Google Books link: also avoided a discussion on cost-centers and competitive advantage. Between regions, those factors would be central to the discussion, but it shouldn't be applicable within this region. It's not like engineers in Palo Alto are getting paid any more or any less than their San Francisco counterparts. We can't therefore use these factors as a basis.[2] Certainly going by where a trade group or association is located would be silly. While they are standard-setting bodies that govern how a particular industry might behave, they are not necessarily centers of power.[3] This definition is inspired by a series of lectures on economic geography given by Professor Richard Walker of the UC Berkeley Geography Department. See this YouTube video of Lecture 6 of the Geography C110 course (at 1:14:32 specifically):[4] It would be irresponsible not to mention Mountain View as a strong possibility of being part of this cluster. Several reasons:It's really physically close to the existing cluster, so it's not a stretch to tack it on. It's also connected by CalTrain and the expressway system so power brokers and influencers, allowing key people to move easily within this area.It draws power to it, which is a key characteristic of industry-region capitals. More details on this in points 3-7 below...Google (Googleplex): In addition to being one of the world's powerhouse tech companies, brings in lots of people for Google Talks and other events. Smart people are buzzing around the area because of Google.Y Combinator: As I said, if Stanford/Menlo/Palo play mentor and incubator for tech startups, Y Combinator is just as good a mentor these days. Attracts tons of ambitious smart people building the next generation of companies, and that's the type of power that defines capitals.Singularity University: A growing power center that attracts power as well.NASA Ames Research Center: Home to the aforementioned Singularity University and of course, a big draw for science/research.Lots of important startups (but I don't want to tout this too heavily, since other Bay Area cities have lots of startups as well but that's not enough to qualify for 'capital' status)[5] Some may object to San Francisco's inclusion into Silicon Valley since it's technically outside the Santa Clara Valley, from which the region derives part of its name. However, Silicon Valley has morphed into a larger term to encompass the high-tech industry located in the Bay Area (i.e. it's grown out of the physical Santa Clara Valley). For example, Twitter is part of Silicon Valley, but it's located in SF.In fact, some people just use Silicon Valley to refer to the entirety of the American high-tech industry. (People often group Amazon and Microsoft into Silicon Valley, even though they're Seattle companies.) But without further digression, it's safe to say that SF may be considered part of Silicon Valley, even if it's not part of the 'Valley' proper.[6] The investment into large conference/convention spaces definitely paid off. Almost all major tech events in the Bay Area take place in San Francisco. Proof of this is available at my list of major tech events from 2011: Michael Sinanian's answer to What are the major technology events in a given year? .[7] Michael Arrington's blog post:[8] Tax exemption sources:[9] Marc Andreessen's op-ed can be found here:[10] The Thiel Fellowship is at the center of such efforts, with their "20 under 20" campaign. See: CreditsMaps showing Hollywood/Wall Street/Silicon Valley taken and modified with Google Maps.Panoramic view from Bay Bridge (1971): This photo was taken before stitched panorama techniques existed. The original shots were taken by Bruce Steinberg. They were scanned and assembled by Brad Templeton. The original source can be found here: lecture from footnotes is taken from UC Berkeley's YouTube channel; Creative Commons license (Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works).

People Trust Us

I used this service and needed to cancel and had to call to do so. The associate who assisted me. Was knowledgeable and refunded me for the service as I needed. Great job. My son was in an accident and was out of work and I could not afford this thank you! Dawn

Justin Miller