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What little known objectivist thinkers do you know of which you think deserve to be more widely known?

Most Objectivist thinkers are ‘little known’ outside of Objectivist circles so I will post a list of the ones I know.Objectivist Intellectual’s Biographies (85) last updated 10/14/18 (not complete)Amesh AdaljaMD, 2002, American University of the CaribbeanDr. Adalja, a board-certified physician in infectious disease, critical care medicine, emergency medicine and internal medicine, specializes in the intersection of national security with catastrophic health events. He publishes and lectures on bio-terrorism, pandemic preparedness and emerging infectious diseases. He has been a guest on national radio and television programs.John AllisonMBA, Management, 1974, Duke UniversityMr. Allison is president and CEO of the Cato Institute. He was previously chairman and CEO of BB&T Corporation, the 10th-largest financial services holding company headquartered in the United States. During Allison’s tenure as CEO from 1989 to 2008, BB&T grew from $4.5 billion to $152 billion in assets.Carl BarneyCarl Barney is a businessman who, among other business activities, owns and manages several private business colleges.Rituparna BasuBS, Biology, 2010, Pennsylvania State UniversityMs. Basu is a health care policy analyst at ARI. Her work has appeared in publications such as Forbes and The Daily Caller, and she has been interviewed on radio and TV programs, internationally. Ms. Basu has briefed congressional staffers and speaks regularly at university campuses, including Georgetown, Emory and Temple.Ben BayerPhD, Philosophy, 2007, University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignDr. Bayer teaches philosophy at Loyola University New Orleans. His research focuses primarily on questions about the foundations of knowledge and the freedom of the will.Robert BegleyRobert Begley is a writer for The Objective Standard. He is the founder and president of the NY Heroes Society, an organization dedicated to promoting heroism in the culture. Robert is also a judge in Anthem, The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged essay contests. He was the host and producer for the Manhattan Cable TV program, The Voice of Reason. Robert is currently writing a book about the history of New York heroes.Michael S. BerlinerPhD, Philosophy, 1970, Boston UniversityDr. Berliner is the founding executive director of the Ayn Rand Institute and served as co-chairman of ARI’s board of directors. He is editor of "Letters of Ayn Rand", "Understanding Objectivism" and a recent biography of operetta composer Emmerich Kálmán. Dr. Berliner taught philosophy and philosophy of education for many years at California State University, Northridge.ANDREW BERNSTEINPhD, Philosophy, 1986, City University of New YorkAndrew Bernstein holds a Ph.D. in Philosophy from the Graduate School of the City University of New York. He has taught at Hunter College, the New School for Social Research, Pace University and Marymount College, where he was chosen Outstanding Faculty Member for 1995. He currently teaches at the State University of New York at Purchase, where he was selected Outstanding Faculty Member for 2004.Dr. Bernstein has lectured at universities across the United States, including at Harvard, Yale, Stanford, the United States Military Academy at West Point and many others; and at philosophical conferences both in America and abroad. He is the author of The Capitalist Manifesto: The Historic, Economic and Philosophic Case for Laissez-Faire, to be published in the spring of 2005 by University Press of America. His first novel, Heart of a Pagan, was released in 2002. He is currently writing Objectivism in One Lesson, an introduction to the philosophy of Ayn Rand. His website is Andrew Bernstein | Philosopher and TeacherDr. Bernstein is the author of "The Capitalist Manifesto" (2005), "Objectivism in One Lesson" (2008), "Capitalism Unbound" (2010), "Capitalist Solutions" (2011), and of numerous essays. He is currently writing “Heroes and Hero Worship” for the Clemson Institute for the Study of Capitalism. Dr. Bernstein lectures widely on Ayn Rand’s novels and Objectivism.DAVID BERRYD.M.A., Composition, 2002, University of South CarolinaDavid Berry is an associate professor of music. He teaches courses across a wide range of historical and theoretical musical subjects including film music. He is a recorded and published (BMI) composer with performances of his music in America and Europe in both fine art and popular music genres.CRAIG BIDDLEB.A., Fine Arts, 1988, Virginia Commonwealth UniversityCraig Biddle is the author of Loving Life: The Morality of Self-Interest and the Facts That Support It and is currently writing another book, Good Thinking for Good Living: The Science of Being Selfish. In addition to writing, he lectures on the Objectivist ethics and teaches workshops on thinking in principles. Editor and Publisher of “The Objective Standard”Specialties: Ethics, ObjectivismHARRY BINSWANGERPh.D., Philosophy, 1973, Columbia UniversityDr. Binswanger is the author of The Biological Basis of Teleological Concepts, the editor of The Ayn Rand Lexicon and co-editor of the second edition of Ayn Rand’s Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology. Dr. Binswanger is a professor of philosophy at the Ayn Rand Institute’s Objectivist Academic Center and is a member of ARI’s board of directors. He is currently working on a book on the nature of consciousness.Dr. Binswanger is the author of "How We Know" and "The Biological Basis of Teleological Concepts", the editor of "The Ayn Rand Lexicon" and co-editor of the second edition of Ayn Rand’s "Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology". He is an instructor of philosophy at the Ayn Rand Institute’s Objectivist Academic Center and a member of ARI’s board of directors.TORE BOECKMANNWriterMr. Boeckmann has written and lectured extensively on Ayn Rand’s fiction and philosophy of esthetics. He edited for publication Rand’s The Art of Fiction. His own fiction has been published in Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine and Alfred Hitchcock’s Mystery Magazine. He is currently writing a book on Romantic literature.Thomas A. BowdenSpecialties: Legal issues, physician-assisted suicide, abortion rights, mandatory community service.Mr. Bowden, an attorney in private practice in Baltimore, Maryland, taught at the University Of Baltimore School Of Law from 1988 to 1994. Author of a booklet against multiculturalism, “The Enemies of Christopher Columbus,” he has also published op-eds in the Fort Lauderdale Sun-Sentinel, Philadelphia Inquirer, Portland Oregonian, Los Angeles Daily News, Minneapolis Star Tribune, and Charlotte Observer. He is a former member of the board of directors of The Association for Objective Law, a non-profit group whose purpose is to advance Objectivism, the philosophy of Ayn Rand, as the basis of a proper legal system. In that connection, Mr. Bowden has filed amicus curiae briefs in the U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeal for the Second and Third Circuits, challenging mandatory community service for high school students on legal and moral grounds.YARON BROOKPh.D., Finance, 1994, University of Texas at AustinDr. Brook is president and executive director of the Ayn Rand Institute. A former finance professor, he has published in academic as well as popular publications, and is frequently interviewed in the media. He has appeared on CNN, Fox News Channel and PBS among others. On college campuses across America and in the boardrooms of large corporations, he has lectured on Objectivism, business ethics and foreign policy.Dr. Brook is executive director of the Ayn Rand Institute. He is the coauthor of the national best-seller “Free Market Revolution: How Ayn Rand’s Ideas Can End Big Government” and a contributing author to both “Neoconservatism: An Obituary for an Idea” and “Winning the Unwinnable War: America’s Self-Crippled Response to Islamic Totalitarianism.”ANDY CLARKSONMBA University of MarylandMr. Clarkson is a decades-long Objectivist He has focused on researching the history of ideas and published The Impact of Aristotle Upon Christian, Islamic, and Jewish Cultures : A Compilation of Notes and Quotes From A Variety of Sources Plus Commentary, published in December 2016.PAT CORVINIPh.D., Electrical Engineering, 1995, University of California at Santa BarbaraDr. Corvini recently left a twenty-year career in semiconductor optoelectronics to work full time in the history of science and mathematics. She lectured on Archimedes at the 2003 Objectivist Summer Conference.SUSAN CRAWFORDB.S.N, Nursing, 1982, Marymount College, VirginiaSusan Crawford is a registered nurse. She has given two parenting courses and wrote the pamphlet “The Reading Habit/Money Management.” Susan is married to Jack Crawford and the mother of two sons, Jason and DavidERIC DANIELSPh.D., American History, 2001, University of WisconsinDr. Daniels is a visiting assistant professor of history at Duke University’s Program on Values and Ethics in the Marketplace. He has lectured at summer conferences and to numerous Objectivist community groups. He is an alumnus of ARI’s Objectivist Graduate Center (precursor to the Objectivist Academic Center). A contributor to the Oxford Companion to United States History, he is currently working on a book about American politics andDr. Daniels works at LePort Schools, teaching science and history, and as a curriculum developer. Previously, he was a professor at Clemson, Duke and Georgetown Universities. Dr. Daniels has published book chapters and articles on antitrust, individualism and economic freedom.John DennisPhD, Psychology, 2010, University of Texas at AustinDr. Dennis teaches at Catholic University in Milan, University of Perugia and University of Alberta. His research on motivation is funded by the EU and Templeton Foundation. He is a licensed psychologist trained in CBT. In 2013 Dr. Dennis started Melioravit, a scientific communication company that helps researchers get funded, published and cited.Robert van DortmondMSc in Applied Physics, Delft University of Technology; Executive Program, Stanford Graduate SchoolMr. van Dortmond teaches entrepreneurship at the University of Amsterdam/The Amsterdam Centre for Entrepreneurship. He is an active mentor, shareholder and board member of various startups. He speaks on Ayn Rand’s ideas and is an advisory board member of ARI Europe of which he was one of the initiators.Dianne DuranteSpecialties: Esthetics, painting, sculpture, homeschooling.Dr. Durante is a freelance writer on art and current events. She has lectured on painting and sculpture at Objectivist conferences; several of these lectures are available on tape from the Ayn Rand Bookstore. She has also just finished a book on New York sculpture, Forgotten Delights: The Producers. Dr. Durante and her husband homeschool their daughter in Brooklyn, NY.Alex EpsteinSpecialties: Current Affairs, racism, and moral defense of businessmen.Alex Epstein is an Objectivist speaker and writer living in Richmond, VA. His Op-Eds have been published in dozens of newspapers around the country, including The Houston Chronicle, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, The Miami Herald, The Philadelphia Inquirer, and The Washington Times. He is also a regular contributor to The Intellectual Activist, a monthly magazine analyzing political and cultural issues from an Objectivist perspective. Mr. Epstein holds a BA in philosophy from Duke University, where he was editor and publisher of The Duke Review for two years.STUART MARK FELDMANM.A., Art, 1975, Rowan University, New JerseyStuart Feldman works in bronze, stone and wood, creating sculptures of the human figure expressing man’s most noble and inspiring qualities. A former instructor at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art, he is cofounder of the Schuylkill Academy of Fine Art, in Philadelphia. His sculptures are held in private collections, and he has created a number of commissioned pieces.ROBERT GARMONGPh.D., Philosophy, 2002; University of Texas at AustinDr. Garmong is a graduate of the Objectivist Graduate Center, and has lectured on philosophy at many Objectivist conferences. He is the author of “J.S. Mill’s Re-Conceptualization of Liberty,” currently under submission to publishers. Dr. Garmong teaches philosophy at Texas A&M University and at Texas State University.MARILYN (GEORGE) GRAYB.S., Child Development, 1961, Iowa State UniversityMarilyn George is a retired Montessori teacher, school owner and administrator. She holds teaching certificates from both the American Montessori Society and the International Association of Progressive Montessorians and was a Montessori teacher for twenty-five years. She owned, administered and taught for ten years in her own school, which had an international reputation for excellence. She taught Montessori courses at Seattle University for more than ten years and has consulted for schools nationwide. Marilyn has been ballroom dancing since she met Ted Gray at a conference in 1989, at her first lesson, and today they compete at the Silver level.Debi GhateLLB, Law, University of Calgary, 1995Ms. Ghate is vice president of Education and Research at the Ayn Rand Institute, where she heads up a variety of educational and policy-related programs. She is also director of the Anthem Foundation for Objectivist Scholarship, an organization that supports academic scholarship based on Ayn Rand’s work.Onkar GhatePhD, Philosophy, 1996, University of CalgaryDr. Ghate is senior fellow and chief content officer at the Ayn Rand Institute. He specializes in Rand’s philosophy, Objectivism, and is ARI’s senior instructor and editor. He publishes and lectures on Rand’s philosophy and fiction, including application of Objectivism in the culture, and has been a guest on national radio and television programs.GENA GORLINPhD, Clinical Psychology, 2012, University of VirginiaMs. Gorlin has two years of experience conducting individual psychotherapy with anxious and depressed young adults. Her research has been published in highly regarded academic journals. She is also a graduate of the Objectivist Academic Center and a former board member of The Undercurrent, a national campus publication.Allan Gotthelf (deceased)Specialties: Love, self-esteem, happiness, Objectivism, AristotleAllan Gotthelf is emeritus professor of philosophy at The College of New Jersey. He is an internationally recognized authority on the philosophy of Aristotle, with many scholarly publications. He has lectured on Objectivism and Aristotle — including their views on love and sex, self-esteem, and individual happiness — throughout North America and in Europe and Japan. He has been a visiting professor at Swarthmore College, Georgetown University, Oxford University, Tokyo Metropolitan University, and most recently, the University of Texas at Austin. In 1987, Dr. Gotthelf was one of the founders of the Ayn Rand Society; a professional organization affiliated with the American Philosophical Association, Eastern Division, and has headed it since 1990. He enters his second year as Visiting Professor of Historyand Philosophy of Science (HPS) at the University of Pittsburgh. Prof. Gotthelf holds the Pitt Fellowship for the Study of Objectivism, funded by the Anthem Foundation and he will be working throughout the year on various projects in connection with his Fellowship. He is the author of On Ayn Rand (Wadsworth Publishing, 2000), the best-selling book in the Wadsworth Philosophers Series.4-19-2007 from his website:Visiting Professor, under the university's new Fellowship for the Study of Objectivism (Member: Classics, Philosophy and Ancient Science Program). A specialist on Aristotle's biology and philosophy, and on the philosophy of Ayn Rand, Gotthelf is emeritus professor of philosophy at The College of New Jersey, and has taught on a visiting basis at Swarthmore, Oxford, Georgetown, Tokyo Metropolitan, and the University of Texas at Austin. He is a life member of Clare Hall Cambridge, and was a visiting member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. Gotthelf is author of On Ayn Rand (Wadsworth Philosophers Series, 2000); co-editor of Philosophical Issues in Aristotle's Biology (Cambridge 1987); editor of Aristotle on Nature and Living Things (Pittsburgh 1985); and has prepared for publication D.M. Balme's posthumous editions of Aristotle's Historia Animalium (Cambridge 2002, Cambridge MA 1991). His collected Aristotle papers will by published next year by Oxford University Press, under the title: Teleology, Scientific Method, and Substance: Essays on Aristotle's Biological Enterprise. He is currently working on several Aristotle projects and an extended study of Rand's theory of concepts, essences, and objectivity.TED GRAYB.S., Mechanical Engineering, 1965, Northeastern University;M.S., Mechanical Engineering, 1971, Brooklyn Polytechnic InstituteTed Gray, an engineer, has been dancing since his teens. They both consider dancing primarily a social and romantic activity. Occasionally, they enter amateur dance competitions. As a couple they have given many formal and informal group lessons—at home, at conferences and on a cruise ship. Ted is a mechanical engineer with forty years experience in design and analysis of structures, and prevention of vibration. He is an amateur student of history, enjoying especially the biographies of great Americans and the history of technology. He has been a student of Objectivism for thirty-eight years.Hannes HackerSpecialties: history and politics of the space program, science and technology.Mr. Hacker graduated from the University of Notre Dame with a BS degree in aerospace engineering in May 1988. He earned a MS degree in aerospace engineering at the University of Texas at Austin December 1990. He has eleven years of space-flight operations experience including work on the space shuttle, international space station and commercial communications satellites.DAVID HARRIMANB.S., Physics, 1979, University of California at Berkeley;M.S., Physics, 1982, University of Maryland;M.A., Philosophy, 1995, Claremont Graduate University, CaliforniaDavid Harriman is the editor of Journals of Ayn Rand and a senior writer for the Ayn Rand Institute. He has lectured extensively on the history and philosophy of physics. He is currently developing the physical science curriculum at VanDamme Academy and working on two books: one demonstrating the influence of philosophy on modern physics (The Anti-Copernican Revolution) and the other presenting Leonard Peikoff’s theory of induction (Induction in Physics and Philosophy).David HolcbergSpecialties: Environmentalism, science, capitalism. David Holcberg holds a degree in civil engineering and is a senior writer for the Ayn Rand Institute.JONATHAN HOENIGCommunications and Philosophy, 1999, Northwestern UniversityMr. Hoenig manages Capitalistpig Hedge Fund, LLC. A former floor trader, his first book, Greed Is Good, was published by HarperCollins. Mr. Hoenig has written for publications including The Wall Street Journal, Wired andMarketWatch: Stock Market News - Financial News. He was named one of Crain’s Forty Under Forty and appears regularly on Fox News Channel.Gary HullSpecialties: Philosophy, multiculturalism, business ethics, education.Dr. Hull is director of the Program on Values and Ethics in the Marketplace at Duke University. His op-eds have been published in numerous newspapers, including the Los Angeles Times, the San Francisco Chronicle, the Orange County Register, the Philadelphia Inquirer, and the Chicago Tribune. He has made numerous television and radio appearances to discuss Ayn Rand’s philosophy, multiculturalism, affirmative action, the Elian Gonzalez affair, sex, ethics, politics. He has lectured on Ayn Rand’s philosophy at conferences around the world and, as a member of the Ayn Rand Institute’s Speakers Bureau, has spoken at universities across the country, including Harvard, Michigan at Ann Arbor, Wisconsin at Madison, Texas at Austin. Dr. Hull is the author of A Study Guide to Leonard Peikoff’s book Objectivism: the Philosophy of Ayn Rand, and is co-editor of The Ayn Rand Reader (Penguin/Plume, 1999), a collection of fiction and non-fiction writings by Ayn Rand.MARTIN F JOHANSENMS, Computer Science, 2009, University of OsloMr. Johansen is a PhD research fellow at SINTEF, the largest independent research institute in Scandinavia. He is currently completing his PhD studies at the University of Oslo as part of an international research project on software testing.Elan JournoBA, Philosophy, 1997, King's College, LondonMr. Journo, director of policy research at ARI, is completing a book on American policy toward the Israeli/Palestinian conflict. His 2009 book, “Winning the Unwinnable War,” analyzes post-9/11 U.S. foreign policy. His writing has appeared in “Foreign Policy,” “Journal of International Security Affairs” and “Middle East Quarterly.”ELLEN KENNERPh.D., Clinical Psychology, 1992, University of Rhode IslandDr. Kenner, a clinical psychologist, has taught university courses in introductory psychology, abnormal psychology and theories of personality. She gives talks on romance, self-improvement, psychological self-defense, parenting and communication skills. She is in her eighth year as host of the nationally syndicated radio talk show The Rational Basis of Happiness®.Ryan KrausePhD, Strategic Management and Organization Theory, 2013, Indiana UniversityDr. Krause is an assistant professor at Texas Christian University’s Neeley School of Business. He researches corporate governance and has published in “Academy of Management Journal,” “Strategic Management Journal” and “Journal of Management.” His research has been covered by the “Wall Street Journal,” “USA Today,” “Businessweek” and Fox Business Network.Andrew LaymanAndrew Layman is a Senior Program Manager at Microsoft where he works on Internet and database technologies. Prior to joining Microsoft in 1992, he was a Vice President of Symantec Corporation and original author of the Time Line project management program.Peter LePort, M.D.Specialties: Medicine, free market reform of healthcare, medical savings accountsDr. LePort, a full-time surgeon, lectures nationwide on free market reform in healthcare, particularly on the benefits of medical savings accounts. He is a member of the board of directors of Americans for Free Choice in Medicine. He co-wrote a healthcare reform proposal that discusses voluntary, tax-free medical savings accounts and high-deductible personal health insurance and which includes a method to privatize Medicare. He earned his medical degree from Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, and is a former assistant professor of surgery at that institution. He is a member of the Faculty of the American College of Surgeons and of the Orange County Surgical Society.Andrew LewisPostgraduate Diploma of Philosophy, 1994, University of Melbourne, AustraliaMr. Lewis has studied philosophy at the Objectivist Academic Center, the University of Melbourne and the University of Southern California. He worked with Leonard Peikoff on his radio show, has lectured at Objectivist conferences, and is principal at VanDamme Academy, where he teaches a three-year history curriculum covering ancient, European and American history.JOHN LEWIS (deceased)Ph.D., Classics, 2001, University of CambridgeDr. Lewis is assistant professor of history at Ashland University, where he holds an Anthem Fellowship for Objectivist Scholarship. He is Assistant Professor of History in the Department of History and Political Science. He has published in several professional journals, and has been a visiting scholar at Rice University and Bowling Green State UniversityEDWIN A. LOCKEPh.D., Industrial Organizational Psychology, 1964, Cornell University.Dr. Locke is Dean’s Professor of Leadership and Motivation (Emeritus) at the Robert H. Smith School of Business at the University of Maryland, College Park. He is internationally known for his research and writings on work motivation, leadership and related topics, including the application of Objectivism to psychology and management. He is a senior writer for the Ayn Rand Institute and has published numerous op-eds.Keith LockitchPhD, Physics, 1999, University of Wisconsin at MilwaukeeDr. Lockitch is an ARI fellow and director of advanced training. In addition to speaking and writing for ARI on issues related to energy, climate and environmentalism, he teaches writing for the OAC and has developed courses on Ayn Rand’s ideas and novels for a variety of audiences.ROBERT MAYHEWPh.D., Philosophy, 1991, Georgetown UniversityDr. Mayhew is associate professor of philosophy at Seton Hall University. He is the author of Aristotle’s Criticism of Plato’s Republic and The Female in Aristotle’s Biology and the editor of Ayn Rand’s Marginalia, Ayn Rand’s The Art of Nonfiction, Essays on Ayn Rand’s “We the Living” and (forthcoming) Ayn Rand’s Q & A. He has completed a book on Ayn Rand’s HUAC testimony and is preparing for publication a collection of essays on Ayn Rand’s Anthem.Arline MannArline Mann is an attorney. She is vice president and associate general counsel of Goldman, Sachs & Co.John P. McCaskey, Ph.D. in history, is the founder and chairman of the Anthem Foundation for Objectivist Scholarship. He spent twenty years in the computer business, most recently as founder of Epiphany, Inc., before returning to academia in 2001. He studies and teaches history and philosophy of science at Stanford University.Scott McConnellSpecialties: Volunteerism, Communism in America, Ayn Rand's life. Mr. McConnell is a former literature teacher and high school English teacher. He has a BA in behavioral sciences and worked in Hollywood as a script reader. He has given several lectures on Ayn Rand's life.Shoshana MilgramPhD, Comparative Literature, 1978, Stanford UniversityDr. Milgram, associate professor of English at Virginia Tech, specializes in narrative fiction and film. She has lectured on Ayn Rand at Objectivist and academic conferences and has published on Ayn Rand, Hugo and Dostoevsky. Dr. Milgram is editing the draft of her book-length study of Ayn Rand’s life (to 1957).Ken Moelis. Mr. Moelis is founder and chief executive officer of Moelis & Company, a global investment bank that provides financial advisory, capital raising and asset management services to a broad client base including corporations, institutions and governments. Mr. Moelis has over thirty years of investment banking experience. Prior to founding Moelis & Company, he worked at UBS from 2001 to 2007, where he was most recently president of UBS Investment Bank and, previously, Joint Global Head of Investment Banking. Mr. Moelis serves on the University of Pennsylvania Board of Trustees, the Wharton Board of Overseers, the Board of the Tourette Syndrome Association, and the Board of Governors of Cedars Sinai Hospital.Jean MoroneyCertificate, 1996, Objectivist Graduate Center, Ayn Rand Institute;MS, Psychology, 1994, Carnegie Mellon University;MS, Electrical Engineering, 1986, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyMs. Moroney is president of Thinking Directions, a business that develops and teaches methods in applied psycho-epistemology. She has given her flagship course, Thinking Tactics, to corporate and public audiences across North America. She is writing a book titled “Smarter: How to Achieve Your Goals When Nothing Goes as Planned.”Adam Mossoff is Professor of Law at George Mason University School of Law. He is also Co-Director of Academic Programs and a Senior Scholar at the Center for the Protection of Intellectual Property at George Mason, which he co-founded in 2012. He teaches and writes in the areas of patent law, trade secrets, trademark law, property law, and internet law. He has published extensively on the theory and history of how patents and other intellectual property rights are fundamental property rights. His article on the very first patent war, the Sewing Machine War of the 1850s, has been widely cited in today's public policy debates concerning patent litigation, patent licensing, and patent pools. He has testified before the Senate, and he has spoken at numerous congressional staff briefings, professional association conferences, and academic conferences, as well as at the PTO, the FTC, the DOJ, and the Smithsonian Institution. He is Co-Chairman of the Intellectual Property Committee of the IEEE-USA, and he is a member of the Amicus Committee of the American Intellectual Property Law Association, the Public Policy Committee of the Licensing Executives Society, and the Academic Advisory Board of the Copyright Alliance. ADAM MOSSOFF is an expert in patent law and property theory. He has published numerous law review articles and book reviews on topics in legal philosophy, patent law, and property law, including in law reviews at the University of Arizona and UC-Hastings, and in the interdisciplinary law journal, the University of Chicago Law School Roundtable. He was a visiting lecturer and John M. Olin Fellow in Law at Northwestern University School of Law, where he taught a seminar on property theory. Immediately prior to coming to MSU College of Law, he clerked for the Hon. Jacques L. Wiener, Jr., of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. Professor Mossoff graduated from the University of Chicago Law School with honors in 2001. He has a M.A. in philosophy from Columbia University, where he specialized in legal and political philosophy, and a B.A. in philosophy from the University of Michigan, where he graduated magna cum laude and with high honors in philosophy. Hi is now an Associate Professor of Law at George Mason University School of LawSpecialties: Philosophy of Law, Constitutional Law, Intellectual Property Rights, Patent RightsJ. PATRICK MULLINS is a doctoral candidate in the history department of the University of Kentucky. He is in the last stages of writing his doctoral dissertation with the help of a generous grant from the Ayn Rand Institute.Travis NorsenSpecialties: Physics, science, history and philosophy of science, science education.Mr. Norsen is a physics and philosophy double-major at Harvey Mudd College in Claremont, CA. He is currently attending his final year of a PhD program in physics at the University of Washington in Seattle. Mr. Norsen is also a former adjunct instructor of physics at DigiPen Institute of Technology in Redmond, WA.JOHN E. OPFER, who still tops the list of Amazon Reviewers on the CyberNet Scoreboard, is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Ohio State University where he specializes in cognitive and developmental psychology. Nowadays he's too busy reviewing his research findings to review books. His work at OSU's Concepts and Learning Lab explores how young children form and change their concepts, such as concepts of living things and number. His website is at <Department of Psychology - John Opfer> where you will find links to several of his fascinating papers.Michael PaxtonMFA, 1984, New York UniversityMr. Paxton directed the world premiere of Ayn Rand’s Ideal (1989) and adapted and directed a dramatic presentation of Anthem (1991). His documentary, Ayn Rand: A Sense of Life, won an Academy Award nomination and a Golden Satellite Award for Best Feature Documentary. He teaches production design and film history at the Art Institute in Hollywood.Lee PiersonPhD, 1982, Psychology, Cornell UniversityDr. Pierson, director of the Thinking Skills Institute at Fairleigh Dickinson University, teaches students and business professionals how to keep any thought process moving toward its goal by activating the right knowledge as needed. He has a long-standing interest in and recently participated in life-extension research.AMY PEIKOFFJ.D., 1998, University of California, Los Angeles School of Law;Ph.D., Philosophy, 2003, University of Southern CaliforniaDr. Amy Peikoff is an Anthem fellow at the University of Texas at Austin, where she is teaching undergraduate courses in ethics and epistemology. Her writings on legal and philosophical issues have appeared in academic journals and leading newspapers. She has taught for the Objectivist Academic Center and lectured for Objectivist organizations and at conferences. Visiting Fellow at Chapman University’s Law School.Leonard PeikoffPh .D., Philosophy, 1964 New York UniversityFrom 1957 until 1973, Peikoff taught philosophy at Hunter College, Long Island University, New York University, the University of Denver and the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn.After that, he worked full-time on The Ominous Parallels (published 1982) and gave lectures across the country. He gave courses on Ayn Rand's philosophy regularly in New York City, which were taped and played to groups in some 100 cities in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. In addition, he spoke frequently before investment and financial conferences on the philosophic basis of capitalism.Dr. Peikoff, who is a naturalized American citizen, was born in Winnipeg, Canada, in 1933. His father was a surgeon and his mother, before marriage, was a band leader in Western Canada. He has been a contributor to Barron's and an associate editor, with Ayn Rand, of The Objectivist (1968-71) and The Ayn Rand Letter (1971-76).He is author of Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand (Dutton, 1991), the definitive statement of Objectivism.Steve PlafkerJ.D., 1973 USCPh.D., Math, 1966 UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOISBS, MATH, MIT, 1961Dr. Plafker is a retired Los Angeles County deputy district attorney. His teaching experience includes teaching law to law students and to undergraduates. Before becoming a lawyer, he taught mathematics at Tulane University. He is a founder and member of the Board of Directors of The Association For Objective Law (TAFOL).Richard RalstonSpecialties: Ayn Rand’s life, Objectivism (General), Projects of the Ayn Rand Institute, Volunteerism, Foreign Policy, Journalism and MediaAfter serving seven years in the U.S. Army, Mr. Ralston completed an M.A. in International Relations at the University of Southern California in 1977. He then began a career in newspaper publishing and direct marketing. He has been the circulation director and publisher of The Christian Science Monitor, a radio producer, a national television news business manager, and a book publisher. As an independent direct marketing consultant, his clients included IBM, British Airways, CNN, and the Los Angeles Times. His book Communism: Its Rise and Fall in the 20th Century was published in 1991. Mr. Ralston is now Managing Director for the Ayn Rand Institute.JOHN RIDPATHPh.D., Economics, 1974, University of VirginiaDr. Ridpath (York University, retired) writes and speaks in defense of capitalism, and on the impact throughout Western history—including the American Founding era—of the ideas of the major philosophers. A recipient of numerous teaching awards, and nominee for Canadian Professor of the Year, he continues to lecture throughout Europe and North America.Jonathan Paul Rosman, MDSpecialties: Medicine, psychiatry.Dr. Rosman is a board certified psychiatrist, with additional qualifications in the subspecialties of addiction psychiatry and forensic psychiatry. Prior to entering full-time private practice in California in 1989 he was an assistant professor at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. For several years, Dr. Rosman has been a psychiatric consultant to the City of Hope National Medical Center in Duarte, California, and is the psychiatric consultant to the Sleep Disorders Center at Huntington Memorial Hospital in Pasadena, California. He is also medical director for the Eating Disorder Center of California, a private, intensive outpatient clinic in Brentwood, California, devoted to the treatment of patients with anorexia and bulimia.Dr. Rosman is a published writer and lecturer on various aspects of psychiatry. Dr. Rosman's theoretical orientation is broad-based, drawing on and integrating aspects of cognitive-behavioral, short-term psychodynamic and biologic theories with Objectivist epistemological principles. He practices as both a psychotherapist and a psychopharmacologist.GREG SALMIERIB.A., Philosophy, 2001, The College of New JerseyPhD, Philosophy, 2008, University of PittsburghDr. Salmieri is a philosophy fellow at the Anthem Foundation and co-secretary of the Ayn Rand Society (a professional group affiliated with the American Philosophical Association). He teaches at Rutgers University. He has published and lectured on Aristotle and Ayn Rand and is co-editor of forthcoming books on both thinkers.Richard M. SalsmanSpecialties: Banking, free market economics, economic forecasting, capitalism, investmentsRichard M. Salsman is president and chief market strategist of InterMarket Forecasting, which provides quantitative research and forecasts of stocks, bonds, and currencies to guide the asset allocation decisions of institutional investment managers, mutual funds, and pension plans. He is the author of numerous books and articles on economics, banking, and forecasting from a free-market perspective, including Breaking the Banks: Central Banking Problems and Free Banking Solutions (American Institute for Economic Research, 1990) and Gold and Liberty (American Institute for Economic Research, 1995). Mr. Salsman’s work has appeared in The Intellectual Activist, the New York Times, Investor’s Business Daily, The Wall Street Journal, Forbes, and Barron’s. From 1993 to 1999, he was a senior vice president and senior economist at H. C. Wainwright & Co. Economics. Prior to that he was a banker at Citibank and the Bank of New York. Mr. Salsman is an adjunct fellow at the American Institute for Economic Research and the founder of The Association of Objectivist Businessmen.Lee Sandstead received his B.A. Philosophy/B.S. Mass Communication from Middle Tennessee State University in December 1996, when he was awarded the prestigious award for “Outstanding Magazine Journalism Graduate.” He has studied art history at the University of Memphis’ graduate program, and most recently, the art history doctoral program at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, New York City. He is a popular writer/photographer/lecturer of art-historical subjects. He has delivered almost 50 keynote lecture-addresses to such prestigious institutions as: Yale, Duke, University of Michigan, Penn State, NYU and the Academy of Realist Art in Toronto. Articles of his have been published in numerous journals, and his photography has been seen in publications such as: The New York Times, Fortune, and Ms. Magazine. He currently teaches art history at Montclair State University and is author of the forthcoming book on American master-sculptor Evelyn Beatrice Longman (1874-1954DINA SCHEIN FEDERMAN (deceased) is completing her article on "Integrity in The Fountainhead_" for ROBERT MAYHEW's upcoming collection of essays. She will also be delivering two lectures at the European Objectivist conference in London this month. Her writing projects include severalarticles on Virtue Ethics, a movement in academic ethics.DANIEL SCHWARTZBA, Liberal Arts, 2006, St. John’s CollegeMr. Schwartz is a doctoral candidate in philosophy at UC San Diego, where he is working on a dissertation titled “Baconian Foundationalism and the Problem of Certainty.” He specializes in early modern philosophy and the history of the philosophy of science.PETER SCHWARTZM.A., Journalism, 1972, Syracuse UniversityPeter Schwartz is the founding editor and publisher of The Intellectual Activist. He is the editor and contributing author of Ayn Rand’s Return of the Primitive: The Anti-Industrial Revolution, and is chairman of the board of directors of the Ayn Rand Institute.Thomas ShoebothamMM, Orchestral Conducting, 1996, University of New MexicoMM, Cello Performance, 1992, Eastman School of MusicMr. Shoebotham is music director of the Palo Alto Philharmonic. Previous conducting engagements have included Berkeley Opera, Opera San José, Peninsula Symphony Orchestra and many other groups. He has lectured on music, taught in school music programs and performed numerous recitals as a cellist and pianist over the last twenty years.Stephen SiekPhD, Musicology, 1991, University of CincinnatiDr. Siek, professor emeritus at Wittenberg University, has recently publishedEngland’s Piano Sage: The Life and Teachings of Tobias Matthay. For many years he has lectured and written about the early work of Frank Lloyd Wright, including a scholarly study of Wright’s 1909 home for Burton Westcott in Springfield, Ohio.BRIAN P. SIMPSONPhD, Economics, 2000, George Mason UniversityDr. Simpson is a professor at National University in San Diego. He is author of the book Markets Don’t Fail! and he has a number of papers published in academic journals. He is currently working on another book titled “Money, Banking, and the Business Cycle,” which he hopes to publish soon.Steve SimpsonJD, 1994, New York Law SchoolMr. Simpson is director of legal studies at the Ayn Rand Institute. A former constitutional lawyer for the Institute for Justice, he writes and speaks on a wide variety of legal and constitutional issues, including free speech and campaign finance law, cronyism and government corruption, and the rule of law.Aaron SmithPhD, Philosophy, 2010, Johns Hopkins UniversityDr. Smith is an instructor at the Ayn Rand Institute where he teaches in the Objectivist Academic Center and the Summer Internship program. He lectures for ARI and develops educational content for the Institute’s e-learning programs.Tara SmithPhD, Philosophy, 1989, Johns Hopkins UniversityDr. Smith, professor of philosophy at the University of Texas, holds the BB&T Chair for the Study of Objectivism and the Anthem Foundation Fellowship. She has published books on values, virtues, and individual rights. Her latest, “Judicial Review in an Objective Legal System,” is forthcoming in fall 2015 (Cambridge University Press).MARY ANN SURESM.A., Art History, 1966, Hunter College, New YorkMary Ann Sures taught art history at Washington Square College of N.Y.U. and at Hunter College. She applied Objectivist esthetics to painting and sculpture in a ten-lecture course, “Esthetics of the Visual Arts,” which was written in consultation with Ayn Rand. Her philosophical approach to art history is presented in “Metaphysics in Marble” (The Objectivist, February/March, 1969). She is co-author with her (late) husband Charles of Facets of Ayn Rand (published by the Ayn Rand Institute), memoirs of their longtime friendship with Ayn Rand and her husband Frank O’Connor.C. BRADLEY THOMPSONPh.D., History, 1993, Brown UniversityC. Bradley Thompson is the BB&T Research Professor at Clemson University and the Executive Director of the Clemson Institute for the Study of Capitalism. He has also been a visiting fellow at Princeton and Harvard universities and at the University of London.Professor Thompson is the author of Neoconservatism: An Obituary for an Idea and the prize-winning book John Adams and the Spirit of Liberty. He has also edited The Revolutionary Writings of John Adams, Antislavery Political Writings, 1833-1860: A Reader, co-edited Freedom and School Choice in American Education, and was an associate editor of the four-volume Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment. His current book project is on the ideological origins of American constitutionalism.Dr. Thompson is also an occasional writer for The Times Literary Supplement of London. He has lectured around the country on education reform and the American Revolution, and his op-ed essays have appeared in scores of newspapers around the country and abroad. Dr. Thompson's lectures on the political thought of John Adams have twice appeared on C-SPAN television.LISA VANDAMMEB.A., Philosophy, 1994, University of Texas at AustinLisa VanDamme is the owner and director of VanDamme Academy, a private elementary and junior high school in Laguna Hills, California. She specializes in the application of Objectivism to educational theory. Her previous lectures on homeschooling, hierarchy and the teaching of values will be included in a forthcoming education anthology featuring Leonard Peikoff’s “Philosophy of Education.”Don WatkinsBA, Business Administration, 2005, Strayer UniversityMr. Watkins is a fellow at the Ayn Rand Institute. He is the author of “RooseveltCare: How Social Security Is Sabotaging the Land of Self-Reliance” and coauthor, along with Yaron Brook, of the national best-seller “Free Market Revolution: How Ayn Rand’s Ideas Can End Big Government.”KEITH WEINERPh.D., Economics, 2012, New Austrian School of Economics (non-accredited)Dr. Weiner is the founder and CEO of Monetary Metals, a company on a mission to pay interest on gold, and the president of the Gold Standard Institute USA.He makes the economic arguments, as well as the moral, for a free market in money and credit. There has never been an unadulterated gold standard in history, as all governments (including the U.S.) have regulated and interfered with banking, even when other enterprises were unshackled. Today our monetary system is failing, and Keith describes the mechanics in detail, why making the passionate case for gold as the money of free markets.He is also the founder of DiamondWare, a software company sold to Nortel in 2008.Glenn WoiceshynSpecialties: Education, ethics, environmentalism, science, politics.Mr. Woiceshyn is currently developing curriculum and teaching materials for grades 4 to 6 based on his understanding of Objectivism and his experience in "homeschooling" his son and other children. As a freelance writer, Mr. Woiceshyn's op-eds have appeared in numerous newspapers, including the Los Angeles Times, Houston Chronicle, Philadelphia Inquirer, Baltimore Sun and Miami Herald.JAANA WOICESHYNM.B.A., 1983, Helsinki School of Economics and Business Administration; Ph.D., Organization and Strategy, 1988, University of Pennsylvania (Wharton School)Dr. Woiceshyn is an associate professor at the Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary. She has taught business ethics and strategic management to undergraduate, MBA and executive MBA students and to various business audiences since 1987.BARRY WOODPh.D., History of Art and Architecture, 2002, Harvard UniversityDr. Wood is curator of the Islamic Gallery Project at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London. He has lectured and published on subjects ranging from Persian poetry to Web design.Darryl WrightSpecialties: Ethics, political philosophy, ObjectivismDarryl Wright is associate professor of philosophy at Harvey Mudd College, a member of the Claremont Colleges consortium. He received his Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Michigan in 1991, and his A.B. in philosophy from Princeton University in 1985. Dr. Wright has published scholarly articles and/or lectured on the history of ethics, early twentieth-century philosophy, value theory, coercion, and other topics in philosophy.

Do child prodigies often become the best in their fields?

"Often" is a bit dubious. There are certainly many examples of prodigies who became leaders in their field and in some fields (chess, math, music), being a prodigy is almost a requirement for later becoming the best.I found a very comprehensive List of child prodigies on Wikipedia. While this list no doubt suffers from selection bias, it does help elucidate the absolute number of field leaders who began as child prodigies (and there are a lot). It's pretty long, but definitely worth skimming through.MathematicsBorn 1600–1699Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz (1606–1682) was a Spanish scholastic philosopher, ecclesiastic, mathematician, and writer. He was a precocious child, early delving into serious problems in mathematics and even publishing astronomical tables in his tenth year.Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher who wrote a treatise on vibrating bodies at the age of nine; his first proof, on a wall with a piece of coal, at 11 years old, and a theorem by 16 years old. He is famous for Pascal's theorem and many other contributions in mathematics, philosophy, and physics.Born 1700–1799André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836) wrote a treatise on conic sections at the age of 13 and mastered much of known mathematics by the age of 18.Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) made his first ground-breaking mathematical discoveries while still a teenager. Also at the age of 3 watched his father add up his accounts and corrected him.[4][5]Born 1800–1899William Rowan Hamilton (1805–1865), a mathematician, read Hebrew at seven years old, and studied Arabic, Persian, Greek, Latin, Syriac, Sanskrit and four other continental languages at 12 years old.[6]Évariste Galois (1811–1832), as a bored and rebellious Lycée pupil was introduced to Legendre's book on geometry. In the words of E.T. Bell he, "read it as easily as other boys read a pirate yarn". Ignoring his teachers, he himself sought out and studied the works of Lagrange and Abel.[4]Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887–1920), was an Indian mathematician and autodidact who, with almost no formal training in pure mathematics, learned college-level mathematics by age 11, and generated his own theorems in number theory and Bernoulli numbers by age 13 (including independently re-discovering Euler's identity).[7]Norbert Wiener (1894–1964) began graduate studies at age 14 at Harvard and was awarded PhD at 18 for a dissertation on mathematical logic.[8]William James Sidis (1898–1944) set a record in 1909 by becoming the youngest person to enroll at Harvard College, at 11 years old.[9]Born 1900–1999Ted Kaczynski (born May 22, 1942), the "Unabomber", was a child prodigy who excelled academically from an early age. Kaczynski was accepted into Harvard University at the age of 16, where he earned an undergraduate degree, and later earned a PhD in mathematics from the University of Michigan. He became an assistant professor at the University of California, Berkeley at age 25, but resigned two years later.[10]Per Enflo (born 1944), Swedish mathematician, also a piano prodigy[11]Charles Fefferman (born April 18, 1949) Entered college at age eleven, later becoming the youngest full professor in the United States. He has won many major awards in mathematics, including the Fields medal.Sheila Sri Prakash (born 1955), was an acclaimed dancer of Bharatanatyam, having given her first critically acclaimed performance on stage, when she was six years of age. She had a prolific career in the Arts between 1961 - 1984, with accomplishments as a Kuchipudidancer, Veenai musician, a gifted painter and sculptor. She is currently a world-renowned Architect, having been named to the "Top 100 Most Influential Architects in the World Today" by Il Giornale Dell' Architettura and has several international award-winning works to her credit as a thought leading design theorist. She created the Reciprocal Design Index as part of her role on the Global Agenda Council on Design Innovation at the World Economic Forum and currently serves on the council for the Role of the Arts in Society.Jay Luo (born 1970), received his B.Sc. from Boise State University with honors in mathematics at the age of 12 to become the youngest university graduate in United States history.[12][13]Ruth Lawrence (born 1971), passed the Oxford University interview entrance examination in mathematics, coming first out of all 530 candidates sitting the examination at the age of 10. At the age of 13 she became the youngest to graduate from the University of Oxford in modern times.[4]Jason Levy (born 1972), began York University in Toronto in 1982 at age 10. Graduated with Specialized Honours B.A. in Mathematics at 14.[14] Received his M.Sc. (Mathematics) from the University of Toronto in 1987 at age 15. Completed his PhD in Mathematics at University of Toronto in 1993 at age 20.Terence Tao (born 1975), youngest medalist in International Mathematical Olympiad history, at age 10.[15]Akshay Venkatesh (born 1981), won a bronze medal at the International Physics Olympiad at 11 years of age. Won a Bronze medal at the International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) at 12. Graduated university at age 15 with a double major in mathematics/physics. Finished his PhD at 20 from Princeton University. Associate Professor at 23.Erik Demaine (born 1981), became an assistant professor at MIT at 20 years of age.[citation needed]Gabriel Carroll (born 1982), earned the highest SAT score in the state of California, including a perfect 800 in math, in seventh grade.[16][17]Praveen Kumar Gorakavi (born 1989), is recognized as a young polymath for his innovations in diverse fields of science and engineering. At an age of 13, he developed a mathematical formula for perpetual calendar calculations, which also mentions historic dates observed on various types of calendars. At an age of 15 years, he designed a low-cost artificial leg with an ability for knee and ankle movement. He has also developed missile technology at an age of 15.[18][19] Praveen is the youngest recipient of one of the highest civilian awards of Andhra Pradesh state, Ugadi Gaurav Puraskar, from state government of Andhra Pradesh.[20] Praveen is also considered the youngest recipient of the FAPCCI award 'Outstanding Engineer/Scientist for the state of Andhra Pradesh'.[21]Anne-Marie Imafidon (born 1990), is one of the youngest students to graduate from the University of Oxford.[22][23][24]Promethea Olympia Kyrene Pythaitha (born March 13, 1991),[25] is an American child genius with an IQ of 173. She started reading at age 1,[26] began learning college-level calculus at age 7,[27] and at age 13 became the youngest student to complete work for a bachelor's degree from Montana State University in Mathematics.[26]Kelvin Doe (born 1996), taught himself engineering at the age of 13 and built his own radio station in Sierra Leone, where he plays music and broadcasts news under the name "DJ Focus." He was one of the finalists in GMin's Innovate Salone idea competition, in which Doe built a generator from scrap metals. Doe would constantly use discarded pieces of scrap to build transmitters, generators, and batteries, as well.[28][29] As a result of his accomplishment, he received an invitation to the United States and subsequently became the youngest person to participate in the "Visiting Practitioner's Program" at MIT.[30][31][32][improper synthesis?]Cameron Thompson (born 1997), began studying for his degree at the age of 11 with the Open University whilst still a high school student. At age 15 Cameron completed his degree studies at the same time as his GCSE examinations and at age 16 was awarded a Bachelor of Science degree with Honours.[33][34][35] Cameron was the subject of the BBC Documentary "Growing Pains of a Teenage Genius".Raúl Chávez Sarmiento (born 1997), second youngest person to win a Bronze, Silver, and Gold medal at the International Math Olympiad.[36]Born 2000–presentTristan Pang (born 2001), started reading independently and doing high school math at the age of two, sat in on the Cambridge International Examinations IGCSE maths (Year 11 / O Level) and earned the top grade of A*, scoring 97% at nine, by age eleven he top scored with A* at the Cambridge A level exams (Year 13), and delivered aTEDxYouth talk.[37] He started his university studies at the University of Auckland and created a free online learning platform, Tristan's Learning Hub, by the age of twelve.[38][39]Kautilya Pandit (born 2007) [40] displays good memory power regarding current affairs, general knowledge and geographical statistics.[41] He could recollect details of 213 countries and can answer questions about world geography, per capita income, gross domestic product, politics, the economy, etc.[40] Psychologists from Kurukshetra University have noted the grasping powers of Kautilya and expressed their desire to investigate his recalling capacity. C.R.Darolia, Chairman, Psychology Department said that "the boy is a wonder kid and he may have IQ around 130 which is rare for his age group." [42]Mental calculatorsNote: Several mathematicians were mental calculators when they were still children. Mental calculation is not to be confused with mathematics. This section is for child prodigies largely or primarily known for calculating skills.Zerah Colburn (1804–1839) had a major display of his ability at age eight.[43][44]Ettore Majorana (1906–1938) could multiply two 3 digit numbers in his head in seconds at the age of 4.[45][46]John von Neumann (1903–1957) A "mental calculator" by six years old, who could tell jokes in classical Greek.[47][48]Priyanshi Somani (born 1998) won 1st place in the 2010 Mental Calculation World Cup at age 11.Jerry Newport (born 1948), autistic calculating savant at age seven, already using calculus to compute third and higher roots, title holder of "Most Versatile Calculator", won in 2010. Self-discovered much number theory in elementary school—perfect numbers, Fibonacci, etc.Truman Henry Safford (1836–1901) could square 18 digit numbers at ten years old; later in life, he became an astronomer.[49]Shakuntala Devi (1929–2013) was an Indian prodigy mental calculator, who was known for her very rapid calculation abilities - despite having no formal education.[50]PhysicsEnrico Fermi In 1918, Fermi enrolled at the Scuola Normale Superiore in Pisa. In order to enter the Institute, candidates had to take a difficult entrance exam, which included an essay. The given theme was Specific characteristics of Sounds (Italian: Caratteri distintivi dei suoni).[51] The 17-year-old Enrico Fermi chose to derive and solve the partial differential equation for a vibrating rod, applying Fourier analysis. The examiner, Prof. Giuseppe Pittarelli, interviewed Fermi and concluded that his entry would have been commendable even for a doctoral degree. Enrico Fermi achieved first place in the classification of the entrance exam.Mikaela Fudolig (born 1991), finished college at 16 years old with a degree in physics, summa cum laude and class valedictorian (Class of 2007), at the University of the Philippines. She entered the university at 11 years old. Currently, she is studying physics at the same university for the Master's degree.[52]Christopher Hirata (born 1982) Youngest American (at 13) to win a gold medal in the International Physics Olympiad (1996).[53] Entered Caltech at the age of 14, earned PhD in Physics from Princeton at age 22.[54]Abdus Salam (1926–1996) "A very precocious child, Salam could read and write at four and perform lengthy multiplication and division".[55] At the age of fourteen, Salam scored the highest marks ever recorded for the Matriculation Examination at the Punjab University, while he wrote a mathematical paper on Srinivasa Ramanujan at the same age.Wolfgang Pauli (1900–1958) had an understanding of advanced mathematics by the age of 13 and graduated with a PhD in Physics at the age of 21.[56]Tathagat Avatar Tulsi (born 1987) received an undergraduate degree at 10 years old,[57] got a Ph.D. at 21 & was offered a position of assistant professor at IIT B at 22.Kim Ung-Yong (born March 8, 1962) graduated with a Ph.D. in physics at the age of 15.Taylor Wilson (born 1994), nuclear scientist and engineer who built a bomb at age 10, and a nuclear fusion reactor at age 14. Improved nuclear technology and made a low-cost cherenhov particle detector at age 17, as well as winning the Intel Science Fair.Luis Balbino Arroyo (born 1990) finished college at 16 years old with a degree in physics summa cum laude. He entered university at 11 years old. Obtained a master's degree in physics and another in economics at age 18. Juris doctor and bar exam at age 22.[58]Jacob Barnett (born 1998) could recite the alphabet forwards and backwards at age 3, studied college level courses at age 8, and gained a full scholarship to IUPUI when he was 10 years old. He is working on his PHD in quantum mechanics/physics.ChemistryAinan Celeste Cawley (born 1999) passed Chemistry- O level at 7 years and 1 month (the youngest in the world) and studied Chemistry at tertiary level, at a Polytechnic, from 8 years and 4 months old.[59]BiologyColin Carlson (born 1996),[60] enrolled at the University of Connecticut at age 12, earned a bachelor's degree in ecology and evolutionary biology and another in environmental studies (2012) and a master's degree in the same subject (2013) at the University of Connecticut, at age 15 and 16 respectively.[61] He plans to earn his Ph.D. in ecology and evolutionary biology and a degree in environmental law for a career in conservation science. He intends to earn the two degrees by age 22.[62] Carlson is currently Ph.D. student in the Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy and Management at University of California, Berkeley.[63]Evan Ehrenberg – born in 1993, at age 16 started a Ph.D. program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the Brain and Cognitive Sciences department studying computational neuroscience. Graduated from the University of California, Berkeley with a B.A. degree in cognitive science with an emphasis in computational modeling, highest honors, at age 16. Won the Robert J. Glushko Prize for distinguished undergraduate research in cognitive science at age 16 for his research on a 'Layered sparse associative network for soft pattern classification and contextual pattern completion.'[64][65][66]Gabriel See, born in 1998, achieved a 720 out of 800 score on the SAT math test at age 8, Performed T-cell receptor research at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center at age 10, and at age 11 won a silver medal at the international Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition on synthetic biology for undergraduate college students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 2011 he was named one of the US's top 10 high school inventors by Popular Science magazine. He has been taking upper division courses each semester at the University of Washington since 2010.[67]PsychologyJean Piaget (1896–1980) published a paper on the albino sparrow at 11 years old, and later became a psychologist.[68]Computer scienceArfa Karim (1995–2012), a Pakistani girl, became one of the youngest Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP) in 2004, at the age of 9.Stephan Wolski (born 1998) completed high school and enrolled at the College of Southern Maryland at the age of 13 and at the age of 15 graduated with an A.S. Degrees in Applied Science and Technology, he plans to earn his bachelor's degree in Computer science at the University of Maryland.[69]Joshua Travis Mann (born 1982) invented his own object-oriented computer language at the age of 8, completed his education at the age of 15, and became a technology consultant for several fortune 500 companies and the Department of Defense before turning 18.[70]Babar Iqbal (born 2001), a Pakistani boy in 2010 became an MCP at the age of 9.[71]Ayan Qureshi (born 2009), on 27 September 2014, became the youngest MCP in the world at the age of 5 years 11 months.[72]Erik Demaine (born 1981), completed his bachelor's degree when only 14 and completed his PhD at University of Waterloo when only 20 years old in the field of computer science.MedicineBalamurali Ambati (born 1977) graduated from high school at 11 years old, was a college junior by 12 years old, and a doctor at 17 years old.[73]Avicenna (c. 980-1037) memorized the Qur'an at 10 years old and studied medicine at 13 years old.[74]Sho Yano (born 1990) started college at nine years old and graduated summa cum laude at 12 years old from Loyola University Chicago. By 12 years old, he attended thePritzker School of Medicine.[75]Materials engineeringAlia Sabur (born 1989) received an undergraduate degree at 14 years old, and became a college professor at 18 years old.[76]Mechanical engineeringKarl Benz (1844–1929) started at the scientifically oriented Lyzeum at nine years old, went on to study at the Poly-Technical University under the instruction of Ferdinand Redtenbacher, and, on September 30, 1860, at an age of just 15, he passed the entrance exam for mechanical engineering at the University of Karlsruhe, which he subsequently attended. Benz was graduated July 9, 1864 at age nineteen.[77] Karl Benz later became the pioneering founder of the automobile manufacturer Mercedes-Benzdesigning the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, widely regarded as the very first automobile.Sunny Sanwar (born 1989) could fluently read, write or speak six languages by the age of eight, and drew exceptionally detailed portraits by age seven (eventually going on to be one of the youngest artists to have a solo exhibition at the National Art Gallery with work in permanent collection at the Liberation War Museum).[78] He finished four years of high school in 8 months with honors[79] and received a scholarship at Kansas University, Engineering School at 16, where he was a college senior (final year student) inMechanical Engineering by 18 and taught university courses in engineering at 21.[80]Acting/directingWilliam Henry West Betty was a sensation as a boy doing Voltaire and Shakespeare roles.[81][82]Jackie Cooper was the youngest nominee for the Best Actor Oscar at age nine years old.[83]Quinn Cummings was an Oscar and Golden Globe Award nominee at 10 years old.[84] She is now a businesswoman and blogger.Brandon deWilde at seven years old, was the first child actor to win the Donaldson Award; his talent was praised by John Gielgud in the following year.[85] He was also a nominee for the Best Supporting Actor Oscar at 11 years old, in Shane[86] and starred in his own sitcom television series on ABC at the same time.[85]Jodelle Ferland received a daytime Emmy nomination at four years old and, at 12 years old, was nominated at the 27th Genie Awards for lead actress.[87]Justin Henry was the youngest nominee for the Best Supporting Actor Oscar at eight years old, in Kramer vs. Kramer.[86]Patty McCormack was nominated for the Best Supporting Actress Oscar at 11 years old, in an era when child actors could still be nominated for the Juvenile Award.[88]Frankie Michaels, at 11 years old, received praise[89] and a Tony Award for Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Musical for his role in Mame.[90]Tatum O'Neal won the Best Supporting Actress Oscar at 10 years old, for her 1973 role in Paper Moon, making her the youngest person ever to win a regularly awarded Oscar.[84]Haley Joel Osment was nominated for the Best Supporting Actor Oscar at 11 years old.[86][91]Anna Paquin won the Best Supporting Actress Oscar at 11 years old.[84][92]Ricky Schroder won a Golden Globe Award at nine years old, youngest winner ever.[93]Kishan Shrikanth – Directed a feature film on 35 mm, of 130 mins Care of Footpath at age nine and entered the Guinness Book of World Records for being the youngest director of a professional level feature film.[94]Shirley Temple, at five years old, showed talent as an actress and tap dancer. When she was seven years old, she received a special Academy Award. She was described as a prodigy by Time (magazine) in 1936.[95]Ernest Truex (1889–1973) performed Shakespeare at six years old.[96][97]Quvenzhané Wallis was the youngest person to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress at age 9.[98][99] During the filming, she was only 6 years old.[100]MusicSee List of music prodigies.LiteratureRituparna Bhattacharjee, an Indian child prodigy who wrote Bhutiya at the age of 11 in 1998.[101]Rabindranath Tagore - Indian poet, short story writer, song composer, novelist, playwright, essayist and painter and a Nobel Laureate (first Asian to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913), wrote his first poem when he was only eight years old. He published his first large poetry collection in 1877. He wrote his first short story and dramas when he was only 16 years of age.[102][103]Rubén Darío – Nicaraguan poet.William Cullen Bryant was published at 10 years old; at 13 years old, he published a book of political satire poems .[104]Thomas Chatterton started as a poet at 11 years old. He began writing the poems that would make him famous at 12 years old.[105][106]Lucretia Maria Davidson, by 11 years old, had written some poems of note; before her death at 16 years old, she received praise as a writer.[107]Marjorie Fleming, who died in 1811 before the age of nine, became a published poet half a century later.[108]Barbara Newhall Follett began working on a novel at 8 and was published by age 12.[109]H. P. Lovecraft recited poetry at two years old and wrote long poems at five years old.[110][111]Christopher Marlowe: as a child, attracted the attention of Matthew Parker and went on to be a major 16th century London playwright.[112] He is the eponymous Marlowe of the Marlovian theory of Shakespearean authorship.Alexander Pope: was a child prodigy as a poet, with gifts all but universally acknowledged.[113] He is the third most frequently quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, after Shakespeare and Tennyson.Arthur Rimbaud wrote influential French poetry throughout his early and late teens. Victor Hugo described him at the time as "an infant Shakespeare".[114]Henriett Seth F.: Henriett had a long history of visual art, poetry and writing in her childhood; beginning at age nine and at age thirteen,[115] but she gave up creative music career altogether at the age of 13.[116] Henriett universal effect of all that was what we now call autism and savant syndrome[117][118]Lope de Vega wrote his first play at 12 years old.[119][120] He could also read Latin proficiently at the age of five years.[121]Minou Drouet caught the notice of French critics at the age of eight, leading to speculation that her mother was the true author of her poetry. She later proved herself to be the author.[122]Adora Svitak is an American writer who teaches literature on Internet at an early age, and show writing abilities at age 6.Visual artsJohn Everett Millais was a painter who entered the Royal Academy at 11 years old.[123][124]Alexandra Nechita is a painter who had a solo exhibit at eight years old.[125]Pablo Picasso painted Picador at eight years old. See List of Picasso artworks 1889–1900.Kieron Williamson, an eight-year-old watercolor artist from Norfolk, England whose second exhibition sold out in 14 minutes, raising £18,200 for 16 paintings.[126]Wang Yani had her paintings appear on postage stamps at six years old and in worldwide museum exhibits at 12 years old.[127]Wang Ximeng was taught by Emperor Huizong of Song himself and painted some of the most highly regarded works of Chinese art before dying at age 23.[128][129]Zhu Da became a poet by seven years old. He later became a painter.[130][131]Angelica Kauffman had professional commissions at thirteen[132] and was an established artist by 21.[133]Akiane Kramarik born in 1994, sold paintings worth $3M USD at age 7Marla Olmstead born in 2000, sold paintings worth over $20,000 at age 6 and had international recognition.Aelita Andre born in 2007, sold paintings worth over $30,000 at age 4 and had international recognition.Henriett Seth F.: Henriett had a long history of visual art, poetry and writing in her childhood; beginning at age nine and at age thirteen,[115] but she gave up creative music career altogether at the age of 13.[116] Henriett universal effect of all that was what we now call autism and savant syndrome[117][118]Edmund Thomas Clint (1976–1983) was an Indian child prodigy.[134] He is known for having drawn over 25,000 paintings during his life.[135]AcademicsNguyễn Hiền (1234–?), a Vietnamese prodigy, who earned the first-rank doctorate laureate in the year of 1247 when he was 13 years old.[136]Michael Kearney earned the first of several degrees at 10 years old. He became a college teacher by 17 years old.[137][138]Gregory R. Smith – entered college at 10 years old and was first nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize at 12 years old.[139][140]Colin Maclaurin went to study divinity in University of Glasgow at the age of 11 and remained until he was 19 years, 7 months old in the year 1717 when he was elected professor of mathematics, where for nearly three hundred years he held the record as the world's youngest professor.Alexander Faludy in 1998 became the youngest undergraduate at the University of Cambridge since 1773.[141][142]Pierre Bouguer (1698–1758) was appointed professor of hydrography in 1713 at the age of 15.Humane Letters: Leadership, Teaching, EvangelismAman Rehman made more than 1000 animated movies, beginning at three years old.,[143] and, at 8, he became the youngest college-lecturer in the world.[144]Cao Chun (Born unknown, died 210) was the son of the famous Chinese warlord Cao Cao became the youngest person to ever fight for an army higher than the rank ofmajor.Tavi Gevinson (born 1996) was a nationally esteemed fashion writer by the age of 12 and ran an online magazine by the age of 15.Mohammad Hossein Tabatabai (born 1991) memorized all the Quran at the age of 5.[145]Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr (1935–1980) was an Iraqi Shi'a cleric who memorized the Quran at a very early age and wrote his first book by the age of 12 called Fadak in History. He later went on to lay the foundation for modern economics and banking in Islam. He also wrote Our Philosophy, which is an important a critique of both socialism and capitalism, as well as write the textbook for Jurisprudence, which is used by many Islamic Seminaries today. He was one of the leading Islamic intellectuals of the 20th century and died at the age of 45.Law/political science/philosophyJeremy Bentham studied Latin at three years old and entered The Queen's College, Oxford at 12 years old.[146][147]Hugo Grotius: entered the University of Leiden to study under Joseph Scaliger at age 11. At age 15 he was acclaimed by King Henry IV of France as the 'miracle of Holland'.[148]Saul Kripke was invited to apply for a teaching post at Harvard while still in high school.[149][150]John Stuart Mill knew several dead languages by eight years old and studied scholastic philosophy at 12 years old.[151][152]Stephen A. Baccus began studying law at 14 years old, graduated from the University of Miami School of Law at 16 years old, and passed the Florida Bar Exam at 17 years old. He fought minimum-age requirements for bar-exam applicants in both New York and Miami.[153][154]Pichamon Yeophantong became the youngest undergraduate at Thammasat University at age 13, graduating with BA (First-Class Honours, 4.00GPA and King Bhumipol Award) at 17; completed MA (First-Class Honours) at age 18 and PhD at 22 in International Relations from the Australian National University; at 23, became youngest ever Global Leaders Fellow at University College, Oxford and Princeton University; could speak 7 languages by her early teens.[155][156][157][158]Linguistics/translationMaria Gaetana Agnesi (1718–1799) was a multilingual prodigy who went on to become a mathematician.Asad Ullah Qayyum, at 7 years old, was able to deliver speeches in 12 languages.[159]John Barratier could speak German, Latin, French and Dutch at the age of 4; knew six languages at the age of 11.[160][161]George Boole (1815–1864) could speak English, Latin, Greek, German, Italian, and French by his early teens.Jean-François Champollion knew several dead languages by the time he was 10 years old and read an important paper at the Grenoble Academy at 16 years old.[162][163]Edmond-Charles Genêt (1763–1834) could read French, English, Italian, Latin, Swedish, and German by the age of 12.Nathan Leopold (1904–1971) started speaking at the age of four months; he reportedly had an IQ of 210,[164] though this is not directly comparable to scores on modern IQ tests.Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463–1494) could speak 22 languages at the age of 18.[165]Dorothea von Rodde-Schlözer (1770–1825) mastered 9 languages by the age of 16; French, English, Dutch, Swedish, Italian, Latin, Spanish, Hebrew and Greek among other achievements.[citation needed]Thomas Young (scientist), more notable as a physicist, was a polyglot at a young age, who worked on translating Demotic Egyptian.[163][166][167]William Wotton could read passages in English, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew at the age of five. Graduated from Cambridge aged thirteen having acquired Arabic, Syriac, Chaldee, French, Spanish and Italian, together with a good working knowledge of logic, philosophy, mathematics, geography, chronology, and history.[168]SportsJoy Foster represented Jamaica at table tennis at the Caribbean championships in Trinidad in 1958, aged only 8 years old.[169] In the same year she won the Jamaican championship titles in Women's Singles (beating defending champion 20-year-old Madge Bond in the final), Women's Doubles (paired with Madge Bond), and Mixed Doubles (paired with Fuarnado Roberts).[170][171] Prior to this she had already won many local trophies.[172] She went on to win the Caribbean women's singles title twice,[173] and competed in the United States open championships on several occasions, winning various youth-level titles.[174] In 1961 she was named the first Jamaican sportswoman of the year.[175]Ariel Hsing, a ping pong prodigy[176][177]Fu Mingxia (伏明霞) is a diver[178][179] became the youngest world champion ever in any sport at age 12,[180] and was an Olympic gold medalist at 13 years old.Jet Li (Chinese name: Li Lianjie (李连杰)) is a Chinese martial artist, who has won several gold medals in wushu at the All China Games at the age of 12.[181]Sachin Tendulkar – Batsman (cricket). Made debut at the age of 16. In his early matches he hit Abdul Qadir, a prominent leg spinner of the time for 4 sixes in an over, hit a century at Perth, world's fastest pitch. Representing India for 21st year in International cricket. Has scored 100 international centuries, the first batsman to get 200* in ODI.Michelle Wie qualified for the USGA Women's Amateur Public Links at 10 years old and won the same event at 13 years old, making her the youngest person both to qualify for and win a USGA adult national championship.[182]Wayne Gretzky was skating with 10-year-olds at 6 years old. By 10 years old, he scored 378 goals and 139 assists, in just 85 games, with the Nadrofsky Steelers.[183]Tiger Woods was a child prodigy, introduced to golf before the age of 2, by his athletic father Earl. In 1984 at the age of 8, he won the 9–10 boys' event, the youngest age group available, at the Junior World Golf Championships. He first broke 80 at age 8. He went on to win the Junior World Championships six times, including four consecutive wins from 1988 to 1991.[citation needed]Nadia Comăneci won 3 gold medals at the 1976 Olympics and was the first female to achieve a perfect score of 10 in gymnastics at the age of 14.Ricky Rubio started his basketball career with DKV Joventut at the age of 14, becoming the youngest player to ever play in the Spanish ACB League, and played in the 2008 Summer Olympics at the age of 17 with eventual silver-medalists Spain, becoming the youngest ever to reach an Olympic basketball final.Guan Tianlang won the 2012 Asia-Pacific Amateur Championship in golf shortly after his 14th birthday.[184] The following April, while still 14, he made the cut at the 2013 Masters Tournament, becoming the youngest male player ever to do so at a major championship.[185]Yulia Lipnitskaya won the gold medal in the team figure skating event at the 2014 Winter Olympics at the age of 15. She also won the 2014 European Championships, becoming the youngest skater in ladies' singles in history to win that title.Games4-year-old Capablanca and his fatherGarry Kasparov was a chess child prodigy who ranked in the top 15 players in the world at age 16 and is considered by many as the greatest chess player of all time. He became the World Chess Champion at the age of 22, the youngest of all time.Bobby Fischer won the United States Chess Championship at 14 years old and became, at the age of 15, the youngest Grandmaster in history at the time. He became the World Chess Champion in 1972.José Raúl Capablanca was World Chess Champion 1921-1927, and is considered to be one of the best chess players of all time.[186]Samuel Reshevsky learned to play chess at age four, and was soon acclaimed as a child prodigy. At age eight he was beating accomplished players with ease, and giving simultaneous exhibitions.Cho Hunhyun was a professional go player at nine years old.[187]Andy Costello, a chess prodigy who went on to become a chess boxer.[188]Willie Mosconi, nicknamed "Mr. Pocket Billiards", played against professionals at six years old.[189]Ronnie O'Sullivan, a snooker player, scored his first century break at 10 years old,[190] his first maximum at 15 years old, and was the youngest-ever winner of a ranking event at 17 years old.[citation needed]Nicholas Patterson, a chess prodigy who went on to become a mathematician.[191]Magnus Carlsen was, at the age of 13 years, 148 days, the second-youngest chess Grandmaster of all time[192] (currently third-youngest)[193] and also holds the records for the youngest player to break the 2700-Elo barrier (at the age of 16 years, 213 days)[194] and the 2800-Elo barrier (at the age of 18 years, 336 days),[195] and youngest player to be ranked No. 1 in the world by FIDE.[196][197] His peak rating is 2882, the highest in history.Judit Polgár, a chess prodigy (and the strongest woman chess player in history) who became a chess Grandmaster at the age of 15 years and 4 months, the youngest of the time.Hou Yifan became the youngest female chess grandmaster at the age of 14 years and 6 months in 2008.[198]Sergey Karjakin, a chess prodigy who holds the record for both the youngest International Master and the youngest Grandmaster. He has been rated as high as No. 4 in the world by FIDE.Carissa Yip, an American chess prodigy, became the youngest U.S. female chess expert (since the U.S. Chess Federation started electronically keeping records in 1991) at age 9 in 2013.[199]Irina Krush won the 1998 U.S. Women's Chess Championship at age 14 to become the youngest U.S. Women's Champion ever.[200]Awonder Liang became the youngest chess expert in United States Chess Federation (USCF) history on April 16, 2011, when he played in the Hales Corners Challenge chess tournament in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, with a rating of 2000 at the age of 8 years and 7 days. On March 23, 2013, he became the youngest person ever to obtain a master's rating within the United States Chess Federation. Awonder was 17 days shy of his 10th birthday at the time of this achievement.[201]

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