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How do you find the equation of the circle which passes through the points [math](2,-1)[/math], [math](4,-1)[/math], and [math](0,1)[/math]?

Nicholas’s answer is excellent. I was asked to answer, so I’ll take a slightly more geometric approach, and show how to derive a formula for the circle through 3 points [math]A = (x_0, y_0), B = (x_1, y_1), C = (x_2, y_2)[/math].Our first task will be to find the center of the circle through the three points. This will be a point equally distant to the three points. Consider the following diagram:First, we construct the perpendicular bisector [math]l[/math] to the line segment [math]\overline{AB}[/math], then the perpendicular bisector [math]k[/math] to the line segment[math]\overline{BC}[/math]. Call the point where [math]l[/math] intersects [math]\overline{AB}[/math] [math]D[/math] and the point where [math]k[/math] intersects [math]\overline{BC}[/math] [math]E[/math]. Then let [math]F[/math] be the intersection point of [math]l[/math] and [math]k[/math]. (If an intersection point does not exist, then [math]A, B,[/math] and [math]C[/math] are colinear, so there is no circle going through all three points.)I claim that [math]F[/math] is equally distant from [math]A,B,[/math] and [math]C[/math]. To see this, note that [math]\Delta FEC[/math] is congruent to [math]\Delta FEB[/math] (by SAS), so [math]FC = FB[/math]. Next, [math]\Delta [/math][math]FDB[/math][math][/math] is congruent to [math]\Delta FDA[/math], so [math]FB = FA[/math], which proves the claim.This means we can use the point [math]F[/math] as the center point of our circle through [math]A,B,[/math] and [math]C[/math]. For this, note that the line [math]\overleftrightarrow{FD}[/math] is the set of points equally distant from [math]A[/math] and [math]B[/math] and the line [math]\overleftrightarrow{FE}[/math] is the set of points equally distant from [math]B[/math] and [math]C[/math]. Therefore, we can write down the equations for the two lines as the set of points whose distance squared between the two points are equal. This gives us the following system of equations:[math](x - x_0)^2 [/math][math][/math][math]+ (y - y_0)^2 = (x - x_1)^2 [/math][math][/math][math]+ (y - y_1)^2[/math] (for [math]\overleftrightarrow{FD}[/math])[math](x - x_1)^2 [/math][math][/math][math]+ (y - y_1)^2 = (x - x_2)^2 [/math][math][/math][math]+ (y - y_2)^2[/math] (for [math]\overleftrightarrow{FE}[/math])(These are the equations that Nicholas starts with in his answer.) The intersection point [math]F[/math] will be the common solution to these equations. By FOILing and combining like terms, we can rewrite the system as a pair of linear equations in the two unknowns [math]x[/math] and [math]y[/math] (Check this!):[math](x_1 - x_0)x [/math][math][/math][math]+ (y_1 - y_0)y = \frac{1}{2}(x_1^2 [/math][math][/math][math]+ y_1^2 - (x_0^2 [/math][math][/math][math]+ y_0^2))[/math][math](x_2 - x_1)x [/math][math][/math][math]+ (y_2 - y_1)y = \frac{1}{2}(x_2^2 [/math][math][/math][math]+ y_2^2 - (x_1^2 [/math][math][/math][math]+ y_1^2))[/math]Solving this system gives us the center of our circle. Then to finish the problem, we only need to solve for the square of the distance between [math]F[/math] and one of [math]A, B[/math], or [math]C[/math]. For the sake of writing down a formula, we get [math]r^2 =[/math][math](x_0 - x)^2 [/math][math][/math][math]+ (y_0 - y)^2[/math] as the square of the distance between [math]F[/math] and [math]A[/math].Doing this for our particular problem, we get the two equations[math](4 - 2)x [/math][math][/math][math]+ (-1 - (-1))y = \frac{1}{2}(4^2 [/math][math][/math][math]+ (-1)^2 - (2^2 [/math][math][/math][math]+ (-1)^2))[/math][math](0 - 4)x [/math][math][/math][math]+ (1 - (-1))y = \frac{1}{2}(0^2 [/math][math][/math][math]+ 1^2 - (4^2 [/math][math][/math][math]+ (-1)^2))[/math]The first equation simplifies to[math]2x = \frac{1}{2}(12)[/math][math]\implies x = 3[/math].Then the second equation becomes[math]-4\cdot 3 [/math][math][/math][math]+ 2y = \frac{1}{2}(-16)[/math][math]\implies -12 [/math][math][/math][math]+ 2y = -8[/math][math]\implies 2y = 4[/math][math]\implies y = 2[/math].So the center of the circle is [math](3,2)[/math]. Finally, we solve for [math]r^2:[/math][math]r^2 = (x_0 - x)^2 [/math][math][/math][math]+ (y_0 - y)^2 = 1^2 [/math][math][/math][math]+ 3^2 = 10[/math].Plugging this into the formula for a circle, we get[math](x - 3)^2 [/math][math][/math][math]+ (y - 2)^2 = 10[/math].

What are some kinds of conditions that placebos can effectively "treat"?

Just reading the article concerning Magnesium Chloride and then learning how to use it will have a “placebo effect” on most people,in the conditions mentioned in the article,as well as actually being a beneficial health food at the same time.The article that follows it is about an essential element,Iodine,held in such high regard by some physicians,as to be described as”the greatest panacea of all mankind’s ills “. It also goes into some detail of what conditions this element is helpful in treating.I felt it was like putting the Ambulance at the top of the cliff instead of the bottom,when I read and understood what it’s use does in preventing certain types of Cancer. In fact I found both articles to be very upbeat,positive and refreshing concerning general health,and hope they have the same effect on you the reader.MAGNESIUM CHLORIDEfor Health & Rejuvenationby Dr Walter LastMagnesium is nothing short of a miracle mineral in its healing effect on a wide range of diseases as well as in its ability to rejuvenate the aging body. We know that it is essential for many enzyme reactions, especially in regard to cellular energy production, for the health of the brain and nervous system and also for healthy teeth and bones. However, it may come as a surprise that in the form of magnesium chloride it is also an impressive infection fighter.The first prominent researcher to investigate and promote the antibiotic effects of magnesium was a French surgeon, Prof. Pierre Delbet MD. In 1915 he was looking for a solution to cleanse wounds of soldiers, because he found that traditionally used antiseptics actually damaged tissues and encouraged infections instead of preventing them. In all his tests magnesium chloride solution was by far the best. Not only was it harmless for tissues, but it also greatly increased leucocyte activity and phagocytosis, the destruction of microbes.Later Prof. Delbet also performed experiments with the internal applications of magnesium chloride and found it to be a powerful immune-stimulant. In his experiments phagocytosisincreased by up to 333%. This means after magnesium chloride intake the same number of white blood cells destroyed up to three times more microbes than beforehand.Gradually Prof. Delbet found magnesium chloride to be beneficial in a wide range of diseases. These included diseases of the digestive tract such as colitis and gall bladder problems, Parkinson's disease, tremors and muscle cramps; acne, eczema, psoriasis, warts and itching skin; impotence, prostatic hypertrophy, cerebral and circulatory problems; asthma, hay fever, urticaria and anaphylactic reactions. Hair and nails became stronger and healthier and patients had more energy.Prof. Delbet also found a very good preventative effect on cancer and cured precancerous conditions such as leukoplasia, hyperkeratosis and chronic mastitis. Epidemiological studies confirmed that regions with magnesium-rich soil had less cancer than those with low magnesium levels.Another French doctor, A. Neveu, cured several diphtheria patients with magnesium chloride within two days. He also published 15 cases of poliomyelitis that were cured within days if treatment was started immediately, or within months if paralysis had already progressed. Neveualso found magnesium chloride effective with asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia and emphysema; pharyngitis, tonsillitis, hoarseness, common cold, influenza, whooping cough, measles, rubella, mumps, scarlet fever; poisoning, gastro-enteritis, boils, abscesses, whitlow, infected wounds and osteomyelitis.In more recent years Dr Vergini and others have confirmed these earlier results and have added more diseases to the list of successful uses: acute asthma attacks, shock, tetanus, herpes zoster, acute and chronic conjunctivitis, optic neuritis, rheumatic diseases, many allergic diseases, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and beneficial effects in cancer therapy. In all of these cases magnesium chloride had been used and gave much better results than other magnesium compounds.Magnesium for NervesMagnesium has a calming effect on the nervous system. With this, it is frequently used to promote good sleep. But more importantly, it can be used to calm irritated and over-excited nerves. This is especially useful with epileptic seizures, convulsions in pregnant women and the 'shakes' in alcoholism. Magnesium levels are generally low in alcoholics, contributing or causing many of their health problems. If magnesium levels are low, the nerves lose control over muscle activity, respiration and mental processes. Nervous fatigue, tics and twitches, tremors, irritability, hypersensitivity, muscle spasms, restlessness, anxiety, confusion, disorientation and irregular heartbeat all respond to increased magnesium levels. A common phenomenon of magnesium deficiency is a sharp muscle reaction to an unexpected loud noise. 'Memory pills' have been marketed that consist mainly of magnesium.Many of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease can be overcome with high magnesium supplementation, shaking can be prevented and rigidity eased. With preeclampsia pregnant women may develop convulsions, nausea, dizziness and headaches. In hospitals this is treated with magnesium infusions. Because of its strong relaxing effect, magnesium helps not only to have a better sleep but is also useful in overcoming headaches and migraines. Even the number of suicides are linked to magnesium deficiency. The lower the magnesium content in soil and water in a given region, the higher are the rates of suicides.Epilepsy is marked by abnormally low magnesium levels in the blood, spinal fluid and brain, causing hyperexcitability in regions of the brain. There are many reported causes of epilepsy greatly improving or disappearing with magnesium supplementation. In a trial with 30 epileptics 450 mg of magnesium supplied daily successfully controlled seizures. Another study found that the lower the magnesium blood levels the more severe was the epilepsy. In most cases magnesium works best in combination with vitamin B6 and zinc. In sufficient concentrations, magnesium inhibits convulsions by limiting or slowing the spread of the electric discharge from an isolated group of brain cells to the rest of the brain. Animal studies show that even the initial burst of firing nerve cells that starts an epileptic attack can be suppressed with magnesium.Magnesium for the HeartAdequate levels of magnesium are essential for the heart muscle. Those who die from heart attacks have very low magnesium but high calcium levels in their heart muscles. Patients with coronary heart disease who have been treated with large amounts of magnesium survived better than those with drug treatment. Magnesium dilates the arteries of the heart and lowers cholesterol and fat levels.High calcium levels, on the other hand, constrict the heart arteries and increase the risk of heart attacks. Calcium deposits in the walls of the arteries contribute to the development of arteriosclerosis. The arteries become hard and rigid, thereby restricting the blood flow and causing high blood pressure. In addition, such inelastic blood vessels may easily rapture and cause strokes. Countries with the highest calcium to magnesium ratios (high calcium and low magnesium levels) in soil and water have the highest incidence of cardiovascular disease. At the top of the list is Australia.Worldwide the intake of magnesium has been lowered and that of calcium increased because of the heavy use of fertilisers high in calcium and low in magnesium. With this, the intake of magnesium from our food has steadily declined in the last fifty years, while the use of calcium-rich fertilisers and cardiovascular disease have greatly increased at the same time.Diabetics are prone to atherosclerosis, fatty degeneration of the liver and heart disease. Diabetics have low magnesium tissue levels. They often develop eye problems - retinopathy. Diabetics with the lowest magnesium levels had the most severe retinopathy. The lower the magnesium content of their water, the higher is the death rate of diabetics from cardiovascular disease. In an American study the death rate due to diabetes was four times higher in areas with low magnesium water levels as compared to areas with high levels of magnesium in the water.Magnesium for Healthy Bones & TeethMedical authorities claim that the widespread incidence of osteoporosis and tooth decay in western countries can be prevented with a high calcium intake. However, published evidence reveals that the opposite is true. Asian and African populations with a very low intake of about 300 mg of calcium daily have very little osteoporosis. Bantu women with an intake of 200 to 300 mg of calcium daily have the lowest incidence of osteoporosis in the world. In western countries with a high intake of dairy products the average calcium intake is about 1000 mg. The higher the calcium intake, especially in the form of cows' milk products (except butter) the higher the incidence of osteoporosis.Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus levels are kept in a seesaw balance by the parathyroid hormones. If calcium goes up, magnesium goes down and vice versa. With a low magnesium intake, calcium goes out of the bones to increase tissue levels, while a high magnesium intake causes calcium to go out of the tissues into the bones. A high phosphorus intake without a high calcium or magnesium intake causes calcium to leach from the bones and leave the body with the urine. A high phosphorus intake with high calcium and magnesium leads to bone mineralisation.Dr Barnett, an orthopaedic surgeon practised in two different U.S. Counties with very different soil and water mineral levels. In Dallas County with a high calcium and low magnesium concentration osteoporosis and hip fractures were very common, while in Hereford with high magnesium and low calcium these were nearly absent. In Dallas County the magnesium content of bones was 0.5% while in Hereford it was 1.76%. In another comparison the magnesium content in bones of osteoporosis sufferers was 0.62% while in healthy individuals it was 1.26%.The same applies for healthy teeth. In a New Zealand study it was found that caries-resistant teeth had on average twice the amount of magnesium as caries-prone teeth. The average concentration of magnesium phosphate in bones is given as about 1%, in teeth about 1.5%, in elephant tusks 2% and in the teeth of carnivorous animals made to crush bones it is 5%. In regard to the strength of bones and teeth think of calcium as chalk and of magnesium as superglue. The magnesium superglue binds and transforms the chalk into superior bones and teeth.Cancer and AgingMany studies have shown an increased cancer rate in regions with low magnesium levels in soil and drinking water. In Egypt the cancer rate was only about 10% of that in Europe and America. In the rural fellah it was practically non-existent. The main difference was an extremely high magnesium intake of 2.5 to 3 g in these cancer-free populations, ten times more than in most western countries.Dr Seeger and Dr Budwig in Germany have shown that cancer is mainly the result of a faulty energy metabolism in the powerhouses of the cells, the mitochondria. A similar decline in energy production takes place when we age. The great majority of enzymes involved in the production of energy require magnesium. A healthy cell has high magnesium and low calcium levels. Up to 30% of the energy of cells is used to pump calcium out of the cells. The higher the calcium level and the lower the magnesium level in the extra-cellular fluid, the harder is it for cells to pump the calcium out. The result is that with low magnesium levels the mitochondria gradually calcify and energy production decreases. We may say that our biochemical age is determined by the ratio of magnesium to calcium within our cells. Test with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome showed that magnesium supplementation resulted in better energy levels.We use our muscles by selectively contracting them. On the biochemical level muscle contraction is triggered by calcium ions flowing into muscle cells. To relax the muscle calcium is pumped out again. However, as we age, more and more calcium remains trapped in the muscles and these become more or less permanently contracted, leading to increasing muscle tension and spasms. Together with calcification of the joints, this is the typical rigidity and inflexibility of old age. The higher our intake of calcium relative to magnesium, the faster do we calcify and age. Most of the excess calcium in our diet ends up in our soft tissues and around joints leading to calcification with arthritic deformations, arteriosclerosis, cataracts, kidney stones and senility. Dr Seyle proved experimentally that biochemical stress can lead to the pathological calcification of almost any organ. The more stress, the more calcification, the more rapid the aging.The Rejuvenation MineralIn addition to its anti-microbial and immune-stimulating properties, both magnesium as well as chloride have other important functions in keeping us young and healthy. Chloride, of course, is required to produce a large quantity of gastric acid each day and is also needed to stimulate starch-digesting enzymes. Magnesium is the mineral of rejuvenation and prevents the calcification of our organs and tissues that is characteristic of the old-age related degeneration of our body.Using other magnesium salts is less advantageous because these have to be converted into chlorides in the body anyway. We may use magnesium as oxide or carbonate but then we need to produce additional hydrochloric acid to absorb them. Many aging individuals, especially with chronic diseases who desperately need more magnesium cannot produce sufficient hydrochloric acid and then cannot absorb the oxide or carbonate. Epsom salt is magnesium sulphate. It is soluble but not well absorbed and acts mainly as a laxative. Chelated magnesium is well absorbed but much more expensive and lacks the beneficial contribution of the chloride ions. Orotates are good but very expensive for the amount of magnesium that they provide and both orotates and chelates seem to lack the infection-fighting potential of the magnesium chloride.Calcium and magnesium are opposites in their effects on our body structure. As a general rule, the softer our body structure the more we need calcium, while the more rigid and inflexible it is, the less calcium and the more magnesium we need. Magnesium can reverse the age-related degenerative calcification of our body structure and with this help us to rejuvenate.Young women, children and most of all babies have soft body structures and smooth skin with low calcium and high magnesium levels in their cells and soft tissues. They generally need high calcium intakes. This is the biochemistry of youth. As we age and most pronounced in old men and post-menopausal women, we become more and more inflexible. The arteries harden to cause arteriosclerosis, the skeletal system calcifies to cause rigidity with fusion of the spine and joints, kidneys and other organs and glands increasingly calcify and harden with stone formation, calcification in the eyes causes cataracts and even the skin hardens, becoming tough and wrinkled. In this way calcium is in the same league as oxygen and free radicals, while magnesium works together with hydrogen and the antioxidants to keep our body structure soft.A gynaecologist reported that one of the first organs to calcify are the ovaries, leading to pre-menstrual tension. When he put his patients on a high magnesium intake their PMT vanished and they felt and looked much younger. Most of these women said that they lost weight, increased their energy, felt less depressed and enjoyed sex again much more than before. For men it is equally beneficial for problems arising from an enlarged prostate gland. Symptoms commonly improve after a period of supplementation with magnesium chloride.Increased magnesium intake has also been shown to be an effective way to prevent or dissolve kidney stones and gall bladder stones, the latter best in combination with a high lecithin intake. Activation of digestive enzymes and bile production as well as helping to restore a healthy intestinal flora may be the factors that make magnesium chloride so beneficial in normalising our digestive processes, reducing any digestive discomfort, bloating and offensive stool odours. This is in line with a reduction of all offensive body odours, including underarm and foot odour.Prof. Delbet used to give magnesium chloride solution routinely to his patients with infections and for several days before any planned surgery and was surprised by many of these patients experiencing euphoria and bursts of energy. Magnesium chloride supposedly has a specific action on the tetanus virus and its effects on the body. It even seems to be protective against snakebites. Guinea pigs did not die after normally lethal injections of snake venom and a rabbit survived a poisonous snakebite when given magnesium chloride solution.In addition to being the most essential mineral in our cellular energy production, magnesium is also needed for the ingested B-vitamins to become metabolically active. Magnesium is also essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids, for cell division to occur, for DNA and RNA synthesis of our genetic material, for protein as well as fatty acid synthesis. Unfortunately magnesium deficiency at a cellular level where it counts is not easy to diagnose, as serum magnesium levels do not correlate to muscle or cellular magnesium levels. Instead of trying difficult tissue magnesium analysis to find out if your health problems may be due to low magnesium levels, it is much easier and more effective just to take more magnesium and see what happens.Researchers at the Lille Pasteur Institute found in a prospective study with over 4,000 men over an 18-year follow up period that high levels of magnesium were associated with a 50 percent decrease in cancer mortality, and a 40 percent decrease in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality ("Zinc, Copper and Magnesium and Risks for All-Cause Cancer, and Cardiovascular Mortality" Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 3, May 2006, Epidemiology).Rejuvenation by ingesting more magnesium is a slow process, especially as the amount of magnesium that we can take is limited by its laxative effect and the need to keep it in a reasonable balance with the calcium and phosphorus intake. The other problem is that spastic muscles have a poor blood and lymph circulation, which makes it difficult for the ingested magnesium to dissolve and flush out the tissue and joint calcifications. Therefore, we can greatly speed up the rejuvenation process by increasing the circulation through permanently contracted muscles as with deep tissue massage, hot and cold water applications, relaxation exercises, lymphasising as well as packs and rubs with magnesium chloride or Epsom salts.How much?Hydrated magnesium chloride contains about 120 mg of magnesium per gram or 600 mg per rounded teaspoon. It has a somewhat bitter-salty taste and a mildly laxative effect. To improve or maintain your health you may use up to 600 mg of magnesium daily in divided doses with meals, well diluted in a drink or mixed with food.With raised blood pressure, calcifications and other symptoms of magnesium deficiency you may use 600 mg orally in addition to any transdermal application of magnesium oil for arthritis or muscle relaxation. With low blood pressure you may use about 300 mg of magnesium daily in addition to some extra calcium. As a source of calcium you may dissolve some self-made eggshell powder in citrus juice or vinegar. Actual amounts are not important as the body absorbs only as much as it needs.For daily use it will be more convenient to dissolve the magnesium chloride in water. You may dissolve 10 lightly rounded teaspoons of the crystals in a medium size glass of water or, more accurately, 50g in 150 ml of water. Decant and discard any undissolved residue. One teaspoon of this solution three times daily with food or drink provides a daily intake of about 600 mg of magnesium. Alternatively you may fill a jar half full with magnesium chloride flakes and then to the top with water. This provides similar amounts of magnesium.Individuals with very sensitive taste buds may start using it in tiny amounts mixed with strongly flavoured food and increase doses very gradually. You may start adding one drop to a glass of water or mixed with a meal. If that is alright, then next time add two drops, and then three until it starts tasting unpleasant. Cut back temporarily, but after another week or two you may not taste it anymore and you can start adding further drops until you reach the desired intake. I had many people complaining that they cannot use it because they had started taking it in too high a dose or too concentrated.While for some conditions it can be helpful to take a larger amount and wash it down with a drink, you need to be careful as this can easily upset the stomach. For everyday use I recommend adding it in small amounts to food and drink so that it is present in amounts that would be normally present in water and food with a high mineral content. It definitely should not taste unpleasant, and in most cases the actual amount used every day is not that important.This same solution may also be used as a pack over tumours and infected, inflamed, painful, stiff or calcified joints, muscles, adhesions or scar tissue. It is also excellent to use a weak solution as a back rub and all over the body to relax tense muscles anywhere and even to rejuvenate ageing skin. For sensitive skin use it in a strongly diluted form. On wounds it was commonly used in a 4% solution that is 4 g or a level teaspoon in 100 ml or a small glass of water.With acute infections dissolve 40 g or 8 slightly rounded teaspoons in 1 liter of water. With children commonly a small glassful or 125 ml has been used every 6 hours. Adults may double this dose by drinking this amount every 3 hours or even more until diarrhoea develops and then cut back to a maintenance intake just below the level of diarrhoea until the infection has cleared. If you have sensitive taste buds the taste may be rather unpleasant in this concentrated form. Therefore try to drink it in one gulp while pinching your nose and quickly drink something pleasant afterwards.For general relaxation as well as for back pain and arthritic or muscle pain and stiffness either magnesium chloride or Epsom salts may be used. Both are excellent to soak in a hot bath with the addition of up to 1 kg of magnesium salts. Also hot magnesium salt packs may be used over stiff or painful muscles and joints. Keep warm for one to two hours with a hot water bottle.There is also a non-hydrated or desiccated magnesium chloride available; it contains approximately twice as much magnesium as the hydrated product. If using this then just half the amounts indicated above. It is now also available in tablet form but more expensive.Instead of magnesium chloride, you may use the brine from the production of sea salt. It has the advantage of having more trace minerals than the technical magnesium chloride, but due to its high content of magnesium sulphate it is also rather bitter. While magnesium chloride does have a laxative effect, magnesium sulphate or Epsom salts is much better suitable if used purely as a laxative because it is less well absorbed and therefore attracts more water into the intestines.While a higher magnesium intake is beneficial for most individuals, those with low blood pressure usually require more calcium in addition. Normal blood pressure is about 120/80; the lower it is the higher should be the daily intake of calcium. While those with high blood pressure may benefit from ingesting up to twice as much magnesium as calcium, those with low blood pressure may take twice as much calcium as magnesium, but both minerals in relatively high amounts. Those with low blood pressure and a tendency towards inflammations may also reduce their intake of phosphorus. A high level of phosphorus in the blood tends to cause magnesium and calcium levels to be low.Normally a good diet should provide all necessary vitamins and minerals. Presently supplementation is often indicated because of malabsorption, poor dietary choices, metabolic defects, and specific diseases. Also some drugs, such as diuretic and antibiotics may cause magnesium deficiency. When supplementing with magnesium or other vitamins and minerals, the balance with related nutrients, such as calcium and phosphorus, and also the fluid intake, are usually more important than the absolute intake of magnesium or any other single nutrient. If in doubt consult a qualified health professional.For supplies of magnesium chloride in Australia see Resources. For adding large amounts to bath water you may try to obtain hydrated magnesium chloride in 25 kg bulk quantities from companies that supply agricultural and water chemicals. Commonly it originates from evaporated seawater and especially from the Dead Sea.Magnesium Oil is a concentrated and nearly saturated solution of magnesium chloride in water. It is called “oil” because of the smooth oily feeling when rubbed onto the skin. Magnesium is relatively easily absorbed through the skin, and in this way is an effective way to relax tense muscles and improve arthritic joint problems. It is especially good for low back pain. In addition to skin rubs you may also use hot packs with cloths soaked in magnesium oil.For more information on magnesium oil see www.health-science-spirit.com/MagOil.htm. An excellent book on the external use of magnesium oil is Transdermal Magnesium Therapy by Mark Sircus. For a supply of magnesium oil in Australia based on magnesium chloride from the Dead Sea see www.strideintohealth.com, while www.magneticclay.com in the USA distribute magnesium oil from ‘Ancient Minerals’.CAUTION: Magnesium supplementation should be avoided with severe kidney problems (severe renal insufficiency when on dialysis), and also with myasthenia gravis. Be careful with severe adrenal weakness or with low blood pressure. Too much magnesium can cause muscle weakness, if this happens temporarily use more calcium. Signs of excess magnesium (hypermagnesia) can be similar to magnesium deficiency and include changes in mental status, nausea, diarrhoea, appetite loss, muscle weakness, difficulty breathing, extremely low blood pressure, and irregular heartbeat.MAGNESIUM PROFILEMagnesium is mainly found inside the cells, it activates many enzymes and is necessary for the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and amino acids. It is essential for the functions of muscles and nerves and for the formation of bones and teeth. Generally it counteracts and regulates the influence of calcium.Some early signs of magnesium deficiency are loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weakness. Increased deficiency may show as numbness, tingling, muscle contractions and cramps, seizures, personality changes, abnormal heart rhythms, and coronary spasms. Severe deficiency results in low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia), and is also associated with low levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia).Deficiency Symptoms & Increased Requirements:CIRCULATION: angina, arteriosclerosis/atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, heart infarcts, , strokes, tachycardia (fast pulse), thrombosis.DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: colic, constipation, chronic diarrhoea, malabsorption, pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas).MUSCLES: backache, convulsions, cramps, increased excitability/jumpiness, numbness, nystagmus (rapid eye movements), spasms, tense/tight muscles, tingling, tremors.NERVOUS SYSTEM: apathy, confusion, depression, disorientation, epilepsy, hallucinations, irritability, mental illness, multiple sclerosis, nervousness, neuritis paranoia, Parkinson's disease, poor memory, senility.GENERAL: alcoholism, arthritis, body odours, broken bones, calcification in any organ, cancer, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, diabetes, eclampsia, headaches, infections and inflammations, liver cirrhosis, lupus erythematosus, migraines, old age, prostate problems, rickets, rigidity - mental and physical, skin wrinkled and tough, stiffness, stone-formation in gall bladder or kidneys, thyroid overactive.Best Sources:Fresh grass juice (e.g. wheat grass, barley grass) and powder of cereal grasses, vegetable juices, kelp, seawater, seafood, green leaves, molasses, soaked nuts, oily seeds and sprouted seeds. Magnesium is the central mineral in chlorophyll, which has a similar protein structure as haemoglobin.HOMEHEALING FOODSBODYDISEASESENERGIESEMOTIONSMINDSPIRITUALITYIODINEBring Back the Universal Nutrient MedicineInternational Medical Veritas AssociationMedical textbooks contain several vital pieces of misinformationabout the essential element Iodine, which may have causedmore human misery and death than both world wars combined.Dr. Guy AbrahamThe present situation we find ourselves in at the very beginning of the 21st century demands that we quickly reengineer medicine, not only mainstream allopathic but all the branches and alternatives. Consciousness is just forming around the conclusion that the majority of humans today are suffering from chronic poisoning. It is not just the fact that the tide of toxic chemicals is rising and accumulating in our cells and blood streams, wrecking physiological, emotional and mental havoc, but there is also a sheer drop in the quality and quantity of key nutrients being consumed. Iodine is a perfect example, in today’s world the last thing you want to be short on is iodine.Iodine is detected in everyorgan and tissue in the body.We might debate about the optimum dosage but we should find quick agreement that iodine is absolutely necessary for a healthy thyroid as well as healthy ovaries, breasts and prostate. Beside the greater risk for breast cancer in iodine deficient women, there is convincing evidence that iodine deficiency increases also the risk of thyroid cancer. These are just a few of the reasons to become interested in iodine. In an age of increasing toxic exposures we all need more not less iodine because it has very specific protective effects against several common poisons like fluoride, bromide, and to a lesser extent it helps eliminate lead and mercury from the body. Dr. Sebastiano Venturi, in Evolution of Dietary Antioxidants: Role of Iodine, makes it clear that iodine is a crucial antioxidant and apoptosis-inductor with anti-tumoral and anti-atherosclerotic activity. When we supplement with iodine we will see increased antioxidant activity [i] and immune system function [ii].Iodine, Cancer and Fibrocystic DiseaseSeveral studies have demonstrated a relationshipbetween low iodine intake and fibrocystic disease of thebreast (FDB), both in women and laboratory animals. [iii]Dr. David Derry said, “Lugol's solution is an iodine-in-water solution used by the medical profession for 200 years. One drop (6.5 mg per drop) of Lugol's daily in water, orange juice or milk will gradually eliminate the first phase of the cancer development namely fibrocystic disease of the breast so no new cancers can start. It also will kill abnormal cells floating around in the body at remote sites from the original cancer. Of course this approach appears to work for prostate cancer as prostate cancer is similar to breast cancer in many respects. Indeed, it likely will help with most cancers. Also higher doses of iodine are required for inflammatory breast cancer. As well we know that large doses of intravenous iodine are harmless which makes one wonder what effect this would have on cancer growth.”Because iodine deficiency results in increased iodine trappingby the thyroid, iodine deficient individuals of all agesare more susceptible to radiation-induced thyroid cancer.Iodine plays a crucial role in the body’s elimination system by inducing apoptosis, or what is called programmed cell death, and this is vital because this process is essential to growth and development and for destroying cells that represent a threat to the integrity of the organism, like cancer cells and cells infected with viruses.Women with goiters (a visible, non-cancerous enlargement ofthe thyroid gland) owing to iodine deficiency have been foundto have a three times greater incidence of breast cancer.A high intake of iodine is associated with a low incidence breastcancer, and a low intake with a high incidence of breast cancer.Dr. Donald Miller Jr.Iodine is a very important primary nutrient in regards to people’s health and healing. So essential is iodine for life that those who are deficient in it suffer from a wide variety of afflictions (including cancer) that are difficult to trace back to this trace mineral. Iodine used to be considered much more importantly, so much so that up until 20 years ago, it had been routinely added to bread as a supplement. "Just how likely is an iodine deficiency in cancer? In an in-house study, 60 cancer patients (various types) were given the iodine-loading test and then measured for urinary excretion. All 60 patients were found to be seriously deficient in body stores of iodine and some had great excesses of bromine. The best case excreted only 50 percent of the load and the worst excreted only 20 percent (that means they were retaining a very high 80 percent). Folks, these are some serious numbers. One hundred percent of these cancer sufferers were deficient in iodine! I assure you the problem is population wide," writes Dr. Robert Rowen.60 million mainland Japanese consume a daily averageof 13.8 mg of elemental iodine, and they are one of the healthiestnations based on overall well being and cancer statistics. [iv]Iodine is available in small amounts in some salts but health officials do not consider that most of the iodine evaporates while sitting on the kitchen table. In the United States 45 percent of American households buy salt without iodine and over the last three decades people who do use iodized table salt have decreased their consumption of it by 65 percent. Americans are consuming less iodine when in reality they need much more.Iodine the AntisepticIodine is by far the best antibiotic,antiviral and antiseptic of all time.Dr. David DerryThe antiseptic properties of iodine are used to sterilize every surface and material in hospitals. Iodine is an excellent microbicide with a broad range of action that includes almost all of the important health-related microorganisms, such as enteric bacteria, enteric viruses, bacterial viruses, fungi and protozoan cysts.[v] The minimum number of iodine molecules required to destroy one bacterium varies with the species. For H. influenzae it was calculated to be 15000 molecules of iodine per cell. When bacteria are treated with iodine, the inorganic phosphate up-take and oxygen consumption by the cells immediately ceases. [vi]Though iodine kills all single celled organisms such as these it is not exploited for internal use by modern day physicians to combat internal infections, which of course is a great mistake. Dr. Derry says iodine is effective “for standard pathogens such as Staphylococcus, but also iodine has the broadest range of action, fewest side effects and no development of bacterial resistance.” Some doctors have reported that it is excellent for the treatment of mononucleosis.Iodine is able to penetrate quicklythrough the cell walls of microorganisms.Iodine is a deadly enemy of single cell microorganisms thus it can be our best friend. Iodine was not available to these life forms at the beginning of evolution and it was not until seaweed concentrated it did it become involved in higher life forms. It is for this reason that the simplest level of life cannot tolerate iodine. Iodine kills single celled organisms by combining with the amino acids tyrosine or histidine when they are exposed to the extra-cellular environment. All single cells showing tyrosine on their outer cell membranes are killed instantly by a simple chemical reaction with iodine that denatures proteins. Nature and evolution have given us an important mechanism to control pathogenic life forms and we should use it and trust it to protect us in ways that antibiotics can’t. As we shall see directly below, so powerful is iodine in a protective sense that it also helps us rid the body, not only of harmful chemicals and heavy metals, but also rids the body of abnormal cells meaning it qualifies as an anticancer agent.Elemental iodine is a potent germicide with a wide spectrum of activity and low toxicity to tissues. A solution containing 50 ppm iodine kills bacteria in 1 min and spores in 15 min. It is poorly soluble in water but readily dissolves in ethanol, which enhances its antibacterial activity. Iodine tincture contains 2% iodine and 2.4% sodium iodide (NaI) dissolved in 50% ethanol; it is used as a skin disinfectant. Strong iodine tincture contains 7% iodine and 5% potassium iodide (KI) dissolved in 95% ethanol; it is more potent but also more irritating than tincture of iodine. Iodine solution contains 2% iodine and 2.4% NaI dissolved in aqueous solution; it is used as a nonirritant antiseptic on wounds and abrasions. Strong iodine solution (Lugol’s solution) contains 5% iodine and 10% KI in aqueous solution. Iodophores (eg, povidone-iodine) are water-soluble combinations of iodine with detergents, wetting agents that are solubilizers, and other carriers. They slowly release iodine as an antimicrobial agent and are widely used as skin disinfectants, particularly before surgery.Medical iodophobia has reached pandemic proportions.It is highly contagious and has wreaked havoc on thepractice of medicine and on the U.S. population.Dr. Guy AbrahamAccording to current W.H.O. statistics more than 3 billion people in the world live in iodine deficient countries and it is known that deficiencies of selenium, vitamin A and iron may exacerbate the effects of iodine deficiency. In the analysis of ‘National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys’ data of moderate to severe iodine deficiency is present now in a significant proportion of the U.S. population, with a clear increasing trend over the past 20 years, caused by reduced iodized table salt usage [Vii].Along with magnesium and selenium, iodine is one of the most deficient minerals in our bodies. Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormone, but selenium-dependent enzymes (iodothyronine deiodinases) are also required for the conversion of thyroxine (T4) to the biologically active thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3). Selenium is the primary mineral responsible for T4 to T3 (thyroid hormones) conversion in the liver. (Selenium is absolutely essential in the age of mercury toxicity for it is the perfect antidote for mercury exposure. It is literally raining mercury all over the world but especially in the northern hemisphere. And of course with the dentists poisoning a world of patients with mercury dental amalgam and the doctors with their mercury laden vaccines, selenium is more important than most of us can imagine. One must remember that mercury strips the body of selenium for the selenium stores get used up quickly because of its great affinity for mercury).Iodine is the agent which arouses (kindles) and keeps going theflame of life. With the aid of our thyroid, in which the iodine ismanifesting, it can either damp this flame or kindle it to a dissolute fire.Scholz 1990.Symptoms of iodine deficiency include muscle cramps, cold hands and feet, proneness to weight gain, poor memory, constipation, depression and headaches, edema, myalgia, weakness, dry skin, and brittle nails. Sources include most sea foods, (ocean fish, but not fresh fish, shellfish, especially oysters), unrefined sea salt, kelp and other sea weeds, fish broth, butter, pineapple, artichokes, asparagus, dark green vegetables and eggs. Certain vegetables, such as cabbage and spinach, can block iodine absorption when eaten raw or unfermented and are called goitrogens. But eating fish won't give you iodine in mg amounts. To get 13.8 mg iodine, you would have to eat 10-20 pounds of fish per day. [viii]Iodine is needed in microgram amounts for the thyroid,mg amounts for breast and other tissues, and canbe used therapeutically in gram amounts [ix]Dr. David MillerInorganic non-radioactive iodine/iodide is an essential nutrient, not a drug. Therefore, the body has the metabolic mechanism for using inorganic iodine beneficially, effectively and safely. Iodine is as safe as magnesium chloride with a track record of 180 years of use in medicine. Published data confirms its safety even when used in pulmonary patients in amounts four orders of magnitude greater than the US RDA [x]. When patients take between 12.5 to 50 mg of iodine per day, it seems that the body becomes increasingly more responsive to thyroid hormones [xi]. Optimal intake of iodine in amounts two orders of magnitude greater than iodine levels needed for goiter control may be required for iodization of hormone receptors [xii].Iodine helps us utilize our proteins properly. In all likelihoodan iodine deficient person will remain protein deficient.Dr. Bryce VickeryIodine is the essential ingredient in thyroid hormone synthesis. So if deficient, protein synthesis will be disturbed. Thyroid hormones have two major physiological effects. They increase protein synthesis in virtually every body tissue and increase oxygen consumption dependent upon Na+ -K+ ATPase (Na pump). The thyroid gland needs iodine to synthesize thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), hormones that regulate metabolism and steer growth and development. Thyroid hormones are essential for life as they regulate key biochemical reactions, especially protein synthesis and enzymatic activities, in target organs such as are the developing brain, muscle, heart, pituitary and kidney[xiii]; thus iodine is critically important to the developing fetus.Iodine transport damage can be corrected, in part, by administrationof reasonably high doses of ascorbic acid or more natural Vitamin C.The thyroid hormones are synthesized in the follicular cells of the thyroid. The first step to hormone synthesis is the import of iodide into the follicular cells. Thyroid hormone regulates mitochondrial protein synthesis through the stimulation of synthesis of mitochondrial protein synthesis modulators, and that the tissue specific modulators (stimulatory in liver and inhibitory in kidney) can be produced by the hormone. [xiv] Whole body iodine sufficiency is a critical means to counter the side effects of thyroid hormone medications (Synthroid, etc.). Long-term use of these drugs is associated with depletion of thyroid and tissue iodine levels, as well as increased rates of cancer. All thyroid patients should be on iodine therapy.Iodine is a powerful primary nutrient with broad medicinal effects and a hundred years ago it was used universally by most doctors. From 1900 to the 1960s almost every single U.S. physician used Lugol (iodine) supplements in his or her practice for both hypo and hyperthyroid, as well as many, many other conditions all with excellent results. In fact, iodine was considered a panacea for all human ills. The Nobel laureate Dr. Albert Szent Györgi (1893 - 1986), the physician who discovered vitamin C, writes: "When I was a medical student, iodine in the form of KI (potassium iodide) was the universal medicine. Nobody knew what it did, but it did something and did something good.” Today we know what iodine does and how much it can help people but modern allopathic medicine is asleep at the switch letting people suffer and die for its lacking.Iodine is a gatekeeper of mammary gland integrity"Breast, ovarian, and skin cysts - In addition to fixing almost all cases of breast cysts, iodine also has a remarkable healing effect on ovarian cysts,” says Dr. Robert Rowen. Though few know it swollen ovaries is a condition analogous to goiter, when the thyroid swells in response to iodine deficiency. Goiters often also result in a hormonal imbalance leading to hypothyroidism. In the case of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) the starvation of the ovaries causes them to become cystic, swollen and eventually unable to regulate the synthesis of their hormones leading to imbalances and infertility. Russian studies when investigating Fibrocystic breast disease also discovered that the greater the iodine deficiency the greater the number of cysts in the ovaries. Since 1928, the iodine concentration in the ovary has been known to be higher than in every other organ except the thyroid. Dr. Browstein has found in his research with high doses of iodine that cysts on the ovaries became smaller and began to disappear. He also found that libido in women and men increased.It takes 20 to 40 times the amount of Iodine needed to controlbreast cancer and fibrocystic disease than it does to prevent goiter.In sufficient amounts iodine can not only adjust a dysfunctional thyroid, it can assist with a host of glandular imbalances as well as a wide assortment of internal as well as external bacteria, fungi, and virus's. Iodine has many non-endocrine biologic effects, including the role it plays in the physiology of the inflammatory response. Iodides increase the movement of granulocytes into areas of inflammation and improve the phagocytosis of bacteria by granulocytes and the ability of granulocytes to kill bacteria [xv].Dr. Robert Rowen informs that iodine reduces the activity of lipoprotein(a). When elevated, this protein can lead to excessive blood clotting and vascular disease. Iodine has been used successfully in headaches, keloid formation, parotid duct stones, and Dupuytren's and Peyronie’s contractures. Doses up to six times the RDA have been used safely for months to combat the excessive mucous in chronic lung diseases. He also states that Iodine is found in large amounts in the brain (including the parts of the brain associated with Parkinson’s disease) and the ciliary body of the eye, a possible factor in glaucoma."One 1860 French physician mistakenly gave a tincture of iodine when he meant to give digitalis to a woman with Grave’s Disease. She recovered within three weeks. When he discovered his mistake, he switched to digitalis, and her symptoms came back. He switched back to the iodine and achieved a remission," reported Dr. Rowen.The occurrence of iodine deficiency in cardiovascular disease is frequent. The thyroid hormone deficiency on cardiovascular function can be characterized with decreased myocardial contractility and increased peripheral vascular resistance as well as with the changes in lipid metabolism. A study done with 42 patients with cardiovascular disease were divided into 5 subgroups on the ground of the presence of hypertension, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, coronary dysfunction and arrhythmia. When urine concentrations were tested the most decreased urine iodine concentration was detected in the subgroups with arrhythmia and congestive heart failure. An elevated TSH level was found by 3 patients and elevation in lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglyceride) associated with all subgroups without arrhythmia. The researchers concluded that iodine supplementation might prevent the worsening effect of iodine deficiency on cardiovascular disease. [xvi]Iodine made its leap into medical history when a Swiss physician, Dr Jean François Condet announced that iodine could reduce goiters (enlarged thyroids). At this moment, modern medical science was born because for the first time we have a specific disorder that is relieved by a specific treatment. It is most ironic to note that the very first step of allopathic medicine was into nutritional not chemical medicine with iodine being a common mineral from the sea.The required daily amount (RDA) of iodine is just enough to keep our thyroidsfrom expanding, like the RDA of vitamin C today which is just enough to keep usfree of scurvy, but not enough to prevent pre scurvy syndromes or Cardiovascular Disease.“We placed am 83-year-old woman on ortho-iodo supplementation for six months at 50 mgs of elemental iodine daily. She experienced a tremendous increase in energy, endurance, well being, and memory. At six months all her skin peeled off and was replaced by new, younger-looking skin. She was flabbergasted and amazed at her new appearance. In our experience older women (especially over 65) noticed a major difference both physically and mentally,” wrote Dr. Guy Abraham, an endocrinologist who today is providing the backbone of the movement back toward the use of iodine as an essential safe and effective medicine.Breast tissue has an affinity for iodine.Iodine deficiency causes fibrocystic breast diseasewith nodules, cyst enlargement, pain and scar tissue.Drs. Abraham, Flechas and Brownstein tested more than 4,000 patients taking iodine in daily doses ranging from 12.5 to 50 mg, and in those with diabetes, up to 100 mg a day. These investigators found that “iodine does indeed reverse fibrocystic disease; their diabetic patients require less insulin; hypothyroid patients, less thyroid medication; symptoms of fibromyalgia resolve, and patients with migraine headaches stop having them.” We can expect even better results when iodine is combined with magnesium chloride.Most physicians and surgeons view iodine from a narrow perspective and this is one of the greatest tragedies of allopathic medicine. Most health officials are chemical terrorists in disguise as they ignore the toxic buildup going on in the general population and they have no intention of informing them what they can do about it. Mercury is a perfect case in point. Mercury is toxic from whatever source it arrives into our bodies but doctors and dentists still insist on using it, which puts us solidly in the modern age of medical and dental barbarism. We like to think we are an advanced race of intelligent beings but lo and behold we find what are supposed to be the best and most intelligent of us poisoning young and old alike with mercury. It is beyond criminality what they are doing and what they are denying.On top of everything these same health officials do not even have an understanding of the basic medicines already in use, like iodine, magnesium chloride, and sodium bicarbonate, all emergency room substances that save peoples’ lives everyday. To most doctors iodine is an antiseptic that disinfects drinking water and prevents surgical wound infections, and the thyroid gland needs it to make thyroid hormones and that’s it. But Dr. George Flechas relates that many of his diabetic patients need lowering of insulin dosage and diabetic drugs after repletion of iodine deficiency and others have observed the same thing. Something is dangling itself before our very eyes, a medical mystery that will enlighten us about our ignorance about how important minerals are for life. Both general and medical scientists can explain why diabetics and others benefit so greatly from heavy iodine supplementation, but will allopathic medical officials listen? Don’t count on it.Iodine is utilized by every hormone receptor in the body.The absence of iodine causes a hormonal dysfunction thatcan be seen with practically every hormone inside the body.Dr. George FlechasThis, in part, would already start to explain why Dr. Flechas sees such dramatic results with his diabetic patients. Why would many people who take iodine report that they have a greater sense of well-being, increased energy, and a lifting of brain fog? They feel warmer in cold environments, need somewhat less sleep, improved skin complexion, and have more regular bowel movements. The most obvious answer is that iodine is a tracemineral used to synthesize hormones and is a mineral that is very important to how hormones function at the hormone receptor sites.Thyroxin and Triiodo-thyronine stimulates and maintains normal heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature. [xvii] "Despite the general medical dependence upon special hormone tests, such as TSH, etc, temperature appears to be much more accurate for assessing thyroid function. During the past decade, I have noticed that 90% of individuals have a temperature BELOW normal. The oral temperature before getting out of bed in the morning should be 97.6 degrees Fahrenheit or higher. Mid-afternoon the temperature should be 98.6. Temperature is the simplest measure of basal metabolic rate, the key function of the thyroid gland," said Dr. Norman Shealy, who suggests iodine dosages of 1500 micrograms daily 4 to 6 weeks. If basal temperature comes to normal, lower iodine dosage to 600 mcg daily.Iodine's ability to revive hormonal sensitivity seems to significantly improve insulin sensitivity. Dr. Flechas said, “It was while treating a large 320-pound woman with insulin dependent diabetes that we learned a valuable lesson regarding the role of iodine in hormone receptor function. This woman had come in via the emergency room with a very high random blood sugar of 1,380 mg/dl. She was then started on insulin during her hospitalization and was instructed on the use of a home glucometer. She was to use her glucometer two times per day. Two weeks later on her return office visit for a checkup of her insulin dependent diabetes she was informed that during her hospital physical examination she was noted to have FBD. She was recommended to start on 50 mg of iodine (4 tablets) at that time. One week later she called us requesting to lower the level of insulin due to having problems with hypoglycemia. She was told to continue to drop her insulin levels as long as she was experiencing hypoglycemia and to monitor her blood sugars carefully with her glucometer. Four weeks later during an office visit her glucometer was downloaded to my office computer, which showed her to have an average random blood sugar of 98. I praised the patient for her diligent efforts to control her diet and her good work at keeping her sugars under control with the insulin. She then informed me that she had come off her insulin three weeks earlier and had not been taking any medications to lower her blood sugar. When asked what she felt the big change was, she felt that her diabetes was under better control due to the use of iodine.”Increased metabolic rate increases the need for iodine.If a person is not getting enough iodine and areon thyroid meds they will become more deficient.Dr. Fletchas [xviii] reported that two years later and 70 pounds lighter this above patient continues to have excellent glucose control on iodine 50 mg per day. “We since have done a study of twelve diabetics and in six cases we were able to wean all of these patients off of medications for their diabetes. The range of daily iodine intake was from 50 mg to 100 mg per day. All diabetic patients were able to lower the total amount of medications necessary to control their diabetes.”A lack of iodine in the skin manifests as very dry skinand skin that does not sweat when an individual becomes hot.Dr. Jorge D. FlechasEveryone agrees that a lack of iodine in the diet causes a spectrum of disorders that includes, in increasing order of severity, goiter and hypothyroidism, mental retardation, and cretinism (severe mental retardation accompanied by physical deformities). Iodine deficient humans, like endemic cretins, suffer physical, neurological, mental, immune and reproductive diseases. Iodine is important in the proper function of the nervous system and Dr. S. Cunnane [xix] suggests that “iodine is the primary brain selective nutrient in human brain evolution.”Iodine deficiency is a major cause of under-functioning intellect [xx]. Dr. Flechas agrees, “In newborn children iodine is responsible for the development of the babies’ I.Q. Recent research shows iodine deficiency is felt to be the source of attention deficit disorder in children.” “We have an absolute epidemic of autism in this country,” said Representative Dan Burton (R-Indiana). “Parents and doctors are struggling to find appropriate treatment options.” What help iodine can be to neurological damaged children has not been explored yet but iodine and magnesium logically should be some of the first things parents should reach for. We certainly will find science to create a foundation for the use of iodine before, during and after pregnancy.Deficiency of iodine seems to cause more damage in developing embryos and in fact, in pregnant women iodine deficiency causes abortions and stillborns [xxi]. It is not cretinism alone that holds risks from deficiency, but the very survival of the infant itself. Adequate iodine may also provide protection from infection and vaccine damage. In a study done on 617 infants between the ages of 6 weeks and six months, in an iodine deficient area, it was shown that with the addition of 100 mg of iodine oil to the diet of newborns, that the death rate of infants was markedly lower than for those without any supplementation. [xxii]Magnesium and iodine deficiencies are thecauses of autoimmune thyroiditis, not excess iodide.Iodine deficiency poses significant additional reproductive risks, including overt hypothyroidism and infertility. Hypothyroidism causes anovulation, infertility, and gestational hypertension. [xxiii] Adequate tissue iodine helps guide estrogen into friendly pathways that support proper function of female sex hormones. Iodine contributes to the formation of testosterone. In women this supports healthy sex drive. In men, testosterone is vital to function.Iodine is my drug of choice. I use it for everything. I raise my kids andnow my grandkids on iodine. My son was due to have his tonsils removedand I decided to paint his tonsils and he has never been had any moreproblems with his throat. I took a spray bottle and poured some iodine into thebottle and sprayed his tonsils. As you may know iodine dries quickly, so hedidn't really swallow any. It worked within 24 hours after spraying the throat.According to Dr. John Myer iodine has a marked effect on muscle contraction directly. It relieves cramps of the leg muscles known as ‘charley horses’. It also relieves pain in the pericardium, which he believes is similar contraction of the heart muscles, and it has a remarkable effect on muscle energy and contraction of all muscles of the body. Dr. Myer also asserts that iodine plays a decisive and critical role in the lymph system and in the lymph glands. Swollen sub maxillary glands known as ‘waxen kernels’ to our parents and grandparents, will soften and regress within minutes after allowing iodized lime to dissolve in the mouth.Iodine is a very effective method for water purification. Its action is dependent on the concentration of iodine, the water temperature and duration of contact. For example, a concentration of 8 mgs per liter at 20 degrees centigrade will destroy all pathogens if left for 10 minutes. Lower concentrations and lower water temperatures require a longer duration of action. Iodine tablets were developed during World War II to disinfect small amounts of water for emergency or temporary use. A few drops of tincture of iodine or iodine tablets are popular with campers and the military for disinfecting water. An iodine residual of 0.5 to 1.0 mg/l should be maintained and iodine at this level gives the water little or no iodide taste or odor.When one combines the intake of iodine with other minerals (Iodine in combination with selenium increased the activities of type 1 deiodinase (D1) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) [xxiv] one can expect strong and positive changes in cell physiology. Iodine with magnesium, with the help of natural chelation will resolve tough, stubborn problems that resist other treatments. Dr. Linus Pauling's 'orthomolecular medicine,' which refers to the concept of creating the optimal molecular environment in the body ('orthomolecular' means 'the right molecules') should have become the foundational stone for medicine but was replaced by a system that massively destroys peoples’ life and health with pharmaceutical poisons. Allopaths live with the illusion that the dose makes the poison meaning they are always assuming that there is too little poison in their medicines to do harm. We are just beginning to find out how tragically wrong they have been and the staggering cost in terms of lives lost because of this mistake.Iodine and/or selenium deficiency may modifythe distribution and the homeostasis of other minerals. [xxv]Running our bodies without sufficient minerals is like running a car without oil. Our engines of cellular life begin to seize up especially quickly today because of all the impurities in our food, air, water and medical and dental drugs and substances. Minerals are powerful medicines exactly because they directly touch upon and effect vital body physiology.One might go as far as imagining that there might even be a conspiracy to keep us iodine deficient, because if we are iodine deficient our will to resist is diminished, our apparent intellect, energy and vitality are all diminished and we are significantly more vulnerable to thyroid malfunction, endocrine/hormonal imbalances, breast cancer, ovarian cancer and prostate cancer. Many fine physicians are wondering why the RDA for iodine would be set so low, and why would many of the former sources of iodine be diminished or removed and replaced with things like bromides and fluorides that deplete iodine and offer no worthwhile compensation for the replacement?Dr. Daniel H. Duffy uses some very harsh but deserved words while asking some clear questions about iodine. “Isn’t it odd that the government dispenses Iodine to protect against radioactive iodine resulting from a nuclear disaster when the medical quacks are dumping the same type of radioactive iodine into patients with thyroid problems in a stupid attempt to ‘cure’ thyroid ‘disease’ caused by a lack of elemental iodine in its natural state found in nature? Nature’s iodine protects our thyroid glands from taking up biologically destructive, radioactive iodine, yet the medical quacks use similar radioactive iodine to destroy our thyroid glands? Why did doctors quit using Lugol’s solution, the sure cure for thyroid disease? Why did the medical quacks bring in anti thyroid drugs and goitrogens to kill the thyroid gland when iodine was being used so successfully for so long?”President Franklin D. Roosevelt once said, “Nothing in Government and politics happens by accident, you can bet if something happened it was well planned.” J. Edgar Hoover said: “The individual is handicapped by coming face-to-face with a conspiracy so monstrous he cannot believe it exists.” When it comes to iodine suspect the worst from top government health officials who only seem to want to poison the public. What can one say about an FDA that, for example continues to assert the safety of aspartame when scientists around the world are finding it to be the worst food additive ever used? Now that there is an iodine revival going on expect the FDA to clamp down on its availability.Orthoiodo-supplementation should be partof a complete nutritional program,emphasizing magnesium instead of calcium.Dr. Guy AbrahamOrthoiodo-supplementation employs elemental iodine supplements until the thyroid gland and all other iodine-sensitive sites in the body have reached iodine sufficiency. In reality there is no reason to fear iodine if approached with reason and a slight bit of caution [xxvi] for it will stimulate a detoxification process of heavy metals especially of halogens. All doctors used iodine a hundred years ago and the best ones are still using it today.Every 17 minutes, every drop of blood in our body flushes throughour thyroid, and if our thyroid has an adequate supply of iodine, blood-bornebacteria and viruses are killed off as the blood passes through the thyroid.We are just beginning to rediscover the amazing curative powers of iodine. While it may not be the panacea that old-timers have claimed it to be when used alone, when combined with magnesium chloride, ALA, and in the special case of cancer, with sodium bicarbonate, we will find something quite extraordinary. Survival Medicine for the 21st Century contains a revolutionary protocol for breast cancer that includes magnesium chloride, iodine and sodium bicarbonate. These three emergency room medicines when combined and used correctly will revolutionize the field of oncology but will threaten the pharmaceutical industry whose profits will suffer enormously from the widespread use of these inexpensive, safe and effective nutritional medicines.The medical truth is obvious and as plain as day, but most of the time it does not line up with conventional thinking. But given time medical science will catch up to the obvious. As you will see in Transdermal Magnesium Therapy, the research is already there showing magnesium chloride to be the number one heavyweight champion of the medical world able to save lives with a single bound in emergency situations and it, along with other basic nutritional substances concentrated for medical purposes are the answers we are looking for to protect ourselves and loved ones in the age of toxicity that we are all unfortunately passing through.Mark Sircus Ac., OMDDirector International Medical Veritas AssociationDr. Sircus | International Medical Veritas AssociationMagnesium Articles, Dosages, Benefits, Uses and [email protected] Medical Veritas AssociationCopyright 2007 All rights reserved.IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER: This communication is intended for informational purposes only. Nothing in it is intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice.COMMENT by WALTER LASTIncrease iodine remedies slowly while monitoring your wellbeing. According to present medical warnings iodine can suppress thyroid functions. However, the dose needed to suppress thyroid functions is about 750 mg of iodine, while one drop of Lugol's has only 6.5 mg iodine.Saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI) has been used as an emergency treatment for hyperthyroidism because high amounts of iodide temporarily suppress secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland. The dose for this are 5 drops of SSKI with 250 mg iodine as iodide three times daily. The recommended dose for thyroid protection from radioactive contamination is 100 mg iodine/day. Two drops of SSKI or a standard 130 mg pill may be used daily in nuclear accidents to block the uptake of radioactive iodine.The main causes of suppressed thyroid functions are Candida, mercury and fluoride. Until the 1970's Fluoride was prescribed by doctors as thyroid-suppressing medication for patients with an over-active thyroid !Some symptoms of under-active thyroid functions include fatigue, underweight or overweight, constipation, fuzzy thinking, dry skin, low blood pressure, fluid retention, depression, and slow reflexes. When using high-dose iodine supplements then watch out for signs of over-active thyroid functions. These include anxiety, insomnia, rapid weight loss, diarrhea, high pulse rate, high blood pressure, sensitivity or bulging eye and vision disturbances.Iodine supplements tend to normalize over-active thyroid conditions, including autoimmune conditions and thyroid cancer. However, if the size of the thyroid is increased as with goiter, then additional iodine will initially cause an overstimulation. To normalize thyroid size and functions the iodine dose needs to be increased only very slowly and temporarily decreased when overstimulation occurs, and after a while slowly increased again.Another problem is that iodine is a heart stimulant, and if you are using thyroid medication, or other stimulant drugs in addition, then that may be too much stimulation and heart palpitations may develop. In this case you need to reduce some of these stimulants sufficiently to rectify this problem.According to my experience and understanding the greatest benefit of high iodine intake is its effectiveness in killing Candida and other fungi and microbes. This may also be a reason for its effectiveness with breast cancer and fibrocystic disease in breasts, ovaries and uterus. The secret of this success may be the fact that both iodine and fungi have an affinity for the mucous membranes. By keeping the mucous membranes healthy iodine greatly helps to overcome autoimmune diseases, sinus problems, asthma, lung cancer, and other lung problems, and also intestinal diseases, including inflammatory conditions, and cancers. Studies indicate that the best iodine supplement is one that includes molecular iodine, which breast tissue prefers.The common use of iodine as an antimicrobial agent is 4 x 6 to 8 drops or 3 x 10 drops of Lugol’s solution for 3 weeks, see the Ultimate Cleanse. The FDA recently banned the sale of more than 30 ml of Lugol’s solution, but in the US you can still obtain Iodoral (iodine tablets) and a 2% iodine solution, and take five times as many drops as stated for Lugol’s solution, but make sure you use a water-based iodine solution, not iodine in alcohol which may cause reactions. Iosol, an iodine/ammonium iodide remedy has 1.8 mg of iodine/iodide per drop. The TGA in Australia does no longer allow Lugol's and similar iodine solutions to be used as remedies. You may still obtain Lugol’s solution from aquarium supplies and for water purification, see www.strideintohealth.com.You may monitor your thyroid function by checking your temperature before getting up in the morning. Measuring under the tongue is more reliable than in the armpit. Women before menopause measure in the first half of the cycle before ovulation and best in the first week after the start of a new period. The temperature should be 36.5ºC (97.6ºF) or higher, otherwise the thyroid is likely to be under-active. However, be sure that you do not have a raised temperature due to a healing reaction or an infection.For another excellent article see Iodine for Health by Donald W. Miller. A paragraph from this article reads:“More than 4,000 patients in this project take iodine in daily doses ranging from 12.5 to 50 mg, and in those with diabetes, up to 100 mg a day. These investigators have found that iodine does indeed reverse fibrocystic disease; their diabetic patients require less insulin; hypothyroid patients, less thyroid medication; symptoms of fibromyalgia resolve, and patients with migraine headaches stop having them. To paraphrase Dr. Szent-Györgi, these investigators aren’t sure how iodine does it, but it does something good.”REFERENCES[i] Saker KE, Fike JH, Veit H, Ward DL (2004) Brown seaweed-(Tasco) treated conserved forage enhances antioxidant status and immune function in heat-stressed wether lambs. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 88:122-30.[ii] Saker KE, Allen VG, Fontenot JP, Bagley CP, Ivy RL, Evans RR, Wester DB (2001) Tasco-Forage: II. Monocyte immune cell response and performance of beef steers grazing tall fescue treated with a seaweed extract. J Anim Sci 79:1022-31[iii] Ghent, W., et al, Can. J. Surg., 36:453-460,1993.Eskin, B., et al, Biological Trace Element Research, 49:9-19, 1995.[iv] Abraham, G.E., The historical background of the iodine project. The Original Internist, 12(2):57-66, 2005.[v] http://www.ispcorp.com/products/pharma/content/brochure/pvpiodine/antiact.htmlTable 4: Microbiological Efficacy Activity of PVP-Iodine versus Bacteria, Yeasts and Molds, Actinomycetes and RickettsiaORGANISMS (NO. of STRAINS)RANGE OF PVP-I IN ppm AVAILABLE IODINECONTACT OF KILL TIME IN SECONDSProteus (41)100 - 250015 - 180Staphylococcus (36)66 - 250015 - 80Pseudomonas (36)25 - 250015 - 900Streptococcus (25)200 - 250015 - 30Escherichia (23)200 - 250030 - 120Salmonells (9)1000 - 250015 - 60Candida (8)3.75 - 250010 - 120Serratia (6)200 - 250060 - 120Spores-Baccillus; Clostridium (6)100002 - 5 HoursTrichomomonas (5)400 - 250030 - 60Enterobacter (4)1000 - 250060Klebsiella (4)500 - 250060Clostridium (4)100030 - 60Shigella (3)1000 - 250060Corynebacterium (3)250060Diplococcus (3)1000 - 250060Mycobacterium (3)1000 - 250060 - 120Bacillus (3)7.5 - 250010 - 30Sarcina (2)500 - 250060Trichophyton (2)100060Aspergillus (2)100030Mima (1)250060Herella (1)250060Edwardsiella (1)250060Citrobacter (1)250060Providencia (1)100060Acienetobacter (1)3.7510Epidermophyton (1)100060Microsporum (1)100060Pencillium (1)100030Nocardia (1)250060[vi] STERILIZATION ACTION OF CHLORINE AND IODINE ON BACTERIA AND VIRUSES IN WATER SYSTEMS; JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MD SCHOOLOF HYGIENE AND PUBLIC HEALTH; Final rept. 1 Jul 1962-30 Jun 1966; http://stinet.dtic.mil/oai/oai?&verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=AD0476804[vii] Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Hannon WH, et al. (1998) Iodine nutrition in the United States. Trends and public health implications: iodine excretion data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and III (1971-1974 and 1988-1994). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83: 3401-3408[viii] The iodine content of most foods depends on the iodine content of the soil in which it was raised. Seafood is rich in iodine because marine animals can concentrate the iodine from seawater. Certain types of seaweed (e.g. wakame) are also very rich in iodine. Processed foods may contain slightly higher levels of iodine due to the addition of iodized salt or food additives, such as calcium iodate and potassium iodate. Dairy products are relatively good sources of iodine because iodine is commonly added to animal feed in the U.S. In the U.K. and northern Europe, iodine levels in dairy products tend to be lower in summer when cattle are allowed to graze in pastures with low soil iodine content . The table below lists the iodine content of some iodine-rich foods in micrograms (mcg). Because the iodine content of foods can vary considerably, these values should be considered approximate; http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/iodine/FoodServingIodine (mcg)Salt (iodized)1 gram77Cod3 ounces*99Shrimp3 ounces35Fish sticks2 fish sticks35Tuna, canned in oil3 ounces (1/2 can)17Milk (cow's)1 cup (8 fluid ounces)56Egg, boiled1 large29Navy beans, cooked1/2 cup35Potato with peel, baked1 medium63Turkey breast, baked3 ounces34Seaweed1 ounce, driedVariable; may be greater than 18,000 mcg (18 mg)[ix] Iodine Metabolism; http://iodine4health.com/overviews/clinicians/miller_clinician.htm[x] The RDA limits for vitamins and minerals were established after World War II. One of the last essential elements included in the RDA system was iodine, established in 1980 and confirmed in 1989. The RDA for iodine was based on the amount of iodine/iodide needed to prevent goiter, extreme stupidity and hypothyroidism. The optimal requirement of the whole human body for iodine has never been studied. Therefore, the optimal amount of this element for physical and mental wellbeing is unknown. Based on demographic studies, the mainland Japanese consumed an average of 13.8 mg daily and they are one of the healthiest people on planet earth. One tablet of Iodoral contains 12.5 mg iodine/iodide, an amount very close to the 13.8 mg average intake of mainland Japanese.[xi] Abraham, G.E., Flechas, J.D., Hakala, J.C., Orthoiodosupplementation: Iodine sufficiency of the whole human body. The Original Internist, 9:30-41, 2002.[xii] Abraham, G.E., Flechas, J.D., Hakala, J.C., Orthoiodosupplementation: Iodine sufficiency of the whole human body. The Original Internist, 9:30-41, 2002.[xiii] http://www.moh.gov.my/opencms/export/sites/default/moh/download/16_chat.pdf[xiv] Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi. 1985 Nov 20;61(11):1249-58.Induction of cytosolic proteins controlling mitochondrial protein synthesis by thyroid hormone.[xv] Stone OJ (1988) The role of the primitive sea in the natural selection of iodides as a regulating factor in inflammation. Med Hypotheses. 25:125-129[xvi] [Iodine deficiency in cardiovascular diseases]; Molnar I, Magyari M, Stief L.Orv Hetil. 1998 Aug 30;139(35):2071-3.[xvii] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/endoreview.html[i][xviii] Orthoiodosupplementation in a Primary Care Practice; Jorge Fleches, M.D.http://www.optimox.com/pics/Iodine/IOD-10/IOD_10.htm[xix] Cunnane SC (2005) Survival of the Fattest: The Key to Human Brain Evolution. World Scientific Publishing Company (Hardcover)[xx] J Clin Endocr and Met 1998; 83:3401-08[xi] Dunn JT, Delange F (2001) Damaged reproduction: the most important consequence of iodine deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 8:2360-3[xxii] Infant Survival Is Improved by Oral Iodine Supplementation; Cobra et al; The Journal of Nutrition Vol. 127 No. 4 April 1997, pp. 574-578 http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/127/4/574[xxiii] Damaged Reproduction: The Most Important Consequence of Iodine Deficiency; Dunn and Delange 86 (6): 2360. (2001) http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/reprint/86/6/2360[xiv] Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People's Republic of China. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006 Summer;111(1-3):229-38.[xxv] Tissue distribution of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn, the essential trace elements associated with oxidant and/or antioxidant processes, was examined in iodine- and/or selenium-deficient rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2003 Dec;95(3):247-58 Entrez Pubmed[xxvi] Iodine therapy is not as completely free from side effects as magnesium is but compared to medical treatments, thyroid drugs, and all the rest, iodine is very safe. Simply proceed with caution, follow directions vigilantly, and carefully monitor your results. It is always best to use a high quality iodine supplement and to start with low dosages and work the dosages up slowly.HOMEHEALING FOODSBODYDISEASESENERGIESEMOTIONSMINDSPIRITUALITYDisclaimer: The aim of this web site is to provide information on using natural healing methods in the treatment of illness and health improvement. The author cannot accept any legal responsibility for any problem arising from experimenting with these methods. For any serious disease, or if you are unsure about a particular course of action, seek the help of a competent health professional.

Can anybody help me with this geomtry question?

Be careful with this problem...don't want to end up summoning something you can't dismiss.... LOLCall the intersection point of AD and CE F.Angle AFC = Angle EFD = 120 (taking 120 degrees to refer to the angle measure of EFD and not the arc measure), as they are opposite anglesThen examine triangle AFC:Angle A (FAC) + Angle C (ACF) + Angle AFC = 180 as they form a trianglex + x + 120 = 1802x + 120 = 1802x = 60x = 30So Angle A = 30, Angle C = 30, Angle E = 30 - 20 = 10, and Angle D = 30 - 20 = 10Angle AFC + Angle CFD = 180 as they form a straight lineCall the intersection point of EC and BD G120 + Angle CFD = 180Angle CFD = 60Angle CFD + Angle FDB + Angle GCD = 180 as they form a triangle60 + 10 + Angle GCD = 180Angle GCD = 110Angle BGE + Angle EGD = 180 as they form a straight lineAngle BGE + 110 = 180Angle BGE = 70Angle B (EBD) + Angle BEC + Angle BGE = 180 as they form a triangleAngle B + 10 + 70 = 180Angle B = 100The other interior angles of the star are those found before due to symmetry, other external angles can be found by considering the straight lines they form with interior angles.It appears that in the diagram angle 120 degrees does not refer to the arc DE but to line segments FE and FD, due to the way it's drawn. I know that if it were 120 degrees, it would normally be drawn at the vertex F, as it is for the other angles, but still, the way it's drawn is beyond the circumference of the circle, on continued lines). Any derivation shouldn't be able to contradict what's given. If this is some convention to refer to the arc and not the line segments, it should be drawn better so as not to appear deceptive (closer to the arc) or explicitly stated in words that 120 degrees refers to the arc measure and not the angle measurealong the lines of:But with DE instead of AB and 120 degrees instead of 35 degrees.....the spanning 120 degree measure could just as easily be translated within the circle as without, much closer to the vertex F, which would more clearly suggest that it refers to the angle and not the arc measure, if that was intended.... LOLI'll consider it more to see if I can confirm Jered's claim (without making reference to the 120 degree arc measure, if possible, since it is only a discrepancy in how the 120 is to be interpreted that is at issue for me, any derivation assuming it's not referring to the angle, but instead to the arc measure might of course confirm the differing assumption of how it's to be interpreted (involve circular reasoning)..hopefully there is enough information to do so). If a proof that doesn't make that assumption is posted, that would be cool, too...looking at it, I'm doubtful, but I'll try...LOLI'll also try to to solve the problem assuming that 120 degrees refers to the arc measure, and supply that result, so you have both to compare for the different interpretations of what is meant by the depction of 120 degrees.

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