Introduction To Groundwater Principles And Practices: Fill & Download for Free


Download the form

How to Edit The Introduction To Groundwater Principles And Practices conviniently Online

Start on editing, signing and sharing your Introduction To Groundwater Principles And Practices online following these easy steps:

  • click the Get Form or Get Form Now button on the current page to access the PDF editor.
  • hold on a second before the Introduction To Groundwater Principles And Practices is loaded
  • Use the tools in the top toolbar to edit the file, and the added content will be saved automatically
  • Download your modified file.
Get Form

Download the form

A top-rated Tool to Edit and Sign the Introduction To Groundwater Principles And Practices

Start editing a Introduction To Groundwater Principles And Practices in a minute

Get Form

Download the form

A clear direction on editing Introduction To Groundwater Principles And Practices Online

It has become very simple presently to edit your PDF files online, and CocoDoc is the best tool you have ever seen to have some editing to your file and save it. Follow our simple tutorial to start!

  • Click the Get Form or Get Form Now button on the current page to start modifying your PDF
  • Add, modify or erase your text using the editing tools on the tool pane on the top.
  • Affter editing your content, add the date and create a signature to complete it perfectly.
  • Go over it agian your form before you save and download it

How to add a signature on your Introduction To Groundwater Principles And Practices

Though most people are in the habit of signing paper documents by handwriting, electronic signatures are becoming more regular, follow these steps to sign PDF!

  • Click the Get Form or Get Form Now button to begin editing on Introduction To Groundwater Principles And Practices in CocoDoc PDF editor.
  • Click on the Sign icon in the tool box on the top
  • A box will pop up, click Add new signature button and you'll have three choices—Type, Draw, and Upload. Once you're done, click the Save button.
  • Move and settle the signature inside your PDF file

How to add a textbox on your Introduction To Groundwater Principles And Practices

If you have the need to add a text box on your PDF for making your special content, follow the guide to carry it out.

  • Open the PDF file in CocoDoc PDF editor.
  • Click Text Box on the top toolbar and move your mouse to carry it wherever you want to put it.
  • Fill in the content you need to insert. After you’ve typed in the text, you can take full use of the text editing tools to resize, color or bold the text.
  • When you're done, click OK to save it. If you’re not settle for the text, click on the trash can icon to delete it and start over.

An easy guide to Edit Your Introduction To Groundwater Principles And Practices on G Suite

If you are seeking a solution for PDF editing on G suite, CocoDoc PDF editor is a recommended tool that can be used directly from Google Drive to create or edit files.

  • Find CocoDoc PDF editor and establish the add-on for google drive.
  • Right-click on a chosen file in your Google Drive and click Open With.
  • Select CocoDoc PDF on the popup list to open your file with and allow access to your google account for CocoDoc.
  • Make changes to PDF files, adding text, images, editing existing text, mark with highlight, trim up the text in CocoDoc PDF editor before saving and downloading it.

PDF Editor FAQ

What is the syllabus for first semester in IIT Dhanbad?

Detail Syllabus of First and Second SemesterAMC 11101Mathematics I 3–1–0Calculus-Iuccessive differentiation of one variable and Leibnitz theorem, Taylor’s and Maclaurin’s expansion of functions of single variable, Functions of several variables, partial derivatives, Euler’s theorem, derivatives of composite and implicit functions, total derivatives, Jacobian’s, Taylor’s and Maclaurin’s expansion of functions of several variables, Maxima and minima of functions of several variables, Lagrange’s method of undetermined multipliers, Curvature and asymptotes, concavity, convexity and point of inflection, Curve tracing.Calculus-II: Improper integrals, convergence of improper integrals, test of convergence, Beta and Gamma functions and its properties, Differentiation under integral sign, differentiation of integrals with constant and variable limits, Leibinitz rule. Evaluation of double integrals, Change of order of integrations, change of coordinates, evaluation of area using double integrals, Evaluation of triple integrals, change of coordinates, evaluation of volumes of solids and curved surfaces using double and triple integrals. Mass, center of gravity, moment of inertia and product of inertia of two and three-dimensional bodies and principal axes.Trigonometry of Complex Number, 3D Geometry and Algebra: Function of complex arguments, Hyperbolic functions and summation of trigonometrical series.3D Geometry: Cones, cylinders and conicoids, Central conicoids, normals and conjugate diameters.Algebra: Convergency and divergency of Infinite series. Comparison test, D’ Alembert’s Ratio test, Raabe’s test, logarithmic test, Cauchy’s root test, Alternating series, Leibinitz test, absolute and conditional convergence, power series, uniform convergence.AMC 12101Mathematics I I 3–1–0Vector Calculus: Scalar and vector fields, Level surfaces, differentiation of vectors, Directionalderivatives, gradient, divergence and curl and their physical meaning, vector operators and expansion formulae, Line, surface and volume integrations, Theorems of Green, Stokes and Gauss, Application of vector calculus in engineering problems, orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, expressions of gradient, divergence and curl in curvilinear coordinates.Fourier Series: Periodic functions, Euler’s formulae, Dirichlet’s conditions, expansion of even and odd functions, half range Fourier series, Perseval’s formula, complex form of Fourier series.Matrix Theory: Orthogonal, Hermitian, skew- Hermitian and unitary matrices, Elementary row and column transformations, rank and consistency conditions and solution of simultaneous equations, linear dependence and consistency conditions and solution of simultaneous equations, linear dependence and independence of vectors, Linear and orthogonal transformations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors, properties of Eigen values, Cayley-Hamilton theorem, reduction to normal forms, quadratic forms, reduction of quadratic forms to canonical forms, index, signature,Matrix calculus & its applications in solving differential equations.Differential Equations: Differential Equations of first order and higher degree, Linear independence and dependence of functions. Higher order differential equations with constant coefficient, Rules of finding C.F. and P.I., Method of variation of parameter Cauchy and Legendre’s linear equations, Simultaneous linear equations with constant coefficients, Linear differential equations of second order with variable coefficients; Removal of first derivative (Normal form), Change of independent varaiable, Applications of higher order differential equations in solution of engineering problems.Partial Differential equations: Formation of P.D.E, Equations solvable by direct integration,Linear and non-linear equations of first order, Lagrange’s equations, and Charpit’s method,Homogeneous and non-homogeneous linear P.D.E. with constant coefficients, Rules for finding C.F. & P.I.AP Physics 3–1–0Thermal physics: Concepts of distribution of molecular velocities, Distribution laws and statistics MB, FD and BE, mean free path; Transport phenomena-viscosity, diffusion; thermal conductivity, measurement of thermal conductivity; periodic and a periodic flow of heat; Wiedemann-Franz law. Heat radiation, black body and black body radiation, Planck’s distribution law and its application to classical distribution (Rayleigh-Jeans and Wiens) and total radiation (Stefan-Boltzmann) laws.Modern Physics: Brief idea of molecular spectra, Rigid rotator, spectra of simple molecules, rotation and rotationvibration spectra, Brief idea of wave pocket and wave function, Shrodinger equation, Particle in a Box, Free electron theory; qualitative idea of band theory of solids and Hall effect, Laser and laser systems (He-Ne and Ruby Lasers).Electromagnetics : Maxwell’s field equation, Equation of electromagnetic field, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in different isotropic media, energy of electromagnetic waves, Poynting’s theorem & Poynting’s vector, Rocks and minerals as dielectrics, electrical conductivity and electrical phenomena in rocks, Piezo-, ferro-, tribo-, and pyro-electricity.AC Chemistry 3–1–0Phase Rule and phase equilibrium diagram: Phase rule; degree of freedom, one and two component systems, temperature and composition diagrams, liquid-liquid and liquid-solid phase diagramsElectrochemistry: Electric potentials at interfaces, electrodes, batteries, electrochemical cells and their applications.Organic Chemistry: Basis Organic Chemistry , Isomerism and Stereomers , Name ReactionsInorganic Chemistry: Coordination Compounds and Isomerism , SpectroscopyME Engineering Graphics 1–3–0Drawing instruments and their uses, Indian standards for drawing, Lettering, Types of lines used in engineering graphics: full lines hidden lines, dimension lines, centerlines, section lines construction lines etc.Scales: representative fractions, reducing and enlarging scales, plain scales, diagonal scales and vernier scales. Curves used in engineering practice: conic sections, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, cycloid, epicycloids, hypocycloid, involutes and spiral.Orthographic projections: First angle and third angle projections, conventions used, orthographic projections of simple solids; Conversion of three-dimensional views to orthographic views.Isometric projections: of simple solids, isometric views, conversion of orthographic views to isometric views; free hand sketching.MME Manufacturing Process 1–3–0Forging: Introduction to Forging, types of tools and their uses, colour representations of different temperature levels, recrystallisation, workability of metals at elevated temperature, safety rules.Casting: Introduction to foundry, Pattern making, types of casting processes, purpose of runner & riser, applications of casting, defects in casting.Fitting: Introduction to fitting jobs, fitting tools and their uses, safety rules.Welding: Welding types, accessories, weldments, safety rules.Machine Tools: Types of tools, Types of Machine Tools and their specifications, safety rules.Measurement: Use of vernier etc for product measurement.EE Electrical Technology 3–1–0Network Theorems (KCL, KVL, Thevenin, Norton, Maximum power transfer) applied to steadystate DC circuit, Single-phase AC circuits and phasor diagrams,series and parallel resonance, Three-phase AC circuits with balanced and unbalanced loads, phasor presentation, measurement of three-phase power by two-wattmeter method.Single-phase transformer: Construction, types, EMF equation, equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, regulation, efficiency, OC and SC tests.DC Machines: Construction, types, principle of operation, EMF and torque equation.DC generator: OCC and external characteristic curves and efficiency.DC motors: speed-torque characteristics, starting, 3- point starter, speed control and efficiency.Three-phase induction motor: Construction, types, principle of operation, torque-slip characteristics,starting methods. Introduction to three-phase synchoronous motor.EAI Electronics Engineering 3–1–0Semiconductorodes and Applications – Introduction Characteristics, dc and ac resistances of a Diode. Half wave and Full wave Rectification. Zener Diodes and then use as regulators, Clippers and Clampers.Bipolar junction Transistor - Introduction, Transistor Operator CB, CE and CC configuration, dc biasing, Operating point, Fixed biased Circuit, Emitter –Stablized Bias Circuit, Voltage Divider Bias.BJT Transistor – Amplification in ac domain, Equivalent transistor model. Hybrid Equivalent model, RC coupled amplifier and its frequency response.Operational Amplifiers – introduction, Differential and Common Mode Operation, OPAMP Basics, Practical OPMAP Circuits. Introduction to field effect transistors and their applications.Digital Electronics – Review of Basic Gates and Boolean algebra, Introduction to Combinational Logic Design, Standard Representations of Logical functions and their Simplification, Combinational Logic Design, Half Adder and Full Adders.Sequential Circuits – Flip flops S-R, J-K and D Application in Ripple Counters.MEMME Engineering Mechanics 3–1–0Fundamentals of Mechanics: Equivalent force system, Equation of equilibrium, Introduction to Structural Mechanics: Force analysis of Frames, Trusses, Shear force, Bending moment analysis of Beams.Friction force analysis: Laws, Sliding and Rolling friction, Screw Jack, Wedge, Belt friction, Collar frictionProperties of surfaces: First moment of area and the centroid, Second moment and product of area, Transfer theorem, Polar moment of inertia.Kinematics of particles: Velocity and acceleration calculations, Relative motion.Particle dynamics: Rectilinear translation, Rectangular and cylindrical coordinates.Linear momentum and moment of momentum: Impulse and momentum relations for a particle, Moment of momentum equation for a single particle and for a system of particles.Introduction to kinematics and kinetics of rigid bodies. Mechanical vibration of single degree of freedom system.HSS11101 English for Science and Technology 3–1–0Language Resource Development: Using appropriate grammatical lexical forms to express meaning-accuracy, range and appropriacy grammatical lexical exercises. Reading, Interpreting and Using Written, and Graphic Information : Using (reading and writing) academic texts, articles in technical journals, instruction manuals/laboratory instruction sheets, safety manuals and regulations, and reports; Using maps, graphs, plan diagrams, flow-charts, sketches, tabulated and statistical data.Writing Appropriately in a Range of Rhetorical Styles i.e. Formal and Informal: Writing instructions, describing objects and processes; defining, narrating, classifying exemplifying, comparing, contrasting, hypothesizing, predicting, concluding, generalizing restating, and reporting; Note making (from books/journals); Writing assignments; summarizing, expanding, paraphrasing; Answering examination questions; Correspondence skills; Interpreting, expressing and negotiating meaning; Creating coherent written tests according to the conventions. Receiving and Interpreting the Spoken Word : Listening to lectures and speeches, listening to discussions and explanations in tutorials; Note taking (from lectures); Interacting orally in academic, professional and social situation; Understanding interlocutor, creating coherent discourse, and taking appropriate turns in conversation; Negotiating meanings with others (in class room, workshop, laboratory, seminar, conference, discussion, interview etc.)AGL & CME Earth System Science 3–0–0AGL ( 2 0 0 )Space Science: Solar System, Age of the Earth, Origin Of Solar System. Meteors and Meteorites.Earth Dynamics : Interior of the Earth, Composition of the Earth, Seismic Waves, Seismograph,Plate Tectonics, Basics of Earthquake, Landslides, Volcanoes. Geological Oceanography : Sea waves, Tides, Ocean Current, Geological Work of seas and Oceans, Tsunami and its Causes, Warning system and mitigationHydrogeology : Water table, Aquifer, Groundwater fluctuation and groundwater composition.Practicals:AP Physics 0–0–3Measurement of thermal conductivity of bad conductors, Optical experiments on Diffractionusing diffracting grating. Experiments on Semi-conductors – measurement of band gap and Halleffect Experiments using He-Ne Laser – Diffraction Experiments to measure Brewster’s angle &find refractive index.AC Chemistry 0–0–3List of Experiments1. Standards of HCl by Standard Sodium Carbonate solution.2. Determination of Temporary Hardness of Tap Water.3. Estimation of Total Hardness of water.4. Determination of Iron in Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate solution (Redox titration).5. Determination of Copper in crystallized Copper Sulphate.6. Estimation of available Chlorine in Bleaching Powder.7. Determination of Molecular Weight of Organic Acid by Titration method.8. Estimation of Sodium Carbonate and bicarbonate in a mixture.9. To determine the saponification number of an oil.1210. To determine the rate of hydrolysis of methyl/ ethyl acetate.11. To prepare Chrome Alum.EE Electrical Technology 0–0–3Experiments on Thevenin’s theorem, R-L-C Series circuit, Single phase power measurement,Characteristics of fluorescent lamp and incandescent lamp, OC and SC tests of single phasetransformer, Open-circuit characteristics of DC separately excited generator, externalcharacteristics of separately excited DC generator, 3 point starter of DC shunt motor, Speedcontrol of DC motor.EAI Electronics Engineering 0–0–31. Study of Electronic Equipment & Components.2. Study of diode characteristics.3. Study of regulated power supply.4. Study of BJT characteristics.5. Study of op-amp characteristics.6. Implementation of Boolean algebra using Logic gates.7. Adder Circuits

What are the best books to crack the IIT 2020?

Hi! There are many books in the market that are said to be the best books for doing the preparation, but you need to make sure to prepare from the highly recommended books in order to score well. The subject-wise books along with the name of their authors have been laid down below:Physics:Mathematical Physics-H.K. DassClassical Mechanics & General Properties of Matter-A.B. GuptaWaves and Oscillations-N.K. BajajOptics-B.GhoshIntroduction to Electrodynamics-David J. GriffithsHeat & Thermodynamics-H.P. Roy & A.B. GuptaQuantum Physics-H.C. VermaSolid State Physics-S.O. PillaiElectronics-B.GhoshMathematics:Integral Calculus-F. Ayres (Schaum’s), Gorakh PrasadVector Calculus-Murray R. Spiegel (Schaum’s), A.R.VasishthaLinear Algebra-Seymour Lipschitz (Schaum’s), H. Anton, A.R.Vasishtha.Ordinary Differential Equation-Peter J. Collins, G.F. Simmons, M.D. Raisinghania.The principle of Real Analysis-S. C. Malik.Real Analysis-H. L. RoydenModern Algebra-A. R. Vasishtha 8. UniversityAlgebra-N. S. GopalakrishnanPhysical Chemistry:Theory of Gases: Physical Chemistry-Peter W. AtkinsChemical Thermodynamics: Physical Chemistry-Thomas Engel & Phillip ReidChemical and Phase Equilibria-Principals of Chemical Equilibrium & Phase Rule-K.G. DenbighElectrochemistry: An Introduction to Electrochemistry-Samuel GlasstoneChemical Kinetics: Chemical Kinetics-Keith J. LaidlerSolid State-Solid State-Peter W. AtkinsAdsorption: Introduction to Surface Chemistry & Catalysis-Gabor A. SomorjaiBasic Mathematical Concept: Differential Equation & Matrices-Shanti NarayanAtomic and Molecular Structure: Physical Chemistry- Peter W. AtkinsInorganic Chemistry:Periodic Table: Concise Inorganic Chemistry- J. D. LeeChemical Bonding and Shapes of compounds: Inorganic Chemistry- Miessler & TarrMain Group Elements (s and p blocks): Concise Inorganic Chemistry- J. D. LeeTransition Metal (d block): Concise Inorganic Chemistry- James E. HuheeyAnalytical Chemistry: Quantitative Inorganic Analysis-A. I. VogelBioinorganic Chemistry: Inorganic Chemistry- James E. HuheeyInstrumental Method of Analysis: Instrumental method- Skoog, Holler & CrouchOrganic Chemistry:Basic Concepts in Organic Chemistry and Stereochemistry: Stereochemistry Conformation and Mechanism-P.S. KalsiOrganic Chemistry-Clayden, Greeves, Warner and WothersOrganic Chemistry-Carey & SundbergNatural Products Chemistry: Organic Chemistry (Vol-II)-I. L. FinarHeterocyclic Chemistry: Organic Chemistry (Vol-I)-I. L. FinarQualitative organic Analysis: Introduction to Spectroscopy-Pavia, Lampman, Kriz, VyvyanGeology:Structural Geology-MP BillingsStructural Geology: Fundamentals & Modern Developments-SK GhoshStructural Geology-Robert J Twiss & Eldridge M MooresTextbook of Physical Geology-GB MahapatraPhysical Geography-Savindra SinghIntroduction to Geomorphology-VS Kale & Avijit GuptaPrinciples of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology-JD WinterThe Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks-Sam BoggsMineralogy-Dexter PerkinsRutley’s Elements of Mineralogy-CD GribblePalaeontology Invertebrate-Henry WoodsFundamentals of Historical Geology and Stratigraphy of India-Ravindra KumarPrincipals of Engineering Geology-KM BangarA Textbook of Geology-PK MukherjeeGroundwater Hydrology-David K Todd & Larry W MaysBiological Science:Life Sciences: Fundamentals and Practice: I, II-Pranav Kumar, Usha MinaPrinciples of Genetics-Gardner, Simmons, SnustadCell and Molecular Biology-KarpBiochemistry-Jeremy M. Berg, Lubert Stryer, John L. TymoczkoDevelopmental Biology-Scott F. Gilbert, Susan R. SingerKuby Immunology-Barbara A. Osborne, Richard GoldsbyEssentials of Physiology-Lauralee SherwoodMolecular Biology of the Cell-Bruce AlbertsMicrobiology-John P. Harley, Donald KleinBiotechnology:General Reading (Chemistry, Math, Physics)-CERT for General reading and MCQ Books by Dinesh or PradeepMicrobiology-Prescott, PelczarBiochemistry-LehningerMolecular Biology-WatsonCell Biology-Bruce AlbertsDevelopment Biology-GilbertIf you have any other queries regarding the syllabus, exam pattern or any other detail, then check IIT JAM Syllabus 2020.Hope this answer helps you!

What is the syllabus of m.SC environmental science in JNU?

I could not understand if you are looking for syllabus of M.Sc in Environmental Course for your coursework or for preparation of entrance exam. If you are looking for coursework in Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi; here you go.The M. Sc. programme is spread over four semesters. It carries 64 credits and comprises of four different components viz: I) Teaching II) Lab Work III) Field Work and IV) Dissertation.Distribution of credits for M. Sc. Programme is:Total Credits for M. Sc. Degree Programme = 64 credits I) Teaching = 50 creditsII) Lab work, Field work and Dissertation = 14 creditsDistribution of credits for teaching (Total 50 credits)i) Core courses = 26 credits ii) Optional courses = 24 creditsDistribution of credits for Lab work, Field work and Dissertation (Total 14 credits)a) Lab work = 6 credits (Lab Work I =3 credits; Lab Work II =3 credits)b) Field work = 3 creditsc) Dissertation = 5 creditsI) Teaching (50 credits)Teaching is a major component of the programme. It shares 50 credits out of total 64. The remaining three components i.e. Lab work, field work and dissertation share remaining 14 creditsVarious courses offered under M. Sc. programme are categorized as:A) Core courses B) Non Credit courses and C) Optional courses.Altogether there are 46 courses: 13 as core, 2 non credit courses and 31 optional courses. All core courses are offered in I and II semesters and all optional courses are offered in III and IV semester of the M. Sc programme.All Core Courses are of 2 credits each and compulsory for all the students. Non credit courses do not carry any credits, however, as per the JNU ordinance, completion of such courses by every student is a mandatory requirement for the award of the degree. Optional courses are of 3 credits each and cover all specialized courses across different sub disciplines of environmental sciences namely; Mathematics, Physics, Statistics, Geology, Chemistry and Biology. There is a running list of 31 optional courses, out of which students will have to choose any 8 optional courses (four in each semester) to obtain 24 credits.II) Lab work, Field work and Dissertation (14 credits)a) Lab work (6 credits)The lab work component is spread over first two semesters and is called as Lab work I and Lab work II to be completed in I and II semesters respectively. Under Lab Work I and II, sets of experiments specially designed for M. Sc. students by faculty members of the school are carried out in M. Sc. lab or in the lab of the concerned faculty member during the period of five working days in the afternoon.b) Field work (3 credits)To strengthen the field work component and to have a wider exposure of the field conditions, students will undergo extensive field work which will help them in developing the understanding of different aspects of environmental sciences. Field work is completed in second semester. Each student will submit his/her field work report for evaluation.c) Dissertation (5 credits)Each student will work for M. Sc. Project under the supervision of formally assigned supervisor in the school. Assigning of supervisor will be based on academic interest shown by the student in research specialization of the concerned faculty member followed by the consent given by the faculty member to supervise the project work of that particular student. Student shall complete the process of academic interaction to obtain teachers consent to supervise his/her project work by the end of second semester. The work on research project will start in 3rd semester under the supervision of concerned faculty member in his /her lab and will be completed by 4th semester with writing and submission of dissertation. Dissertation will be evaluated by a 3 member expert committee. Students will have to present their work and defend it in an open viva- voce.LIST OF COURSESA) Core Courses (Compulsory for all)(Total courses 13, Total credits: 13 x 2 =26)Remedial Mathematics ES-101ORRemedial Biology ES-102Environmental Chemistry ES-103Earth processes ES-104Ecology ES-105Statistics ES-106Environmental Pollution ES-107Natural hazards and disaster management ES-108Environmental Impact Assessment ES-109Energy and Environment ES-110Remote sensing and Geoinformatics ES-111Environmental Biochemistry and Toxicology ES-112Marine environment ES 113Soil Science ES-114B) Non- Credit Courses (Compulsory for all)Current Environmental Issues ES-11516. Scientific Writings and Ethics ES-116C) Optional Courses – (Total courses- 31 of 3 credits each; Students will have tochoose any 8 courses to obtain total 24 credits)1. Environmental Modeling ES-2012. Climatology ES-2023. Meteorology ES-2034. Noise Pollution ES-2045. Environmental Physics ES-2056. Environmental instrumentation and techniques ES-2067. Geochemistry ES-2078. Groundwater Hydrology ES-2089. Oceanography ES-20910. Natural resource Management ES-21011. Glaciology ES-21112. Biogeochemistry ES-21213. Environmental Geology ES-21314. Water Resources ES-21415. Air Pollution Chemistry ES-21516. Water Pollution Chemistry ES-21617. Soil Pollution Chemistry ES-21718. Solid and Hazardous Wastes Management ES-21819. Metrology ES-21920. Pollution Biology ES-22021. Biodiversity and conservation ES-22122. Forest ecology ES-22223. Microbial Ecology ES-22324. Ecosystem Dynamics ES-22425. Environmental Biophysics ES-22526. Ecology and sustainable development ES-22627. Environmental Xenobiotics and human health ES-22728. Fundamentals of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology ES-22829. Applied biotechnology and Bioremediation ES-22930. Eco-toxicology ES-23031. Environmental and Occupational health ES-231D) Lab Work1. Lab work I (3 credits) ES-2322. Lab work II (3 credits) ES-233E) Field Work (3 credits) ES-234F) Project Work (5 credits) ES-235-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------COURSE CONTENTA) Core CoursesRemedial Mathematics ES-101 (for Non- Mathematics students)Functions- polynomial, logarithmic, exponential, absolute value, trigonometric. Limits, Indeterminate forms, Continuity. Derivability. Differentiation of simple mathematical functions- product rule, quotient rule and chain rule. Integration- by parts, substitution and by partial fractions. Linear differential equations and their solution. Introduction to Matrices and Determinants. Introduction to Vectors- addition, subtraction, multiplication of vectors. Equation of Straight Line and Solving Linear System of Equations.OR2. Remedial Biology ES-102 (for Non- Biology students)History and scope of ecology, Evolution of biosphere, Diversity of life forms. Biological communities, species interaction, Communities properties, succession. Plant diversity and nomenclature with major classes of plants; Phytogeographical regions; Rare and threatened plants and exploration of plant wealth. Animal diversity and categories of animals; Rare and threatened species of mammals, aves, reptiles, pisces etc.; Exploration and conservation of faunal wealth. Microbial diversity, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes; Microbial diversity in man-made ecosystems and natural ecosystems. Importance of flora and fauna in nutrient cycling, its effect, degradation and metabolism.3. Environmental chemistry ES-103Fundamental Chemistry: Elements, Chemical bonding, chemical reactions and equations, Organic functional groups, classes of organic compounds. Free radical reactions, catalytic processes.Elemental cycles (C, N, S, O) and their environmental significance.Fossil fuels: their types, properties, combustion and environmental implications.Atmospheric constituents, Green house gases and climatic changes. Chlorofluorocarbons and their substitutes. Photochemical smog. Water quality and wastewater treatment. Role of soaps, detergents and phosphorus fertilizers in eutrophication. Persistent organic pollutants: pesticides usage, toxicity and their environmental degradation. Earth crust and weathering mechanism; Soil formation and chemical characteristics. Chemical classes of Hazardous waste, their effects on the environment. Chemical treatment of hazardous wastes.4. Earth Processes ES-104Evolution of various branches of Geology. Origin of the earth. Primary differentiation and formation of core, mantle, crust, atmosphere and hydrosphere. Magma generation and formation of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Concept of Minerals and Rocks. Weathering, erosion, transportation and deposition of earth’s materials by running water, wind and glaciers. Formation of land forms and sedimentary rocks. Plate tectonics- sea floor spreading, mountain building, evolution of continents and structural deformation. Thermal, magnetic and gravitational fields of the earth. Concepts of engineering and urban geology.5. Ecology ES-105History and scope of ecology, autecoloty, synecology, population, community, biome, tolerance range and limiting factors. Distinguishing characters of forests grasslands, arid lands and wetlands; community organization- concept of habitat, functional role and niche, key stone species, dominant species, ecotone, edge effect. Analytical characters, synthetic characters like forms, species diversity and measurement of diversity. Population dynamics, models for single and interacting population, stable points, stable cycles, chaos competition, prey predation, etc. Ecological succession, primary and secondary processes in successions, models of successions, climax community and types of climax. Vegetation of India. Fundamentals of Microbial ecology. Microbial metabolism and microbial interaction. Biochemistry of biological nitrogen fixation and other microbial Pathways in terms of enzymology.6. Statistics ES-106Measures of central tendency. Measures of dispersion. Measures of skewness and kurtosis. Probability- definition, addition and multiplication laws,concept of random variable. Probability distributions- binomial, poisson and normal. Sampling theory- hypothesis testing and interval estimation for large samples. Chi-square test, t-test and F-test of significance. Correlation and regression. analysis. One way analysis of variance.7. Environmental Pollution ES-107Linkage between energy, environment and development. Human population issues. Definition of pollution. Different types of pollution- Air, Water and soil and their local, regional and global aspects. Air: Sources of air pollutants, their behavior in the atmosphere. Effects of air pollutants on humans, animals, plants and properties. Control approaches. Water: Sources, effects, water pollution treatment. Soil: Sources and nature of soil pollution and its harmful effects. Solid waste: generation, collection, environmental effects and safe disposal practices. Environmental problems associated with noise pollution, oil pollution and radioactive pollution.8. Natural hazards and disaster management ES-108Introduction to Hazards- Hazard classification-types of hazards ;Natural Hazards: causes, (continental drift, plate tectonics, sea floor spreading, isostacy, etc.,) distribution pattern, consequences and mitigation: Earthquake, Tsunami, Volcanoes, Cyclone, Flood, Drought, Landslide, cold and heat hazards, forest fire, etc.,- causes, types, distribution adverse effects, etc.,- Disaster introduction- disaster Management Capability-Vulnerability- risk- preparedness and mitigation- Disaster management cycle- community planning education and Engineered structure /structural strengthening techniques- Hazard zonation and mapping- Risk Reduction Measures.9. Environmental Impact Assessment ES-109Linkage between development and environment; global commons: carrying capacity: origin and development of EIA: relationship of EIA to sustainable development: EIA in project planning and implementation: EIA process: evaluation of proposed actions, scoping and base line study, identification and prediction of impacts, mitigation measures. Comparison of alternatives, review and decision making, public participation and compensatory actions: green belts: National Environmental Policies and guidelines in India. Conditions and approach for EIS review. Case studies: river valley projects: thermal power plants: mining projects: oil refineries and petrochemicals.10. Energy and Environment ES-110Energy resources and their exploitation, Sun as source of energy- nature of its radiation, Conventional energy sources: coal, oil, biomass and nature gas, non-conventional energy sources: hydroelectric power, tidal, wind, geothermal energy, solar collectors, photovoltaics, solar ponds, nuclear-fission and fusion, magneto-hydrodynamic power (MHD), Energy use pattern in different parts of the world and its impact on the environment. CO2 emission in atmosphere. Mechanism of radiation action on living systems- Stochastic and Non-stochastic effects; delayed effects, radioactivity from nuclear reactors, fuel processing and radioactive waste, hazards related to power plants, terrestrial and non terrestrial radiation, dose from environment and nuclear radiations, ultraviolet radiations, pathways analysis and dose assessment, radiologic age dating, radioactivity risk assessment, criterion for safe exposure.11. Remote sensing and Geo- informatics ES-111Introduction to Remote sensing & GIS. Principles of remote sensing & GIS. Spectra of Environmental Components. Terrestrial and Extra terrestrial satellites in Remote sensing and GIS. Remote sensing & GIS applications on Ocean, Atmosphere, Land, Geology, Water Resources (Ground water and Surface water). Cryosphere, Disaster, Defence studies. Use of softwares in Remote sensing and GIS to solve Environmental problems including Groundwater Exploration, Rainwater Harvesting, Biomass analysis and its relationship with Georesource evaluation. Use of Remote sensing and GIS in development of Early warning system to monitor Agriculture. Identification of Genetically modified crops in correlation with water quality and soil moisture by using Remote sensing & GIS. Applications of Remote sensing and GIS in early warning of Tsunami, Earthquake, Snowfall, Global warming, Forest fire, Landslide, Landsubsidance. Use of LANDSAT, SPOT, IRS ERS, RADARSAT and Extra terrestrial satellite data by using ERDAS, ARCGIS, ERMAPPER, IDRISI ENVI and S+ software for solving the Environmental problems. Sun-earth cosmic connection to understand environment of the Earth.12. Environmental Biochemistry and Toxicology ES-112Environmental physiology with considerations of intermediary metabolism- approaches for studying energy metabolism and body temperature changes; Thermo regulation and adaptation. Oxygen uptake from the environment, respiration and metabolism. Electron transport system and oxidative phosphorylation. Photosynthesis: C1, C3, C4 pathways and their regulation. Photorespiration. Biochemistry of altered membrane permeability, free radical formation, lipid peroxidation, lysosomal degradation, superoxide dismutase. Environmental pollutants and their effects on living system. Biochemical approaches to the detoxification of xenobiotics through cellular metabolism.13. Marine Environment ES-113Introduction-Classification- open ocean- shallow marine and deep sea environment- marine resources- marine ecology- marine organisms-productivity- coastal environment-coastal water movement- beaches- coastal dunes- barrier islands- cliffed coast- deltas-coast line- estuaries-mangroves- lagoons- salt marshes- coral reefs- classification of marine sediments- clay minerals- biogenic silica- evaporites- nutrient in oceans- carbon and global climate change- marine pollution- law of the sea.14. Soil Science ES-114Soil forming rocks and minerals- Classification- Weathering of rocks and minerals- Processes of weathering and factors affecting them. Soil formation- Factors of soil formation- Soil forming processes- Profile development- Definition of soil- Soil composition. Soil physical properties- Soil separates and particle size distribution- Soil texture and structure- Bulk density, particle density, pore space, soil air, soil temperature, soil water, soil consistence - Significance of physical properties to plant growth. Soil chemical properties- Soil colloids- Inorganic colloids- Clay minerals- amorphous- Ion exchange reactions- Organic colloids- Soil organic matter- Decomposition- Humus formation- Significance on soil fertility, Soil reaction- Biological properties of soil- nutrient availability.B) Non Credit Courses (Compulsory for all )1. Current Environmental Issues ES-115Contemporary and emerging environmental issues of local, regional and global significance. Broadly the topics will be pertaining to: i) Linkage between population, development and environment ii) climate change ii) stratospheric Ozone depletion iii) water resources iv) environmental toxicants and human health v) biodiversity conservation and vi) environmental episodic events, etc.2. Scientific Writings and Ethics ES-116Overview of Moral and Ethical questions in Scientific writing. Overall outline and structure of the article/manuscript. Description, value, and development of points/outlines before writing. Screening of Material for inclusion within the structure of the manuscript.Importance of Authors and their sequence, importance of clear title, abstract or summary. Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Numbers and statistics, Tables and Figures, Discussion. Writing Style: Active or passive, Punctuation, use of commas, apostrophe, semicolon and colon. Avoiding duplication and repetition. Importance of revisions and references.Plagiarism, paraphrasing and copy write violation. Consequences of plagiarism. Why not to fudge, tinker, fabricate or falsify data. Examples.C) Optional Courses1. Environmental Modeling ES - 201Role of Modeling in Environmental Science. Model Classification- Deterministic Models, Stochastic Models, Dynamic Models, Steady State Models. General Steps Involved in Modeling, Mass Balancing, Energy Balancing, Microbial Growth Kinetics- Exponential Growth Model, Logistic Growth Model, Monod Equation, Two Species Population Growth Model of Competition. Lotka-Volterra Prey-Predator Model, Oxygen Sag Model, Gaussian Plume Model.2. Climatology ES - 202Elements of climate, climate controls, Earth's radiation balance, latitudinal and seasonal variation of insolation, temperature, pressure, wind belts, humidity, cloud formation and precipitation, water balance, spatial and temporal patterns of climate parameters, Air masses and fronts, SW and NE monsoon, jet stream, tropical and extratropical cyclone, ENSO, QBO. Classification of climate- Koppen's and Thornthwaite' scheme. Climate change3. Meteorology ES - 203Meteorology fundamentals- Thermal structure of the atmosphere and its composition, Pressure, temperature, wind, humidity, moisture variables, virtual temperature, radiation, radiation from sun, solar constant, surface and planetary albedo, emission and absorption of terrestrial radiation, radiation windows, greenhouse effect, net radiation budget, atmospheric stability diagrams, turbulence, diffusion, dry and moist air parcel, thermodynamic diagrams, T-phigram and mixing height, thermodynamics of dry and moist air, specific gas constant, adiabatic and isoentropic processes, entropy and enthalpy, adiabatic processes of moist air4. Noise Pollution ES - 204Basic properties of sound waves, sound propagation, Definition of Noise, Health Effects of Noise, Concept of sound pressure level (SPL), decibel scale, addition of decibels, Frequency Response of Human Ear, Equal Loudness Contours, Weighting Networks, Octave Bands, Measurement and analysis of sound. Percentile Indices of Noise, Equivalent sound pressure level (Leq), Noise pollution level (NPL), Sound exposure level (SEL), Traffic noise index (TNI), Day-Night level (DNL), noise criteria curves; Noise sources; Industrial Noise and Traffic Noise, Noise control and abatement measures; absorbing materials, barrier materials and damping materials. Acoustic silencers and mufflers.5. Environmental Physics ES - 205Concept and scope of environmental Physics with respect to human environment; built environment; urban environment; global environment. Laws of thermodynamics, irreversible thermodynamics and entropy. Wind chill, Hypothermia. Heat balance (steady and transient), Electromagnetic Radiation, Thermal regulation in buildings- Thermal insulation, Thermal conduction effects, Convection effects, Radiation effects, U-values, Energy use and efficiency in buildings. Energy losses, calculation of energy losses, energy gains.Air regulation in buildings, heat pumps, condensation. Buildings of the future. Nano materials: their properties and influence on human health, environment, communication sector and energy. Method of preparation and Applications of nano materials.6.Environmental Instrumentation and Techniques ES - 206Physics of Dielectrophoresis and its environmental applications, Basics of NMR instrumentations, significance of relaxation time, Raman effect and experimental measurement, Raman Spectroscopy, LASER based techniques, LIDAR based methods and techniques, SODAR Radiofrequency measurement and techniques.7. Geochemistry ES - 207Atomic properties of elements, the periodic, table and geochemical classification of elements; abundance of elements in the bulk earth, crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere; introduction to mineral structures and compositions; thermodynamic classification of elements into essential, structural, major and trace elements and their partitioning during mineral formation; chemical reactions involving proton and electron transfers, mineral stability diagrams and controls on the chemistry of natural waters; geochemical cycling-concepts with an example; radioactivity, decay of parent and growth of daughter nuclides and methods of radiometric dating; stable isotopes, their fractionation and application to geothermometry and paleoclimates. Interpretation of XRD and XRF data for Environmental components. Geochemical sample preparation. X-Ray Fluorescence. X-Ray Diffraction. Ion Chromatography, AAS and its interpretation.8. Groundwater Hydrology ES - 208Definition and concept of hydrology and hydrogeology. Distribution of water in the earth’s crust. Hydrological cycle. Genetic types of groundwater and residence time of groundwater, Geological control of groundwater, Vertical distribution of groundwater, Types of aquifers, springs and their classification, Classification of rocks with reference to their water bearing properties. Mode of occurrence of groundwater in different geological terrains of India. Darcy’s law and its validity, Determination of hydraulic conductivity, groundwater tracers. Environmental factors on Groundwater level fluctuations and Land subsidence due to changes in subsurface moisture. Effects of excessive use of groundwater resources. Sources of salinity, Chemical analysis of groundwater, Quality criteria for different uses, Groundwater quality in different provinces of India, pollution of groundwater resources. Ghyben-Herzberg relationship between fresh-saline water. Groundwater exploration. Construction and design of different types of wells. Well completion and development. Groundwater development and management: Groundwater development in urban areas and rainwater harvesting, artificial recharge methods. Management of groundwater and groundwater legislation.9.Oceanography ES - 209Introduction- historical, current and future- Earths structure- Physiography of oceans- origin and evolution of ocean basins (Continental and oceanic basins)- Continental drift, sea floor spreading, plate tectonics- shelf and deep sea sedimentation- physical, chemical and biological aspects of sea water- Ocean current (circulation)- Waves properties and motion- tidal currents and characteristics- air-water interface/ exchange, gas solubility and circulation models.10. Natural resource Management ES - 210Definition- land, water, soil, plants and animals: quality of life: renewable and non-renewable resources: Mineral occurrences, prospects: Mineral resources: Mineral reserves, ore minerals, coal, petroleum, oil and natural gas: water- hydropower, including tidal power; ocean surface waves used for wave power, wind- wind power, geothermal heat- geothermal power and radiant energy- solar power: sustainable development, Urban planning Environmental management, Understanding the resource ecology and life-supporting capacity of resources-Economic models: Green building concept- green technology concept.11. Glaciology ES - 211Glacier systems- Structure and morphology of glaciers- Glacial erosion; Landscape evolution under glaciers, glacial landforms- Mass balance- Glacier dynamics, Englacial and subglacial process and fluctuations- Glacier hydrology- Snow and melt water chemistry of- Approaches to Glaciology- Glacier modeling- Glacier and climate change impact- Glaciers- Glacier and water resources- Recent advances in Glaciology- Spatial Data Acquisition Glacier Hazards- Glaciers as tool for palaeo climate studies.12. Biogeochemistry ES - 212Introduction- Biogeochemical provinces- Atmosphere- Lithosphere: weathering process, soil biogeochemistry- Terrestrial systems: photosynthesis respiration- Wetlands: vegetation adaptations- Freshwater and Marine Biogeochemistry: Lakes, ponds, rivers, mangroves, salt marsh and estuaries- Oceans: productivity and limiting nutrient role, carbon chemistry- Global biogeochemical cycles: Nutrient cycles-Advances in biogeochemistry- Sediment biogeochemistry, stable Isotopes in Biogeochemistry and their application to various environmental problems. Nutrient dynamic in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and Lithosphere. Nutrient budgeting and modeling13. Environmental Geology ES - 213Interior of the earth- minerals and rocks- earth processes- plate tectonics- sea floor spreading, mountain building, rock deformation- evolution of continents and earth quakes, volcanoes, landslides, subsidence, rivers and floods and coastal process- interactions between humans and the geological processes, Environmental Hazards-Pollution of the Environment- Waste Disposal, Natural Resources, and Energy Sources and their exploitation. Past, present and future environmental issues and their affect on the earth and our society.14. Water Resources ES - 214Hydrological cycle- Hydrometeorology and climate- hydrometric networks and catchment morphology- precipitation- evaporation and evapotranspiration- soil moisture-river flow-River, Lakes and Ground water- Occurrence of surface water and groundwater. Movement of water on the surface and below the surface. Springs and Hydrothermal phenomena. Ungauged river basin flow- River bank infiltration and recharge-precipitation analysis- evaporation calculation-river flow analysis- Time variation of stream flow levels- rainfall- runoff relationships- Ecohydrology- urban hydrology- Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), Urbanization effect on Water resources. Earthquake, Land subsidence and Water resources. Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of Water resources and water quality data processing and interpretation. Sea water intrusion in aquifer system-structural geological approach. Influence of Sun-Earth cosmic connection on Water resources.15. Air Pollution Chemistry ES - 215Chemical composition of atmosphere, Sources of air pollution. Types of air pollutants, organic and inorganic pollutants, their behavior and fate on local, regional and global scale, monitoring of criteria and non-criteria pollutants. Effects of air pollutants on human health, plants, animals and materials. Pollutants and health effects. Air pollution meteorology: Mixing heights, Wind roses, Inversion conditions, Stability of the atmosphere. Long range transport, plume behavior, Air pollution dispersion. Land-atmosphere-ocean interactions of air pollutants. Photochemistry of troposphere, Inorganic reaction in the atmosphere. Reactions involving organic pollutants, Gas to particle conversion. Ozone depletion, Acid rain, Greenhouse effect, Formation of photochemical smog, CFC, their nomenclature, sources and effect, Atmospheric Brown Cloud. Air pollution control technologies: Concept of clean environment, Green technologies, Carbon sequestration, Chemical methods, Electrostatic precipitators.16. Water Pollution Chemistry ES - 216Physicochemical properties of water, Water use- classifications and water quality standard. Basic principles of contaminant behavior in the environment. Hydrologic cycle. Types and sources of water pollution, Major Water Quality (physicochemical and bacteriological) Parameters and their Applications, Basics of water sampling. Water quality objectives and the major chemical, physical and biological processes necessary for designing and managing modern drinking water and wastewater treatment plants, Principles of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, chemical precipitation, porous media filtration, disinfection, ion exchange, adsorption, membrane Processes, advanced oxidation processes, air-stripping and other advanced treatment processes, Major contaminant groups and natural pathways for their removal from water.17. Soil Pollution Chemistry ES - 217Physical Chemistry of Soil: Soil Solution Phase, The Soil/Solution Interface, Surface exchange reactions, Soil acidity, Electrochemistry and the Soil, chemistry of waterlogged soil. Soil Pollution: Inorganic and Organic-Definition of pollution and contamination, sources of soil pollution, Effects of chemical residues on soil, (pesticides, fertilizers, heavy metals etc., Soil salinity and alkalinity, Soil pollution from nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, micronutrients or trace elements and radionuclide, land degradation, soil erosion. Soil pollution and climate change: Greenhouse gases production, emission, mitigation, carbon sequestration, soil quality.18. Solid and Hazardous Waste Management ES - 218Solid wastes: Definition, types, sources, characteristics, and impact on environmental health. Waste generation rates. Concepts of waste reduction, recycling and reuse. Collection, segregation and transport of solid wastes Handling and segregation of wastes at source. Collection and storage of municipal solid wastes. Solid waste processing technologies. Mechanical and thermal volume reduction. Biological and chemical techniques for energy and other resource recovery. Composting, Vermicomposting, Incineration of solid wastes. Disposal in landfills: site selection, design, and operation of sanitary landfills; secure landfills and landfill bioreactors; leachate and landfill gas management; landfill closure and post-closure environmental monitoring; landfill remediation.Hazardous wastes: Definition, sources and characteristics: Hazardous waste categorization, generation, collection, transport, treatment and disposal. Legislation on management and handling of municipal solid wastes and hazardous wastes19. Metrology ES - 219Fundamentals of metrology, Chemical metrology, Defining uncertainty of measurements, traceability of standards, validation of method, calibration of method, accuracy and precision of results, selectivity, sensitivity, detection limit, limit of determination, specificity, linearity, analytical error, Accreditation systems, Metrology in environment, QA/QC parameters in environmental studies, use of CRMs (Certified reference materials), inter-laboratory comparison exercise, participation in National and International round Robin tests. Representativeness of sampling site, selection of analytical method, selection of appropriate analytical technique, proper storage of samples with suitable preservative, sample blank, field blank, solvent blank, efficiency of extraction, efficiency of sampling, determination of uncertainty in flow, sample preparation.20. Pollution Biology ES - 220Concepts: Pollutants vs. resources; cycling of materials, tolerance ranges, carrying capacity, bioaccumulation. Air Pollution: Responses of plants and animals, monitoring (e.g. lichens) and control of air pollution by plants. Water pollution: Responses of plants and animals to changes in physico-chemical characteristics; distribution of plants in relation to pollution (microphytes; Phytoplankton, periphyton and moorophytes); Biological monitoring and control of pollution in water. Soil pollution: Responses of plants to soil pollution; changes in soil characteristics by waste disposal, sanitary land fills, mining wastes and human activities, and effects on plants and animals.21. Biodiversity and Conservation ES - 221Biodiversity concepts and patterns, Microbial diversity, Plant diversity, Agrobiodiversity, Soil biodiversity, Economic value of biodiversity, biodiversity losses. Biodiversity hotspots and their characteristic flora and fauna, threatened plants and animals of India, ecosystem people and traditional conservation mechanisms, Biodiversity Convention and Biodiversity Act, IPRs, national and international programmes for biodiversity conservation. Wildlife values and eco-tourism, wildlife distribution in India, problem in wildlife protection, role of WWF, WCU, CITES, TRAFFIC, Wildlife Protection Act 1972. In-situ conservation: sanctuaries, biospheres reserves, national parks, nature reserves, preservation plots. Ex-situ conservation: botanical gardens, zoos, aquaria, homestead garden; herbarium; In-vitro Conservation: germplasm and gene Bank; tissue culture: pollen and spore back, DNA bank.22. Forest Ecology ES - 222Forest and forest environment: Structure of forest ecosystem, major forest types of the world, forest types and forest cover of India, regeneration ecology of forest trees. Forest ecosystem function: Primary productivity of forest ecosystems, litter production and decomposition, nutrient cycling and nutrient conservation strategies, plant water relations. Forest ecosystem management: Forest management systems, joint forest management, forest hydrology, forest fire, application of remote sensing technique in forest ecology, deforestation and sustainable forestry, forest laws, non timber forest products. Role of Biology in management and habitat management techniques. Wildlife farming: Objectives, management design, wildlife products, disease control, breeding. Behavioral, ecology and evaluation.23. Microbial Ecology ES - 223An overview of microbial life and its importance in the environment, Microbial structure and function with special emphasis on Bacteria and Archaea, Evolution and microbial phylogenetic diversity, Microbial nutrition and metabolism with emphasis on microbial metabolic diversity, Environmental factors affecting microbial growth and microbial adaptations to extreme environments (like arctic regions and hot springs), Methods in microbial ecology including introduction to microbial genomics, Microbial habitats (air, soil, subsurface, freshwater, marine and the deep sea), Introduction to geomicrobiology, Natural microbial communities with emphasis on biofilms, Microbial biogeochemical processes of nutrient cycling and biodegradation, Microbial interactions: microbe-microbe interactions, plants as microbial habitats, animals as microbial habitats and human microbiome, Applying microbes in wastewater treatment and solid waste management, Industrial applications of microbes including products for health-pharmaceutical, food and beverage industry and biofuels, Molecular biotechnological applications including genetic engineering for the production of vaccines, diagnostics, biopesticides and transgenic plants, Microbial disease ecology and public health, Transmission of microbial diseases through the environment.24. Ecosystem Dynamics ES - 224The ecosystem concept, abiotic and biotic components. Energy input in ecosystem, standing crop, biomass, primary and secondary production, gross and net production, concept of food chain food web, ten percent law, net community production, methods of measuring productivity, pattern of primary production and biomass in the major ecosystem of the world, Energy flow, Feed back and control. Biogeochemical cycles, gaseous and sedimentary turnover rate and turnover item. Hydrological cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, sulphur cycle, phosphorus cycle, nutrient budget, man’s impact on nutrient cycles. Population dynamics.25. Environmental Biophysics ES - 225Cellular function of cell, membrane structure and transport origin and conduction of impulses in nerve cell muscles, methods in bioelectric measurements. Radiation and molecular response, elementary aspects of atomic and molecular excitation, biointeractions with environment, fundamental and applied aspects of extremely low frequency, radio and microwave fields, bioacoustics, biomedical aspects of laser. Magnetic environments and geomagnetic fields, behavioural changes, therapeutic and diagnostic possibilities.26. Ecology and Sustainable Development ES - 226Ecosystem concept in space and time; Ecosystem level processes and landscape level processes; the concept of sustainable development temporal and spatial dimensions; Currencies for evaluations of sustainable development- Biophysical measurements; Environmental degradations and conservation issues; Global change and sustainability issues: Climate change, biological invasion, bio-diversity concerns; Ecosystem and social processes in: (a) Rehabilitation of degraded rural landscape, (b) Rehabilitation of unbalanced soils, (c) Rehabilitation of specialized habitats, e.g. water bodies, mangroves; (d) Mined area rehabilitation participatory research and education environmental decision making with people initiates.27. Environmental Xenobiotics and human health ES - 227Interaction of pollutants with biological systems at different levels, e.g., organism, organs, and cell organelles. Biochemical degradation of pollutants inside the cell as well as cellular interactions with the pollutants. Toxins of plant origin. Stress response in living systems. Toxicogenomics: Human population issues and population genetics. Pharmacogenomics; Epidemiology. Cellular interaction and metabolism of xenobiotics; metabolic disorders. Bioconversion of pollutants: active vs. inactive process; enzymic degradation by monooxygenases; Role of cytochrome P 450 and its multiple forms. Immunology: Immune cell responses, Immunity and Immunodeficiency. Allergy and hypersensitive reactions and disorders of immune responses. Carcinogens and Carcinogenesis. Metal toxicity: chemical form, metal biomacromolecule interaction, teratogenecity.28. Fundamentals of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology ES - 228Basic concepts of molecular biology needed for understanding biotechnology. DNA structure and organization into chromosomes. DNA replication. Repetitive DNA; coding and noncoding sequences in genomes. Gene structure and expression. Mechanics of transcription, translation and their regulation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Key discoveries (restriction enzymes, bacterial plasmids, modifying enzymes) leading to recombinant DNA technology. Overview of basic techniques in genetic engineering: Introduction of cloned genes into new hosts using plasmid and phage vector systems. Expression cloning, affinity purification of expressed proteins. Nucleic acid hybridization and polymerase chain reaction as sensitive detection methods. DNA sequencing. Analysis of genomes and proteomes by bioinformatics tools. Genome-wide analysis using microarrays.29. Applied Biotechnology and Bioremediations ES - 229Practical aspects of genetic engineering with microorganisms from extreme environment: Use of extremophilic microorganisms in waste treatment and methane production from agro industrial wastes; Production of enzymes like cellulase, proteases, amylases; alcohol and acetic acid production; Biocomposting: Microbial process involvement, vermin composting, biofertilizer, biopesticides production. Biomining: Microbial leaching of low grade mineral ores, molecular probes for organisms in mines and mine tailings, Petroleum pollutant biodegradation. Alternate fuels: Source and mechanism of various biofuel production. Bioremediation: Concept, role of bioremediation in controlling various pollution problems e.g. solid water, sewage water, industrial effluents, heavy metals, radioactive substances, oil spillage. Phytoremediation: Abatement of different types of pollution using plants, types of phytoremediation, mechanism involved with case studies. Waste water treatment strategies: Domestic and Industrial waste-water, application of microbiology waste treatment. Metagenomics: Environmental Genomics, ecogenomics or community genomics, the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples and future applications in bioremediation.30. Eco-Toxicology ES - 230Principles in toxicology; Definition of Xenobiotics. Animal management in toxicological evaluation; Animal toxicity tests; Statistical concepts of LD50; Dose-effect and dose response relationship; Frequency response and cumulative response; Biological and chemical factors that influence toxicity; Bio-transformation and bio-accumulation. Influence of ecological factors on the effects of toxicity; Concept of green chemistry. Pollution of the ecosphere by industries; Global dispersion of toxic substance; Dispersion and circulating mechanisms of pollutants; degradable and non-degradable toxic substances; food chain. Eco-system influence on the fate and transport of toxicants. Aquatic toxicity tests; Statistical tests; Response of planktons to toxicants; EC49; Photosynthetic bacteria; Bio-absorption of heavy metals. Information management system in eco-toxicology.31. Environmental and Occupational Health ES - 231Basic principle of environmental health. Physiological responses of man to relevant stresses in the environment. Cases and effects of pollution. Industrial Toxicology: Study of environmental dose effect relationships. Evaluation of toxicity and threshold limits. Principles and methods of occupational health. The relationship of occupation of hygiene and safety and disease. Health maintenance: Survey, analysis and recommendations regarding health and safety problems in the working and living environment. Biostatistics, epidemiology: Application of statistical methods to medical records in the study of health problems of human population in a given environment. Treatment of variation, with demographic, vital statistics and epidemiological data. Hazard evaluation in polluted environment with specific emphasis on radiological health. Industrial hygiene technology-laboratory remains illustrating the principles, methods of recognizing evaluating and controlling environmental hazards like air pollution, etc.I would suggest you to visit the link School of Environmental Sciences for further information.

Comments from Our Customers

This was extremely easy to set up. It was welcomed by our customers and they were quickly able to adopt it and understand how to complete the paperwork.

Justin Miller