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What do forensic psychologists do?
A2A. (See, I promised that I’d come back and give a thorough answer!)Some housekeeping:First, I have UN-MERGED this question. Someone had merged it with “what do forensic psychiatrists do?” I have reversed the merge because the questions are not the same. We may do similar things, but hardly the same.Second, as I stated in my comment to the OP above, there are actually quite a few questions along this line already answered on Quora, but the answers vary considerably from useless to thorough. And, there are more that are useless than thorough. I would say that Dr. Brams’ answers on this topic are always spot on, and I see that she has also provided an answer here. So I’ll add my two-cents, along side hers.Third, please consider that my answer will be long winded because I am providing my answer based on my unique training as both lawyer and psychologist.On to my answers…So… your client would be whom?I would agree that the biggest difference between neuro/clinical/counseling psychology and forensic psychology is the client. Rather than a doctor/patient relationship, the relationship obligation is USUALLY to the court. But this isn’t always the case either. Sometimes it’s a correctional facility. Sometimes it actually IS the patient themselves. For example, in a small town you may have been treating a patient for 1+ years, and then be called to court. In that case things get tricky, but your obligation remains to your patient; even though you may be a forensic psychologist, your duty in that unique situation is to your patient. However, usually, the court has referred to you, and the court is expecting that you are making psychological conclusions that will benefit it - the court. As you might expect, this invites some consent issues with patients. The issue of consent is a bit different in forensic cases.So… where would you work?You could be (as is most often the case) in private practice. I would certainly argue that private practice is the most lucrative option. In other words, there is money to be made in private practice. However, rare is the newly minted graduate that hangs out a shingle and starts a practice as a forensic psychologist! To get into private practice you’d need either very specific post-gradate training in the field of forensics, or need to have a working relationship with a seasoned forensic psychologist. However, it isn’t impossible. If you were in a small town (as I am) and the judges know that you are available, and if you have adequate supervision to conduct forensic assessments, you might very well be able to build a practice from the ground up. However, most forensic psychologists have years and years - decades even - of building up time in courtrooms, familiarizing themselves with the system and the concepts. I also know at least a handful of psychologist/attorneys… so that’s certainly another fast-track to understanding the overlap. I discuss the unique legal services a Ph.D./J.D. can offer, way down below.You might also work only in a correctional facility and never see a court room, however most of these folks would consider themselves “correctional psychologists.” Additionally, a forensic psychologist may spend most of their time in a state hospital. For example, Terrell State Psychiatric Hospital in Texas has a forensics wing, where adults are housed who are either waiting to stand trial on competency issues, or who have been found NGRI or some variation thereof (not guilty by reason of temporary insanity). I’ll note, however, that this defense is not very often successful.Lastly, you can technically be a forensic psychologist that works primarily in research and public policy - although this is much less common. This person would spent a lot of time researching and publishing on forensic psych science, or, might be a faculty at a university’s psychology department, be a forensic faculty member at a medical school’s forensics residency program, or possibly on the faculty of a law school.The simple answer: usually time split between office/courtroom/airplane/car.So… what would you actually be doing?Unfortunately, the term “forensic psychology” is such a massive umbrella that if you were to see “Ryan R. Cooper, Ph.D. | Forensic Psychologist,” you’d haven’t a clue what the hell I ACTUALLY did. By far, the most common thing a forensic psychologist “does” is psychological evaluation.Mental State. This would be anything from determining whether a defendant understands the court system and his or her role in it (that they’ve been accused, what the judge does, etc.) and this is usually known as competency to stand trial, or “competency evaluations.” Another type of evaluation is a “capacity evaluation” to determine whether the defendant had the capacity to appreciate his crime… this might be referred to as mental capacity, mental culpability, or mens rea - as opposed to actus reus - or, the act of the crime (for most crimes the state must prove the act and the mindset both… the latter is where a psychologist can help). The mental aspect required in a criminal trail, say for homicide or theft is NOT the same as that for a tortuous action, like assault/battery… and a psychologist can help with all of these areas. Negligence is another realm.Custody. Another type of evaluation commonly conducted by forensic psychologists is custody... this might be the MOST common; I’m not sure. These are usually very lengthy and are best described in this way: a hot mess. This is the sh*t that judges are like… “omg… please leave my courtroom and go let someone else hash this mess out, I can’t make heads or tails of anything.” Enter, the awesome forensic psychologist. All states that I’ve looked into have VERY strict laws surrounding the ethics of what must be included in a custody evaluation. For example, psychologist are sanctioned EVERY SINGLE MONTH in Texas for performing inadequate custody evaluations. Usually, it’s because a psychologist (or counselor) didn’t realize they were conducting a custody evaluation. But every time you get the stand and opine as to whether one parent is as fit as another (and sometimes even if you opine as to only one!), then you’re giving testimony related to custody and the ethics of custody evaluation come in. For example, you must evaluate BOTH parents, equally. You should evaluate the children as well. You cannot give an opinion having only seen one parent. Nope. Sounds like common sense, but you’d be surprised. Custody evaluations are very lengthy, require a lot of paperwork, and a lot of mental energy. For this reason, they are very EXPENSIVE. One anonymous psychologists’ “custody evaluation” I once reviewed consisted of a single MMPI-2 given to mom, and to dad, and 30 minutes of an “intake” with each. The cost was $500 to mom, $500 to dad. This is an example of how NOT to perform a custody evaluation. At the forensics firm I’m associated with, our custody evaluations are VERY extensive and consists of often 10–20 tests. I would say it is more common to see a custody evaluation cost 1000–2000 for evaluating mom, the same for dad, and about the same or slightly less per child. So a good thorough evaluation will cost more like $5,000+ for the family.Lie Detection. Though not really always in the tool belt of forensic psychologists, many do offer this service. I’ve considered getting training in this area, but don’t have the time. I am fascinated by it, but the key to being a good forensic psychologist is knowing more than how to read out results… but understanding what the hell they DO and DON’T mean. E.g., just because a lie detector says someone is lying, doesn’t mean they are; it means that their heart rate went up, and they started sweating, etc. Funny: A woman walks into the room wearing a purple dress, and leans against the wall. The Judge says to two psychologists: “what is the color of the woman’s dress?” The clinical psychologist says “purple.” The forensic psychologist says “well, all I can tell you for certain is that the front half is purple, because that’s all I can see.” That story beautifully illustrates the savvy a forensic psychologist needs to understand and explain how testing actually works!Sex Offender Evals. Exactly what it sounds like. Psychologists are often called upon to help predict - to the limited extent possible - the chances of recidivism for sex offenders. We can also help courts understand what is possible and what isn’t… for example, there is no real “cure” for pedophilia, and a psychologist can get on the stand, or meet in chambers to help explain the reality of pedophilia, or sex addiction, and such explanation can help the judge do their job better. One form of testing in this realm that remains in use (not by me fyi lol) is the penile plethysmograph. Often used to determine whether a sex offender can control their arousal, it’s most certainly a way to test the truth of a defendant saying: “I’m cured, I’m now disgusted by rape” or “ I’m cured, I’ll not longer attracted to children.” The test will absolutely verify the truth of such a statement. However a good forensic psychologist will be able to explain these limitations. For example, does getting an erection MEAN that the defendant will act on the arousal? No. Could people NOT so inclined be aroused by suggestive stimuli? Yes. So there are a lot differing opinion in the evaluation of sex offenders, and the forensic psychologist must be very familiar with all perspectives… and check their own biases at the door. Also pencil/paper tests for sexual deviancy are not that great, either, psychometrically.Police Evaluation. This is, again, not done by all forensic psychologists, and sometimes a non-forensic private practice psychologist will do this. This could entail evaluating a new police officer to determine whether they are a good candidate to serve on the force (L3 Eval in Texas). It could also entail re-evaluating a police officer to determine whether they are fit for duty after xyz event, or just after xyz number of years. The American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) actually offers a board certification in Police and Public Service Psychology (as well as board certification in, obviously, Forensic Psychology).Neuropsychology. This is a highly specialized area, and I only know of one psychologist that is extremely - I mean EXTREMELY - familiar with both forensics and neuropsych… and I’m lucky to count him among my list of mentors and friends. To offer neuropsych testimony, a psychologist needs to have not only the same understanding of the legal system that a forensic psychologist has, but also a savvy understanding (well beyond grad school) of the human brain and how it affects certain behaviors (and the ability to discuss it in layman’s terms!). While some non-neuropsychologists may be able to hold their own in an advanced discussion of Autism or ADHD, diagnosing a brain disorder is a big deal, and very few psychologist will make such a diagnosis without extensive neuropsych training. A neuropsychologist will be prepared to talk about Broca’s area and how it is indicated in test results… or a severe visuospatial deficit and how it affects daily living… or Theta/Beta Ratio and how it can help explain a dx of ADHD, more so than rating scales, like the Conner’s can (not very diagnostically useful, IMO).Trial Sciences. This area is not reserved to psychologists by any means. The National Association of Trial Consultants, for example, is open to LOTS of types of professionals. However, I’d say over half are probably psychologists. Trial sciences is probably more of what I’d consider the true PSYCHOLOGIZING of LAW… rather than merely offering psychological service, in a legal context. Trial sciences applies psychological principles to the legal system itself, rather than just the defendant or the players in that system. What is this judge like… what result can we predict from her or him based on their rulings, their personal life, their demeanor? What about jury members? Do you want blue collar? White collar? Do you want parents on the jury, or bachelors? … some of this is dramatized in the HBO series Bull. I find the show to be rather boring and unbelievable. However, it has moments of truth. In fact, it’s a dramatization of Dr. Phil’s early days as a trial consultant (which is how he met Oprah, btw). While the show is BS in a lot of ways, it’s underpinnings are spot on. GOOD trial consultants will apply psychological principles to the “players” in the court. I once published an article on applying psychodynamic principles to the process of voir dire.Therapy. I’m throwing this in here, because I’ve personally had attorneys reach out to me, expecting that I can offer some magical therapy to them, since I’m familiar with “their world” in a way that a non-me therapist wouldn’t be. But the reality is this: REAL therapy requires no such familiarity. In fact, such a pre-existing schema might actually hamper therapy. I’m not sure. Would depend on the therapist’s own level of self-awareness I suppose. Now, on the other hand, a “forensic psychologist” may very well offer true individual therapy, or even group therapy, in the state facility to inmates. For example, most of the pre-doc internships in “forensic psychology” at the US Department of Corrections will have interns doing both assessment/evaluation as well as individual and group therapy in the institution.Teaching/Research. This applies to all psychologists, but forensic psychologist (in my personal opinion) are in a uniquely higher demand because they have the same training as the clinical psychology professor (they can teach personality theory, history and systems, psychometrics, etc.) but they also have this rare perspective to add on to their instruction and mentorship (particularly suited to teach courses in legal psychology, professional ethics, comprehensive assessment, etc.).You didn’t ask this, but I’ll answer it for any Quoran’s who may stumble upon this discussion:We’ve explored how psychology can spill over into law……………HOW DOES THE LAW SPILL OVER INTO PSYCHOLOGY?A psychologist who also holds a J.D. and a license to practice law can be VERY helpful to the field of psychology.First, they will make great forensic psychologists, as I’ve discussed above.Second, they MAY also be uniquely qualified to represent patients and practitioners in malpractice claims. If you were suing a psychologist (or you were a psychologist being sued) wouldn’t it make you feel better to know that your attorney was also a psychologist and understood all of the ethical principles, training models, personality theories, therapy interventions that you use in everyday practice? Hell yes!Third, they will be very helpful in dealing with insurance companies (think, whether the contract between Dr. X and Insurance X is ambiguous or clear? Did a renewed contract have adequate consideration?) and licensing boards (if a psychologist is sanctioned or in jeopardy of having their license suspended).Fourth, they will be helpful at advising on small legal matters that other attorneys would be just fine at, but psychologist/attorneys will be more empathic to. For example, should you set up your practice as a LLC? Corporation? And if so, S-Corp or C-Corp? What about your business name? Must it be registered? Should you trademark anything? If you are a research psychologist developing psychometrically sound assessment of malingering on ADHD scales, how and when do you copyright it, and should you get a patent on your process? What if it’s all online? Is that intellectual property? What if you die? Correction… lol… since you WILL die… what happens then? Have you told your patients? (Hint: all my patients know exactly what happens to their charts if I’m struck by lightening today!) If you are subpoenaed by a court to turn over your chart must you? What about your raw testing data (like raw IQ subtest scores)? What about your personal working notes? What about copyrighted test material that Pearson or PAR or MHS, the publishers, have copyrighted? If you do turn it over, can Pearson then sue you? Can you do therapy on Skype? (Hint: NO). If you find a HIPAA-compliant service (Hint: Telehealth 365 is free), can you then see people for therapy in other states using it? These are just SOME questions of a legal nature that will come up in practice.… wouldn’t it be nice if there was a psychologist out there that understood all of this, AND was a lawyer? The good news… there’s a small population of PhD/JD or PsyD/JD folks in the United States… but it’s certainly a small population.Wait… why did you un-merge the question from psychiatry?In brief, I do not believe that forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology are at all alike. The ONLY way a forensic psychiatrist gets training in the MMPI-2, MMPI-A, PAI, PAI-A, PAI-RF, all the wack rating scales that they (and we) use, and the hundred or so other tests that I keep in my office… is if they do a residency that includes psychometric training. Psychologists use a lot of measures because it’s the best we have… but we KNOW the limitations (or should). There’s a great book on this: Correcting Fallacies in Educational and Psychological Testing. A psychiatrist is not usually going to be able to explain anything other than “he had a full scale I.Q. of 97, and that’s average.” If you said, “wait, wait, what does that MEAN?” … they probably won’t know. Because they are physicians… not academic researchers trained in test construction.The way in which a psychologist makes an assessment of a person is extremely complex… we don’t spend ten years in school designing ink blots (ok, I did when I got bored once in History & Systems). And differential diagnosis is the BREAD AND BUTTER of a psychologist. It’s what we do. We live and breath “taking complex cases” and “making sense of them.” … and then “explaining the intricacies of doing so in easy-to-understand terms.” While I’m sure some psychiatrists have been trained to do this, I have never met one. Then again, I’m young and my time in the field is fairly short so far. However, I’ve networked a lot… and have not met a forensic psychiatrist who can explain the processes and psychological workings of the human mind the way a psychologist can.Probably because they study the human brain, primarily… not the psychological, sociological, philosophical, and spiritual essence of mind that better explains that brain.So… (1) I told you my answers were long-winded, but usually very informative and well-thought out. (2) This answer only scratches at the surface.I also didn’t go into the kind of money that you can earn as a forensic psychologist because I have contracts that prevent me from talking about that specifically. But is is an important aspect of deciding whether you want to go into the field of forensics.If you have any other specific questions, please let me know… I really love helping people understand our profession(s).All my best on your journey to determining where your interests lie my friend!Reach out anytime,-R.
Who has the world's greatest CV ever?
Raghuram RajanSchooling :Delhi Public School ,RK PuramGraduation :IIT Delhi (B Tech),May 1985Post Graduation :IIM Ahmedabad (MBA), March 1987PhD :MIT Sloan School of Management,May 1991.Employment :-Assistant Professor of Finance,Graduate school of business,University of Chicago,July 1991-95.Professor of Finance,Graduate school of business,University of Chicag,1995-96.Bertil Danielsson Visiting Professor of Banking,Stockholm School of Economics,1996-97.Visiting Professor of Finance,Kellog School,Northwestern University,1996-97.Joseph L . Gidwits Professor of Finance, Graduate School of Business,University of Chicago,1997-2003.Fischer Black Visiting Professor,MIT Sloan School of Management,2000-01Economic Counselor and Director of Research,International Monetary Fund, 2003-2006.Chairman of the High Level Committee on Financial Sector Reforms,India,2007-2008.Economic Advisor to the Prime Minister of India (Honorary),2008-2012Chief Economic Advisor,Finance Ministry,Government of India,2012-2013.Eric J. Gleacher Distinguished service Professor of Finance,Graduate School of Business,University of Chicago,2006-2013.Governor,Reserve Bank of India,September 2013-till today.Awards and Accolades:Fischer Black Prize by the American Finance Association in 2003Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences,2009Brenhard Harms Prize,Kiel Institute for International Economics,2010Financial Times Business Book of the Year award for “How Hidden Cracks Still Threaten the World Economy” in 2010.Globan Indian of the year Award, NASSCOM,2011Infosys Prize for the Economic Science,2012Deutsche Bank Prize in Economics,Centre for Finance Studies,2013Books:Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy, published in 2010,has won the Financial Times and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award for 2010.Saving Capitalism from the Capitalists, was co-authored with fellow Chicago Booth professor Luigi Zingales and published in 2004.Publications:-The American Economic Review, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Journal of Political Economy, Journal of Financial Economics, Journal of Finance and Oxford Review of Economic Policy.The True Lessons of the Recession; The West Can’t Borrow and Spend Its Way to Recovery by Rajan in May/June 2012 Foreign AffairsSelected Extra-Curricular:BDT Capital Partners LLC, Senior Advisor (until 2012)Booz & Co., Senior Advisor (until 2012)Bank Itaú-Unibanco, International Advisory Board Member (until 2012)Comptroller General of the United States, Advisory Council Member (former)FDIC Systemic Resolution Advisory Committee, Member (former)Chicago Council on Global Affairs, Director (no renumeration)American Finance Association, President (2011)American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Member (no renumeration)Selected Research:“The Future of the IMF and the World Bank”, American Economic Review 98(2) (May 2008), 110-115.“Has Finance Made the World Riskier?”, European Financial Management 12(4) (September 2006), 499-533.“India’s Pattern of Development: What Happened, What Follows?” (with Kalpana Kochhar, Utsav Kumar, Arvind Subramanian, and Ioannis Tokatlidis), Journal of Monetary Economics 53 (February 2006), 981-1019.“Essays on Banking” PhD thesis, MIT (1991)Edit 1:-Shrikant Jichkar20 post-graduate University Degrees to his credit.He Began as a Medical Doctor (MBBS and MD )He did his Law (LL.B.) with Post-graduation in International Law (LL.M.)He did his Masters in Business Administration (DBM and MBA) and in Journalism (B.Journ).He did his Masters in ten subjects.M.A. (Public Administration ;M.A. (Sociology) ;M.A. (Economics);M.A. (Sanskrit);M.A. (History);M.A.(English Literature);M.A. (Philosophy);M.A. (Political Science) ;M.A. (Ancient Indian History, Culture and Archaeology);M.A (Psychology).He got his D. Litt (Doctor of Letters) in Sanskrit , the highest of any Degree in a University.Most of his Degrees are with First Merit and he obtained 28 Gold Medals. Between 1972 and 1990 he has written 42 University Examinations each every summer and every winter.Dr. Shrikant Jichkar was a man of staggering academic, professional and spiritual achievement. Looking at his achievement one may be pardoned for thinking it to be incredulous."Limca Book of Records lists him as the most qualified person in India."Extra CurricularHe had one of the biggest personal libraries in India with 52,000 books.Jichkar was also an academician, painter, professional photographer, and stage actor.AdministrationIn 1978 he wrote the IPS (Indian Police Service) examination and got into it, resigned.He then wrote the prestigious IAS (Indian Administrative Services) examination in 1980 and got into it, resigned in four months to contest his first general election.Politics :-In 1980 he was elected to Maharashtra Legislative Assemble becoming the youngest MLA in the country at 25.He became a very powerful government Minister holding 14 portfolios at a time.He has been member of Maharashtra Legislative Assembly (1982–85),Maharashtra Legislative Council (1986–92)Minister of State, Government of Maharashtra.He was also a member of Rajya Sabha (1992–98)."On June 2, 2004,evening, he succumbed to death after his car, a Mitsubishi Lancer slammed into an oncoming bus at Dhamana Shivar on National Highway 6, about 40 kilometres west of Nagpur"Edit 2 :-Benjamin Bradley BolgerBolger is a visiting assistant professor in sociology at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia.Degrees :1992 — Muskegon Community College (Associate of Arts)1994 — University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (Bachelor of Arts in sociology)1997 — University of Oxford (Master of Science in sociology)1998 — University of Cambridge(Master of Philosophy in sociology and politics of modern society)2000 — Stanford University (Master of Arts in education)2001 — Columbia University (Master of Arts in politics of education)2002 — Columbia University (Master of Science in real estate development)2002 — Harvard University (Master of Design in urban planning and real estate)2004 — Brown University (Master of Arts in developmental studies)2004 — Dartmouth College (Master of Arts in liberal arts2007 — Brandeis University (Master of Arts in coexistence and conflict)2007 — Skidmore College (Master of Arts in liberal studies)2008 — Harvard University (Doctor of Design in urban planning and real estate)2014 — Ashland University (Master of Fine Arts in creative writing)He has also completed some coursework at Yale University (JD in law, 1994) and Boston College (MA in higher education, 2004).Extra CurricularBolger runs a "boutique academic consulting" business named "Bolger Strategic" in which he charges between $500 and $7,500 to assist prospective graduate students apply to graduate school.Edit 3:This should've been the first CV to be mentioned in my answer but didn't mention as it was the first answer to this question but got collapsed due to poor formatting so copying the content here to make everyone aware about Manmohan Singh.DR MANMOHAN SINGH(FORMER PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA )Academic Records :1962 D. Phil., Nuffield College, University of Oxford. Topic: India’s Export Trends and Prospects for Self-Sustained Growth. [Published by Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1964]1957 Economic Tripos [First Class honors], University of Cambridge.1954 M.A. Economics, Punjab University – First Class with first position in the University.1952 B.A. Economics (Hons.), Punjab University – Second Class with first position in the University.1950 Intermediate, Punjab University – First Class with first position in the University1948 Matriculation, Punjab University – First classPrizes and Awards2000 Conferred Annasaheb Chirmule Award by the W.LG. alias Annasaheb Chirmule Trust set up by United Western Bank Limited, Satara, Maharashtra1999 Received H.H. Kanchi Sri Paramacharya Award for Excellence from Shri R. Venkataraman, former President of India and Patron, The Centenarian Trust1999 Received H.H. Kanchi Sri Paramacharya Award for Excellence from Shri R. Venkataraman, former President of India and Patron, The Centenarian Trust1999 Fellow of the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, New Delhi.1997 Conferred Lokmanya Tilak Award by the Tilak Smarak Trust, Pune1997 Received Justice K.S. Hegde Foundation Award for the year 19961997 Awarded Nikkei Asia prize for Regional Growth by the Nihon Keizai Shimbun Inc. (NIKKEI), publisher of Japan’s leading business daily1996 Honorary Professor, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, Delhi1995 Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Award of the Indian Science Congress Association for 1994-951994 Asia-money Award, Finance Minister of the Year1994 Elected Distinguished Fellow, London School of Economics, Center for Asia Economy, Politics and Society1994 Elected Honorary Fellow, Nuffield College, University of Oxford, Oxford, U.K.1994 Honorary Fellow, All India Management Association1993 Euromoney Award, Finance Minister of the year1993 Asiamoney Award, Finance Minister of the Year1987 Padma Vibhushan Award by the President of India1986 National Fellow, National Institute of Education, N.C.E.R.T.1985 Elected President, Indian Economic Association1982 Elected as Honorary Fellow, St. John’s College, Cambridge.1982 Elected as Honorary Fellow, Indian Institute of Bankers1976 Honorary Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi1957 Elected as Wrenbury Scholar, University of Cambridge, U.K.1955 Distinguished Performance at St. John’s College, CambridgeU.K. Awarded with Wright’s Prize1956 Awarded with Adam Smith Prize, University of Cambridge, U.K.1954 Uttar Chand Kapur Medal, Punjab University, for standing first in M.A. (Economics), Punjab University, Chandigarh1952 University Medal for standing First in B.A. Hon. (Economics), Panjab University, Chandigarh.Recipient of Honorary Degrees of D. Litt. from :Punjab University, ChandigarhGuru Nanak University, AmritsarDelhi University, DelhiSri Venkateswara University, TirupathiUniversity of Bologna, ItalyUniversity of Mysore, MysoreKurukshetra UniversityThapar Institute of Engineering & Technology, Patiala (D.Sc)Nagarjuna University, gunturOsmania University, HyderabadUniversity of Roorkee, Roorkee (Doctor of Social Sciences)Doctor of Laws, University of Alberta, Edmonton, CanadaDr. Bhimrao Ambedkar University (formerly Agra University) - Doctor Letters degreeIndian School of Mines, Dhanbad (Deemed University) D.Sc. (Honoris Causa)Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, RaipurWork Experience and Other positions heldMay 22, 2004 – 2014 Prime minister of IndiaMarch 21, 1998 – May 22,2004: Leader of Opposition, Rajya Sabha (Council of States) Parliament of IndiaJune, 2001: Re-elected as member of Rajya Sabha for a term of six yearsAugust 1, 1996 - Dec 4, 1997: Chairman, Parliamentary Standing Committee in Commerce, Rajya SabhaJune 21, 1991- May 15, 1996: Finance Minister of IndiaJune, 1995: Re-elected Member of Rajya Sabha for six yearsSeptember, 1991: Elected Member of Rajya SabhaMarch 1991-June 1991: Chairman, University Grants CommissionDec 1990 – March 1991: Adviser to Prime Minister of India on Economic AffairsAugust 1987 – Nov 1990: Commissioner, South Commission Secretary GeneralJan 1985- July 1987: Dy. Chairman, Planning Commission of IndiaSept 1982 – Jan 1985: Governor, Reserve Bank of IndiaApril 1980 – Sept 1982: Member-Secretary, Planning Commission, IndiaNov.1976 – April 1980: Secretary, Ministry of Finance Dept. of Economic Affairs, Government of India Member [Finance], Atomic Energy Commission, Govt. of India Member [Finance], Space Commission, Govt. of India1972 – 1976: Chief Economic Adviser, Ministry of Finance, India1971 – 1972: Economic Adviser, Ministry of Foreign Trade, India1969 – 1971: Professor of International Trade, Delhi School of Economics, Delhi University, India1966 – 1969: UNCTAD, United Nations Secretariat, New York Chief, Financing for Trade Section 1966 : Economic Affairs Officer1957 – 1965 : Punjab University, Chandigarh1963-65 : Professor of Economics1959-63 : Reader in Economics1957-59:Senior Lecturer in EconomicsOther AssignmentsLeader of the Indian delegation to the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, Cyprus (1993)Leader of the Indian delegation to the Human Rights World Conference, Vienna (1993)Governor of India on the Board of Governors of the IMF and the International Bank of Reconstruction & Development (1991-95)Appointed by Prime Minister of India as Member, Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister (1983- 84)Chairman, India Committee of the Indo-Japan ;Joint Study Committee (1980-83)Leader: Indian delegation to :Indo-Soviet Monitoring Group Meeting (1982)Indo-Soviet Joint Planning Group Meeting (1980-82)Aid India Consortium Meetings (1977-79)Member: Indian delegation to :South-South Consultation, New Delhi (1982)Cancun Summit on North-South Issues (1981)Aid-India Consortium Meetings, Paris (1973-79)Annual Meetings of IMF, IBRD & Commonwealth Finance Ministers (1972-79)Third Session of UNCTAD, Santiago (April-May 1972)Meetings of UNCTAD Trade & Development Board, Geneva (May 1971 – July 1972)Ministerial Meeting of Group of 77, Lima (Oct.1971)Deputy for India on IMF Committee of Twenty on International Monetary Reform (1972 – 74)Associate, Meetings of IMF Interim Committee and Joint Fund-Bank Development Committee (1976-80,1982-85)Alternate Governor for India, Board of Governors of IBRD (1976-80)Alternate Governor for India, Board of Governors of the IMF (1982-85)Alternate Governor for India, Board of Governors, Asian Development Bank, Manila (1976-80)Director, Reserve Bank of India (1976-80)Director, Industrial Development Bank of India (1976-80)Participated in Commonwealth Prime Ministers Meeting, Kingston (1975)Represented Secretary General UNCTAD at several inter-governmental meetings including:Second Session of UNCTAD, 1968Committee on Invisibles & Financing Related to Trade, Consultant to UNCTAD, ESCAPCommonwealth SecretariatMember, International OrganizationsAppointed as Member by the Secretary-General, United Nations of a Group of Eminent Persons to advise him on Financing for Development (December, 2000)PublicationsAuthor of book “India’s Export Trends and Prospects Self-Sustained for Growth” [Clarendon Press, Oxford University, 1964]Large number of articles in economic journalsSources :-http://www.braingainmag.com/a-profile-of-india-s-newest-rbi-governor.htmhttp://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raghuram_Rajanhttp://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/raghuram.rajan/vitae/CV.pdfhttps://www.ifk-cfs.de/fileadmin/downloads/dbprize/2013/Rajan_CV_for_media_Sep2013.pdfhttp://www.vedicforum.com/articles-and-research/dr-shrikant-jichkar-and-his-degrees/http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shrikant_Jichkarhttp://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Bolgerhttp://praneshguru.blogspot.in/2011/02/biography-of-manmohan-singh-manmohan.htmlhttp://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manmohan_Singh
What little known objectivist thinkers do you know of which you think deserve to be more widely known?
Most Objectivist thinkers are ‘little known’ outside of Objectivist circles so I will post a list of the ones I know.Objectivist Intellectual’s Biographies (85) last updated 10/14/18 (not complete)Amesh AdaljaMD, 2002, American University of the CaribbeanDr. Adalja, a board-certified physician in infectious disease, critical care medicine, emergency medicine and internal medicine, specializes in the intersection of national security with catastrophic health events. He publishes and lectures on bio-terrorism, pandemic preparedness and emerging infectious diseases. He has been a guest on national radio and television programs.John AllisonMBA, Management, 1974, Duke UniversityMr. Allison is president and CEO of the Cato Institute. He was previously chairman and CEO of BB&T Corporation, the 10th-largest financial services holding company headquartered in the United States. During Allison’s tenure as CEO from 1989 to 2008, BB&T grew from $4.5 billion to $152 billion in assets.Carl BarneyCarl Barney is a businessman who, among other business activities, owns and manages several private business colleges.Rituparna BasuBS, Biology, 2010, Pennsylvania State UniversityMs. Basu is a health care policy analyst at ARI. Her work has appeared in publications such as Forbes and The Daily Caller, and she has been interviewed on radio and TV programs, internationally. Ms. Basu has briefed congressional staffers and speaks regularly at university campuses, including Georgetown, Emory and Temple.Ben BayerPhD, Philosophy, 2007, University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignDr. Bayer teaches philosophy at Loyola University New Orleans. His research focuses primarily on questions about the foundations of knowledge and the freedom of the will.Robert BegleyRobert Begley is a writer for The Objective Standard. He is the founder and president of the NY Heroes Society, an organization dedicated to promoting heroism in the culture. Robert is also a judge in Anthem, The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged essay contests. He was the host and producer for the Manhattan Cable TV program, The Voice of Reason. Robert is currently writing a book about the history of New York heroes.Michael S. BerlinerPhD, Philosophy, 1970, Boston UniversityDr. Berliner is the founding executive director of the Ayn Rand Institute and served as co-chairman of ARI’s board of directors. He is editor of "Letters of Ayn Rand", "Understanding Objectivism" and a recent biography of operetta composer Emmerich Kálmán. Dr. Berliner taught philosophy and philosophy of education for many years at California State University, Northridge.ANDREW BERNSTEINPhD, Philosophy, 1986, City University of New YorkAndrew Bernstein holds a Ph.D. in Philosophy from the Graduate School of the City University of New York. He has taught at Hunter College, the New School for Social Research, Pace University and Marymount College, where he was chosen Outstanding Faculty Member for 1995. He currently teaches at the State University of New York at Purchase, where he was selected Outstanding Faculty Member for 2004.Dr. Bernstein has lectured at universities across the United States, including at Harvard, Yale, Stanford, the United States Military Academy at West Point and many others; and at philosophical conferences both in America and abroad. He is the author of The Capitalist Manifesto: The Historic, Economic and Philosophic Case for Laissez-Faire, to be published in the spring of 2005 by University Press of America. His first novel, Heart of a Pagan, was released in 2002. He is currently writing Objectivism in One Lesson, an introduction to the philosophy of Ayn Rand. His website is Andrew Bernstein | Philosopher and TeacherDr. Bernstein is the author of "The Capitalist Manifesto" (2005), "Objectivism in One Lesson" (2008), "Capitalism Unbound" (2010), "Capitalist Solutions" (2011), and of numerous essays. He is currently writing “Heroes and Hero Worship” for the Clemson Institute for the Study of Capitalism. Dr. Bernstein lectures widely on Ayn Rand’s novels and Objectivism.DAVID BERRYD.M.A., Composition, 2002, University of South CarolinaDavid Berry is an associate professor of music. He teaches courses across a wide range of historical and theoretical musical subjects including film music. He is a recorded and published (BMI) composer with performances of his music in America and Europe in both fine art and popular music genres.CRAIG BIDDLEB.A., Fine Arts, 1988, Virginia Commonwealth UniversityCraig Biddle is the author of Loving Life: The Morality of Self-Interest and the Facts That Support It and is currently writing another book, Good Thinking for Good Living: The Science of Being Selfish. In addition to writing, he lectures on the Objectivist ethics and teaches workshops on thinking in principles. Editor and Publisher of “The Objective Standard”Specialties: Ethics, ObjectivismHARRY BINSWANGERPh.D., Philosophy, 1973, Columbia UniversityDr. Binswanger is the author of The Biological Basis of Teleological Concepts, the editor of The Ayn Rand Lexicon and co-editor of the second edition of Ayn Rand’s Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology. Dr. Binswanger is a professor of philosophy at the Ayn Rand Institute’s Objectivist Academic Center and is a member of ARI’s board of directors. He is currently working on a book on the nature of consciousness.Dr. Binswanger is the author of "How We Know" and "The Biological Basis of Teleological Concepts", the editor of "The Ayn Rand Lexicon" and co-editor of the second edition of Ayn Rand’s "Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology". He is an instructor of philosophy at the Ayn Rand Institute’s Objectivist Academic Center and a member of ARI’s board of directors.TORE BOECKMANNWriterMr. Boeckmann has written and lectured extensively on Ayn Rand’s fiction and philosophy of esthetics. He edited for publication Rand’s The Art of Fiction. His own fiction has been published in Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine and Alfred Hitchcock’s Mystery Magazine. He is currently writing a book on Romantic literature.Thomas A. BowdenSpecialties: Legal issues, physician-assisted suicide, abortion rights, mandatory community service.Mr. Bowden, an attorney in private practice in Baltimore, Maryland, taught at the University Of Baltimore School Of Law from 1988 to 1994. Author of a booklet against multiculturalism, “The Enemies of Christopher Columbus,” he has also published op-eds in the Fort Lauderdale Sun-Sentinel, Philadelphia Inquirer, Portland Oregonian, Los Angeles Daily News, Minneapolis Star Tribune, and Charlotte Observer. He is a former member of the board of directors of The Association for Objective Law, a non-profit group whose purpose is to advance Objectivism, the philosophy of Ayn Rand, as the basis of a proper legal system. In that connection, Mr. Bowden has filed amicus curiae briefs in the U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeal for the Second and Third Circuits, challenging mandatory community service for high school students on legal and moral grounds.YARON BROOKPh.D., Finance, 1994, University of Texas at AustinDr. Brook is president and executive director of the Ayn Rand Institute. A former finance professor, he has published in academic as well as popular publications, and is frequently interviewed in the media. He has appeared on CNN, Fox News Channel and PBS among others. On college campuses across America and in the boardrooms of large corporations, he has lectured on Objectivism, business ethics and foreign policy.Dr. Brook is executive director of the Ayn Rand Institute. He is the coauthor of the national best-seller “Free Market Revolution: How Ayn Rand’s Ideas Can End Big Government” and a contributing author to both “Neoconservatism: An Obituary for an Idea” and “Winning the Unwinnable War: America’s Self-Crippled Response to Islamic Totalitarianism.”ANDY CLARKSONMBA University of MarylandMr. Clarkson is a decades-long Objectivist He has focused on researching the history of ideas and published The Impact of Aristotle Upon Christian, Islamic, and Jewish Cultures : A Compilation of Notes and Quotes From A Variety of Sources Plus Commentary, published in December 2016.PAT CORVINIPh.D., Electrical Engineering, 1995, University of California at Santa BarbaraDr. Corvini recently left a twenty-year career in semiconductor optoelectronics to work full time in the history of science and mathematics. She lectured on Archimedes at the 2003 Objectivist Summer Conference.SUSAN CRAWFORDB.S.N, Nursing, 1982, Marymount College, VirginiaSusan Crawford is a registered nurse. She has given two parenting courses and wrote the pamphlet “The Reading Habit/Money Management.” Susan is married to Jack Crawford and the mother of two sons, Jason and DavidERIC DANIELSPh.D., American History, 2001, University of WisconsinDr. Daniels is a visiting assistant professor of history at Duke University’s Program on Values and Ethics in the Marketplace. He has lectured at summer conferences and to numerous Objectivist community groups. He is an alumnus of ARI’s Objectivist Graduate Center (precursor to the Objectivist Academic Center). A contributor to the Oxford Companion to United States History, he is currently working on a book about American politics andDr. Daniels works at LePort Schools, teaching science and history, and as a curriculum developer. Previously, he was a professor at Clemson, Duke and Georgetown Universities. Dr. Daniels has published book chapters and articles on antitrust, individualism and economic freedom.John DennisPhD, Psychology, 2010, University of Texas at AustinDr. Dennis teaches at Catholic University in Milan, University of Perugia and University of Alberta. His research on motivation is funded by the EU and Templeton Foundation. He is a licensed psychologist trained in CBT. In 2013 Dr. Dennis started Melioravit, a scientific communication company that helps researchers get funded, published and cited.Robert van DortmondMSc in Applied Physics, Delft University of Technology; Executive Program, Stanford Graduate SchoolMr. van Dortmond teaches entrepreneurship at the University of Amsterdam/The Amsterdam Centre for Entrepreneurship. He is an active mentor, shareholder and board member of various startups. He speaks on Ayn Rand’s ideas and is an advisory board member of ARI Europe of which he was one of the initiators.Dianne DuranteSpecialties: Esthetics, painting, sculpture, homeschooling.Dr. Durante is a freelance writer on art and current events. She has lectured on painting and sculpture at Objectivist conferences; several of these lectures are available on tape from the Ayn Rand Bookstore. She has also just finished a book on New York sculpture, Forgotten Delights: The Producers. Dr. Durante and her husband homeschool their daughter in Brooklyn, NY.Alex EpsteinSpecialties: Current Affairs, racism, and moral defense of businessmen.Alex Epstein is an Objectivist speaker and writer living in Richmond, VA. His Op-Eds have been published in dozens of newspapers around the country, including The Houston Chronicle, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, The Miami Herald, The Philadelphia Inquirer, and The Washington Times. He is also a regular contributor to The Intellectual Activist, a monthly magazine analyzing political and cultural issues from an Objectivist perspective. Mr. Epstein holds a BA in philosophy from Duke University, where he was editor and publisher of The Duke Review for two years.STUART MARK FELDMANM.A., Art, 1975, Rowan University, New JerseyStuart Feldman works in bronze, stone and wood, creating sculptures of the human figure expressing man’s most noble and inspiring qualities. A former instructor at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art, he is cofounder of the Schuylkill Academy of Fine Art, in Philadelphia. His sculptures are held in private collections, and he has created a number of commissioned pieces.ROBERT GARMONGPh.D., Philosophy, 2002; University of Texas at AustinDr. Garmong is a graduate of the Objectivist Graduate Center, and has lectured on philosophy at many Objectivist conferences. He is the author of “J.S. Mill’s Re-Conceptualization of Liberty,” currently under submission to publishers. Dr. Garmong teaches philosophy at Texas A&M University and at Texas State University.MARILYN (GEORGE) GRAYB.S., Child Development, 1961, Iowa State UniversityMarilyn George is a retired Montessori teacher, school owner and administrator. She holds teaching certificates from both the American Montessori Society and the International Association of Progressive Montessorians and was a Montessori teacher for twenty-five years. She owned, administered and taught for ten years in her own school, which had an international reputation for excellence. She taught Montessori courses at Seattle University for more than ten years and has consulted for schools nationwide. Marilyn has been ballroom dancing since she met Ted Gray at a conference in 1989, at her first lesson, and today they compete at the Silver level.Debi GhateLLB, Law, University of Calgary, 1995Ms. Ghate is vice president of Education and Research at the Ayn Rand Institute, where she heads up a variety of educational and policy-related programs. She is also director of the Anthem Foundation for Objectivist Scholarship, an organization that supports academic scholarship based on Ayn Rand’s work.Onkar GhatePhD, Philosophy, 1996, University of CalgaryDr. Ghate is senior fellow and chief content officer at the Ayn Rand Institute. He specializes in Rand’s philosophy, Objectivism, and is ARI’s senior instructor and editor. He publishes and lectures on Rand’s philosophy and fiction, including application of Objectivism in the culture, and has been a guest on national radio and television programs.GENA GORLINPhD, Clinical Psychology, 2012, University of VirginiaMs. Gorlin has two years of experience conducting individual psychotherapy with anxious and depressed young adults. Her research has been published in highly regarded academic journals. She is also a graduate of the Objectivist Academic Center and a former board member of The Undercurrent, a national campus publication.Allan Gotthelf (deceased)Specialties: Love, self-esteem, happiness, Objectivism, AristotleAllan Gotthelf is emeritus professor of philosophy at The College of New Jersey. He is an internationally recognized authority on the philosophy of Aristotle, with many scholarly publications. He has lectured on Objectivism and Aristotle — including their views on love and sex, self-esteem, and individual happiness — throughout North America and in Europe and Japan. He has been a visiting professor at Swarthmore College, Georgetown University, Oxford University, Tokyo Metropolitan University, and most recently, the University of Texas at Austin. In 1987, Dr. Gotthelf was one of the founders of the Ayn Rand Society; a professional organization affiliated with the American Philosophical Association, Eastern Division, and has headed it since 1990. He enters his second year as Visiting Professor of Historyand Philosophy of Science (HPS) at the University of Pittsburgh. Prof. Gotthelf holds the Pitt Fellowship for the Study of Objectivism, funded by the Anthem Foundation and he will be working throughout the year on various projects in connection with his Fellowship. He is the author of On Ayn Rand (Wadsworth Publishing, 2000), the best-selling book in the Wadsworth Philosophers Series.4-19-2007 from his website:Visiting Professor, under the university's new Fellowship for the Study of Objectivism (Member: Classics, Philosophy and Ancient Science Program). A specialist on Aristotle's biology and philosophy, and on the philosophy of Ayn Rand, Gotthelf is emeritus professor of philosophy at The College of New Jersey, and has taught on a visiting basis at Swarthmore, Oxford, Georgetown, Tokyo Metropolitan, and the University of Texas at Austin. He is a life member of Clare Hall Cambridge, and was a visiting member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. Gotthelf is author of On Ayn Rand (Wadsworth Philosophers Series, 2000); co-editor of Philosophical Issues in Aristotle's Biology (Cambridge 1987); editor of Aristotle on Nature and Living Things (Pittsburgh 1985); and has prepared for publication D.M. Balme's posthumous editions of Aristotle's Historia Animalium (Cambridge 2002, Cambridge MA 1991). His collected Aristotle papers will by published next year by Oxford University Press, under the title: Teleology, Scientific Method, and Substance: Essays on Aristotle's Biological Enterprise. He is currently working on several Aristotle projects and an extended study of Rand's theory of concepts, essences, and objectivity.TED GRAYB.S., Mechanical Engineering, 1965, Northeastern University;M.S., Mechanical Engineering, 1971, Brooklyn Polytechnic InstituteTed Gray, an engineer, has been dancing since his teens. They both consider dancing primarily a social and romantic activity. Occasionally, they enter amateur dance competitions. As a couple they have given many formal and informal group lessons—at home, at conferences and on a cruise ship. Ted is a mechanical engineer with forty years experience in design and analysis of structures, and prevention of vibration. He is an amateur student of history, enjoying especially the biographies of great Americans and the history of technology. He has been a student of Objectivism for thirty-eight years.Hannes HackerSpecialties: history and politics of the space program, science and technology.Mr. Hacker graduated from the University of Notre Dame with a BS degree in aerospace engineering in May 1988. He earned a MS degree in aerospace engineering at the University of Texas at Austin December 1990. He has eleven years of space-flight operations experience including work on the space shuttle, international space station and commercial communications satellites.DAVID HARRIMANB.S., Physics, 1979, University of California at Berkeley;M.S., Physics, 1982, University of Maryland;M.A., Philosophy, 1995, Claremont Graduate University, CaliforniaDavid Harriman is the editor of Journals of Ayn Rand and a senior writer for the Ayn Rand Institute. He has lectured extensively on the history and philosophy of physics. He is currently developing the physical science curriculum at VanDamme Academy and working on two books: one demonstrating the influence of philosophy on modern physics (The Anti-Copernican Revolution) and the other presenting Leonard Peikoff’s theory of induction (Induction in Physics and Philosophy).David HolcbergSpecialties: Environmentalism, science, capitalism. David Holcberg holds a degree in civil engineering and is a senior writer for the Ayn Rand Institute.JONATHAN HOENIGCommunications and Philosophy, 1999, Northwestern UniversityMr. Hoenig manages Capitalistpig Hedge Fund, LLC. A former floor trader, his first book, Greed Is Good, was published by HarperCollins. Mr. Hoenig has written for publications including The Wall Street Journal, Wired andMarketWatch: Stock Market News - Financial News. He was named one of Crain’s Forty Under Forty and appears regularly on Fox News Channel.Gary HullSpecialties: Philosophy, multiculturalism, business ethics, education.Dr. Hull is director of the Program on Values and Ethics in the Marketplace at Duke University. His op-eds have been published in numerous newspapers, including the Los Angeles Times, the San Francisco Chronicle, the Orange County Register, the Philadelphia Inquirer, and the Chicago Tribune. He has made numerous television and radio appearances to discuss Ayn Rand’s philosophy, multiculturalism, affirmative action, the Elian Gonzalez affair, sex, ethics, politics. He has lectured on Ayn Rand’s philosophy at conferences around the world and, as a member of the Ayn Rand Institute’s Speakers Bureau, has spoken at universities across the country, including Harvard, Michigan at Ann Arbor, Wisconsin at Madison, Texas at Austin. Dr. Hull is the author of A Study Guide to Leonard Peikoff’s book Objectivism: the Philosophy of Ayn Rand, and is co-editor of The Ayn Rand Reader (Penguin/Plume, 1999), a collection of fiction and non-fiction writings by Ayn Rand.MARTIN F JOHANSENMS, Computer Science, 2009, University of OsloMr. Johansen is a PhD research fellow at SINTEF, the largest independent research institute in Scandinavia. He is currently completing his PhD studies at the University of Oslo as part of an international research project on software testing.Elan JournoBA, Philosophy, 1997, King's College, LondonMr. Journo, director of policy research at ARI, is completing a book on American policy toward the Israeli/Palestinian conflict. His 2009 book, “Winning the Unwinnable War,” analyzes post-9/11 U.S. foreign policy. His writing has appeared in “Foreign Policy,” “Journal of International Security Affairs” and “Middle East Quarterly.”ELLEN KENNERPh.D., Clinical Psychology, 1992, University of Rhode IslandDr. Kenner, a clinical psychologist, has taught university courses in introductory psychology, abnormal psychology and theories of personality. She gives talks on romance, self-improvement, psychological self-defense, parenting and communication skills. She is in her eighth year as host of the nationally syndicated radio talk show The Rational Basis of Happiness®.Ryan KrausePhD, Strategic Management and Organization Theory, 2013, Indiana UniversityDr. Krause is an assistant professor at Texas Christian University’s Neeley School of Business. He researches corporate governance and has published in “Academy of Management Journal,” “Strategic Management Journal” and “Journal of Management.” His research has been covered by the “Wall Street Journal,” “USA Today,” “Businessweek” and Fox Business Network.Andrew LaymanAndrew Layman is a Senior Program Manager at Microsoft where he works on Internet and database technologies. Prior to joining Microsoft in 1992, he was a Vice President of Symantec Corporation and original author of the Time Line project management program.Peter LePort, M.D.Specialties: Medicine, free market reform of healthcare, medical savings accountsDr. LePort, a full-time surgeon, lectures nationwide on free market reform in healthcare, particularly on the benefits of medical savings accounts. He is a member of the board of directors of Americans for Free Choice in Medicine. He co-wrote a healthcare reform proposal that discusses voluntary, tax-free medical savings accounts and high-deductible personal health insurance and which includes a method to privatize Medicare. He earned his medical degree from Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, and is a former assistant professor of surgery at that institution. He is a member of the Faculty of the American College of Surgeons and of the Orange County Surgical Society.Andrew LewisPostgraduate Diploma of Philosophy, 1994, University of Melbourne, AustraliaMr. Lewis has studied philosophy at the Objectivist Academic Center, the University of Melbourne and the University of Southern California. He worked with Leonard Peikoff on his radio show, has lectured at Objectivist conferences, and is principal at VanDamme Academy, where he teaches a three-year history curriculum covering ancient, European and American history.JOHN LEWIS (deceased)Ph.D., Classics, 2001, University of CambridgeDr. Lewis is assistant professor of history at Ashland University, where he holds an Anthem Fellowship for Objectivist Scholarship. He is Assistant Professor of History in the Department of History and Political Science. He has published in several professional journals, and has been a visiting scholar at Rice University and Bowling Green State UniversityEDWIN A. LOCKEPh.D., Industrial Organizational Psychology, 1964, Cornell University.Dr. Locke is Dean’s Professor of Leadership and Motivation (Emeritus) at the Robert H. Smith School of Business at the University of Maryland, College Park. He is internationally known for his research and writings on work motivation, leadership and related topics, including the application of Objectivism to psychology and management. He is a senior writer for the Ayn Rand Institute and has published numerous op-eds.Keith LockitchPhD, Physics, 1999, University of Wisconsin at MilwaukeeDr. Lockitch is an ARI fellow and director of advanced training. In addition to speaking and writing for ARI on issues related to energy, climate and environmentalism, he teaches writing for the OAC and has developed courses on Ayn Rand’s ideas and novels for a variety of audiences.ROBERT MAYHEWPh.D., Philosophy, 1991, Georgetown UniversityDr. Mayhew is associate professor of philosophy at Seton Hall University. He is the author of Aristotle’s Criticism of Plato’s Republic and The Female in Aristotle’s Biology and the editor of Ayn Rand’s Marginalia, Ayn Rand’s The Art of Nonfiction, Essays on Ayn Rand’s “We the Living” and (forthcoming) Ayn Rand’s Q & A. He has completed a book on Ayn Rand’s HUAC testimony and is preparing for publication a collection of essays on Ayn Rand’s Anthem.Arline MannArline Mann is an attorney. She is vice president and associate general counsel of Goldman, Sachs & Co.John P. McCaskey, Ph.D. in history, is the founder and chairman of the Anthem Foundation for Objectivist Scholarship. He spent twenty years in the computer business, most recently as founder of Epiphany, Inc., before returning to academia in 2001. He studies and teaches history and philosophy of science at Stanford University.Scott McConnellSpecialties: Volunteerism, Communism in America, Ayn Rand's life. Mr. McConnell is a former literature teacher and high school English teacher. He has a BA in behavioral sciences and worked in Hollywood as a script reader. He has given several lectures on Ayn Rand's life.Shoshana MilgramPhD, Comparative Literature, 1978, Stanford UniversityDr. Milgram, associate professor of English at Virginia Tech, specializes in narrative fiction and film. She has lectured on Ayn Rand at Objectivist and academic conferences and has published on Ayn Rand, Hugo and Dostoevsky. Dr. Milgram is editing the draft of her book-length study of Ayn Rand’s life (to 1957).Ken Moelis. Mr. Moelis is founder and chief executive officer of Moelis & Company, a global investment bank that provides financial advisory, capital raising and asset management services to a broad client base including corporations, institutions and governments. Mr. Moelis has over thirty years of investment banking experience. Prior to founding Moelis & Company, he worked at UBS from 2001 to 2007, where he was most recently president of UBS Investment Bank and, previously, Joint Global Head of Investment Banking. Mr. Moelis serves on the University of Pennsylvania Board of Trustees, the Wharton Board of Overseers, the Board of the Tourette Syndrome Association, and the Board of Governors of Cedars Sinai Hospital.Jean MoroneyCertificate, 1996, Objectivist Graduate Center, Ayn Rand Institute;MS, Psychology, 1994, Carnegie Mellon University;MS, Electrical Engineering, 1986, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyMs. Moroney is president of Thinking Directions, a business that develops and teaches methods in applied psycho-epistemology. She has given her flagship course, Thinking Tactics, to corporate and public audiences across North America. She is writing a book titled “Smarter: How to Achieve Your Goals When Nothing Goes as Planned.”Adam Mossoff is Professor of Law at George Mason University School of Law. He is also Co-Director of Academic Programs and a Senior Scholar at the Center for the Protection of Intellectual Property at George Mason, which he co-founded in 2012. He teaches and writes in the areas of patent law, trade secrets, trademark law, property law, and internet law. He has published extensively on the theory and history of how patents and other intellectual property rights are fundamental property rights. His article on the very first patent war, the Sewing Machine War of the 1850s, has been widely cited in today's public policy debates concerning patent litigation, patent licensing, and patent pools. He has testified before the Senate, and he has spoken at numerous congressional staff briefings, professional association conferences, and academic conferences, as well as at the PTO, the FTC, the DOJ, and the Smithsonian Institution. He is Co-Chairman of the Intellectual Property Committee of the IEEE-USA, and he is a member of the Amicus Committee of the American Intellectual Property Law Association, the Public Policy Committee of the Licensing Executives Society, and the Academic Advisory Board of the Copyright Alliance. ADAM MOSSOFF is an expert in patent law and property theory. He has published numerous law review articles and book reviews on topics in legal philosophy, patent law, and property law, including in law reviews at the University of Arizona and UC-Hastings, and in the interdisciplinary law journal, the University of Chicago Law School Roundtable. He was a visiting lecturer and John M. Olin Fellow in Law at Northwestern University School of Law, where he taught a seminar on property theory. Immediately prior to coming to MSU College of Law, he clerked for the Hon. Jacques L. Wiener, Jr., of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. Professor Mossoff graduated from the University of Chicago Law School with honors in 2001. He has a M.A. in philosophy from Columbia University, where he specialized in legal and political philosophy, and a B.A. in philosophy from the University of Michigan, where he graduated magna cum laude and with high honors in philosophy. Hi is now an Associate Professor of Law at George Mason University School of LawSpecialties: Philosophy of Law, Constitutional Law, Intellectual Property Rights, Patent RightsJ. PATRICK MULLINS is a doctoral candidate in the history department of the University of Kentucky. He is in the last stages of writing his doctoral dissertation with the help of a generous grant from the Ayn Rand Institute.Travis NorsenSpecialties: Physics, science, history and philosophy of science, science education.Mr. Norsen is a physics and philosophy double-major at Harvey Mudd College in Claremont, CA. He is currently attending his final year of a PhD program in physics at the University of Washington in Seattle. Mr. Norsen is also a former adjunct instructor of physics at DigiPen Institute of Technology in Redmond, WA.JOHN E. OPFER, who still tops the list of Amazon Reviewers on the CyberNet Scoreboard, is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Ohio State University where he specializes in cognitive and developmental psychology. Nowadays he's too busy reviewing his research findings to review books. His work at OSU's Concepts and Learning Lab explores how young children form and change their concepts, such as concepts of living things and number. His website is at <Department of Psychology - John Opfer> where you will find links to several of his fascinating papers.Michael PaxtonMFA, 1984, New York UniversityMr. Paxton directed the world premiere of Ayn Rand’s Ideal (1989) and adapted and directed a dramatic presentation of Anthem (1991). His documentary, Ayn Rand: A Sense of Life, won an Academy Award nomination and a Golden Satellite Award for Best Feature Documentary. He teaches production design and film history at the Art Institute in Hollywood.Lee PiersonPhD, 1982, Psychology, Cornell UniversityDr. Pierson, director of the Thinking Skills Institute at Fairleigh Dickinson University, teaches students and business professionals how to keep any thought process moving toward its goal by activating the right knowledge as needed. He has a long-standing interest in and recently participated in life-extension research.AMY PEIKOFFJ.D., 1998, University of California, Los Angeles School of Law;Ph.D., Philosophy, 2003, University of Southern CaliforniaDr. Amy Peikoff is an Anthem fellow at the University of Texas at Austin, where she is teaching undergraduate courses in ethics and epistemology. Her writings on legal and philosophical issues have appeared in academic journals and leading newspapers. She has taught for the Objectivist Academic Center and lectured for Objectivist organizations and at conferences. Visiting Fellow at Chapman University’s Law School.Leonard PeikoffPh .D., Philosophy, 1964 New York UniversityFrom 1957 until 1973, Peikoff taught philosophy at Hunter College, Long Island University, New York University, the University of Denver and the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn.After that, he worked full-time on The Ominous Parallels (published 1982) and gave lectures across the country. He gave courses on Ayn Rand's philosophy regularly in New York City, which were taped and played to groups in some 100 cities in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. In addition, he spoke frequently before investment and financial conferences on the philosophic basis of capitalism.Dr. Peikoff, who is a naturalized American citizen, was born in Winnipeg, Canada, in 1933. His father was a surgeon and his mother, before marriage, was a band leader in Western Canada. He has been a contributor to Barron's and an associate editor, with Ayn Rand, of The Objectivist (1968-71) and The Ayn Rand Letter (1971-76).He is author of Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand (Dutton, 1991), the definitive statement of Objectivism.Steve PlafkerJ.D., 1973 USCPh.D., Math, 1966 UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOISBS, MATH, MIT, 1961Dr. Plafker is a retired Los Angeles County deputy district attorney. His teaching experience includes teaching law to law students and to undergraduates. Before becoming a lawyer, he taught mathematics at Tulane University. He is a founder and member of the Board of Directors of The Association For Objective Law (TAFOL).Richard RalstonSpecialties: Ayn Rand’s life, Objectivism (General), Projects of the Ayn Rand Institute, Volunteerism, Foreign Policy, Journalism and MediaAfter serving seven years in the U.S. Army, Mr. Ralston completed an M.A. in International Relations at the University of Southern California in 1977. He then began a career in newspaper publishing and direct marketing. He has been the circulation director and publisher of The Christian Science Monitor, a radio producer, a national television news business manager, and a book publisher. As an independent direct marketing consultant, his clients included IBM, British Airways, CNN, and the Los Angeles Times. His book Communism: Its Rise and Fall in the 20th Century was published in 1991. Mr. Ralston is now Managing Director for the Ayn Rand Institute.JOHN RIDPATHPh.D., Economics, 1974, University of VirginiaDr. Ridpath (York University, retired) writes and speaks in defense of capitalism, and on the impact throughout Western history—including the American Founding era—of the ideas of the major philosophers. A recipient of numerous teaching awards, and nominee for Canadian Professor of the Year, he continues to lecture throughout Europe and North America.Jonathan Paul Rosman, MDSpecialties: Medicine, psychiatry.Dr. Rosman is a board certified psychiatrist, with additional qualifications in the subspecialties of addiction psychiatry and forensic psychiatry. Prior to entering full-time private practice in California in 1989 he was an assistant professor at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. For several years, Dr. Rosman has been a psychiatric consultant to the City of Hope National Medical Center in Duarte, California, and is the psychiatric consultant to the Sleep Disorders Center at Huntington Memorial Hospital in Pasadena, California. He is also medical director for the Eating Disorder Center of California, a private, intensive outpatient clinic in Brentwood, California, devoted to the treatment of patients with anorexia and bulimia.Dr. Rosman is a published writer and lecturer on various aspects of psychiatry. Dr. Rosman's theoretical orientation is broad-based, drawing on and integrating aspects of cognitive-behavioral, short-term psychodynamic and biologic theories with Objectivist epistemological principles. He practices as both a psychotherapist and a psychopharmacologist.GREG SALMIERIB.A., Philosophy, 2001, The College of New JerseyPhD, Philosophy, 2008, University of PittsburghDr. Salmieri is a philosophy fellow at the Anthem Foundation and co-secretary of the Ayn Rand Society (a professional group affiliated with the American Philosophical Association). He teaches at Rutgers University. He has published and lectured on Aristotle and Ayn Rand and is co-editor of forthcoming books on both thinkers.Richard M. SalsmanSpecialties: Banking, free market economics, economic forecasting, capitalism, investmentsRichard M. Salsman is president and chief market strategist of InterMarket Forecasting, which provides quantitative research and forecasts of stocks, bonds, and currencies to guide the asset allocation decisions of institutional investment managers, mutual funds, and pension plans. He is the author of numerous books and articles on economics, banking, and forecasting from a free-market perspective, including Breaking the Banks: Central Banking Problems and Free Banking Solutions (American Institute for Economic Research, 1990) and Gold and Liberty (American Institute for Economic Research, 1995). Mr. Salsman’s work has appeared in The Intellectual Activist, the New York Times, Investor’s Business Daily, The Wall Street Journal, Forbes, and Barron’s. From 1993 to 1999, he was a senior vice president and senior economist at H. C. Wainwright & Co. Economics. Prior to that he was a banker at Citibank and the Bank of New York. Mr. Salsman is an adjunct fellow at the American Institute for Economic Research and the founder of The Association of Objectivist Businessmen.Lee Sandstead received his B.A. Philosophy/B.S. Mass Communication from Middle Tennessee State University in December 1996, when he was awarded the prestigious award for “Outstanding Magazine Journalism Graduate.” He has studied art history at the University of Memphis’ graduate program, and most recently, the art history doctoral program at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, New York City. He is a popular writer/photographer/lecturer of art-historical subjects. He has delivered almost 50 keynote lecture-addresses to such prestigious institutions as: Yale, Duke, University of Michigan, Penn State, NYU and the Academy of Realist Art in Toronto. Articles of his have been published in numerous journals, and his photography has been seen in publications such as: The New York Times, Fortune, and Ms. Magazine. He currently teaches art history at Montclair State University and is author of the forthcoming book on American master-sculptor Evelyn Beatrice Longman (1874-1954DINA SCHEIN FEDERMAN (deceased) is completing her article on "Integrity in The Fountainhead_" for ROBERT MAYHEW's upcoming collection of essays. She will also be delivering two lectures at the European Objectivist conference in London this month. Her writing projects include severalarticles on Virtue Ethics, a movement in academic ethics.DANIEL SCHWARTZBA, Liberal Arts, 2006, St. John’s CollegeMr. Schwartz is a doctoral candidate in philosophy at UC San Diego, where he is working on a dissertation titled “Baconian Foundationalism and the Problem of Certainty.” He specializes in early modern philosophy and the history of the philosophy of science.PETER SCHWARTZM.A., Journalism, 1972, Syracuse UniversityPeter Schwartz is the founding editor and publisher of The Intellectual Activist. He is the editor and contributing author of Ayn Rand’s Return of the Primitive: The Anti-Industrial Revolution, and is chairman of the board of directors of the Ayn Rand Institute.Thomas ShoebothamMM, Orchestral Conducting, 1996, University of New MexicoMM, Cello Performance, 1992, Eastman School of MusicMr. Shoebotham is music director of the Palo Alto Philharmonic. Previous conducting engagements have included Berkeley Opera, Opera San José, Peninsula Symphony Orchestra and many other groups. He has lectured on music, taught in school music programs and performed numerous recitals as a cellist and pianist over the last twenty years.Stephen SiekPhD, Musicology, 1991, University of CincinnatiDr. Siek, professor emeritus at Wittenberg University, has recently publishedEngland’s Piano Sage: The Life and Teachings of Tobias Matthay. For many years he has lectured and written about the early work of Frank Lloyd Wright, including a scholarly study of Wright’s 1909 home for Burton Westcott in Springfield, Ohio.BRIAN P. SIMPSONPhD, Economics, 2000, George Mason UniversityDr. Simpson is a professor at National University in San Diego. He is author of the book Markets Don’t Fail! and he has a number of papers published in academic journals. He is currently working on another book titled “Money, Banking, and the Business Cycle,” which he hopes to publish soon.Steve SimpsonJD, 1994, New York Law SchoolMr. Simpson is director of legal studies at the Ayn Rand Institute. A former constitutional lawyer for the Institute for Justice, he writes and speaks on a wide variety of legal and constitutional issues, including free speech and campaign finance law, cronyism and government corruption, and the rule of law.Aaron SmithPhD, Philosophy, 2010, Johns Hopkins UniversityDr. Smith is an instructor at the Ayn Rand Institute where he teaches in the Objectivist Academic Center and the Summer Internship program. He lectures for ARI and develops educational content for the Institute’s e-learning programs.Tara SmithPhD, Philosophy, 1989, Johns Hopkins UniversityDr. Smith, professor of philosophy at the University of Texas, holds the BB&T Chair for the Study of Objectivism and the Anthem Foundation Fellowship. She has published books on values, virtues, and individual rights. Her latest, “Judicial Review in an Objective Legal System,” is forthcoming in fall 2015 (Cambridge University Press).MARY ANN SURESM.A., Art History, 1966, Hunter College, New YorkMary Ann Sures taught art history at Washington Square College of N.Y.U. and at Hunter College. She applied Objectivist esthetics to painting and sculpture in a ten-lecture course, “Esthetics of the Visual Arts,” which was written in consultation with Ayn Rand. Her philosophical approach to art history is presented in “Metaphysics in Marble” (The Objectivist, February/March, 1969). She is co-author with her (late) husband Charles of Facets of Ayn Rand (published by the Ayn Rand Institute), memoirs of their longtime friendship with Ayn Rand and her husband Frank O’Connor.C. BRADLEY THOMPSONPh.D., History, 1993, Brown UniversityC. Bradley Thompson is the BB&T Research Professor at Clemson University and the Executive Director of the Clemson Institute for the Study of Capitalism. He has also been a visiting fellow at Princeton and Harvard universities and at the University of London.Professor Thompson is the author of Neoconservatism: An Obituary for an Idea and the prize-winning book John Adams and the Spirit of Liberty. He has also edited The Revolutionary Writings of John Adams, Antislavery Political Writings, 1833-1860: A Reader, co-edited Freedom and School Choice in American Education, and was an associate editor of the four-volume Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment. His current book project is on the ideological origins of American constitutionalism.Dr. Thompson is also an occasional writer for The Times Literary Supplement of London. He has lectured around the country on education reform and the American Revolution, and his op-ed essays have appeared in scores of newspapers around the country and abroad. Dr. Thompson's lectures on the political thought of John Adams have twice appeared on C-SPAN television.LISA VANDAMMEB.A., Philosophy, 1994, University of Texas at AustinLisa VanDamme is the owner and director of VanDamme Academy, a private elementary and junior high school in Laguna Hills, California. She specializes in the application of Objectivism to educational theory. Her previous lectures on homeschooling, hierarchy and the teaching of values will be included in a forthcoming education anthology featuring Leonard Peikoff’s “Philosophy of Education.”Don WatkinsBA, Business Administration, 2005, Strayer UniversityMr. Watkins is a fellow at the Ayn Rand Institute. He is the author of “RooseveltCare: How Social Security Is Sabotaging the Land of Self-Reliance” and coauthor, along with Yaron Brook, of the national best-seller “Free Market Revolution: How Ayn Rand’s Ideas Can End Big Government.”KEITH WEINERPh.D., Economics, 2012, New Austrian School of Economics (non-accredited)Dr. Weiner is the founder and CEO of Monetary Metals, a company on a mission to pay interest on gold, and the president of the Gold Standard Institute USA.He makes the economic arguments, as well as the moral, for a free market in money and credit. There has never been an unadulterated gold standard in history, as all governments (including the U.S.) have regulated and interfered with banking, even when other enterprises were unshackled. Today our monetary system is failing, and Keith describes the mechanics in detail, why making the passionate case for gold as the money of free markets.He is also the founder of DiamondWare, a software company sold to Nortel in 2008.Glenn WoiceshynSpecialties: Education, ethics, environmentalism, science, politics.Mr. Woiceshyn is currently developing curriculum and teaching materials for grades 4 to 6 based on his understanding of Objectivism and his experience in "homeschooling" his son and other children. As a freelance writer, Mr. Woiceshyn's op-eds have appeared in numerous newspapers, including the Los Angeles Times, Houston Chronicle, Philadelphia Inquirer, Baltimore Sun and Miami Herald.JAANA WOICESHYNM.B.A., 1983, Helsinki School of Economics and Business Administration; Ph.D., Organization and Strategy, 1988, University of Pennsylvania (Wharton School)Dr. Woiceshyn is an associate professor at the Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary. She has taught business ethics and strategic management to undergraduate, MBA and executive MBA students and to various business audiences since 1987.BARRY WOODPh.D., History of Art and Architecture, 2002, Harvard UniversityDr. Wood is curator of the Islamic Gallery Project at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London. He has lectured and published on subjects ranging from Persian poetry to Web design.Darryl WrightSpecialties: Ethics, political philosophy, ObjectivismDarryl Wright is associate professor of philosophy at Harvey Mudd College, a member of the Claremont Colleges consortium. He received his Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Michigan in 1991, and his A.B. in philosophy from Princeton University in 1985. Dr. Wright has published scholarly articles and/or lectured on the history of ethics, early twentieth-century philosophy, value theory, coercion, and other topics in philosophy.