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What are some books that expand our mind?

Already MentionedGödel, Escher, Bach; Thinking, Fast and Slow; Predictably Irrational; Darwin's Dangerous Idea; Intuition Pumps And Other Tools for Thinking; The Selfish Gene; The Black Swan; Antifragile; The Symbolic Species; The User Illusion; The Beginning of Infinity;My Top Picks For General ReadersThe Goodness Paradox: The Strange Relationship Between Virtue and Violence in Human Evolution: Richard WranghamWrangham is a primatologist who theorizes (along with other biologists) that humans are a domesticated animal. Sounds silly? Who or what domesticated us? Read the book!Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress: Steven PinkerThis book is misunderstood, presumably by people who haven’t actually read it, because the prose is pretty clear. It’s doesn’t argue that the Enlightenment has been perfectly realized or that enlightenment values are perfect values.It argues that we’ve made progress and that we need to be as honest about the wins of Western Civilizations as we are about its crimes and losses—not to pat ourselves on the back, and certainly not to ignore the plight of the disenfranchised. It’s important to focus on what works so we can keep doing it and refine it, to make it better.The Elephant in the Brain: Hidden Motives in Everyday Life: Kevin Simler, Robin Hanson: Books"If you want to know what makes people tick, read The Elephant in the Brain. Simler and Hanson have created the most comprehensive, powerful, unified explanation of human nature and behavior to date." --Jason Brennan, Professor of Business, Georgetown UniversityCo-author Robin Hanson describes himself as “nerdy.” I would call this book An Autistic’s Guide to Human Nature. It’s a deep look at behavior, by “an anthropologist on Mars.”Moral Tribes: Emotion, Reason, and the Gap Between Us and Them: Joshua GreeneThis is the best book about morality I've ever read. The first half is a tour of the current science (social science, anthropology, animal studies, brain-imaging, evolutionary theory, etc) that is connected with morality. The second half is a philosophical (and psychological) defense of the moral theory called Utilitarianism. Even if you're wind up rejecting that theory, you'll find huge value in this book. The writing is crystal clear, provocative, and laced with humor.“After two and a half millennia, it’s rare to come across a genuinely new idea on the nature of morality, but in this book Joshua Greene advances not one but several. Greene combines neuroscience with philosophy not as a dilettante but as an expert in both fields, and his synthesis is interdisciplinary in the best sense of using all available conceptual tools to understand a deep phenomenon. Moral Tribes is a landmark in our understanding of morality and the moral sense.” -- Steven PinkerSapiens: A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah Harari.This is one of the top-ten non-fiction books I've read in my life. Whether or not you agree with everything in it, the book will give you something interesting to think about on almost every page. Some of it might piss you off, too.Harari's thesis is that what makes humans unique is our capacity to invent fictions and use them to structure our lives. Without believing in them, or acting as if we do, we would not be able to live together in cities or collaborate on large-scale projects. The obvious fiction is religion (well, it's fiction to those of us who aren't religious), but other fictions include free will, morality, nations, money, liberal values, legal systems, etc."Sapiens" makes its arguments using a fusion of History, Economics, Psychology, Biology, Philosophy, and pure confidence.UPDATE: I also highly recommend the sequel, Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow, which uses current and historical trends to discuss the future of humanity.You Just Don't Understand: Women and Men in Conversation: Deborah Tannen.Tannon, a linguist, had the clever idea of framing women and men are two different cultures—and to study their "languages" the way one would study English and French. The book made me think beyond "the battle of the sexes" to the many ways words can both clarify our ideas and befuddle our listeners. This is a great books for couples, writers, actors, and students of human nature.The Little Schemer - 4th Edition: Daniel P. Friedman, Matthias Felleisen, Duane Bibby, Gerald J. Sussman.The authors use a Socratic approach to teach a difficult subject: recursion. This is a book you work through with pencil and paper, and, if you work through it, the way it stretches your mind will be more meaningful to you than the subject it teaches. It begins with the simplest of ideas and very gradually ramps up the complexity, until, by the end, your understanding is at a high level. This book is takes teaching and elevates it to a work of art. It's sort of a computer-programming book, but you don't need any programming experience to work through it.From Dawn to Decadence: 500 Years of Western Cultural Life 1500 to the Present: Jacques Barzun.Barzun tells the entire story of Modern Western History, making a brilliant case that there really is such a thing: that, in a sense, our culture began on its current (and future) course 500 years ago, at the birth of the Reformation. As with the best of this sort of book, it doesn't matter if you agree or disagree with its premise. It's value is that it makes a clear statement, one that will prompt you towards a sharp reaction.A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction: Christopher Alexander."Brilliant....Here's how to design or redesign any space you're living or working in--from metropolis to room. Consider what you want to happen in the space, and then page through this book. Its radically conservative observations will spark, enhance, organize your best ideas, and a wondrous home, workplace, town will result."--San Francisco ChronicleThis book's influence has leaked into other fields, notably Computer Science.The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion: Jonathan Haidt.Why are Conservatives and Liberals they way they are? Why are they so often at odds? Is it due to Nature or Nurture? This book delves into why we so often argue each other. It explores the core values we live by, both consciously and unconsciously. Check out the author's TED talks!Jonathan Haidt: The moral roots of liberals and conservatives | Video on TED.comJonathan Haidt: Religion, evolution, and the ecstasy of self-transcendence | Video on TED.comEvolution for Everyone: How Darwin's Theory Can Change the Way We Think About Our Lives: David Sloan Wilson.This is a great companion to "The Selfish Gene," and it's a good recommendation for people who are interested in the subject but turned off by Dawkins."Evolution for Everyone is a remarkable contribution. No other author has managed to combine mastery of the subject with such a clear and interesting explanation of what it all means for human self-understanding. Aimed at the general reader, yet peppered with ideas original enough to engage scholars, it is truly a book for our time. "—Edward O. Wilson, Pulitzer Prize-winning author of On Human NatureThe Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires: Tim Wu.This book puts the Internet, and, more specifically, the forces that control it, in a historical context. Rather than seeing the web as a unique and new thing, Wu considers it along with the telegraph, radio, telephone, and television networks. His book is a good general history of communication networks.Games People Play: The Basic Handbook of Transactional Analysis: Eric Berne.The three people in the world who are still believers in Transactional Analysis will be upset by the following claim: it's a "toy psychology." As far as I'm concerned, it's an oversimplified model of how humans work. And that's its strength. It's a kind of "Humans for Dummies." It's a marvelous books for fiction writers and actors, and even though it's an oversimplified model, it contains many grains of truth. Berne thought of all human interactions as games with winners and losers. And the book is a compendium of those games.How to Solve It: G. Polya.If you ever have to solve problems (of any type), it's worth reading this book."Every prospective teacher should read it. In particular, graduate students will find it invaluable. The traditional mathematics professor who reads a paper before one of the Mathematical Societies might also learn something from the book: 'He writes a, he says b, he means c; but it should be d.' "--E. T. Bell, Mathematical Monthly"[This] elementary textbook on heuristic reasoning, shows anew how keen its author is on questions of method and the formulation of methodological principles. Exposition and illustrative material are of a disarmingly elementary character, but very carefully thought out and selected."--Herman Weyl, Mathematical ReviewWhat Is the Name of This Book?: The Riddle of Dracula and Other Logical Puzzles: Raymond M. Smullyan.Smullyan wrote many puzzle books, and I picked this one pretty much at random. When I was a kid, I worked through all of them, and it was as if I could feel my brain growing. Here's an example to give you a taste:Dr. Tarr is a psychologist with the Department of Health. Her job is to inspect asylums to determine whether they are in compliance with the law. Asylums have Doctors and Patients. In a compliant asylum, all the doctors are sane and all the patients are insane. Clearly, an asylum with an insane doctor or a sane patient is Not A Good Thing.Sane persons are correct in all of their beliefs. Insane persons are incorrect in all of their beliefs. Both sane and insane persons are scrupulously honest: they always state what they believe to be the case. Unfortunately, the asylums are very modern and do not use identifying devices such as uniforms, ID tags, or other devices to show which persons are doctors and which are patients. Nor is it possible to know whether a person is sane or insane by any means other than questioning them.One day, after inspecting a number of asylums, Dr. Tarr was having a drink and cigar with her good friend Professor Feather. The professor found her work interesting and asked her to recount some of her findings.“Well,” said Dr. Tarr, “at the first asylum I visited, I met an inhabitant who made a single statement. I immediately took steps to have them released.”“Wait,” interjected the professor, “so you’re saying this person was not an insane patient?”“Of course,” replied Dr. Tarr.Professor Feather thought for a moment, then asked “How is that possible? This sounds like the old Liar and Truth Teller puzzle. This person either told the truth or they lied. But there are four possibilities for any person in an asylum: Sane Doctor, Insane Patient, Insane Doctor, or Sane Patient.“Even if you knew whether they were lying or telling the truth, that would only narrow the matter down to two possibilities. For example, if they told a truth such as ‘two plus two equals four’, you would know that they were Sane. But how would you know that they were a Patient, not a Doctor?”Dr. Tarr replied with a chuckle “I agree that I could not have deduced what to do based on an inhabitant saying ‘two plus two equals four’. But in this case, the patient was quite intelligent and thought of a single statement which could establish the fact that only a Sane Patient could make that statement.“I’m sure if you think about it, you could construct such a statement. Name a statement which could only be uttered by a Sane Patient.”-- A Few Easy Ones from Raymond Smullyan.The Ghost Map: The Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic--and How It Changed Science, Cities, and the Modern World: Steven Johnson.This is one of the most entertaining History books I've ever read, but it goes beyond that. As it explores the biases that keep smart people from understanding "obvious" truths, it delves into Psychology and even Philosophy.UPDATE: And if you enjoy that, you’ll surely love The Sun and the Moon: The Remarkable True Account of Hoaxers, Showmen, Dueling Journalists, and Lunar Man-Bats in Nineteenth-Century New York by Matthew Goodman, which is the story of an incredible (and widely-believed) series of news stories that claimed the moon was teaming with life—including intelligent life.Metaphors We Live By: George Lakoff, Mark Johnson.This book explores a fascinating thesis about how we think. The authors believe that metaphor is a core part of human cognition and that our writing, speech, and ideas are laced with metaphors and metaphorical frameworks we often fail to notice. It's terrific food for thought, whether you wind up agreeing or disagreeing.The Hero with a Thousand Faces: Joseph Campbell.“Campbell’s words carry extraordinary weight, not only among scholars but among a wide range of other people who find his search down mythological pathways relevant to their lives today....The book for which he is most famous, The Hero with a Thousand Faces [is] a brilliant examination, through ancient hero myths, of man’s eternal struggle for identity.” — TimeMind Children: The Future of Robot and Human Intelligence: Hans Moravec.One would be making a mistake to let Mind Children recede unopened into a guiltless oblivion. It's a tonic book, thought-provoking on every page. And it reminds us that, in our accelerating, headlong era, the future presses so close upon us that those who ignore it inhabit not the present but the past.--Brad Leithauser (New Yorker )Moravec, by his own admission, is an intellectual joyrider, and riding his runaway trains of thought is an exhilarating experience...This is an intellectual party that shouldn't be pooped, no matter how much it may disturb the neighbours and encourage over-indulgence.--Brian Woolley (Guardian )In the Blink of an Eye Revised 2nd Edition: Walter Murch.This book, by one of Hollywood's greatest editors, goes beyond explaining a single craft. It's a door into the brain of a brilliant technician and problem solver, and many pages of it gifted me new ways of thinking, even though I'm not an editor. For instance, Murch came up with the simple (but genius) idea of taping two tiny, cut-out paper people to the bottom of his monitor. They continually remind him of the scale at which people will see movie images when they are in the theatre.The Age of Insight: The Quest to Understand the Unconscious in Art, Mind, and Brain, from Vienna 1900 to the Present: Eric Kandel.This is an Art History/Criticism book written by a neuroscientist.“Eric Kandel has succeeded in a brilliant synthesis that would have delighted and fascinated Freud: Using Viennese culture of the twentieth century as a lens, he examines the intersections of psychology, neuroscience, and art. The Age of Insight is a tour-de-force that sets the stage for a twenty-first-century understanding of the human mind in all its richness and diversity.”—Oliver Sacks, author of The Mind’s Eye and The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat“In a polymathic performance, a Nobel laureate weaves together the theories and practices of neuroscience, art and psychology to show how our creative brains perceive and engage art—and are consequently moved by it. . . . A transformative work that joins the hands of Art and Science and makes them acknowledge their close kinship.”—Kirkus Reviews (STARRED)“Engrossing … Nobel-winning neuroscientist Kandel excavates the hidden workings of the creative mind. Kandel writes perceptively about a range of topics, from art history—the book’s color reproductions alone make it a great browse—to dyslexia. … Kandel captures the reader’s imagination with intriguing historical syntheses and fascinating scientific insights into how we see—and feel—the world.”—Publisher’s Weekly“A fascinating meditation on the interplay among art, psychology and brain science. The author, who fled Vienna as a child, has remained captivated by Austrian artists Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka and Egon Schiele, each of whom was profoundly influenced by Sigmund Freud and by the emerging scientific approach to medicine in their day … [calls] for a new, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the mind, one that combines the humanities with the natural and social sciences.”—Scientific American“Eric Kandel’s book is a stunning achievement, remarkable for its scientific, artistic, and historical insights. No one else could have written this book—all its readers will be amply rewarded.”—Howard Gardner, Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education, Harvard Graduate School of Education“Eric Kandel’s training as a psychiatrist and his vast knowledge of how the brain works enrich this thoroughly original exploration of the relationship between the birth of psychoanalysis, Austrian Expressionism, and Modernism in Vienna.”—Margaret Livingstone, Professor of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School“This is the book that Charles Darwin would have produced, had he chosen to write about art and aesthetics. Kandel, one of the great pioneers of modern neuroscience, has effectively bridged the ‘two cultures’—science and humanities. This is a task that many philosophers, especially those called ‘new mysterians,’ had considered impossible.”—V. S. Ramachandran, author of The Tell-Tale BrainSex at Dawn: How We Mate, Why We Stray, and What It Means for Modern Relationships: Christopher Ryan, Cacilda Jetha.If you want to grapple with understanding human sexuality, I recommend you read this book and its criticism: Sense: The Heretical Nature of Science by Alan CromerRecommended to me by William Archibald, this is a paradigm-shifting book about the history of Science, though Cromer disputes the whole idea of paradigms. According to Cromer, Science was anything but inevitable. The forces that started it got invented once in history, in ancient Greece. Had that not happened, there's no reason to believe we'd have Science and scientists today.The book spans all the way from the origin of our species to speculation about intelligent life on other planets.EducationHow Children Fail: John Holt.A better title might be "How Teachers Fail." When I was in my teens and first starting to grapple with problems in Education, this book opened my eyes. It started me thinking in ways that had never occurred to me before.Wounded by School: Recapturing the Joy in Learning and Standing Up to Old School Culture: Kirsten Olson.Kirsten Olson's book is refreshingly unlike the general run of sludge I associate with writing about pedagogy: It seems to be entirely free of the familiar platitudes which replace thought when we read about school matters, is scrubbed clean of pretentious jargon, and offers up the twists and turns of Olson's analysis and citations with beautiful clarity. I can't imagine anyone not being better for reading this book Twice! --John Taylor Gatto, Author, Dumbing Us DownSummerhill School: A New View of Childhood: A. S. Neill, Albert Lamb.This book will challenge your ideas about education, whether you wind up agreeing with it or raging against it. While I was suffering through a traditional American public high school, this book showed me there were other possibilities, which both fascinated and depressed me. I longed to go to Summerhill.Mindstorms: Children, Computers, And Powerful Ideas: Seymour A. Papert."This is the best book I have ever read on how to assist people to learn for themselves. Papert began his work by collaborating with Jean Piaget, and then applied those perspectives in a self-programming language designed to help children learn math and physics.Papert explains Piaget's work and provides case studies of how the programming language, LOGO, can help. He provides a wonderful contrasting explanation of the weaknesses of how math and physics are usually taught in schools." -- from an Amazon reader review.See also Impro: Improvisation and the Theatre: Keith Johnstone, below (in the theatre section).The Educated Mind: How Cognitive Tools Shape Our Understanding by Kieran EganThis book, despite its boring title, is one of the most exciting intellectual adventures I've ever had. (And also despite its boring title, it's readable and witty.) It's an exciting book even if you have no specific interest in education.Egan's thesis (which will make your neurons tingle, even if you disagree with it) is that human civilizations have gone through five intellectual stages, which he calls somatic, mythic, romantic, philosophic, and ironic. His second thesis is that education is best when kids are allowed to fully experience and integrate each of these thinking styles.Somatic learners experience through their bodies, and we are born to learn this way. Babies learn somatically when they go from crawling to walking and when they come to understand gravity's effects by knocking over block towers.Mythic understanding involves binary categories, most famously good and evil. Pretty much everything is understood as an epic (and often magical) opposition: wicked stepmother vs handsome prince; David vs Goliath; Bilbo vs Smaug...Egan believes pre-literate cultures understand the world primarily in terms of the somatic and mythic. As they become literate, people are able to think in other forms, with the romantic bridging mythic and philosophic modes.Romantic thinking is a sort of taming of mythic thinking. It's still extreme, but instead of thinking in terms of cosmic forces or gods and goddesses, it focusing on human and natural extremes. When children become romantic thinkers, they tend to lose some of their interest in monsters and superheroes and become obsessed with human feats, like the ones in the Guinness Book of World Records. Or their gods and monsters become more human-like, as are the troubled citizens of the Marvel Universe.As people focus less on the realm of demons and dragons and more on the real world (even if mostly on the extreme parts of it), they begin to notice patterns and abstractions. Maybe there are traits all lizards have in common; maybe tall is a useful category for both mountains and skyscrapers. These thoughts lead to philosophic thinking, which gives us the tools we need to do math, science, and to theorize about history, literature and to think about any topic in an abstract or algorithmic form.In the end, we notice that our abstractions have holes in them. They are useful, but they don't perfectly model reality. And they tend to get tarnished by social and political biases. These realizations lead to ironic thinking, which is impossible to do in any major sense without first developing philosophic thinking, which in turn is founded on romantic, mythic, and somatic thinking.Egan doesn't champion any of these modes over the others. He doesn't rank them. He also takes pains to say that though they have a hierarchical relationship, it's not a neat one. They leak into each other and coexist. Mythic thinkers may not be all that good at thinking ironically, but they still manage to do it sometimes, and while the philosophic mind loses some of its nimbleness with romance, it never totally loses its romantic inclinations.His main suggestion, in the parts of the book dealing with education, is that to realize their full potential as thinkers, children must be allowed and encouraged to pass through all these stages, and depending on where his chargers are in terms of intellectual maturity, a teacher must have the ability to teach in ways that stimulate all these modes. Most eight-year-olds are romantic thinkers, and teachers do them a disservice by leaping into philosophic mode rather than capitalizing on the strengths of romance.The book also explores what's wrong with current educational systems. Egan suggests (and I agree) that the fundamental problem is that schools have three incompatible goals (and Egan explains the history behind them). Schools attempt to socialize, which in most First World countries means preparing kids for work in corporations; they also attempt to indoctrinate kids into a core curriculum of some kind; finally, they attempt to spur kids into becoming individuals--into being creative, emotionally satisfied, unique beings. The inevitable muddle comes when the needs of the business world (or the requirements of the core curriculum) collide with the needs of the individual.Most schools and teachers don't acknowledge (or even understand) this conflict exists and give kids no help in putting all the pieces together. They just say, "Here's all the stuff. Some parts don't fit well with other parts. Don't complain about that. Figure out a way to cope on your own. Sink or swim."When I was just halfway through with "The Educated Mind," I knew it was going to be a a game-changing book for me. Ever since reading it, I've examined my work to see if it contains all the levels of thought (and experience). I'm talking about my writing, my reading, and my work in the theatre. Am I communicating on somatic, mythic, romantic, philosophic, and ironic levels? If not, is there some way I can enrich my work so that it at least touches on all those modes.The greatest works of art do. That's a subjective call, of course, but it's true in my opinion. Think "2001," "The Great Gatsby," "One Hundred Years of Solitude," "King Lear" ...The Case against Education: Why the Education System Is a Waste of Time and Money by Bryan CaplanTerrific, challenging book by a heretical economist who slaughters every sacred cow in the pasture. Even if all the book does is make you angry, it will give you things to think about.This is the only book I know of that tackles both the problems with eduction for the individual and whether or not the huge amount we spend on education is a good value for society.WritingIn my view, despite frequent references to "Elements of Style" and Stephen King's "On Writing," there are few good books on how to write. Most of what learned was either by reading and imitation or from short essays, such as Orwell's Politics and the English Language and Twain's "Finmore Cooper's Literary Offenses":'ve tried to list most of my core beliefs about writing, here: Marcus Geduld's answer to What should every aspiring writer know about writing?These three books (really four, since the first is a collection of two books) stand out. The first ...Hat Box: The Collected Lyrics of Stephen Sondheim: Stephen Sondheim.... is a thorough analysis of Sondheim's lyrics—by Sondheim. In case you don't know who he is, he's the generally-acknowledge "greatest muscial-theatre composer/lyricist of all time." His shows include "Sweeney Todd," "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum", and "West Side Story" (lyrics only). What sets his books apart is the care he takes over evert single word and the lucid explanations with which he explains his choices. Read these books even if you're a non-lyricist.The Sense of Style: The Thinking Person's Guide to Writing in the 21st Century by Steven Pinker.This is the best guide to prose style I've ever read. It's biased towards a simple style, but if you can master that, you can use it as a foundation to build on.Clear and Simple as the Truth: Francis-Noël Thomas, Mark Turner.Though somewhat dry, this is the only book I know of that clearly explains how to write in a very specific style. And it's kind-of the ur-style: the one I'd argue all writers should master before going on to anything more complicated. It's what "Elements of Style" should be but isn't.TheatreA Practical Handbook for the Actor: Melissa Bruder, Lee Michael Cohn, Madeleine Olnek, Nathaniel Pollack, Robert Previtio, Scott Zigler, David Mamet.This is the best introduction I've ever read to Stanislavsky-based acting. (See Constantin Stanislavski). I think of it as book one in a three-book trilogy. (Composed of this book and the next two in my list.)It helps actors avoid playing murky emotional states and become active on stage. Its core approach is to have actors choose goals for each moment they are on stage.If you know someone who is thinking of becoming an actor, get him this book.The Actor and the Target: Declan Donnellan.This book (part two of my ad-hoc trilogy) delves into one specific aspect of Stanislavsky-based acting: the person (the other actor) or object you're trying to affect when you're on stage. As a director, I find motivating actors towards targets tremendously useful. For instance, if an actor is trying to "be sexy" I ask him to stop and, instead, to try to get the actress (the target) to kiss him.How to Stop Acting: Harold Guskin.In my mind, there's tremendous value in Stanislavky's system, which forms the basis of the first two books on this list. But in the end, most actors need to let all frameworks go, stop thinking about them, and just improvise. They must "be in the moment."This is the best treatment I've found of this slippery subject. Guskin was the acting coach to James Gandalfini, Kevin, Kline, Glenn Close and many other famous actors.Different Every Night: Putting the play on stage and keeping it fresh: Mike Alfreds.This book clearly explores what to me is the core difference between theatre and film. Filmmakers must sweat to get the best performance possible onto film. Theatre practitioners should, if they're smart, create an environment where there is no "best." Great theatre should be different every night (or why not see a film, instead?). Each actor in each performance should try something new, and all the performances, taken together, should explore every avenue of the story, every possible interpretation.Notes on Directing: 130 Lessons in Leadership from the Director's Chair: Frank Hauser, Russell Reich.The ideas behind directing are very, very simple: watch and listen; avoid doing anything most of the time; step in with a suggestion when necessary. But, boy oh boy, is it hard to put these simple procedures into practice! Most directors do too much. Or they focus on the wrong things. I read this smart little book before every rehearsal period.Impro: Improvisation and the Theatre: Keith Johnstone.Impro ought to be required reading not only for theatre people generally but also for teachers, educators, and students of all kinds and persuasions. Readers of this book are not going to agree with everything in it; but if they are not challenged by it, if they do not ultimately succumb to its wisdom and whimsicality, they are in a very sad state indeed . . . .Johnstone seeks to liberate the imagination, to cultivate in the adult the creative power of the child . . . .Deserves to be widely read and tested in the classroom and rehearsal hall . . . Full of excellent good sense, actual observations and inspired assertions.–CHOICE: Books for College LibrariesShakespeareThinking Shakespeare: A How-to Guide for Student Actors, Directors, and Anyone Else Who Wants to Feel More Comfortable With the Bard: Barry Edelstein.This is the only worthwhile Shakespeare book I've ever found for beginning actors, and seasoned actors who are new to Shakespeare. Even pros will probably learn something from it. And it's a cool book for Shakespeare fans, too, who want to learn how to read the plays better and who want an understanding of how Shakespeare's approach it.Hamlet in Purgatory: Stephen Greenblatt."Hamlet" has a bewildering and brilliant relationship to Religion, and this is the best book on the subject.Hamlet and Revenge: Eleanor Prosser.Elizabethan morality considered revenge to be a great sin. So how is it possible that Shakespeare's audience considered Hamlet a hero? This is one of the most eye-opening pieces of dramaturgy I've read. I discuss it, here: Marcus Geduld's answer to What is the meaning of "the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune"?Pick this up used if you can. It's expensive new.Shakespeare's Metrical Art: George T. Wright.If you want to understand what Shakespeare was doing poetically, this is the bible. If you're new to blank verse, I recommend your read "Thinking Shakespeare" before tackling this.I delve into lots of other Shakespearean issues, here: Directing "Hamlet".FictionI gobble down fiction, so if this question was "What are some great novels?" I could list hundreds of books. Ones that would definitely make the list are "Sense and Sensibility," "Pride and Prejudice," "Emma," "Wuthering Heights," "House of Mirth", "One Hundred Years of Solitude," "Watership Down," "Cat's Eye", "Bleak House," "Lonesome Dove," "Catcher in the Rye," "The Queen's Gambit," and ... well, I could go on and on.While all great novels expand my mind, I've included two, below, that did so via formal experimentation. In general, I hate experimental novels. Most of them are Sophomoric: "What if the author was a character in his own work? What if the characters knew the were living in a work of fiction? Like, wow men! Cool!"Here are two exceptions:1Q84: Haruki Murakami, Jay Rubin, Philip ­Gabriel.War and Peace: Leo Tolstoy.And this, to me and many others, is the greatest novel of all time:The Great Gatsby: F. Scott Fitzgerald.I've read it over a hundred times and it still keeps giving. Several famous writers, like Hemmingway, copied it out by hand, so that they could study each sentence. I've often thought of doing the same thing. Here's a lesson I learned from just one of Fitzgerald's sentences: PostUPDATE: Someone recently PMed me, asking me to recommend two fiction and two non-fiction books to him. What follows is my reply, in which I cheated and recommend more. It's interesting to compare the following list with the one above, and see how some books have a stable placement in the front of my mind while others shift.As a lifelong reader, it's almost impossible for me to pick four books without doing so at random, but I'll try, as long as you understand these aren't my four favorites. They're just four books that are meaningful to me chosen somewhat arbitrarily.I'm going pick books that I first read at least five years ago, because I want to give you recommendations that haven't just temporarily dazzled me. Otherwise, I'd suggest"Thinking, Fast and Slow" by Daniel KahnemanAmazon: Thinking, Fast and Slowand"Antifragile" by Nassim Nicholas TalebAmazon: Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorderwhich both struck me as deeply profound and deeply useful. But they're too recent to be "canonized" in my mind.Finally, my favorite novel is"The Great Gatsby" by F. Scott FitzgeraldAmazon: The Great Gatsbybut I won't list it, because it's on so many great-works list. It's probably more helpful for me to suggest books you're less-likely to have heard about.Non-fiction:- "The Ghost Map: The Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic--and How It Changed Science, Cities, and the Modern World," by Steven Johnson, is a book about one event in history (and a fascinating one), but it manages to delve into deep matters of philosophy, science, and psychology, too. It's very exciting and readable, like a "page-turner" novel.Amazon: The Ghost Map- "From Dawn to Decadence: 500 Years of Western Cultural Life 1500 to the Present," by Jacques Barzun. The best modern-Western history I've ever read.Amazon: From Dawn to DecadenceFiction:- "Lonesome Dove," by Larry McMurtry, is, to me, a Great American Novel. It belongs on shelves next to "The Great Gatsby," "Moby Dick," and "The Scarlet Letter." It's a quest story, similar in that sense to "Lord of the Rings," but its setting is the American West in 1876.Amazon: Lonesome Dove- "Cat's Eye," by Margaret Atwood, is one of the most brutally-honest stories about childhood ever written. It's "Lord of the Flies" without the the island. And it's about little girls instead of little boys.Amazon: Cat's Eye: Margaret AtwoodHere are some other books I love:Fiction:- "One Hundred Years of Solitude," by Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Magic Realism. Maybe the best fantasy novel ever written. Marquez creates an absolutely unique world that runs via its own surreal logic. You emerge from it a different person. The English translation is gorgeous.Amazon: One Hundred Years of Solitude- "1Q84," by Haruki Murakami is the Japanese "One Hundred Year of Solitude." It's worth reading both of them, to understand what fiction can do and where it can go—and how it can play by its own rules.Amazon: 1Q84- "House of Mirth," by Edith Wharton. A fantastic portrait of 19th-Century New York and a young woman who has to maneuver in that complex, suffocating society.Amazon: The House of Mirth- "The Queens Gambit," by Walter Tevis is simply a perfect tale. It's like a masterclass on how to write a honed but unpretentious novel. It's about a child chess prodigy. Tevis isn't a well-known guy, but many people are aware of his novels via their film adaptations. These include "The Man Who Fell to Earth," "The Hustler," and "The Color of Money."Amazon: The Queen's Gambit: A Novel- "This Perfect Day," by Ira Levin is, in my mind, the best dystopia ever written. Few agree with me, because its politics are naive compared to books like "1984" (which I also love). But Levin isn't playing politics. Nor is he doing social criticism. He's weaving a yarn, and his spare prose and world-building do just that with immense confidence. I'd say it's one of the best sci-fi books of all time. Levin's mystery "A Kiss Before Dying" is also terrific. Don't watch either of the movie versions.Amazon: This Perfect Day- "Amy and Isabelle," by Elizabeth Strout is the best story about a mother/daughter relationship I've ever read.Amazon: Amy and Isabelle- "The Box of Delights," by John Masefield is my favorite children's fantasy novel. Though not nearly as well-known as "The Hobbit" or the Narnia books, for my taste it's superior.Amazon: The Box of DelightsOther novels I love include "Wuthering Heights" by Emily Bronte; "The Time Machine" and "The Island of Dr. Moreau" by H.G. Wells; "Emma," "Sense and Sensibility," and "Pride and Prejudice" by Jane Austen; pretty much any Jeeves book by P.G. Wodehouse; "Bleak House" by Charles Dickens; "Plain Song" by Ken Haruf; "Huckleberry Finn" by Mark Twain; "War and Peace" by Leo Tolstoy; "Catcher in the Rye" by J.D. Salinger; "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee; and "Secret History" by Donna Tartt.Non-fiction:- "Godel, Escher, Bach," and "Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies," by Douglas Hoffstadter, two of the most thought-provoking books I've read about the human mind and artificial intelligence.Amazon: Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden BraidAmazon: Fluid Concepts And Creative Analogies- "Shadow Divers," by Robert Kurson is the most exciting non-fiction book I've ever read. It's about deep-sea divers, a subject that (prior to reading this book) didn't interest me in the slightest.Amazon: Shadow Divers- "The Botany of Desire," by Michael Pollan is about the symbiotic way humans live with plants. Pollan is better known for "The Omnivore's Dilemma," which is fantastic, but, for my money, not quite as much the masterpiece as this earlier book.Amazon: The Botany of Desire- "Against Joie De Vivre" and "Being With Children," by Phillip Lopate. Lopate is the best personal essayist of the 20th Century and one of the best of all times.Amazon: Against Joie de VivreAmazon: Being with Children- Essays by George Orwell. I love all of Orwell's writing, but I find his essays—especially "Shooting an Elephant" and "Such, Such Were the Joys" to be the best of his writing.Amazon: Essays Free, online: "How Children Fail," by John Holt; "Summerhill School," by A.S. Neal; "A Mathematician's Lament" by Paul Lockhart; and the much more recent "Wounded by School," by Kristin Olson, were all deeply important to forming and informing my ideas about education.Amazon: How Children FailAmazon: A Mathematician's LamentFree online (shorter) version (pdf): Summerhill SchoolAmazon: Wounded by School- "The Little Schemer," by Daniel Friedman and Matthias Felleisen, is the only computer-programming book I've read that's a work of art. (Really it's a puzzle book, since one doesn't need to use a computer to work through it. It explores the subject of recursion.)Amazon: The Little Schemer- "In the Blink of an Eye" by Walter Murch, about the art of film editing.Amazon: In the Blink of an EyeFacebook: Friends of ol' marcus

What is the worst town in the USA you had to live in? What things made it so bad?

Needles, CA a very small desert town.It's population was at its highest when I lived there just over 5,000 people.There is a reason this is the only image you ever see of Needles.First the weather is a literal hell in the summer.In winter the normal high temperatures range from 62 °F (17 °C) to 80 °F (27 °C) with lows of 40 °F (4 °C) to 60 °F (16 °C). During summer the normal high temperatures range from 106 °F (41 °C) to 122 °F (50 °C) with lows of 82 °F (28 °C) to 94 °F (34 °C). Annual rainfall is about 5.11 inches (130 mm).Yes you read that right, in the summer it doesn't get colder than 82 °F (28 °C).The buildings are old and falling apart last time I saw it 3-4 years ago. Once upon a time the city had really only three types of residents.The fairly well off Railroad workers. Needles is a change out point for relief crews on the Railroad.The people that provide services for residents including food, groceries, clothing and household stuff, education, police, medical and fire.Welfare recipients. (in the early 1990's)I want to be clear I am not saying this to disparage the city or anyone living there. My mother specifically moved to Needles because she had two children one of them an infant and would get good welfare benefits there. She was able to get Food Stamps, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, WIC, hotel vouchers for free housing until we had a place to stay and eventually section 8 housing.Now you might say why here, she could do that anywhere. The payout for the AFDC and Food stamps was based on California's high cost of living but Needles had a low cost of living similar to its closer Arizona neighbors. This meant that the payout for those services let people live fairly comfortably on welfare. We were not eating sirloin but we were never starving either. We lived far better than we could anywhere else on welfare. we were not alone there were many people living in the exact same conditions. There was a huge community housing project for low income housing directly across the street from the sheriffs department. Due to my mom's section 8 HUD we lived in one of the better apartment complexes.When I lived there we only had 2 stoplights in the town. We had a KFC, McDonalds, Burger King, Thrifty's and Bashas supermarket. There were many bars and no movie theater could stay in business for more than a year.The only activity was to go down and get drunk and play in the river. That's really my only memories that are pleasant. Being a kid and slipping into the cold 46-52 °F water when it was over 100 °F outside to play. Sadly despite being within eyeshot we didn't do this often enough. The Colorado River comes from Snow runoff and is constantly moving and has several deep dams so it never has time to warm up. This means it is cold year round.

What initially prompted the Anglo-Normans to cross the channel over to Ireland and to take territory there, rather than conquering the entirety of their own island (namely Scotland and Wales) first and foremost?

Henry of Anjou was an empire builder. From his father, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Maine and Touraine, he inherited much of central France north of the Loire. From his mother, the Empress Matilda, he inherited the Duchy of Normandy and a claim to the crown of England. Through his marriage to Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine and Poitou, he acquired most of southern France. He took advantage of a civil war among the putative heirs to the Duchy of Brittany to grab it and add it to his portfolio.Henry of Anjou's claims over lands in France (in buff, orange and yellow) at their peak. Source: Creative Commons; reproduced for educational purposes under the Fair Use DoctrineThe crown of England had been seized by Stephen of Blois, a grandson of William the Conqueror, on the death of Henry I in 1135, despite a superior claim by the Empress Matilda, Henry I’s daughter. After a nasty, protracted but inconclusive civil war between the forces of Stephen and Matilda (known as the “Anarchy”), it was agreed that Stephen would remain king for life, and on his death the kingdom would pass to Matilda’s son, Henry of Anjou. In 1154, Stephen died and Henry succeeded to the throne.But Henry II had no sooner seated himself on the English throne than he looked westward to the neighboring island. Ireland would make a suitable kingdom for his brother William, he thought. He knew that the Church of Rome was eager to make the half-independent Irish Church comply with the Gregorian Reforms. So he agreed with Pope Adrian IV (Nicholas Breakspear, the only Englishman ever to be pope) that if Rome authorized Henry to invade Ireland, he would deliver a reformed Irish Church to the Roman fold.His mother vetoed the idea. The Empress Matilda wanted her 22-year-old son to concentrate on consolidating his vast holdings in England and France, instead of haring off on a campaign to Ireland. What benefit could come from conquering that soggy land that would ever justify the cost? The English Privy Council sided with Matilda and declined to vote Henry the funds for an invasion. Henry put the papal letter approving the Irish adventure in his pocket, to be saved for later.Enter Diarmait mac Murchada, king of Leinster. Ireland was traditionally divided into five kingdoms, with a high king or ard rí acknowledged as “first among equals” by the other kings. The high kingship was not hereditary: you became high king if a majority of the other kings submitted to you, something that led to frequent conflict among the Irish kingdoms.In 1166, the high king Muirchertach mac Lochlainn of the Northern Uí Néill was killed by Tigernán Ua Ruairc of Bréifne. Muirchertach had been Diarmait mac Murchada’s ally and protector whereas Tigernán was Diarmait’s life-long enemy. What was worse, Tigernán’s overlord, Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair of Connacht, became the new high king. To reward Tigernán for his service, Ruaidrí assembled an army to depose Diarmait as king of Leinster. Diarmait fled to England, hoping to recruit Anglo-Norman mercenaries to help him regain his throne.Ireland before the Normans; public domain.But in order to take Anglo-Norman knights into his service, Diarmait would need permission from Henry II. He tracked down the king of England at Saumur Castle on the Loire, where Henry was campaigning against rebellious French vassals. Henry approved Diarmait’s request—Diarmait had wisely emphasized the role that his subordinate lords in north Leinster had played in the coup that ousted him, and few things roused Henry’s ire like disloyal vassals.Armed with a letter of approval from Henry, Diarmait had little difficulty in attracting marcher knights in south Wales to his banner. The reason they were eager join an expedition to Ireland was simple: these were professional soldiers, hard men—brutal even, but landless. As payment for their services, Diarmait offered them lands in Leinster, including the wealthy Hiberno-Norse towns of Wexford and Waterford and their hinterlands.To respond specifically to details in the question, what did these men know or care about Scotland? Ireland was on their doorstep—they could almost smell it from south Wales. As for conquering Wales, they had spent their lives trying to do that but now they were offered easier pickings in Ireland. Besides, most of the leaders of the expedition were part-Welsh themselves, sons and grandsons of the fecund princess Nest ferch Rhys ap Tewdwr (known in English history as “Princess Nesta”).But Diarmait’s new allies urged him to recruit as overall leader of the expedition a marcher lord with a substantial following in the area, Richard fitz Gilbert de Clare, known to history as “Strongbow.” Richard was less enthusiastic about an Irish adventure: he owned a castle and lands at Strigoil in south Wales (Chepstow) and aspired to the earldom of Pembroke. In the end, in addition to promising Richard substantial lands in Leinster, Diarmait offered him the hand of his daughter Aoife in marriage and, after Diarmait’s death, the kingship of Leinster.It is obvious why Richard de Clare accepted Diarmait’s offer. The middle-aged Norman baron had been a widower for decades; he had two natural daughters who were older than his bride-to-be and for whom he lacked the resources to provide dowries; and his prospects were poor and dwindling. Richard’s father (the original Strongbow) had been earl of Pembroke, and both de Clares had fought for King Stephen in the Anarchy. But Henry II, who distrusted Richard, refused to confirm him in the earldom. Henry had also blocked two attempts by Richard to improve his fortunes by marrying wealthy heiresses. Then along came Diarmait, promising him lands in Leinster, a beautiful young bride, and ultimately the keys to the kingdom itself.In 1169, advance parties of Anglo-Norman mercenaries landed near Wexford and joined with Diarmait’s troops. In 1170, Strongbow himself landed near Waterford, immediately took the Norse city, and married Aoife “while the streets ran with blood,” as the chroniclers put it. The combined forces of Diarmait and Strongbow were unstoppable. Much of eastern Ireland lay at their feet by the end of 1170; after the independent and wealthy Norse city of Dublin was captured, Diarmait presented it to Strongbow.“The Marriage of Eva and Strongbow,” painting by Dermot Maclise (1854); National Gallery of Ireland; public domain.But in early 1171, Diarmait died. Strongbow, backed by the Anglo-Norman knights, asserted his claim to the kingship of Leinster. Henry II, who had been watching these developments with growing alarm, gathered and equipped a substantial army in England and sailed for Ireland. He awed both the Anglo-Normans and the native Irish kings into submission. Moreover, before departing, he arranged for the new pope, Alexander III, to confirm the arrangement agreed with Adrian IV, and thus he took possession of Ireland as a papal fief.Henry II’s reasons for invading Ireland in 1171 were as follows:He could not tolerate a separate Norman kingdom in Ireland, especially one headed by the distrusted Strongbow; that had never been his intention when he gave Diarmait permission to hire Anglo-Norman mercenaries.As an incorrigible empire builder, he had already set his sights on Ireland; circumstances caused the time to be right in 1171.He had originally envisaged Ireland as a suitable kingdom for his brother; now he needed it for his youngest son John (“John Lackland”), born 1166.He wanted to escape the limelight for a while, following the murder of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Beckett, for which he was blamed; besides, delivering the Irish Church into Roman hands would win him favor with the papacy.And finally, unlike the OP, Henry saw no reason why he could not invade Ireland and continue the conquest of Wales and take land from Scotland; these projects were already underway before he embarked on his Irish adventure.

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