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What are some possible reasons for Arvind Kejriwal's resignation as Chief Minister?

Arvind Kejriwal resigned because he engineered the situation so as to facilitate his resignation.Brace yourselves, this is a long answer. If you’d rather skip all the talk about their short lived term, please scroll down to the bolded “What did AAP do in 49 days?”I’ll lay out here the facts, hopefully without bias, and provide my comments as well, which will be biased. For all purposes, I will use ‘AAP’ and ‘Kejriwal’ interchangeably. Facts are in regular text and my comments are in italics.I’ll start with the manifesto. This consists of the promises they’ve made before coming into power, to be executed when they come into power.Aam Aadmi Party’s manifesto can be found here: Page on media2.intoday.in and File Shared from BoxThe main objectives outlined in this manifesto are:Delhi Jan Lokpal bill that would be passed within 15 days of coming into power. (Lokayukta would be modeled along this line, and all ministers and MLAs would come under its purview. Whistleblowers to be given protection)Devolving power directly to people. Introduction of Swaraj Bill. (Power to Mohalla Sabhas, approximately 3000 new Mohalla Sabhas)Full statehood to Delhi. (Police to be under govt’s control)Cutting electricity bills by half. (Audit distribution companies, independent agencies to check meters, withdraw cases against those who participated in civil disobedience earlier with AAP, Discoms brought under RTI)Clean water in every home, cited as the party’s first priority. (Tanker mafia, installing water meters, use of Munak canal, provide water to unauthorized slums, free water to families that use 700l, rainwater harvesting, water recycling.)Building sewage systems and 2,00,000 community toilets. (Sewage meters, recycling water)Waste management. (Littering to be fined, plastic bags to be banned, segregation of waste)High quality education, with building at least 500 new schools. (Teachers appointed at all vacant posts, regulate fees in private schools/colleges, introduce child-friendly education system)Improving public healthcare, with a special task force getting to work on Dengue cases currently in Delhi. (Fill all vacant doctor and nurse posts, complete half built hospitals, controlling pollution)Increased security. (Citizen’s Security Force that would install lighting and CCTVs. Police and security martyrs’ famlilies to receive 1 crore compensation)Swift dispensation of justice. (Establish new courts, temporary courts for pending cases)Power to Gram Sabhas. (Remove restrictions on land use and claim, provide tenure to farmers, improve bus service in villages, veterinary hospitals, sports facilities)Regularize unauthorized colonies and rehabilitate slums. (Repair streets, provide water, waste management in slums first)Increasing employment. (Young entrepreneurs to get loans at lower rate, vacant posts in govt. filled, space, security, license to street vendors)Facilitate trade. (Withdraw FDI, make trade friendly policies, simplify VAT)No contractualisation of jobs and social security. (Ensuring strict minimum wage)Public transport imporovements. (Unified Transport Authority to be established, developing Ring Rail services, expand metro)Improved roads, parking, arrangements for drivers and commuters. (multi storeyed parking, pavements, special corridors for cyclists, auto stands)Ending pollution and encroachment in Yamuna, Delhi Ridge.Implement SC, ST, OBC reservation. (Simplify issuing caste certificates)Provide opportunities to Valmiki community.Peace and equality to Muslims. (Second language status to Urdu, Punjabi, no fake encounters against Muslims, resolve Muslim graveyards land issue, make Delhi Waqf board transparent)Justice to victims of 1984 massacre (infrastructure in areas where they live)Protecting people with disabilities, provide rights to trans-gender community and nomadic tribes.Encourage sports and culture. (Bring sports under RTI, public library in each constituency, recreation facilities etc)When they came to power, these are the key points they wanted: Aam Aadmi Party election manifesto's key points | Latest News & Updates at DNAIndia.comHere’s another link outlining the 18 points they made in a letter to the BJP and Congress: 18 issues raised in AAP letter to Sonia, RajnathEver since they were elected into power, and in fact, starting a few days prior, AAP’s modus operandi seems to have been to make sure they’re in the news every single day, for one reason or the other. I do not exaggerate, as almost everyone knows. Every.single.day, they’ve occupied more airtime than any other issue. {Edit: This may or may not be because of the media alone. But AAP ensures that if it's a slow news day, they have a plan.}I will now outline a timeline of AAP’s political and social activities each of the days they’ve been in power. I spent close to six hours on this answer, trying to obtain every type of news article published about the party every day they were in power. I’ve included positive news as well as criticisms. If I’ve omitted something, please point it out to me, and be assured it’s not intentional. I’ve also provided citations in brackets in the body of the answer itself instead of as footnotes for easier viewing.Dec 28: AAP is voted into power, with the support of Congress, and then taking a mass SMS poll,website poll, email campaigns, and public meetings from Delhi residents. (Delhi elections: 6.79 lakh took part in Aam Aadmi Party referendum | Latest News & Updates at DNAIndia.com) The decision for a referendum evokes mixed responses. (AAP’s Referendum Good For Democracy - India Opines) (AAP’s referendum on govt draws flak from Delhiites - Hindustan Times) (Page on niticentral.com) {Edited}Members of the party and their background:Arvind Kejriwal: Reputed Magsaysay award winner. Mechanical Engg in IIT-KGP. Tata Steel 1989 to 1992, with one year’s sabbatical to study for the civil services exams (Kejriwal, Arvind). Joined IRS in 1995. Granted 2 years of paid leave in 2000 to pursue higher education on condition that upon resuming his work he would not resign from the Service for at least 3 years. Failure to abide by that condition would require him to repay the salary given during the leave period. Rejoined in 2003 and worked for 18 months before taking unpaid leave for 18 months. Resigned from his position as a Joint Commissioner of Income Tax in Feb 2006, in New Delhi. Government of India claimed that Kejriwal had violated his original agreement by not working for three years. Kejriwal refuted this, saying that 18 months of work and 18 months of unpaid absence amounted to the stipulated three year period during which he could not resign and that this was an attempt to malign him due to his involvement with Team Anna. The dispute ran for several years until, in 2011, it was resolved when he paid his way out of the Service with the help of loans from friends. (Govt finally accepts Arvind Kejriwal’s resignation) He has an impressive track record of activism, starting from 1999.Manish Sisodia: A journalist who had worked for All India Radio and Zee News previously. (Manish Sisodia: From journalist to Kejriwal’s Man Friday )Rakhi Birla: Masters in Mass Comm., previously a reporter for Jain TV.Somnath Bharti: MSc. from IIT-D, degree in law.Satyendra Jain: Former architect.Madhu Bhaduri: A former Indian diplomat, has served as ambassadors in Hanoi, Mexico City, Vienna, Belarus, Lithuania, Portugal, Hamburg. Also a writer.Kumar Vishwas: Hindi poet and literature professor in Rajasthan for 16 years. Recipient of numerous awards (Kumar Vishwas) Performed standup comedy and in Kavi Sammelan in multiple reputed education institutions and abroad.Shazia Ilmi: Mass Comm major, former prime-time television anchor at Star News. Regularly touted as the ‘Muslim Face’ of AAP, her family reportedly has ties with Congress (Shazia Ilmi, ex-journalist: The Muslim face of Team Anna) Her uncle is a member of Congress, while her brother in law, a former Congress politician, is now a member of BSP. Her brother contested against as an independent candidate (AAP vs BAAP! Shaziya Ilmi, brother Rashid Ilmi in faceoff), and publicly alleged her of concealing assets, and requested police protection from Shazia for allegedly resorting to violent behavior with him and their mother. (AAP Candidate Shazia Ilmi’s brother demands protection from sister) Her eldest brother is close to Salman Khurshid (‘Salman Khurshid is behind this attempt to malign me,’ Shazia Ilmi) She is also a film director and documentary maker. (Page on www.10francs.fr)Yogendra Yadav: Academic (political, social sciences), Senior Fellow at Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, former member of NAC, appointed by the UPA government. Also a psephologist and analyst, appeared on numerous TV shows, writer, and award winner. (Yogendra Yadav | CSDS). He was, along with Shashi Tharoor, the former, informal political advisor to Rahul Gandhi (Expert boost is the secret of Rahul’s raw power | Latest News & Updates at DNAIndia.com) (madhukishwar: Not long ago when Yogendra ...)Binayak Sen: A pediatrician and activist, he's the winner of numerous awards, including the Gandhian International Peace Prize. He had been detained for allegedly aiding Naxalites in 2007 in Chattisgargh, and then sentenced to life again in 2010 for helping Naxalite forces form a network, violating Chattisgargh state laws. He is currently out on bail, with the case still pending. (Dr Binayak Sen found guilty of sedition, gets life imprisonment - The Times of India) (Binayak Sen)Kundan Singh, an allegedly notorious outlaw in Bihar who has over 24 cases of kidnapping, extortion, and murder against him. His membership was subsequently canceled by Kejriwal after objections raised within the party. (History-sheeter Kundan Singh leads party in Bihar) (AAP’s rented office in Patna in the eye of storm)Kejriwal takes oath, with 6 ministers in Ramlila Maidan, where he traveled to via the metro. Expense of Rs.6.33 lakh was incurred, excluding expenses for public works department, north Delhi city corporation, Delhi water board, health and family planning department, Delhi fire brigade services, Delhi Police, power department, and information and broadcasting department. (Arvind Kejriwal’s oath-taking ceremony cost Rs 6L - The Times of India) {Edit: The actual expense incurred was Rs. 13.41 lakh Arvind Kejriwal's oath-taking ceremony cost Rs 13.41 lakh, reveals RTI) The decision draws mixed response and is criticized by the opposition for tokenism display as taking the oath in Ramlila Maidan allegedly costs the tax payer Rs.50 lakhs, as opposed to only Rs.20,000 that would have been the cost had he taken oath in LG's residence. (Kejriwal's oath-taking ceremony cost govt Rs 50 lakhs: BJP leader) {edited}He promises enquiry into the CWG scam. (Kejriwal to be Delhi CM-designate today, vows ministers won't use red beacons - The Times of India) He orders transfer of nine officials (Page on firstpost.com), banned red beacons, and removed security for all ministers and MLAs. (Kejriwal takes oath, says no to red beacon)Vinod Kumar Binny of AAP goes on record to call Kejriwal a dictator and states that his agenda, when fulfilled, will cheat the public.Dec 29: Deadline for the original passing of Lokpal bill as promised by Kejriwal, but revised since manifesto. (AAP will pass Lokpal Bill on December 29, 2013 if voted to power, says Arvind Kejriwal) .Delhi policemen come out to declare their support for AAP. (Common Delhi policemen approve AAP's 'Aam Aadmi' government).Party recruits new volunteers in Kolkata. AAP reaches out to ant-Kudankulam protesters. (After forming govt in Delhi, AAP reaches out to anti-Kudankulam protesters) Kejriwal urges Udayakumar to join them and contest in Lok Sabha elections.For a party that talks so much about development, this was another misstep, as talks with Maulana Tauqeer Raza Khan were. Kudankulam nuclear project is known to be perfectly safe (Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant), but AAP appeals to people who now protest against it out of the blue, just in time for elections. Maulana Tauqeer Khan has ordered multiple fatwas and has announced a bounty for Taslima Nasreen’s head, all of which Kejriwal claims to have not known after his “chance” encounter with him on the streets.Dec 30: AAP attempts to implement their promise of 700l free water, but due to lack of pipelines and spiked costs, settles at 667 litres of water per household with pipelines, starting Jan 1st, 2014. Kejriwal clarifies that the decision is permanent, and not only for 3 months. The free water comes at a price though- a spike in water tariff of 10% for anyone consuming above this quantity. AK explains that this would cause a revenue loss for DJB of Rs. 160cr per year, and Rs. 40cr this year. Implementation of the system is expected to be faulty at best, as only a little over 65% of Delhi has pipelines, and the poor without water would continue to remain without water. Another issue raised was that the DJB has no existing system to measure the amount of water provided to a house or information on the population of an area, based on which water supply quantity is to be decided. (http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/aap-delivers-on-water-promise/article5519122.ece) Almost only half of the installed meters are functional (Congress accuses AAP of cheating people on water)AAP confirms that it will contest in Lok Sabha polls. (AAP will be alternative to Dravidian parties: Prashant Bhushan)Dec 31: Members of the AAP continue to tout the press and media as being unbiased and bringing in attention to important and relevant events.The first meeting of the Secretariat was clumsy and haphazard as the ministers learn the ropes. Satyendra Jain calls for a press meet, but humbly apologizes for turning up late and cancels the meet. Manish Sisodia promises the party would be more transparent.Jain inspects healthcare facilities in N. Delhi and proclaims them as excellent, while Sisodia inspects primary schools and notes them as miserable, without infrastructure or even toilets. (AAP's first-time Ministers out of their depth)Jan 1: Former BJP MLA, Kanu Kansaria joins AAP. He is a gynecologist and states he was on the verge of joining Congress, but joined AAP instead. Retired IAS officer and director of MGLI, AR Bharadwaj joins AAP. (Former BJP MLA Kanu Kalsariya joins Aam Aadmi Party)Kejriwal promises 50% power subsidy on power consumption upto 400 units. This decision would cost the exchequer Rs. 200 crores practically (or Rs. 61 crores on paper). DERC claims that the government cannot fix the tariff as it’s a regulatory body issue. Kejriwal says that govt can’t fix the tariff but can provide subsidy (ie, compensate the power companies for the rest of the 50%, compensating for the loss incurred). Kejriwal requests CAG to order probe into 3 power distribution agencies. (Kejriwal’s new year gift to Delhi: 50% power subsidy), (AAP fulfills another poll promise: After free water,Delhi gets half-price power)There is a very obvious, huge, gaping flaw in this plan. 50% subsidy will cause a loss of Rs. 61 crores to the Delhi public, as admitted by Kejriwal. Slashing power tariff this suddenly to so many people would result in massive loss and mismanagement, as basic economics teaches. The budget is present for a reason. In effect, the government tells the public that they have 50% off on power, and then takes the rest of the money from the budget allocated to education or healthcare services. Or proceeds to increase the tax. Not to mention, charging higher tariff after 400 units in the middle of winter. A highly impractical system.Jan 2: AAP wins trust vote in Delhi Assembly. Kejriwal states that Jan Lokpal Bill is the next priority. AAP declares that they are against FDI in retail.Congress’s Arvinder Lovely backs Kejriwal, but states that the free water will make it more expensive for the poor people and easier for the ones who can afford it.First questions about AAP funding being raised. (Live: Kejriwal's AAP govt wins trust vote in Delhi Assembly)Jan 3: AAP’s MS Dhir wins the Delhi Assembly speaker post.Jan 4: AAP start preparation for Lok Sabha polls. (AAP members chalk out plans for 2014 Lok Sabha polls) AAP states that only people with no criminal or personal charges will be considered for candidates.It is revealed that Kejriwal was allotted twin bungalows of 5 bedrooms each, which he backs out of taking due to public furor. Expensive repair work on the twin bungalows is suddenly stopped, people question waste of tax payers’ money.The problem here isn’t the twin bungalows itself. Every minister gets bungalows. Kejriwal was perfectly entitled to live in them. However, he had made it very clear that he will not use government houses and vehicles if he came into power. So this move to live in bungalows was seen as rather hypocritical of him. For all practical purposes, he should have lived in those bungalows.{Edit: I‘ve been pointed out that Kejriwal was allotted two 5-bedroom duplex flats, not bungalows. The media has used the terms interchangeably. I’m trying to find the difference, but it looks like a duplex flat = bungalow is the way it has been used.So, to clarify, Kejriwal was allotted two five-bedroom duplex flats that he refused. And refused because “my friends, supporters have been calling me and sending messages saying I should not move into the five-bedroom flat. So, I have decided to forego them.” (Arvind Kejriwal rejects 5-bedroom house; requests government for smaller flat) Kejriwal also said that the houses that were allotted to him were much smaller than Sheila Dixit’s bungalow.This is the house that was allotted to Sheila Dixit (not her current residence) when she was reelected in 2008:This is the house that was given to Kejriwal:The government incurred expenses in trying to find a suitable accommodation for Kejriwal in the forthcoming days. (Delhi offers six housing options for CM Arvind Kejriwal | Latest News & Updates at DNAIndia.com) Expenses are not mentioned, but the procedure and problems are outlined, and would have, no doubt, cost money.}Kejriwal takes to twitter to defend his minsters being allotted Toyota Innova cars, saying that they had refused only red beacons, not official cars. (We said no to red beacons, not to official cars: Kejriwal) The ministers should use cars, both for safety, and for convenience. It saves a lot of trouble for daily commuters.Delhi court sets hearing date as Jan 25 for five cases filed against AAP and Kejriwal for violating prohibitory orders, unlawful assembly, and other offences. (Delhi court to hear cases against Kejriwal on January 25)Kejriwal says that he will not contest the 2014 Lok Sabha elections despite the party going national. (Page on firstpost.com)Jan 5: Prashant Bhushan starts trouble by stating that there should be a referendum in Kashmir to decide whether the army should take care of internal threats. Err. What? It’s your country, man. Don’t you want to defend it? I’m sorry, but this gets me very angry. Why would you want to take a poll to find out if people of your country want to be protected? Kejriwal clarifies that the view's are Bhushan's own and do not reflect that of the party.{Edit: I’ve drawn a lot of flak for stating that I’m angry that Bhushan made a comment like this. I’m surprised, considering that this issue is the least pertinent to Kejriwal’s resignation. But I’ll clarify my stand anyway.Asking for a referendum is wrong because of various reasons. I’ll simplify this with an example. Let’s suppose there is a gang fight on your street and ten policemen are deployed for the protection of the residents. Out of these ten men, two or three misbehave and cause trouble. But together, they protect the street and curb the violence. They keep away members from other gangs into entering your street, and prevent fighting within. Now, people who look at it from outside feel that the ten policemen’s presence is too much of a limitation, so they should be taken away. Is a referendum a fair deal? Most of the houses might vote yes, but is that the reasonable thing to do, to expose the residents to threats? Besides, you know that there are a few residents who are secretly aiding gangs. Wouldn’t pulling away the police force make it easier for them?Expand this to Kashmir. It is common knowledge that many Kashmiris want to secede to Pakistan and some aid infiltrations. But it is the duty of the Government of India and the Army to protect the citizens. Remember, there are still people who want to be a part of India. And even if everyone wants to be a part of Pakistan, removal of army presence is not justified. Indian Govt holds supreme authority over Kashmiri land and will continue to do so. India has deployed armed forces to protect the land. Stating that there should be a referendum is not just an insult to the Constitution and the Armed forces, but also a highly dangerous statement, bordering on sedition (depending on how you look at it). Kejriwal said that the feelings of the people must be taken into account, otherwise it is a threat to democracy. No, it is ideas like these that are a threat to democracy. Going by Kejriwal’s contradictory statement, elections are a threat to democracy, considering the number of people who vote against a party that eventually comes into power.Re: “internal threats”, yes, it’s the duty of the government to protect against internal threats. There is no dearth of militancy in Kashmir – Pakistani or Indian. The nature of the conflict in the area and the geography of the land, coupled with the weather and the mostly sparse population, mandates an army presence, as opposed to a police presence. It’s common sense. It’s also an issue of national security. That cannot be decided by referendums. Should we take referendums for Naxalites? For Arunachal Pradesh? For Tamil Nadu coasts? Bhushan also said that he believes Kashmir is an integral part of India (Prashant Bhushan does U-turn on Kashmir) Then why did he make the referendum comment, instead of defending the troops in Kashmir? Bhushan’s exact statement is here: Prashant Bhushan for referendum on Army's J&K deployment Secession is unconstitutional, so should be avoided, he says. So 1. What is the point of the referendum, and 2. Why was it okay when passing the Jan Lokpal was unconstitutional? Kejriwal later states that Bhushan withdrew his comment about the referendum, and asks if people want to kill him or Bhushan for it. Do they want to kill me for Prashant Bhushan's J&K remark? Kejriwal asksAs to why Bhushan should not have made that comment: It is very easy to state that the remark that was made was by an individual and not the entire party. It might be Prashant Bhushan’s personal view, as Kejriwal was quick to clarify. But that is just a statement of convenience. If the view had been endorsed, it would have been a victory for the party. It drew criticisms, so it’s a personal view. Going by this, why was Binny expelled for stating his personal views about the party? It’s also a classic votebank move. Now, if and when AAP campaigns in Kashmir, Bhushan would go. The people would remember his statements (although they do not reflect the party’s) and vote for AAP. Stating that it’s a personal opinion makes it very easy for any member of any party to get away with any controversial statement. Had such a statement been made against more sensitive issues like riots or reservations, the issue would have escalated. Other parties are quick to reprimand their members who make controversial comments, but AAP chooses to field its candidates, with no apology. A party is voted for its idealogy, which is not always explicitly stated. It’s the members of a party that project the kind of ideas and stances parties take on issues. }AAP promises to initiate schemes for labour and against contract workers, as stated in their manifesto. (Delhi govt to initiate schemes for labourers,contract workers)Educationist and Padma Shri recipient, JAK Tareen joins AAP. (Educationist joins AAP)Shoaib Iqbal threatens to withdraw support over Kumar Vishwas’ remarks against minority community.Jan 6: Kejriwal goes on record to say that he would probe Sheila Dixit. (Will probe anyone guilty of graft, even if it is Sheila Dikshit, says Kejriwal) When asked about his expose on the CWG scam in 2010, and why he hasn’t taken action against those involved, he states that there were no names in the report.Rakhi Birla files an FIR stating that her car is attacked with a stone, but she is unhurt. Meanwhile, the police claim that a teenager’s gilli-danda stick hit her car accidentally.800 DJB employees transferred.AAP also announces 90% reservation in institutions fully funded by govt for Delhi students.Jan 7: Arun Jaitley reveals that Prashant Bhushan had previously suggested a referendum for the people of Kashmir, asking them to decide whether they wanted to stay in India or Pakistan. (AAP ideology will weaken India: Jaitley) Bhushan had been physically beaten up by unknown workers for his comments, back in 2011. Both Congress and BJP condemn the attacks, neither claims responsibility.AAP creates an internal committee to protect women within the party. (AAP establishes internal committee based on Vishakha Guidelines)Anti-corruption helpline to be setup in two days, Swaraj bill to be drafted in 10 days. (Anti-graft helpline in 2 days, ‘Swaraj’ Bill in 10)AAP announces that it will convert abandoned buses into shelters for the homeless. 1000 new shelters are announced. (AAP to convert abandoned buses into night shelter homes)AAP workers are beaten by Congress workers at Amethi. Congress defends itself by stating that none of the representatives of AAP were from Amethi. (http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/anti-graft-helpline-in-2-days-swaraj-bill-in-10/){Edited to include modifications} AAP members allegedly walk into a hospital and set up jhuggis, claiming that since the hospital has a lot of empty land that belongs to the government, they are free to do so. More AAP accuse an NGO of encroaching on a community center that the NGO takes care of, maintains, and pays bill for. Delhi Speaker and AAP member, MS Dhir does not allow discussion on this issue for the day, asking that it be brought up later. (‘Anarchy’ by AAP workers alleged ) Kejriwal promises to look into the issue.Jan 8: AAP office attacked by Hindu Raksha Dal workers.AAP draws flak for misleading the public about 90% reservation as only 12 institutions satisfy the criteria. AAP defends by saying that they plan to construct new colleges, carrying over the previous Congress govt’s plan. The reservation draws more flak as it is seen as regressive to promoting national integration. (No ‘outsiders’ in Delhi)Kejriwal and Somnath Bharti come under fire for illegally calling a meeting of all district judges in Delhi. This is because the judiciary is not under the executive in our constitution. Kejriwal claims that this step was taken to improve the system. A petition is filed against AAP in the Delhi high court. (Under fire, AAP says move to meet judges ‘to better system’)The govt threatens to cancel licenses of discoms who do not allow audits.Noted dancer Mallika Sarabhai joins AAP.Jan 9: AAP announces anti-corruption helpline number that receives almost 4000 calls in the first 7 hours. AAP talks about a rollback in CNG prices for auto drivers. (Govt explores legal options to effect CNG price rollback)Manish Sisodia given government residence. AAP very vehemently opposed VIP culture, but their members still travel in special cars bearing VIP numbers. (Manish Sisodia moves into Mayur Vihar flat) {Edit: AAP had stated they would not be taking up government bungalows, not government residences}Kejriwal urges the common public to undertake sting operations if they have a phone, and use video and audio recording facilities. This sees a huge spike in illegal spy gadget sale across the city. (Have a phone? Go sting the corrupt, CM tells Delhi)Kejriwal gets Z-category security. Senior journalist of Network 18, Ashutosh, quits upon the verge of being let go, and joins AAP.Jan 10: Kejriwal states that after the Lokpal bill is drafted, it would be passed in Feb. He also states that the bill will be passed to the public at Ramlila Maidan and the people’s consent taken. The Jan Lokpal bill provides the Lokayukta powers to tap phones, spy on, and put up surveillance on any member of the public or ministry who is suspected of indulging in corruption. (After telling Delhi to sting, AAP wants Lokpal to snoop)Hey, I think my neighbor, who’s a shop owner, is adulterating his goods. Please tap his phone and set up bugs in his house to spy on him?In a complete violation of the Electricity Act, Kejriwal promises exemption for people who had defaulted on electricity bills and withdrawal of cases against those booked for power theft since March 23 last year. (Kejriwal waives 10-month power bill default and theft, BJP calls it anarchy) This is upto 20,000 connections that bills haven’t been paid for regularly. Simple math gives an estimate of how much this would to cost the tax paying public. Note that this is also a form of anarchy. Encouraging people to break the law, ie, power theft. Tomorrow, if a political party asks people to join them in protest, steal power, and not pay bills, and promise a 75% off, it would be utterly and completely justified and the people would migrate to them.A helpline is announced to report power cuts. A Janta Durbar every day in the future is announced, starting the next day.Jan 11: The first Durbar is overrun with a crowd of 20,000 against an expected 500, prompting the government to cancel all proceedings. A bit of short sightedness there, displayed by Kejriwal. Being the CM of Delhi, he should have realized that more than 500 people would turn up. 500 is a ridiculously low number to expect. His swearing in ceremony at Ramlila Maidan was not that far away. Crowds complain about mismanagement and lack of access to the ministers. (Thousands spoil Arvind Kejriwal’s durbar debut)AAP volunteers attacked in Bangalore.Jan 12: Kumar Vishwas shown black flags in Amethi, due to his allegedly insensitive remarks against Hindus and Shia Muslims. (Kumar Vishwas shown black flags, stones pelted at buses of supporters)After the exemption in power that was promised two days ago, Kejriwal does a U-turn and states that the govt is not sure of this decision. (U-turn on power waiver: CM says no decision yet)Communist and CPI member, Kamal Mitra Chinoy joins AAP. (CPI member Kamal A. Mitra Chenoy joins AAP) (Why I joined AAP and Quit the CPI: Kamal Mitra Chenoy) He's a professor at JNU. He has previously courted controversy for alleged sedition, and for speaking out in defence of Osama Bin Laden, especially on twitter.Jan 13: Opposition slams the excessive power cuts and irregular water supply since AAP’s tariff reduction was announced. (With Bijli Andolan, BJP to protest power cuts)Kejriwal discontinues the idea of Janta Durbar.FDI in retail is withdrawn. AAP defends this action by claiming Delhi needs more jobs. (Claiming Delhi needs jobs, Kejriwal scraps nod to FDI in retail) Water supply is affected, Delhi faces water shortage.UP police force starts providing security to Kejriwal. This is over the Delhi police, who tail him in plainclothes wherever he goes. (After cops in plainclothes, now Z-category security for Kejriwal)Jan 14: Law minister Somnath Bharti is accused of tampering with evidence and influencing witnesses in a case last year, where Bharti’s client was facing corruption charges. (Congress attacks Bharti for questioning CBI judge)AAP member Mallika Sarabhai calls fellow AAP member Kumar Vishwas misogynist, anti-minority, and anti-women. (Kumar Vishwas slammed for comparing Narendra Modi with Lord Shiva)Danish national is gang-raped in Delhi.Jan 15: Congress claims FDI rollback violated the legal process, as it was not discussed in the cabinet and approved by the Assembly. (FDI rollback violates legal process: Cong to AAP govt) Top AAP member and Air Deccan founder, Captain Gopinath criticizes scrapping the FDI, calling the move populist. (Capt. Gopinath calls AAP's FDI move 'populist')Nothing about the rape. Nothing about the water problems.Jan 16: AAP promises that CCTV would be installed in buses after a gang rape of a Danish woman.Kejriwal states that the Jan Lokpal Bill would be ready in two days. (Jan Lokpal bill draft to be ready by Friday: Kejriwal)Kejriwal states that the government is looking into water recycling. (Govt looking at water conservation, recycling to meet needs: Kejriwal)Congress attacks AAP for taking a soft stand on the gangrape. Kejriwal blames the Delhi Police for not executing their duties. (Delhi rape: Congress workers protest before secretariat)Nothing done to improve the water situation, educational systems, sewage systems, or any of the other points in the manifesto yet. No news about the power subsidy. No Mohalla Sabhas. No new toilets or schools built. Nothing in place for rainwater harvesting. No shelters for homeless, no licenses for street vendors.Jan 17: Somnath Bharti acts upon the complaint of residents of Khirki extension regarding a sex and drug racket propagated by people of Ugandan and Nigerian nationalities, and conducts his infamous midnight raid. He gathers a crowd of people, informs the media, and goes to Khirki extension with policemen. When the residents of the house don’t answer the door, seemingly away, he orders policemen to break into a house without a warrant, which they refuse to do. All of this is captured by television cameras that were present at the scene. Bharti allegedly makes racist remarks, and crowds attack Ugandan and Nigerian female students, two of whom emerge out and three, who return home, who are then taken to a hospital to take drug samples and are allegedly forced to urinate in public. Samples come clean. There is no evidence of drug peddling or sex trade among the women attacked by the mob and pulled out by Bharti. (Somnath Bharti`s midnight raid: African woman forced to urinate in public) Rakhi Birla accuses police of shielding members of a family that burned their daughter in law.I have written more about this incident and what I feel about it here: http://www.quora.com/Nishtha-Sood/Posts/Somnaths-mistaken-vigilantism-1/comment/409388 Please note that I do not deny the existence of a racket, I only state that the methods adopted by Bharti are wrong and illegal.AAP puts Vinod Binny on notice.Sisodia threatens to “fix” the police. (Sisodia threatens to 'fix' Delhi police if they fail to act)18 people die of cold wave. Where are those buses that were supposed to be shelters?Ugandan woman complains to the police that she was attacked by a mob when returning home, physically beaten, and the police protected her. (In AAP minister's midnight raid, woman made to urinate in public)Jan 18: Government promises shelters for homeless to prevent deaths due to the cold.Kejriwal threatens to go on a dharna if the four cops involved in the previous night’s raid were not suspended. (Kejriwal to Centre: suspend four cops by Monday 10 am or we go on dharna)Kejriwal also appeals to the public to join him. Bharti is accused of vigilantism and flouting the law, attracts a lot of ire. When Sheila Dixit said she couldn’t take actions against rapists because the police weren’t under her control, AAP stated that she was making excuses and can escalate the matter to the center. Today, they have the same problem, and they choose not to escalate, but instead threaten to shut down the city with a dharna. The Lokpal Bill agenda clearly states that the police should report to the Lokpal/Lokayukta and be independent of ministers and MLAs on the one hand. And on the other, Kejriwal protests to bring the police under the Delhi government.Former Karnataka Lokayukta (yes, Lokayukta) attacks Bharti for his conduct. (Santosh Hegde flays Somnath Bharti's conduct)AAP goes on record to say that it supports Telangana.Kejriwal skips defamation case filed against him. (Arvind Kejriwal skips defamation case, court allows exemption plea)Jan 19: Sisodia states that carrying out sting operations is one of the rights of the people. (The idea exchange: ‘The common man has 2-3 powers… one is vote, second RTI, right to sting is another’)Six people die of cold wave. Them invisible shelters and buses.Somnath Bharti calls members of Congress and BJP ‘pimps’. (Somnath Bharti again: ‘Cong, BJP have pimps’)Ugandan woman lodges FIR against Somnath Bharti, identifying him in news vides as the person who instigated the mob against her. Seven women are deposed in court in connection with the case. One of them asks for a second case against Bharti. Bharti denies all allegations. (Somnath Bharti won't resign as Delhi's Law Minister: AAP) Delhi Police register criminal case against Somnath Bharti.Jan 20: Kejriwal calls for a 10-day dharna to have the five policemen suspended. Homeless people died again? No, these cops are more important. The protest would take place in the most protected zone of Delhi’s region, owing to the upcoming Republic Day parade. Kejriwal urges the public to not come join them, citing the issue of disturbance and safety, saying that the protest would only be undertaken by members of the AAP. However, AAP sends undercover messages to AAP units in Haryana and UP to mobilize crowds. (AAP govt told people to stay away from dharna, but quietly mobilised the crowds)Later in the day, Kejriwal calls out to the public, going back on his word, and join them. He also urges the police to throw away their uniform and join them. This is yet another instance of promoting anarchy. Asking people who are supposed to uphold the law to abandon their duties and join in breaking the law. Who would control the massive crowds, then? As Kejriwal wasn’t allowed to take the protest outside the Home Minister Sushil Kumar Shinde’s office, he launches his protest outside Rail Bhavan. Four metro stations shut down.The protests causes security concerns as the Republic Day parade is scheduled six days hence, with full dress rehearsals in three days. The parade is scheduled to take over the area 72 hours before the Republic Day. The threat of terrorism is high, and classified weaponry and crafts of the Indian military, navy, and airforce are scheduled to be present. Kejriwal dismisses security concerns, stating that there is no point in the Parade as the women in our country are not safe. Kejriwal refuses to take the protest to Jantar Mantar, despite the fact that it is an area of high security that has prohibitory orders on it to allow gatherings of more than 5 people, although he is causing major damages to security. (On Day 2 of Arvind Kejriwal's protest, four metro stations, roads near India Gate closed)I see two problems here. One is that Bharti, his own member, attacked women. Secondly, can a sworn in official talk like this about the Republic day? The parade is a source of major pride to all of us Indians, and is a display of the strength of our defense. It is honoring the military, navy, and airforce if anything. It is a nation-wide event. Kejriwal insulted and demeaned our military, and is now causing lakhs of rupees worth of security concerns (causing tax payer money, how do people not see that?). Instead, he chooses to give precedence to suspension of five cops for carrying out their duty and failing to obey their ministers.The protest turns unruly, with AAP volunteers jumping barricades and getting violent, hurting two policemen with stone pelting. The police is then forced to lathi charge. AAP members call the police brutal.Kejriwal defends Bharti by producing letters written by residents of Khirki extension to Bharti. He also displays a letter written to him from Ugandan High Commission that was allegedly handed to him by a Ugandan official, who encouraged Bharti, supporting his decision to lead a mob.Jan 21: AAP supporter allegedly grabs reporter’s neck and slaps cameraman. Sisodia urges people not to break barricades and become unruly, while Kejrwial is caught on camera encouraging people to break and climb over barricades.Captain Gopinath of AAP condemns the protest stating that the CM should not be sitting in protest. (Blog: Let AAP protest, Chief Minister must govern, writes Captain Gopinath)Supreme Court agrees to hear a PIL against Kejriwal and Bharti for resorting to street fight and agitation. Supreme Court also declares that holding constitutional posts, the AAP cannot agitate against other constitutional entitites. (On Day 2 of protests, Kejriwal threatens to flood Rajpath with AAP supporters - Hindustan Times)Hearing is scheduled for two days hence. If the Court stays the protest, Kejriwal would be forced to move the protest to a different location.Kejriwal makes a controversial statement that he is indeed an anarchist if people call him so.Center appeals to Lieutenant Governor to facilitate Kejriwal calling off the dharna so as to not hamper security and increase losses to the tax payer. LG appeals to Kejriwal, who refuses. LG then sends two of the five police officials on paid leave. Kejriwal terms it ‘people’s victory’ and calls off the dharna.Bharti states that he wants to spit in the faces of Arun Jaitley and Harish Salve. ('Want to spit on faces of Jaitley, Salve': controversial comments by AAP)Manish Sisodia tells an NDTV panelist that they’re asking for lawful protests over the burning of a girl, and to wait till his daughter is burnt.Jan 22: Yogendra Yadav tweets in defence of Kejriwal saying that even Gandhi did not get his original demands when he protested. (AapYogendra: Some felt that we did not get ...) Gandhi was protesting against the British, not his own country's government. And when Gandhi indulged in sedition, he was jailed. Here’s a timeline about his protests and his arrests: SparkNotes: Mohandas Gandhi: TimelineAAP defends the move, stating it was the principle that counted, rather than the results. Wasn’t the principle police reform? The police are still not under the state, the five policemen are still not suspended. Officer who stood up to Bharti is not suspended or sent on leave. A junior cop who is below the cop involved in the gang rape was sent on paid leave. No action against dowry case.(Partial success, but principles more important: Aam Aadmi Party on compromise deal)An FIR against Kejriwal is lodged by the Delhi Police. (Delhi police file case against Arvind Kejriwal's sit-in) Please read the points outlined here. Remember, NDTV is a channel that is still very much pro-AAP even today.Captain Gopinath urges Kejriwal to suspend Somnath Bharti. (Somnath Bharti too should be suspended: Capt Gopinath)CPM party, which has been pro-AAP so far slams Kejriwal for protests. (CPM slams Kejriwal for street protest)Congress workers protest for Bharti’s arrest or suspension. (In Pics: Congress workers' protest to demand Somnath Bharti's arrest)Committee is formed for drafting Jan Lokpal bill. (Jan Lokpal may trigger next faceoff) Finally. It was supposed to have been passed on Dec 29, and then Jan 10.Kumar Vishwas’s earlier tapes where he makes sexist and racist remarks against Keralite nurses comes to attention. He calls them dark and says that’s why people refer to them as ‘sisters’. Multiple FIRs are launched against Vishwas under IPC 499 and 509. (Sexist remarks on Kerala nurses: Kumar Vishwas's effigy burnt) Vishwas defends his actions, saying he was making people laugh, and asks Kerala CM to apologize to him for breaking into the AAP office in Kochi. (Kumar Viswas defends himself, wants Kerala CM to apologise)Kejriwal’s claims about an official who visited him and handed over a letter (previous image) is rubbished by the Ugandan High Commission. Uganda registers an official protest with India, accusing AAP of misusing the letter from a year earlier and lying about their officials. Two of the letters circulated by AAP are clarified by Uganda to be not related to the Bharti incident, and being from the previous year. ( Letters minus full story) African missions in India withdraw support, and Indian foreign office calls an emergency meeting with African envoys to assure safety, as Uganda talks to multiple journalists from India to clarify that the letter wasn’t genuine. (No one visited Somnath Bharti: Uganda HC rubbishes AAP's claims)Jan 23: Vinod Binny of AAP comes out to slam AAP’s governing tactics for not meeting the promises made to teachers in the manifesto about permanent jobs. (Binny shares stage with BJP to slam AAP) Oh yeah, there was something about jobs and stuff like that in the manifesto. Thousands of part-time teachers had canvassed for Kejriwal because of the manifesto objective to convert part-time teachers to full-time teachers. (A move that would have strained the budget). Binny also claimed that those who didn’t pay the bills by responding to Kejriwal’s call to shun the bills now have to pay exorbitant amounts.AAP’s anti-corruption helpline is now terminated due to the increasing amount of calls and the inexistence of a process to manage them. (Anti-corruption hotline goes cold, govt says it needs streamlining)Kumar Vishwas’s videos cracking offensive jokes about Indian tennis player Sania Mirza and her marriage to Pakistani cricketer Shoaib Malik emerge, where he reportedly calls Malik a eunuch.Eight senior govt officials are transferred.Jan 24: Binny meets the police, and requests action against Bharti. (Vinod Kumar Binny meets police commissioner, demands action against Somnath Bharti)AAP justifies its protest by releasing a video of Delhi cops’ brutality at Red Fort on Jan 12, unrelated to Bharti’s raid. Police suspend three officials in the video. (Delhi Police suspends three cops after AAP posts video of alleged police brutality)Supreme Court issues notice to Kejriwal for leading a dharna comprised of thousands of people in the capital when prohibitory orders were in place. (Supreme Court issues notice to Delhi government, Centre over Arvind Kejriwal's protest)AAP’s NRI donations drop by half, as a sign of disillusionment. AAP admits that many of its members are fake. ('Narendra Modi', 'Rahul Gandhi' now Aam Aadmi Party members. Here's how)Narendra Modi, Rahul Gandhi, Brad Pitt, Angelina Jolie, Julia Roberts, Barack Obama, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi are all members of AAP, apparently.Somnath Bharti skips his court hearing and goes kite flying.Jan 25: Kejriwal does a U-turn in his stance about the media, suddenly complaining that the media is being paid to report negative stories about him. (Arvind Kejriwal at Republic Day eve function: Constitution does not bar CM from protesting)So long as the media lauded him, it was fair and just. Today, when it questions your methods and motives, it becomes a paid vehicle.Somnath Bharti apologizes for accusing reporters of being paid by Narendra Modi. (After accusing reporters of taking money from Narendra Modi, Somnath Bharti apologises)Bharti also apologizes for calling the DCW chief of being an agent of Congress and politically motivated. (Comments on DCW chief: Somnath Bharti apologises)Africans in Khirki extension start moving out. Delhi Court clarifies that a second FIR is not needed against Bharti as the first one is strong enough.AAP releases an alleged video of Ugandan women exchanging drugs. (AAP releases video showing Ugandan women exchanging drugs) Ugandan women who were met by Bharti claim he used racist remarks against them.Kejriwal reports that corruption has come down by 30%, the police have stopped taking bribe, tea sellers have reduced rates. Shazia Ilmi reaffirms this, stating a study undertaken by Transparency International proves corruption is down. ('Transparency International' rebuffs Shazia Ilmi's claims) Transparency International later claim that no such study was undertaken.AAP gives Rs. 1cr to officer who fought against liquor mafia. He says that the Jan Lokpal bill is almost ready, and a female protection committee is to be formed. The same one earlier, about protecting women within the party. This took twenty days.Kejriwal incites anger by breaching protocol before the Republic Day parade by refusing to return the parade commander’s salute and walking off the podium. These people represent true martyrs of our nation, who actually sacrifice their lives on the border. It’s an utmost form of disrespect. Internal troubles are internal troubles. The military isn’t involved in any of this.Jan 26: Bharti goes on record to say that he wasn’t aware of the procedures regarding the midnight raid he conducted. (AAP's midnight raid: Was not aware of procedures, says Somnath Bharti) I find it hard to believe that the law minister wasn’t aware of the law. Even so, shouldn’t Kejriwal have been fair then, and apologized? Or have Bharti suspended since he wanted those dutiful policemen suspended too? Imagine another politician who conducts a raid on someone without proof, and the police doesn’t act because they are protecting the citizen’s and foreign nationals’ civil rights. The politician then goes on dharna to say that the police officers should be suspended because they didn’t listen to him, and should come under him. Citizens’ letters don’t constitute proof. If Bharti had wanted, he could have obtained a warrant and gone, or escalated the issue to the center, or have brought it to the media’s attention.AAP lives up to its name and has an aam aadmi, a rickshaw driver, inaugurate an upgraded hospital. (AAP in power: “Aam aadmi”, a rickshaw-puller inaugurates hospital)President Pranab Mukherjee calls AAP ‘populist’ and ‘anarchist’ indirectly. (Populist anarchy cannot substitute governance: President Pranab Mukherjee) Kejriwal retorts, stating that the Presidet must have referred to Congress.Jan 27: AAP expels rebel leader Vinod Kumar Binny. (Vinod Kumar Binny pulls a fast one: AAP leader ends hunger strike within hours, gives more time to Kejriwal govt) Binny goes on record to say that AAP is planning a fall of government to “escape from duties”. (AAP wants govt to fall, says Binny after being expelled from the party)AAP reverses its move for increasing working hours for teachers, reverting to the old system. (Delhi government announces rollback of its move on working hours for teachers)Jan 28: Manish Sisodia states that 200 new schools will be created within one year, and will awarded tenders in 15 days. (30 days of AAP governance: 4 of 18 targets on manifesto checklist ticked)Kejriwal retweets a tweet by musician Vishal Dadlani, an AAP supporter. VishalDadlani: Stuck between a moron and a ... The tweet refers to Narendra Modi as a murderer and Rahul Gandhi as a madman. Yet another major misstep. Prejudices should be kept aside when you’re an elected representative. As someone who holds the post of a state’s CM, Kejriwal should have been more politically aware and not short sighted. Extremely insensitive, lacking dignity and respect.Yogendra Yadav holds a Google hangout to raise funds, Rs. 18 lakhs raised.Jan 29: DCW chief files complaint against AAP for harassing her for summoning Bharti. (AAP government harassing me for summoning Law Minster Somnath Bharti: DCW chief Barkha Singh)Kejriwal refuses to share details of funding and expenses incurred during his swearing in ceremony with the court. A PIL has been filed against him for illegally accepting NRI funding after flouting rules. (AAP has not given funding info to us, says Centre in court)A Delhi NGO invokes RTI to ask for details on AAP’s expenditure during Kejriwal’s swearing in ceremony, which is refused by AAP.Jan 30: After the now infamous interview of Rahul Gandhi by Arnab Goswami, where Rahul Gandhi conceded that some members of Congress were involved in the 1984 riots, AAP orders a special committee formed to probe into the riots. (Let SIT probe ’84 riots cases, govt tells L-G) There have been 9 panels set up to probe the case in the past. Whatever happened to the CWG scam? It’s more recent and all the evidence is sitting right under AAP’s nose.Kejriwal and Barkha Singh of DCW have a faceoff.AAP courts controversy again when Kejriwal states in Haryana that Khap Panchayats should be encouraged and are a part of the culture. Khap Panchayats are unelected bodies, known for their honor killings, and are branded by the Indian Legislative body as illegal and unconstitutional entities. (Arvind Kejriwal says ban on khap panchayats not needed) The gangrape of a 20 year old by 13 men was ordered by a Khap Panchayat. (West Bengal gang-rape, allegedly ordered by village council, stuns Supreme Court)Nido Taniam is killed in a racist attack by the Delhi public and police. Why no dharna now? Kejriwal is silent on the issue.Jan 31: Kejriwal threatens to revoke licenses of discomms if they fail to provide uninterrupted power. Who will provide electricity then? Discomms claim that they are short on funds and cannot pay public sector generation units for power supplies. (Public sector, mind you. Not Ambanis.) AAP leader Gopal Rai accuses discomms of being politically motivated as they didn’t complain of shortage of funds previously. Yes, because people were paying bills. (Will cancel licence if you fail to provide power: AAP warns Discoms) The NTPC, to whom the discomms pay bills, come out to state that power supply to discomms would be terminated if funds are not met. NTPC is a national body. (NTPC rejects AAP's plea, Delhi heads to massive power outage) So, you pay only 50% of the bill, you get only 50% of the power. Seems like a fair deal. Isn’t the government supposed to be providing the rest of the subsidy? What happened to that? Multiple areas in Delhi face 8 to 10 hours of power cut each day.Kejriwal names corrupt leaders in press meet. List does not contain Sheila Dixit. (Long time, no meet!) (AAP executive meet: Points to note)This decision was seen as a strategy by Kejriwal to force Congress into withdrawing support so that AAP falls. Congress reiterates that it will continue supporting AAP. In a bold move, BJP states that if Congress withdraws support, BJP will provide support.AAP member declares that they do not endorse Nido Taniam’s death and the police would be probed. (Student from Arunachal Pradesh beaten to Death in New Delhi)Feb 1: Nitin Gadkari threatens to sue AAP for defamation. (Gadkari threatens to sue Kejriwal for defamation)Kejriwals alleges blackmail when NTPC warns of blackouts. (Arvind Kejriwal alleges blackmail as power firm warns of huge blackouts)AAP founding member, Madhu Bhaduri quits, cites reason as never being allowed to speak in party meetings against Somnath Bharti, and AAP’s views about and behavior towards women. (Khirki raid fallout: AAP's founder member Madhu Bhaduri to resign from 3 committees - Hindustan Times)Delhi Electricity Regulatory Commission allows 6 to 8% hike. Delhi Govt condemns it. BJP starts protest against power tariff hike.No statement by Kejriwal on Nido Taniam’s death.Feb 2: AAP states they will list out a list of corrupt politicians by state.Kejriwal asks for power licences to be canceled for two discomms. (In escalating conflict, Arvind Kejriwal asks for power firms' licenses to be cancelled)Information is unearthed that Somnath Bharti was a former unethical spammer. (Delhi law minister Somnath Bharti was once unethical spammer the link has a lot of details about his website’s service and hosting and records) He is the former owner of Magden Solutions. The Spamhaus Project accused him of spamming on behalf of TopSites LLC, naming him in Register of Known Spam Operations (ROKSO) as one of the top spam operators in the world.( Page on spamevidence.com) PCQuest found that he had been sued in a California Superior Courtfor spamming by Daniel Balsam. Balsam's attorney revealed that in 2004, Bharti and two others had paid Balsam in damages apart from making a court declaration agreeing to use only confirmed opt-in e-mail addresses when sending commercial e-mails. Bharti claims that he chose to settle because defending the case in the United States would have been costlier for him. Bharti also claimed that he was in touch with SpamHaus, but the SpamHaus CEO, Steve Linford went on record to deny. (Top spammer? - PCQuest) SomnathBharti also sold porn domains. (How is Somnath Bharti connected to porn?)Feb 3: Madhu Bhaduri further exposes AAP’s internal policies and functioning. States that AAP doesn’t treat women as humans. She also states that the party has compromised its principles for votes. ('AAP doesn't treat women as humans,' says founder member Madhu Bhaduri as she quits) She publishes a written article about AAP and her reason for resignation. (A voice of dissent is drowned by the AAP high command | Latest News & Updates at DNAIndia.com)AAP alleges that Arun Jaitley and Narendra Modi are conspiring against the party.An AAP member, Madan Lal claims he was offered Rs. 20 cr to split AAP before the election results. He also alleged that Arun Jaitley had tried to contact him via phone but he didn’t respond. (Delhi: BJP protests outside AAP MLA Madan Lal's house) BJP has rubbished the claims.Chaired by Kejriwal, Delhi Cabinet approves the Jan Lokpal bill, details of which are not revealed to the public. Some points have been outlined. (Delhi cabinet approves Jan Lokpal Bill)‘Pol Khol Abhiyaan’ announced to be started the next day. (AAP to launch 'pol khol' to expose BJP, 'Congress conspiracy' | Latest News & Updates at DNAIndia.com)Kejriwal states that the Swaraj Bill is drafted. (Draft ready: AAP set to table Swaraj Bill)Feb 4: Kejriwal writes to the President to probe into CWG and take action against Sheila Dixit. (Meanwhile, Kejriwal asks President to act against Sheila) Why aren’t they doing it themselves?A day after Rahul Gandhi visits protesters from NE, Kejriwal joins the protest, apologizing for joining four days late. He announces measures to meet the demands of the protesters, one of which is the inclusion of NE history in textbooks. (Nido Taniam's death: After Rahul Gandhi, Arvind Kejriwal joins protesters)Manish Sisodia makes a surprise visit to a school and finds the principal and teachers do not come on time. He declares that parents should be given powers to suspend teachers. (Parents should be able to suspend teachers: Manish Sisodia)Prashant Bhushan holds a press conference to name Karunadhi and Kanimozhi as beneficiaries of 2G scam. AAP claims to possess leaked audio tapes. Bhushan states he would upload the audio tapes. (AAP comes out with fresh charges against Karunanidhi, Kanimozhi, World , Aninews)Three women from the Ugandan community come forward saying that they were promised jobs in India, but were instead forced into sex and drug trafficking. DWC asks for more patrolling in Khirki area. (Delhi Women Commission wants patrolling intensified in Khirki)AAP states that their next agenda is targeting Narendra Modi.Feb 5: TV channel Headlines decides to investigate AAP’s claims that police do not accept bribes and invoke AAP’s statement on rights to conduct sting operations. A sting operation on Delhi police reveals more than four policemen who demand and accept bribes. (Sting operation exposes rot of corruption in Delhi Police)AAP reportedly finalizing a Lokayukta bill (not Jan Lokpal) (AAP government finalising Lokayukta Bill: Top 10 provisions)Delhi High Court seeks Centre’s assistance in hearing a plea to register a case of cheating against Kejriwal, Sisodia, and Bhushan for misleading the public with false promises under Section 420 of IPC.It emerges that Kejriwal had in fact requested for the duplex bungalows for himself as soon as coming into power in a letter to the LG.(Delhi CM Arvind Kejriwal had requested for Bhagwan Das road accommodation)Feb 6: AAP files FIR into CWG scam. The inquiry is closed immediately at the initial stage, although Bhushan alleges that there have been “strong findings”. The move is speculated to be another step in the tactical suicide, hoping to force Congress to withdraw support. Congress continues to support AAP. (After Delhi govt’s order, ACB files FIR in Rs 90-crore CWG street light scam)Solicitor General Mohan Parasaran writes to Lieutenant Governor Najeeb Jung, deeming the bill ‘unconstitutional’. LG writes back, seeking counselon two counts: whether presenting the Bill in the Assembly “without sending the legislative proposal to the Central government” — as Arvind Kejriwal’s government has sought to do — violates the constitution; and whether the Delhi government has the power to legislate on matters concerning the Delhi Police and the Delhi Development Authority. (Setback for AAP govt, Solicitor General rules: Lokpal needs Centre OK) Former Army Chief General VK Singh criticizes Kejriwal for taking to the streets. (Taking to streets won't solve people's problems: Gen V K Singh)Feb 7: Sol. Gen. Parasaran states that the bill can be passed only if approved by Center and recommended by the LG and assented by the President. This is because the bill is a financial bill which draws funds from the Center. To support his opinion, the Solicitor General has relied on provisions in the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi Act, 1991. Since the Jan Lokpal Bill’s provisions will overlap with those in the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013, Parasaran suggests the law can never come into force without the President’s assent. Also, Article 239AA of the constitution stipulates that the Delhi government cannot make laws with respect to the police, unless it is approved by the President. Parasaran has not been provided a copy of the bill by AAP, flouting protocol. AAP states that it will push the bill without the approval from Center. (Setback for AAP govt, Solicitor General rules: Lokpal needs Centre OK)In short, AAP wants funds from the Central government to be used in a manner that is not even disclosed, but it does not want to seek approval from the Center. AAP also seeks to pass the bill in a manner that clearly violates the Constitution. Yet another step in the strategy to make sure that the AAP govt is dissolved.This answer outlines the legal procedure and implications: User-12487416925627785344's answer to What is wrong with how the Jan Lokpal Bill was presented by the AAP Government in the Delhi Assembly on 14 February 2014?. The bottom line is that the bill needs LG’s recommendation to the President and the President’s approval before it can be tabled in the assembly. BJP goes on record to state that they support the bill, but only if introduced in the proper manner.AAP alleges that the LG is an agent of Congress and is trying to malign the image of the party. (AAP hits out at Lt Gov over ‘leak’ on Jan Lokpal bill issue, calls him a ‘Congress agent’)Auto drivers of Delhi accuse Kejriwal of cheating them and stating that their needs are being ignored by the government. (Arvind Kejriwal beats hasty retreat as angry auto-drivers shout slogans) Kejriwal had previously taken away from Delhi Police the power to fine autorickshaws drivers who refuse to carry passengers. (A move bound to please his party's biggest vote bank but the one that put the commuters at a disadvantage.)RIL takes discomms to court, Kejriwal warned prepare Delhi Govt for an ‘ugly situation’ that could develop and ensure that power is supplied to the public. (Reliance discoms take NTPC to Supreme Court)Kejriwal meets the German President. (Kejriwal meets German President, discusses Jan Lokpal, elections)Feb 8: RK Pachauri, director general of The Energy and Resources Institute explains the economics of why Kejriwal’s plan to slash power tariff and provide free water is actually causing more problems and energy waste, leading to financial loss. (AAP's free water policy may end up in lot of wastage: RK Pachauri)Kejriwal writes a strongly worded letter to the LG, asking him to uphold the constitution. Ironically. (Kejriwal reminds L-G of oath to Constitution, forgets his own)Feb 9: Kejriwal says he would contest LS if needed, but first commitment is towards Delhi. (I would contest Lok Sabha polls if need arises, but my first commitment is to Delhi: Arvind Kejriwal)He also announces on the same day that he would resign if Jan Lokpal Bill is not passed. I find that rather contradictory to his previous statement.Feb 10: Rambeer Shokeen announces that he withdraws support to AAP because water and power problems have not been addressed. Shokeen alleges that Kejriwal does not respond to his calls. (Independent legislator to withdraw support to AAP government | Latest News & Updates at DNAIndia.com)Power and water problems have increased due to the subsidy that was promised.Kejriwal meets the LG to discuss issues with the bill. LG then referred the bill to the Law Ministry for a final opinion.Congress goes on record to state that they support the bill in its entirety, provided it is introduced in a constitutional manner. (Won’t allow Jan Lokpal Bill to be tabled in Assembly: Cong)Manish Sisodia threatens to cut funding to colleges if members of AAP are not included in the staff. (AAP’s new front: Battle with DU over college bodies) A letter written by teachers at DU states that AAP is engaging in art-twisting tactics to get a hold in the university. 4,000 teachers wait for permanent employment, and that AAP has ordered priority of their own members over existing teachers. A backtrack on their words from the manifesto.Prashant Bhushan is caught in the midst of controversy over 15 acres of land he owns in Himachal Pradesh. HP Vigilance Bureau claims Bhushan’s institute was allotted the land for constructing educational institutions, and are in violation of the law as the building in the land is not affiliated with any education board. Bhushan retaliates, saying that the red-flagging is politically motivated because he complained against Virbhadra Singh. (Top AAP leader Prashant Bhushan in land row) (Himachal Pradesh govt may confiscate AAP leader Prashant Bhushan's Kangra land)Feb 11: Kejriwal orders FIR against Reliance’s Mukesh Ambani, Veerappa Moily, and Milind Deora for fudging numbers in natural gas after holding a press conference. Legal experts challenge the authority of the Delhi Govt to file an FIR in the national matter, but Kejriwal and Sisodia field their decision saying that since the act was committed in Delhi, it falls under their jurisdiction. Experts also question the validity of the criminal FIR against Ambani as there already is a civil suit against Ambani for the same offence, registered by the same people, that is pending. (Gas price FIR: RIL weighs legal options; may file defamation suit against Kejriwal)BBC reveals in London after a sting operation that members of the UK arm of AAP are involved in student visa fraud. (`AAP UK workers embroiled in student visa scam`)Feb 12: The Law Ministry upholds LG’s stance that the Centre’s approval is needed for introducing the bill. Congress and BJP reiterate that they support the bill in its entirety, provided it is introduced in manner that does not violate the Constitution. A man with a government less than two months old cannot and should not be allowed to pass a bill in the assembly without following the rules. Not only is it unconstitutional and illegal, it doesn’t make any sense. Exactly how much of a track record does he have as a successful politician for the assembly to even consider it?High court asks Kejriwal to justify use of a public stadium for anti-graft Lokpal Bill.Kejriwal modifies the Jan Lokpal Bill a day before introducing in the assembly to state that people found indulging in corruption will not be punishable by the Lokpal. (In climbdown, Arvind Kejriwal's Jan Lokpal can no longer punish corrupt officials)Why has nobody raised this issue? This effectively means that Lokpal would declare someone as guilty, and then pass it on to the court. Which would leave the execution again to the police. What is the whole point of the bill then?Feb 13: LG writes to the Speaker, saying that the bill cannot be tabled as it has not followed the proper procedure for introduction under Transaction of Business Rules, 2002. (Jan Lokpal Bill can't be tabled, says Delhi L-G)Bill draws criticisms from Kejriwal’s fellow Magsaysay award winner, Aruna Roy, writer Arundhati Roy, former Chief Justice of Supreme Court, the Director of CBI, with the President of Center for Policy Research, Pratap Bhanu Mehta, terming it “premised on an institutional imagination that is at best naïve; at worst subversive of representative democracy”. (Of the few, by the few) (Break lokpal into 5 institutions: Roy - Hindustan Times)Despite the Law Ministry’s ruling and the LG’s stance, Kejriwal attempts to table the bill in the assembly. The assembly is repeatedly disturbed by the opposition.Speaker MS Dhir of AAP attempts to introduce the bill, but is met with aggressive opposition by members who gather around his seat.Both the Speaker and Kejriwal walk out of the Assembly, and the assembly is adjourned.Feb 14: Introducing the bill is put to vote, with 42 members voting against the introduction of bill and 27 MLAs voting for it.Kejriwal resigns.Now, Kejriwal has iterated and reiterated that he will do “whatever it takes” to pass the Jan Lokpal Bill. (Will go to any extent for Jan Lokpal Bill: Arvind Kejriwal) So, why did he not adopt the simple solution of following the official procedure? Both BJP and Congress stated their support. Failing to introduce the bill after it is approved by the LG would only make Kejriwal’s claims that the Opposition is opposed to the bill that much stronger. Why did he not go through the proper channels? Is that what he means by whatever it takes? Is this the spirit with which to run a government? Quit the instant one thing doesn’t work out, when you’ve planned 17 other things?AAP reiterates that the Centre should consider former Attorney General, Soli Sorabjee’s views on Home Ministry 2002 order, where he states that it is an attempt to compartmentalize Delhi Govt. (L-G should consider Soli Sorabjee’s view on 2002 order: AAP)Just before resignation, AAP sends out mass text messages in Delhi, urging people to come out to the party’s office. (Before Arvind Kejriwal resigned, mass SMS brought crowd of supporters at AAP office)Here are some points from his resignation speech: They think they are 'angrez', Lieutenant Governor the viceroy: Arvind Kejriwal's top 10 quotesI would sit here and refute every one of them, but I’m not going to bother.Since resignation three days ago:Former Attorney General, Soli Sorabjee, defends the LG and criticizes Kejriwal for not following rules and repeatedly bringing up Sorabjee’s name for defense. (Former Attorney General Soli Sorabjee backs Lt Governor Najeeb Jung's decision)Man who threw a shoe at P Chidambaram is now an AAP member and will contest LS polls. (AAP fields man who hurled shoe at P Chidambaram for Lok Sabha polls)Kejriwal appears for multiple interviews. States that since the Lokpal bill wasn’t passed, he saw no sense in continuing. (Since Jan Lokpal was blocked, saw no sense in continuing as Chief Minister, says Arvind Kejriwal: highlights)Of course, other points of the manifesto don’t hold a candle to the Lokpal Bill.He also states that he had inside information that Congress and BJP will allow the bill to pass, but after his filing an FIR on Mukesh Ambani, they would not allow it.AAP releases list of first 20 candidates for LS polls.Today, he was again on TV at CII. The point is, they’re still in the news every hour of every day, and for mostly the wrong reasons. When it’s a slow news day, they seem to have strategized press conferences. It’s a brilliant tactic, fully utilizing the “bad publicity is also good publicity” idea and constantly remaining in the public eye.What did AAP do these 49 days?Revoked FDI in retail, causing investment losses; introduced a water tariff cut that was extremely arbitrary as there are still no means to measure water supply and consumption, and not enough connectivity to provide free water to poor people; cut the electricity bill by 50% at the cost of Rs. 61 crore to the exchequer; take to the streets to protest against five cops and to get them suspended, only to call off the protest when two of them are sent on paid leave, causing thousands of rupees worth of damages to the Delhi public; attempt to table a Jan Lokpal bill unconstitutionally, that superseded the bill at the center; resign.The bigger picture here is that the whole situation was a win-win for Kejriwal. If he stays in power, well, he stays in power. If he resigns, he’ll be seen as a martyr who had to forego his Chief Ministership because the opposition did not allow anti-corruption reforms. Every action Kejriwal took was backed by the proclamation that he was fighting corruption. One cannot fight illegal problems by creating new illegal problems. But since it went against establishment and the established government at the Centre is corrupt, Kejriwal is going to be touted as a hero. This is exactly what has happened, and nothing could be farther from the truth. A simple look at the condition Delhi is in right now will tell. A simpler look at AAP’s 18 point manifesto is even more telling.What are the implications of his resignation? Here’s a sample:In a classic case of votebank politics, AAP declared a fee waiver of 50% to all members of the Delhi Public who support the AAP in agitation. On the day that Kejriwal resigned, he also piloted the appropriation bill (in the proper manner, might I add) to designate Rs. 372 crores towards subsidy for power companies. This sum was drawn from a consolidated fund from the Infrastructure and PWD budget allocation for Delhi. Now, he also has to subsidize the Rs. 6 crore loss caused due to the 50% tariff on the public. Since the specific relief to defaulters was not a part of the original manifesto, AAP has not worked out where the 6 crores are to come from. Now, the discomms are at a loss as to how to recover their share of the subsidy. Delhi is to expect power outages. (AAP ki sarkar's bonanza for power defaulters a hogwash? - The Times of India)Similarly, Delhi does not have water. There is water shortage, and there is an artificial water shortage created by the tanker mafia. Kejriwal promised water to all in his election manifesto, but settled for a certain amount for free water for every house that has a connection. Herein lies the problem. Not every house has a connection! Like I said before, only 65% of the population has water connections. 7 lakh households are not linked to the water grid. This means that people who have water already are going to get surplus water, and the ones who need the water are still in the same situation as before. Now, the “free” water isn’t technically free. It costs money to deliver and supply the water, and money is needed for the human labor and physical infrastructure. Where is the money going to come from? Tax, of course. Everyone pays taxes. But the poor (who do not have water) are now going to end up paying for the excess water the rich get. Economist Surjit Bhalla points out here (Not so aam aadmi policy), at 670 litres per household per day, the AAP government is basically giving every individual the right to consume around 170 litres of water a day free. This is much higher than developed countries like UK or USA. AAP’s decision to charge consumers for the entire amount consumed should they go even one litre above 670 a month will only encourage the manipulation of water meters on a gigantic scale, rather than rationalise consumption. It’s easy to look at this short sightedness and proclaim initial victory because most of Delhi might be (or might not be, I’m not sure, are you all?) getting free water. But this populist decision will hit and hit hard. AAP is wasting away the Rs. 446 crore profit made by the DJB, instead of utilizing it to improve infrastructure so as to provide water to all households, 24x7. Make no mistake, this decision was regressive, and if implemented, might just drag the Delhi govt into bankruptcy. Kejriwal’s plans have created problems, not solutions. (A better articulated piece is here: Page on firstpost.com) Here’s a completely simple article that states exactly what the problem is: Asit K Biswas & Cecilia Tortajada: Delhi's water supply - Going, going, gone?The Lokpal bill is the easiest argument of Kejriwal’s to refute, because you do not need any understanding of civics or economics to see the problem here.Why did Kejriwal quit?Because the Jan Lokpal bill was not passed.So?He said that he would quit if the Lokpal Bill was not passed, and he did. What’s wrong in that?A zillion things. Firstly he said that only on the 9th( he quit on the 14th). And saying that he will quit does not justify his quitting. Any government can now take a stance, saying that they would quit if a condition of theirs isn’t met. Let it be a condition built on the core principle of a party, it does not justify the quitting. If Kejriwal felt the parties were not cooperating in passing the bill, he should have gone to the LG and gotten it approved and passed it. If he didn’t want to do that, he could have amended the existing Lokpal bill of the Centre and implemented the Jan Lokpal, like so many other states have done. Remember, he said that he would go to any extent and do whatever it takes to get the Jan Lokpal passed. Well, it’s not passed. If he didn’t want to pass it, he could have let the situation be, used Congress and BJP as an excuse, and focused on other problems, like power and water. As an elected representative, he owed this to the public. He promised to quit if the bill isn’t passed, fair enough. He also promised to implement a lot of other things when he came to power. Where are those things now? How is the public even accepting his resignation as a sign of integrity when it’s nothing but running away from responsibilities? Is the public of Delhi so easily fooled and so short sighted that they accept a “because I said so” argument from a person they themselves elected? Bear no doubt, it was a brilliant political move by Kejriwal, for the party’s benefit. But it’s the public that is going to suffer.What’s the plan for Delhi now?Nobody has any idea. It is under the President’s rule, for now. But we don’t know if Delhi is going to get free water and power. We don’t know when the reelections are and who would win. AAP is now focusing on LS, so Kejriwal is out of running for the Chief Minister’s post again.Manish Sisodia is to be the CM candidate, while Kejriwal aims for Lok Sabha elections. (Good luck, Delhi!)AAP was a shining beacon of hope, full of opportunities. Powerful people like Kiran Bedi and even populists like Chetan Bhagat (sorry CB!) were very prominent supporters of AAP, and are now disillusioned with their politics. As are ordinary people like myself and many others who voted the party into power.Now what happens to the water supply? Are people going to get free water still? What about electricity? AAP is now putting its full effort in contesting the Lok Sabha elections, so what happens to the Jan Lokpal? Where are the educational reforms that were promised? What happened to converting buses to homes for the poor? Did anyone compensate the families of those who died in the streets? Did AAP compensate the families of military men, as promised? A government’s first duty is towards the people. What did AAP do for the people, and I’m talking majority of the people? Ban red beacons? How long is it going to take for them to come back? Where is the sewage plan, the waste management plant, the rainwater harvesting plan? Where are the new schools and colleges? What happens to the 90% reservation? What happened to making Urdu the second language? What happened to the 25 people who died because of the cold when Kejriwal was sitting in his dharna? What happens now to the foreign investment losses due to the sudden recall of FDI? And most importantly, why did Kejriwal not order probe into the CWG scam that took place under Sheila Dixit as soon as he assumed office?Is this the man our country deserves as a Prime Minister? Someone who can’t fulfill basic promises or expend the money in his possession in a progressive manner? Someone who is elected, but quits in less than 50 days without making a single progressive reform?While I know that there are thousands of supporters of AAP, and even here on Quora, I have to say, Delhi has lost a hard won battle, thwarted of its gifts by false promises. Kejriwal obtained the trust and votes of the Delhi public, but in all appearances, when he realized he could not manage the government, he bolted. I’d say he betrayed their trust. And I was one of the people who had high hopes for them, mind you. I’ll clarify that. I wanted them to come to power and to take on an anti corruption and developmental role.Congress and BJP are distasteful because they fool the millions of illiterates and uneducated people by buying their votes and making promises just before the elections. AAP is dangerous because they fool the educated public with their tactics and clever concealment of the full picture.I sincerely hope there is a reelection, and AAP wins again. They must clean up their mess.Note: I know this would invite a lot of comments and disagreement. I kindly request posters to stick to BNBR. Since I have tried very hard to not bring up Congress or BJP or any other political party as a comparison in this answer, please try to refrain from doing so unless necessary. If your retaliation is “But Congress did it and ten years ago, BJP also did it,” your point is moot, as you’re resorting to the exact argument used by Congress and BJP representatives, and are no different from them. And please, do not downvote comments you do not agree with, as has happened in other answers.

What conspiracy theories turned out to be true?

MK-ULTRA: In the 1950s to the 1970s, the CIA ran a mind-control project aimed at finding a “truth serum” to use on communist spies. Test subjects were given LSD and other drugs, often without consent, and some were tortured. At least one man, civilian biochemist Frank Olson, who was working for the government, died as a result of the experiments. The project was finally exposed after investigations by the Rockefeller Commission.The Iran-Contra Affair: In 1985 and ’86, the White House authorized government officials to secretly trade weapons with the Israeli government in exchange for the release of U.S. hostages in Iran. The plot was uncovered by Congress in 1987.Operation Mockingbird: Also in the 1950s to ’70s, the CIA paid a number of well-known domestic and foreign journalists (from big-name media outlets like Time, The Washington Post, The New York Times, CBS and others) to publish CIA propaganda. The CIA also reportedly funded at least one movie, the animated “Animal Farm,” by George Orwell. The Church Committee finally exposed the activities in 1975.Watergate: Republican officials spied on the Democratic National Headquarters from the Watergate Hotel in 1972. While conspiracy theories suggested underhanded dealings were taking place, it wasn’t until 1974 that White House tape recordings linked President Nixon to the break-in and forced him to resign.The Tuskegee Syphilis Study: The United States Public Health Service carried out this clinical study on 400 poor, African-American men with syphilis from 1932 to 1972. During the study the men were given false and sometimes dangerous treatments, and adequate treatment was intentionally withheld so the agency could learn more about the disease. While the study was initially supposed to last just six months, it continued for 40 years. Close to 200 of the men died from syphilis or related complications by the end of the study.Operation Northwoods: In the early 1960s, American military leaders drafted plans to create public support for a war against Cuba, to oust Fidel Castro from power. The plans included committing acts of terrorism in U.S. cities, killing innocent people and U.S. soldiers, blowing up a U.S. ship, assassinating Cuban émigrés, sinking boats of Cuban refugees, and hijacking planes. The plans were all approved by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, but were reportedly rejected by the civilian leadership, then kept secret for nearly 40 years.Operation Snow White: Some time during the 1970s, the Church of Scientology decided that they’d had enough. Apparently, the Church of Scientology managed to perform the largest infiltration of the United States government in history. Ever. 5,000 of Scientology’s crack commandos wiretapped and burglarized various agencies. They stole hundreds of documents, mainly from the IRS. No critic was spared, and in the end, 136 organizations, agencies and foreign embassies were infiltrated.Manhattan Project: The Manhattan Project was the codename for a project conducted during World War II to develop the first atomic bomb. The project was led by the United States, and included participation from the United Kingdom and Canada. Formally designated as the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), it refers specifically to the period of the project from 1942–1946 under the control of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, under the administration of General Leslie R. Groves. The scientific research was directed by American physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. The project’s roots lay in scientists’ fears since the 1930s that Nazi Germany was also investigating nuclear weapons of its own. Born out of a small research program in 1939, the Manhattan Project eventually employed more than 130,000 people and cost nearly US$2 billion ($22 billion in current value). It resulted in the creation of multiple production and research sites that operated in secret. With the total involved, this makes it one of the largest conspiracies in history. Entire towns were built for short periods of time, employing people, all under secrecy and top national secrecy at that. The government never admitted to it, the media never reported on it, and people had no idea for over 25 years. Project research took place at over thirty sites across the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The three primary research and production sites of the project were the plutonium-production facility at what is now the Hanford Site, the uranium-enrichment facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the weapons research and design laboratory now known as Los Alamos National Laboratory. The MED maintained control over U.S. weapons production until the formation of the Atomic Energy Commission in January 1947.Operation Paperclip: Operation Paperclip was the code name for the 1945 Office of Strategic Services, Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency recruitment of German scientists from Nazi Germany to the U.S. after VE Day. President Truman authorized Operation Paperclip in August 1945; however he expressly ordered that anyone found “to have been a member of the Nazi party and more than a nominal participant in its activities, or an active supporter of Nazi militarism” would be excluded. These included Wernher von Braun, Arthur Rudolph and Hubertus Strughold, who were all officially on record as Nazis and listed as a “menace to the security of the Allied Forces.” All were cleared to work in the U.S. after having their backgrounds “bleached” by the military; false employment histories were provided, and their previous Nazi affiliations were expunged from the record. The paperclips that secured newly-minted background details to their personnel files gave the operation its name.Big Brother or the Shadow Government: It is also called the “Deep State” by Peter Dale Scott, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley. A shadow government is a “government-in-waiting” that remains in waiting with the intention of taking control of a government in response to some event. It turned out this was true on 9/11, when it was told to us by our mainstream media. For years, this was ridiculed as a silly, crazy conspiracy theory and, like the others listed here, turned out to be 100% true. It is also called the Continuity of Government. The Continuity of Government (COG) is the principle of establishing defined procedures that allow a government to continue its essential operations in case of nuclear war or other catastrophic event. Since the end of the cold war, the policies and procedures for the COG have been altered according to realistic threats of that time. These include but are not limited to a possible coup or overthrow by right wing terrorist groups, a terrorist attack in general, an assassination, and so on. Believe it or not the COG has been in effect since 2001. After 9/11, it went into action. Now here is the kicker, many of the figures in Iran Contra, the Watergate Scandal, the alleged conspiracy to assassinate Kennedy, and many others listed here are indeed members of the COG. This is its own conspiracy as well.1990 Testimony of Nayirah: A 15-year-old girl named “Nayirah” testified before the U.S. Congress that she had seen Iraqi soldiers pulling Kuwaiti babies from incubators, causing them to die. The testimony helped gain major public support for the 1991 Gulf War, but — despite protests that the dispute of this story was itself a conspiracy theory — it was later discovered that the testimony was false. The public relations firm Hill & Knowlton, which was in the employ of Citizens for a Free Kuwait, had arranged the testimony. It turned out that she had taken acting lessons on request of the CIA and was actually the niece of a major politician in Kuwait. Nayirah was later disclosed to be Nayirah al-Sabah, daughter of Saud bin Nasir Al-Sabah, Kuwaiti ambassador to the USA. The Congressional Human Rights Caucus, of which Congressman Tom Lantos was co-chairman, had been responsible for hosting Nurse Nayirah, and thereby popularizing her allegations. When the girl’s account was later challenged by independent human rights monitors, Lantos replied, “The notion that any of the witnesses brought to the caucus through the Kuwaiti Embassy would not be credible did not cross my mind… I have no basis for assuming that her story is not true, but the point goes beyond that. If one hypothesizes that the woman’s story is fictitious from A to Z, that in no way diminishes the avalanche of human rights violations.” Nevertheless, the senior Republican on the Human Rights Caucus, John Edward Porter, responded to the revelations “by saying that if he had known the girl was the ambassador’s daughter, he would not have allowed her to testify.”Counter Intelligence Programs Against Activists in the 60s: COINTELPRO (an acronym for Counter Intelligence Program) was a series of covert, and often illegal, projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. The FBI used covert operations from its inception, however formal COINTELPRO operations took place between 1956 and 1971. The FBI’s stated motivation at the time was “protecting national security, preventing violence, and maintaining the existing social and political order.” According to FBI records, 85% of COINTELPRO resources were expended on infiltrating, disrupting, marginalizing, and/or subverting groups suspected of being subversive, such as communist and socialist organizations; the women’s rights movement; militant black nationalist groups, and the non-violent civil rights movement, including individuals such as Martin Luther King, Jr. and others associated with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the Congress of Racial Equality, the American Indian Movement, and other civil rights groups; a broad range of organizations labeled “New Left”, including Students for a Democratic Society, the National Lawyers Guild, the Weathermen, almost all groups protesting the Vietnam War, and even individual student demonstrators with no group affiliation; and nationalist groups such as those “seeking independence for Puerto Rico.” The other 15% of COINTELPRO resources were expended to marginalize and subvert “white hate groups,” including the Ku Klux Klan and National States’ Rights Party. The directives governing COINTELPRO were issued by FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, who ordered FBI agents to “expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize” the activities of these movements and their leaders.The BCCI Scandal: The Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) was a major international bank founded in 1972 by Agha Hasan Abedi, a Pakistani financier. The Bank was registered in Luxembourg. Within a decade BCCI touched its peak, it operated in 78 countries, had over 400 branches, and had assets in excess of US$ 20 billion making it the 7th largest private bank in the world by assets. In the late 1980’s BCCI became the target of a two year undercover operation conducted by the US Customs Service. This operation concluded with a fake wedding that was attended by BCCI officers and drug dealers from around the world who had established a personal friendship and working relationship with undercover Special Agent Robert Mazur. After a six month trial in Tampa, key bank officers were convicted and received lengthy prison sentences. Bank officers began cooperating with law enforcement authorities and that cooperation caused BCCI’s many crimes to be revealed. BCCI came under the scrutiny of regulatory bodies and intelligence agencies in the 1980s due to its perceived avoidance of falling under one regulatory banking authority, a fact that was later, after extensive investigations, proven to be false. BCCI became the focus of a massive regulatory battle in 1991 and was described as a “$20-billion-plus heist”. Investigators in the U.S. and the UK revealed that BCCI had been “set up deliberately to avoid centralized regulatory review, and operated extensively in bank secrecy jurisdictions. Its affairs were extraordinarily complex. Its officers were sophisticated international bankers whose apparent objective was to keep their affairs secret, to commit fraud on a massive scale, and to avoid detection.”CIA Drug Running in LA: Pulitzer Prize Award winning journalist Gary Webb exposed this alongside LAPD Narcotics Officer turned whislteblower and author Michael Ruppert, CIA Contract Pilot Terry Reed, and many others. In August 1996 the San Jose Mercury News published Webb’s “Dark Alliance”, a 20,000 word, three-part investigative series which alleged that Nicaraguan drug traffickers had sold and distributed crack cocaine in Los Angeles during the 1980s, and that drug profits were used to fund the CIA-supported Nicaraguan Contras. Webb never asserted that the CIA directly aided drug dealers to raise money for the Contras, but he did document that the CIA was aware of the cocaine transactions and the large shipments of cocaine into the U.S. by the Contra personnel. “Dark Alliance” received national attention. At the height of the interest, the web version of it on San Jose Mercury News website received 1.3 million hits a day. According to the Columbia Journalism Review, the series became “the most talked-about piece of journalism in 1996 and arguably the most famous—some would say infamous—set of articles of the decade.”CIA Drug Smuggling in Arkansas: August 23, 1987, in a rural community just south of Little Rock, police officers murdered two teenage boys because they witnessed a police-protected drug drop. The drop was part of a drug smuggling operation based at a small airport in Mena, Arkansas. The Mena operation was set up in the early 1980’s by the notorious drug smuggler, Barry Seal. Facing prison after a drug conviction in Florida, Seal flew to Washington, D.C., where he put together a deal that allowed him to avoid prison by becoming an informant for the government. As a government informant against drug smugglers, Seal testified he worked for the CIA and the DEA. In one federal court case, he testified that his income from March 1984 to August 1985, was between $700,000 and $800,000. This period was AFTER making his deal with the government. Seal testified that nearly $600,000 of this came from smuggling drugs while working for — and with the permission of the DEA. In addition to his duties as an informant, Seal was used by CIA operatives to help finance the Nicaraguan Contras. The CIA connection to the Mena operation was undeniable when a cargo plane given to Seal by the CIA was shot down over Nicaragua with a load of weapons. In spite of the evidence, every investigator who has tried to expose the crimes of Mena has been professionally destroyed, and those involved in drug smuggling operations have received continued protection from state and federal authorities.The CIA Assassinates A Lot Of People (Church Committee): The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a U.S. Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church in 1975. A precursor to the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, the committee investigated intelligence gathering for illegality by the CIA and FBI after certain activities had been revealed by the Watergate affair. The Committee uncovered, among many other things, that the CIA had violated its charter to perform only gathering of intelligence. For example, the assassinations of Allende in Chile and Mossadegh in Iran. Assassinations against Central and South American leaders and revolutionaries, as well as Africa, Middle East and East Asia. The list was tremendous. They even declassified a “Heart Attack Gun” the Agency had made for the use of killing someone without it being detected. Cancer, car accidents, skiing accidents, suicide, boating accidents, heart attacks, and just plain being shot were common assassination methods. The hearings, although recorded in full in congressional record, the mainstream media and official policies, is still largely not taught in American schools on recent history. The American public still has no idea this was ever actually confirmed or even took place. It is common for people to still refer to any of these assassinations as a joke or made up conspiracy.Gulf of Tonkin Never Happened: The Gulf of Tonkin Incident is the name given to two separate incidents involving the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the United States in the waters of the Gulf of Tonkin. On August 2, 1964 two American destroyers engaged three North Vietnamese torpedo boats, resulting in the sinking of one of the torpedo boats. This was also the single most important reason for the escalation of the Vietnam War. After Kennedy was assassinated, the Gulf of Tonkin gave the country the sweeping support for aggressive military action against the North Vietnamese. The outcome of the incident was the passage by Congress of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted President Lyndon B. Johnson the authority to assist any Southeast Asian country whose government was considered to be jeopardized by “communist aggression”. In 2005, an internal National Security Agency historical study was declassified; it concluded that USS Maddox had engaged the North Vietnamese on August 2, but that there may not have been any North Vietnamese vessels present during the engagement of August 4. The report stated “It is not simply that there is a different story as to what happened; it is that no attack happened that night…” In truth, Hanoi’s navy was engaged in nothing that night but the salvage of two of the boats damaged on August 2. In 1965, President Johnson commented privately: “For all I know, our Navy was shooting at whales out there.” In 1981, Captain Herrick and journalist Robert Scheer re-examined Herrick’s ship’s log and determined that the first torpedo report from August 4, which Herrick had maintained had occurred—the “apparent ambush”—was in fact unfounded. In 1995, retired Vietnamese Defense Minister Vo Nguyen Giap, meeting with former Secretary of Defense McNamara, categorically denied that Vietnamese gunboats had attacked American destroyers on August 4, while admitting to the attack on August 2. In the Fall of 1999, retired senior CIA engineering executive S. Eugene Poteat wrote that he was asked in early August 1964 to determine if the radar operator’s report showed a real torpedo boat attack or an imagined one. In October, 2005 the New York Times reported that Robert J. Hanyok, a historian for the U.S. National Security Agency, had concluded that the NSA deliberately distorted the intelligence reports that it had passed on to policy-makers regarding the August 4, 1964 incident. He concluded that the motive was not political but was probably to cover up honest intelligence errors.Operation Gladio: Gladio is a code name denoting the clandestine NATO “stay-behind” operation in Italy after World War II, intended to continue anti-communist resistance in the event of a Warsaw Pact invasion of Western Europe. Although Gladio specifically refers to the Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind organizations, “Operation Gladio” is used as an informal name for all stay-behind organizations, sometimes called “Super NATO”. The role of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in sponsoring Gladio and the extent of its activities during the Cold War era, and its relationship to right-wing terrorist attacks perpetrated in Italy during the Years of Lead and other similar clandestine operations is the subject of ongoing debate and investigation. Italy, Switzerland and Belgium have had parliamentary inquiries into the matter. What can we prove about that role? Thousands of documents, depositions and testimony as well as recorded conversations and admission by the highest levels of government in Italy. That’s about as credible as it gets, regardless of the CIA’s adamant denial it ever happened. What took place? The shooting of innocent civilians, terrorism and assassinations all blamed on leftist communists were actually apart of well coordinated, “black operations.” Black operations are typically involving activities that are highly clandestine and, often, outside of standard military protocol.“The right hand doesn’t know what the left hand is doing.” Black ops missions often fit into the deniable category, a situation in which there is no claim of responsibility for the action, and/or a false flag operation is used to give the appearance that another actor was responsible, or – most often – black operations involve extensive arrangements so as to be able to hide the fact that the black operation ever occurred. Black military operations, or paramilitary operations, can be used by various secret services to achieve or attempt to achieve an unusually sensitive goal. The methods used in black operations are also used in unconventional warfare. Depending on the precise situation in a given case, and the level of authoritarianism of the national government or other responsible party, some tasks will be conducted as black operations, while there are usually other activities that can be admitted openly. Black operations may include such things as assassination, sabotage, extortion, spying on allied countries or one’s own citizens, kidnapping, supporting resistance movements, torture, use of fraud to obtain funds, use of child soldiers, human experimentation, trafficking in contraband items, etc. Since 9/11, many black operations and long time unethical standings have been approved for legality in the war on terror. In other words, since September 11th, 2001, it is no a longer conspiracy for any of this to occur, a simple decision by a top level military or CIA official is enough, without oversight or even one thread of admission by the Government or Private conspirators. Much of the Black operations today are performed by private contract companies like Blackwater (now Xe).[1]Footnotes[1] 33 Conspiracy Theories That Turned Out To Be True, What Every Person Should Know... » Alex Jones' Infowars: There's a war on for your mind!

What are the major points to study to gain a better understanding of the Cold War? Are there any books or articles you might suggest?

Seems like the Cold War is back in fashion againWhen did it start? What were its pivotal moments? How did it wind down? -Get some popcorn, queue up Cold War Music, and fasten your seat belts.​​​Japan's December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor was a defining moment not only for WWII, but also for the subsequent Cold War. This may seem shocking today, but even after the 1940 fall of France, the Battle of Britain and Germany's attempted (and failed) blitzkrieg in the USSR, the US public was neutral and did not favor sending troops overseas, or taking serious responsibility for the safety of major shipping routes far from North America. The US did not have a huge military and could not justify large military spending. This all changed on December 7, 1941 ("a date which will live in infamy"), and four days later Germany declared war against the United States.​​To be fair, the Roosevelt administration apparently anticipated the needed military build-up. The US also previously started economic help to the UK (seeing the British resolve in the Attack on Mers-el-Kébir) and to the Soviet Union. The Lend-Lease (which ramped up by the end of 1941) was a major effort to prop up the Soviet economy during the German onslaught and prevent the collapse of the Red army, while the Soviet industry was being relocated to the Ural mountains.When it became clear that the Axis (Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Imperial Japan) would not win the war, the Allies (US, UK and USSR) met at the 1943 Tehran Conference to plan ahead and outline how Europe could be partitioned into spheres of influence. This can be illustrated by the Percentages agreementThe Percentages agreement was an agreement between Soviet premier Joseph Stalin and British prime minister Winston Churchill during the Fourth Moscow Conference on October 1944, about how to divide various European countries into spheres of influence...Winston Churchill (not Stalin) proposed the agreement, under which the UK and USSR agreed to divide Europe into spheres of influence, with one country having "predominance" in one sphere, and the other country would have "predominance" in another sphere. According to Churchill's account of the incident, Churchill suggested that the Soviet Union should have 90 percent influence in Romania and 75 percent in Bulgaria; the United Kingdom should have 90 percent in Greece; and they should have 50 percent each in Hungary and Yugoslavia. Churchill wrote it on a piece of paper which he pushed across to Stalin, who ticked it off and passed it back. The result of these discussions was that the percentages of Soviet influence in Bulgaria and, more significantly, Hungary were amended to 80 percent. Churchill called it a "naughty document".Such political agreements were finalized at the 1945 Yalta Conference, including the partitioning of Berlin. However, the actual progress on the battlefield was still important. Among direct consequences of the Percentages agreement were the Tito–Stalin Split and the unique status that Yugoslavia enjoyed during the Cold War - under the communist party, but not a Soviet dependent and more free-market than the Eastern Europe.WWII did not end with the End of World War II in Europe. The US overwhelmed Japan in the Pacific, but wanted to avoid fighting in the Japanese mainland and the inevitable huge casualties. One of the instruments was the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but it did not seem to impress the Japanese Supreme Command (because the immediate destruction was comparable with the effects of massive American firebombings that occurred weekly). They were, however, impressed, by the Soviet invasion of Manchuria (violating the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact and taking many Japanese prisoner), which was followed by the Surrender of Japan to the US. In the days after, the USSR quickly annexed South Sakhalin and the Kuril islands, to which Japan still lays claim.Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin may have looked like best friends at the Yalta Conference in February 1945. But they considered the peaceful coexistence of their countries to be impossible, for non-negotiable reasons.​​​​Even before the war ended, the Soviets deployed The Thing:Theremin's device was used by the Soviet Union to spy on the United States. The device was embedded in a carved wooden plaque of the Great Seal of the United States. On August 4, 1945, a delegation from theYoung Pioneer organization of the Soviet Union presented the bugged carving to U.S. Ambassador W. Averell Harriman, as a "gesture of friendship" to the USSR's World War II ally. It hung in the ambassador's Moscow residential study until it was exposed in 1952 during the tenure of Ambassador George F. Kennan. The existence of the bug was accidentally discovered by a British radio operator who overheard American conversations on an open radio channel as the Soviets were beaming radio waves at the ambassador's office. The Department of State found the device in the Great Seal carving after an exhaustive search of the American Embassy, and Peter Wright, a British scientist and later MI5 counterintelligence officer, eventually discovered how it worked.The Thing was demonstrated by the US to the United Nations in the 1960s.​​Such Cold War cat-and-mouse games continued for a long time, including the 1978 Bulgarian umbrella (KGB-assisted poisoning of Bulgarian exile Georgi Markov in London with a sharp umbrella tip). They were aptly captured by the numerous James Bond (agent 007) films, produced regularly since 1962.​​The UN was created in 1946 trying to address the failure of the League of Nations to stop WWII. A particularly important construct was the UN Security Council, with five permanent members - the USSR, the USA, China, the UK, and France - holding veto power. Ukraine and Belarus were included as founding UN members in recognition of their sacrifices in WWII, although Stalin wanted all Soviet Republics to be (voting) members. The creation of Israel by the UN quickly lead to wars between Israel and Arab neighbors. While the USSR initially supported the creation of Israel, it turned against it in several short years (as Stalin alleged the doctors' plot - Jewish doctors who were out to kill him), and instead supported Arab countries.The stability and prosperity in Europe today, as well as the creation of the European Union in the 1980s, are largely due to the Marshall PlanThe Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Europe, in which the United States gave $13 billion (approximately $130 billion in current dollar value as of August 2015) in economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II. The plan was in operation for four years beginning in April 1948. The goals of the United States were to rebuild war-devastated regions, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, make Europe prosperous again, and prevent the spread of communism.The Marshall Plan required a lessening of interstate barriers, a dropping of many petty regulations constraining business, and encouraged an increase in productivity, labour union membership, as well as the adoption of modern business procedures.The Chinese Communist Revolution (1949) was hugely significant for the Cold war, and was followed by the Korean War (1950-53), which was a major test for the UN, but ended roughly where it started, except for huge casualties and massive devastation. While the US withdrew most of its troops from Europe after WWII, the Korean war forced the US to re-evaluate its military posture and assume much greater responsibility for world security.The USSR matched the US nuclear weapons within four years (Soviet atomic bomb project), but the Cold war really started with the creation of NATO (1949) and the Warsaw Pact (1955). The Turkish Straits crisis led to Turkey's joining NATO in 1952. While on the surface, the military stand-off was between two military blocks, the Cold War was "fought" over the supremacy of the economic models - the USSR was building a communist society according to the teachings of Marx, Engels and Lenin, while the West was opening global trade and freeing the markets. With the war being "cold" (no direct fighting), the outcome would eventually be decided by economics.The US presidency of Dwight Eisenhower (1953-1961) - the supreme Allied Commander in Europe 1943-45 and, later, the military administrator of US-occupied Europe - undoubtedly contributed to the US posture during the Cold war and the Soviet perception of the US. He famously warned the public that the US military–industrial complex was getting strong enough to influence US foreign policy. The aggressive US foreign policy at the time can be illustrated by the successful 1953 Iranian coup d'état organized by the CIA and the botched 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion, also organized by the CIA (in response to the Cuban Revolution in the mid 1950s). The USSR easily matched that by suppressing the Hungarian Revolution in 1956 and spearheading the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 to suppress an anti-Communist uprising. This led to the Brezhnev Doctrine, the 1978 communist coup in Afghanistan which was about to fail, and the subsequent Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979.Joseph Stalin died in 1953. Soviet domestic and foreign policies became erratic. Lavrentiy Beria, responsible for the NKVD (the precursor of the KGB), holding the Eastern Europe in check, and also for organizing very successful weapon design labs in prison camps (including the development of nuclear weapons) was arrested and executed on trumped up charges of spying for foreign powers. Soviet leadership had enough of dictatorship rule and hoped to distribute power more evenly. This became clear at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1956), which was such a shock that several high-ranked members of the Communist Party committed suicide after Nikita Khrushchev's speech denouncing Stalin's cult of personality. In March 1958, Khruschev became the Soviet Prime minister - holding both the top party post and the top government post (like Stalin back in the day and Putin today). Stalin's cool approach to foreign policy and WWII-alliance with the US and the UK fell apart when Nikita Khrushchev threw a tantrum at the United Nations on October 12, 1960, using his infamous shoe to illustrate how the Soviets would deal with the capitalists.​​A major development in the 1950s was the post-war Decolonization, during which the numerous colonies of European powers in Africa and East Asia became independent countries. They were generally poor and lacked official ideologies, so the Soviet block and the US-lead block spared no effort (and money) trying to influence those "third-world" countries. They formed the Non-Aligned Movement in the 1960s, but did not escape major turbulence (e.g., Events in Latin America During the Cold War). Also see the List of conflicts related to the Cold War.By the mid 1950s, both the US and the USSR tested thermonuclear weapons, and the main remaining technology issue was the delivery systems.​The first Soviet satellite Sputnik 1 in 1957 and the first human in space (Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1) were a shock for the US defense establishment because they clearly indicated the feasibility of Intercontinental ballistic missiles and the apparent technological supremacy of the Soviet Union.​​The US response was a huge increase of their R&D funding, as well as a commitment to a mission to the Moon (Apollo program). While the US easily matched first Soviet space missions, the USSR was unable to send a man to the Moon, despite well-funded attempts.​​The US and the USSR started building numerous Strategic bombers, Intercontinental ballistic missiles and Nuclear submarines, starting the enormously expensive Nuclear arms race. Prompted by the fear that the USSR was far ahead in strike weapons (the Bomber gap and the Missile gap), the US developed the Lockheed U-2 that could fly over the USSR and other countries, beyond the reach of fighter planes and air-defense missiles (for a few years).​​​Those overflights triggered two quintessential Cold-war events - the 1960 U-2 incident, where Francis Gary Powers was shot down over the USSR and captured, as well as the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, where a U-2 detected Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba (deployed in response to US nuclear missiles in Turkey). The US responded with a naval blockade of Cuba. The Berlin Crisis of 1961 was another hallmark of the Cold war, resulting in the iconic Berlin Wall. The 1956 Suez Crisis, in which France and the UK sided withIsrael and overpowered Egypt, pushed Arab powers to the Soviet camp.Three events in 1963-64 marked a calming period in the Cold warthe Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treatythe assassination of John F. Kennedythe dismissal of Nikita Khrushchev.By that point, the USSR started experiencing serious economic problems, and apparently the coup against Khrushchev was prompted by his inapt economic policies. He was replaced by Leonid Brezhnev who ruled until his death in 1982. Today, Brezhnev is best remembered for his senility and slurred speech, for having a chest full of medals (many awarded by sycophants and himself), and for presiding over the Era of Stagnation in the 1970s.The calm was relative, given that Britain, France and China developed nuclear weapons of their own by the early 1960s and were busy with frequent tests. The lull in the Cold War was shattered in 1967, when, during the Six-Day War, US-supported Israel had seized the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank (of the Joran river) and the Golan Heights, growing its territory threefold. The USSR broke diplomatic relations with Israel and blocked all emigration by Jews to Israel. The Arab countries responded by the 1967 Oil Embargo to pressure the economies of oil-importing Western countries. This was followed by the 1973 oil crisis when OPEC cut oil exports (tripling the price of oil in the US) and the 1979 energy crisis caused by the reduction of oil exports after the Iranian Revolution (which was a surprise to both superpowers).​​The Vietnam War heated up in the early 1970s - initially a proxy war between North Vietnam (supported by China and the USSR) and the South Vietnam, it escalated with the direct involvement of the US. The USSR responded by sending advanced weapons systems, especially MiG fighters and very effective air defense, which surprised US forces. The US public, especially university students, protested against US participation and undermined domestic support for the war, which wasn't proceeding well anyway. The US withdrew, essentially losing the war.Anti-Vietnam protests at UC Berkeley:​​While oil prices grew sharply in the 1970s, the USSR ramped up oil exports and laid a network of pipelines toward Europe. This was later followed by a network of gas pipelines - first to Soviet cities, then to Eastern Europe, then to Germany. This brought mega-profits and propped up the Soviet economy, which showed clear signs of trouble. The leadership interpreted this as a great success of the socialist system, and Brezhnev announced in 1971 that the USSR reached the stage of developed socialism, on the way to building a true communist society.The Sino-Soviet split occurred in the 1960s, apparently on ideological grounds, leading to the Sino-Soviet border conflict in 1969. To some extent, this contributed to the US Rapprochement with China and Nixon's visit to China in 1972.The Cold War slowed down for a few years in the mid 1970s, marking joint US-Soviet space exploration (the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project).​​​​In the meantime, the USSR, flush with oil profits, embarked on a major rearmament program. Once again, the Cold War was all about whose economic and political model was stronger, whose science and engineering were better, and whose athletes won more olympic medals. Chess championships were particularly closely watched because having a world champion lead to claims of intellectual superiority (Chess the musical).​During the presidency of Jimmy Carter, who was considered weak on foreign policy and defense, the 1979 Iranian Revolution deprived the USA of a close (albeit corrupted) ally in the Middle East. It was exacerbated by the Iran hostage crisis and soon followed by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the lengthy Soviet–Afghan War. The immediate US response was surprisingly strong. It included a boycot of the 1980 olympic games in Moscow, and a ban on high-technology exports including advanced computers (The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan and the U.S. Response, 1978-1980). But this paled in comparison to the strategic response that unfurled over the next ten years. Ronald Reagan won the elections with his platform of strength, dramatically increased military spending, and set to deal with the USSR much more aggressively. The US mended relations with the Saudi Arabia and ensured more than sufficient oil production which resulted in the 1980s oil glut and gradually undermined the Soviet economy (which was in the Era of Stagnation, and only held up by oil revenues). The CIA organized armed resistance to the Soviet occupation and covertly provided air-defense weapons that shot down hundreds of Soviet aircraft (Launching the Missile That Made History). The recruitment and training was largely handled by Osama bin Laden's Al-Qaeda organization.​​The death of Leonid Brezhnev in 1982 was somewhat of a shock for the USSR, as this has not happened since the 1953 death of Joseph Stalin. The leadership was so old that the next two general secretaries of the Communist Party (Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko) died within several years. They were followed by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985, who was younger and selected as a reformist, given the apparent decline of the Soviet economy.Top Soviet leaders, left to right: Lenin, Stalin, Khrushchev, Brezhnev, Andropov, Chernenko and Gorbachev.​​Throughout the 1980s, the gears of the US response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and Reagan's aggressive policies were turning. When the USSR shot down the Korean Air Lines Flight 007 and denied responsibility, Reagan (a movie actor by trade) publicly called the USSR the Evil empire. Later that year, NATO held comprehensive ten-year military exercise Able Archer 83, which was interpreted by the USSR as a preparation for an all-out attack - 1983 Soviet nuclear false alarm incident.In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev started a course toward broad reforms in the Soviet Union, but the economy was rotten, the agriculture did not produce enough food, and the military spending was high. The terrible 1986 Chernobyl nuclear-plant disaster was a major loss of face for the USSR - in terms of science, technology, industry, economics and even politically (showing the ineptitude of high officials).​​With their economy deteriorating and oil revenues dwindling, the USSR started taking on considerable debt, much of it to buy agricultural products in the US. Due to belt-tightening, Soviet Union withdrew from Afghanistan in 1988. In the meantime, the resistance to the Soviet control of Eastern Europe was increasing. The Polish trade union Solidarity spearheaded this resistance, to the point where the USSR was massing troops near the Polish border. The invasion was essentially prevented by the financial dependence on the West, and allowing Poland to hold its first presidential elections won by Lech Wałęsa (the leader of Solidarity). With Poland becoming unfriendly to the Soviet Union, the presence of Soviet troops in Eastern Germany was a no-go. The Eastern Germans started marching against the Soviet rule, and the 1990s German reunification was negotiated by the Western German leadership with Gorbachev. The Berlin Wall fell.​​​Czechoslovakia and Hungary freed themselves of the Communist rule at about the same time, with surprisingly little drama. Romania was a little late to the game, but caught up quickly with the brutal killing of its long-time communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu. It turned out that the official data on total support for the Communist parties and their leaders in Eastern Europe was fake.Next up was the Soviet Union itself. With the increasing Soviet Food Shortages and protests, the security services weakened and the centrifugal forces increased. Watching the events in Poland, Czechoslovakia and E. Germany, the three small Baltic republics annexed by the USSR in 1940 took a firm course toward independence, which they achieved de facto in early 1991 with surprisingly little violence (several dozen dead) - perhaps because the Soviet leadership was under pressure from the West. In the meantime, the prevailing mood in Russia was "let's stop feeding other republics", and Boris Yeltsin took matters in his hands, confronting his mentor Gorbachev and declaring the independence of the Russian Federation from the Soviet Union. The Dissolution of the Soviet Union was accelerated by the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt organized by the KGB bosses when Gorbachev was on vacation in Crimea. This attempt was quashed, with Yeltsin's help, and the Communist party was banned in Russia for several years. Tanks were introduced into Moscow to keep order.​​Ukraine - the second most powerful Soviet republic - declared independence at about the same time (August 1991), and the independence of the three Baltic states was officially recognized by Russia. Other republics followed, and the dissolution of the USSR was finalized by the December 1991 Belavezha Accords.In the aftermath, the post-Soviet space saw economic collapse for the next few days. Countries that were propped by the USSR, such as Cuba, lost their support. The US and Western Europe were able to dramatically reduce military spending and troop counts in Europe, while providing some financial help to Russia and other ex-Soviet countries. The countries of Eastern Europe mostly joined the EU and NATO. Perhaps, the greatest beneficiary of the Cold War was China - starting with Deng Xiaoping, it managed to avoid the destructive influences of the Cold War and maneuver between the two superpowers, while growing its economy.Surprising as it may seem, the outcome of the Cold War is viewed differently in Russia and everywhere else. The US, and most of Europe view the dissolution of the Warsaw pact and the Soviet Union as the natural consequence of its misguided economic policies, militarism, and undemocratic governance. However, current Russian leaders consider those events accidental and blame them on individual leaders like Gorbachev (sometimes calling them traitors).Rather than acknowledge the loss of the Cold War, Russian media is quick to put the blame on the US for Russia's troubled economy in the 1990s (forgetting that the US provided food to Russia for many years, as well as military assistance and even contracts to the Russian space industry to keep it afloat). Key themes in modern Russian politics are "Russia's getting from her knees" and "forcing the US to treat Russia as equal" - nothing sinister on the surface, but the main means to achieve these results is not a strong, reformed economy, but a massive rearmament, including the development of new nuclear weapons, missiles, submarines, tanks and fighter planes. So, are we up for a replay of the Cold War? - not really, because Russia is a shadow of the former USSR, whereas Europe is more united than ever before, and the Western block is much larger than it was during the Cold War. Nevertheless, a replay of the last ten years of the Cold War is looking increasingly likely. In particular, Russian paranoia about NATO betrays the lack of a crisp idea behind which the nation can unite, or at least a compelling vision of the country's future - this is the real crisis, and has nothing to do with other countries.Did I get anything wrong? Miss something important? - I would have loved to include the Iran–Iraq War (since all key Cold-war players were involved), but had to draw a line somewhere.For more details, see the Wikipedia article on the Cold War .

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