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How has Christianity improved or made society/the world a better place?

The positive cultural influence of the Christian Church is too vast to enumerate in detail in less than a series of books. Its influence is not limited to the West, as it spread beyond the Western Empire in the days of Rome, in its first centuries, and has continued to spread around the world in the centuries since. For the most part, its influence has been more good than not wherever it has gone, and attempting to even list it all would be a very long list indeed.However, in answer to this question, I have chosen to limit a sampling of examples to the West, and to the limited time period of Early Christianity up to the Middle Ages. I have picked a few examples of influence I see as the paradigm altering, watershed, kind.The Christian church has continued, to this day, to be a cultural influence for good all around the world, but the history from the 1400s on is even more extensive—and complex—than what preceded it, so please accept—these limitations I have imposed are my limitations—and not the limitations of the church.Christianity altered the paradigm concerning:SexWomenCharityPreservation of literacyMonks and NunsBenedict’s RuleSkills and EducationSocial StructureCharles Martel Stopped IslamScienceArts and HumanitiesPainting, sculpture and architectureMusicLawHuman ValueHuman RightsSlaveryDemocracyFirst to Fourth Century (30–500)Sex — Let’s talk about sex—not just because it’s fun—but because changes here are among the most powerful, yet most overlooked, of all the many positive changes Christianity brought.“The gradual transformation of the Roman world from polytheistic to Christian marks one of the most sweeping ideological changes of premodern history. At the center of it all was sex.”[1]Historian Kyle Harper says:"...the triumph of Christianity not only drove profound cultural change, it created a new relationship between sexual morality and society...The legacy of Christianity lies in the dissolution of an ancient system where social and political status, power, and social reproduction (passing on social inequality to the next generation) scripted the terms of sexual morality."That ancient system was built on status and used shame to enforce itself. Shame was not personal guilt so much as a social concept: breaking the rules had profound and far-reaching social consequences. Aristocratic men had status; women had little, and slaves had no status at all, therefore, as far as the Romans were concerned, slaves had no internal ethical life and were incapable of shame. This permitted Roman society to find both a husband's control of a wife's sexual behavior as a matter of intense importance, and at the same time, see his live-in mistress and sex with young slave boys as of little concern.Paul wrote that the body was a consecrated space, a point of mediation between the individual and the divine. His over-riding sense that gender—rather than status or power or wealth or position—was the prime determinant in the propriety of the sex act was momentous. It was a transformation in the deep logic of sexual morality.The Greeks and Romans said our morality depends upon our social position which is given to us by fate; that there is inequity in that is not a moral issue that concerned them. Christianity "preached a liberating message of freedom.” It was a revolution in the very image of the human being as a sexual being, free to choose, and personally responsible for that choice to God alone. It created a revolution between society and the individual, limiting society’s rights and claims on the individual as a moral agent.Whether or not Paul’s particular teaching on gender is still agreed with or not, the historical facts show that the Christian view that the powerful should be held to the same standards of sexual accountability as those without power has since become the norm of a just society.Appearance of Jesus Christ to Maria Magdalena (1835) by Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov.Women [2]Early Christianity — Some historians hold that the Church played a considerable part in fostering the inferior status of women by providing a "moral justification" for male superiority. However, the Church has also made enough positive contributions toward women that, on balance, I am going to say the overall impact has been more positive than negative.Understanding that involves understanding context—what was there before, and without, Christianity.In antiquity, there were no Near Eastern societies that were not patriarchal, so patriarchalism and male superiority were not unique to the Old Testament. All around the Mediterranean, patriarchy was established as the norm in all of the multiple different societies before 3000 BC and they did not change for millennia—until Christianity.[3]Women were seen as intellectually and physically inferior to men and as "naturally dependent" by Sumerians, and Babylonians, by the Hittites, the Greeks and the Romans—all of them. Some philosophers speculated that women were a different race not fully human like men. Athenian women were legally classified as children regardless of age and were the "legal property of a man at all stages in her life." Women everywhere, including the Roman Empire, had limited legal rights and could not enter professions.It was common in the Greco-Roman world to expose female infants because of the low status of women in society. Many exposed children died, but many were taken by speculators who raised them to be slaves or prostitutes. Female infanticide and abortion were practiced by all classes. The church forbade these practices to its members.Christians did not believe in cohabitation, so if a Christian man wanted to live with a woman, the church required marriage; the pagan double standard of allowing married men to have extramarital sex and mistresses was forbidden. This gave women far greater security.It was not rare for pagan women to be married before the age of puberty and then forced to consummate the marriage with her often much older husband. Christianity established a minimum age for marriage.Husbands could divorce their wives at any time simply by telling the wife to leave; wives could not. In the code of Hammurabi, a woman could sue for divorce, but if she couldn’t prove she had been an exemplary wife, she was drowned for making the request.Roman law required a widow to remarry; 1 Timothy says a woman is better off if she remains unmarried. Widows in Greco-Roman society could not inherit their husband's estate and could find themselves in desperate circumstances, but almost from the beginning the church offered widows support.Women were an important part of Jesus’ inner circle, and there is no record of him ever treating a woman with less than respect. He spoke to women in public, assumed they had responsibility for their own choices, taught Mary of Bethany, admired, forgave, accepted and approved them. Christianity never fully lost sight of this as a fulfillment of God creating humans in His image as both “male and female.” Along with Paul declaring a Christian is a Christian, male or female, in Galatians 3:28, this produced a kind of “metaphysical” equality found only in Christianity at this point in history. [4]The church started out trying to practice this at first. The extra-biblical evidence is strong that women played vital roles in Christianity’s beginnings. Many women began choosing to stay single and celibate, and they spread the word, but this “female initiative” stirred up vehement opposition from the Romans.According to Margaret MacDonald, accusations that Christianity undermined the Roman family, which was built upon male authority, were used to stir up hatred of Christianity. Along with many other rumors and accusations, this led to the persecution of the early church.[5]Some of the later New Testament texts reasserting traditional roles for women are seen by many scholars as an accommodation to the danger involved with this Roman response.Within the church of the second and third century, tensions between the existing fact of women's leadership in Christian communities, and traditional Greco-Roman and patriarchal biblical views about gender roles, combined with persecution, produced controversy and challenges to women’s roles within the new church. Several apocryphal and gnostic texts provide evidence of such a controversy.Middle Ages — Once the early days of Christianity were past, the status of women declined. Women were routinely excluded from scholastic, political and mercantile life in society, however, women were not fully excluded from service in the church. [6]Medieval abbesses and female superiors of female monastic houses were powerful figures whose influence could rival that of male bishops and abbots: “They treated with kings, bishops, and the greatest lords on terms of perfect equality;... they were present at all great religious and national solemnities, at the dedication of churches, and even, like the queens, took part in the deliberation of the national assemblies...” Such powers had never been, as a rule, available to ordinary women in previous Roman or Germanic societies.[7]There was a rite for the ordination of women deacons in the Roman Pontifical, (a liturgical book), up through the 12th century. (But by the 13th-century Roman Pontifical, the prayer for ordaining women was removed, and ordination was redefined as applicable only to male Priests.) [8]The popularity of the Virgin Mary secured maternal virtue as a central cultural theme of Europe in the middle ages and helped form the concept of chivalry. Kenneth Clarke wrote that the 'Cult of the Virgin' in the early 12th century "taught a race of tough and ruthless barbarians the virtues of tenderness and compassion".Woman-as-witch became a stereotype in the 1400s until it was codified in 1487 by Pope Innocent VIII who declared "most witches are female."The European witch stereotype embodies two apparent paradoxes: first, it was not produced by the "barbaric Dark Ages," but during the progressive Renaissance and the early modern period; secondly, Western Christianity did not recognize the reality of witches for centuries, or criminalize them until around 1400. Sociologist Don Swenson says the explanation for this may lay in the nature of Medieval society as heirocratic which led to violence and the use of coercion to force conformity."There has been much debate to how many women were executed...[and estimates vary wildly, but numbers] small and large do little to portray the horror and dishonor inflicted upon these women. This treatment provides [dramatic] contrast to the respect given to women during the early era of Christianity..."Women under the Law —Church teaching heavily influenced the legal concept of marriage. In a departure from societal norms, Church law required the consent of both parties before a marriage could be performed. No more kidnapping and forced marriages.The elevation of marriage to a sacrament made the union a binding contract. The Church abandoned established tradition by allowing women the same rights as men to dissolve a marriage. (However, in practice, men have been granted dissolutions more frequently than women.)Women, in Conclusion[9]The church’s behavior toward women has been both positive and negative, but all in all, Christianity’s contribution has been more positive than negative.If nothing else could ever be said, Christianity’s treatment of women was a big improvement over what existed before it, and its belief in the spiritual equality of both genders before God, altered the paradigm for women forever.Historian of hospitals Guenter Risse says the Church spearheaded the development of a hospital system geared towards the marginalized.Charity/Hospitals — Prior to Christianity, there is little to no trace of any organized charitable effort anywhere in the ancient world. After centuries of Christian influence, charity has become a universal practice.[10]Albert Jonsen, historian of medicine, says:“the second great sweep of medical history begins at the end of the fourth century, with the founding of the first hospital at Caesarea in Cappadocia, and concludes at the end of the fourteenth century, with medicine well ensconced in the universities and in the public life of the emerging nations of Europe.” [11]That hospital was founded by Basil, Bishop of Caesarea. He established the first formal soup kitchen, hospital, homeless shelter, hospice, poorhouse, orphanage, reform center for thieves, women’s center for those leaving prostitution, and many other ministries. He was personally involved in the projects and process, and gave all his personal wealth to fund the ministries.Basil himself would put on an apron and work in the soup kitchen. These ministries were given freely regardless of religious affiliation. Basil refused to make any discrimination when it came to people who needed help saying that “the digestive systems of the Jew and the Christian are indistinguishable.”His example spread throughout Christianity continuing to the modern day.In the modern day, across the world, various Christian denominations are still the ones largely responsible for the establishment of medical clinics, hospitals, orphanages, soup kitchens, and schools of all kinds.The Catholic Church maintains a massive network of health care providers. In 2009, Catholic hospitals in the USA received approximately one of every six patients. Catholic Health Australia is the largest non-government provider of group-health, community care, and aged-care services, representing about 10% of the health sector.Women have played a vital role in running and staffing these Christian care institutions. In Methodist hospitals, deaconnesses who trained as nurses staffed the hospitals, and in Catholic hospitals, religious like the Sisters of Mercy, the Little Sisters of the Poor, and the Sisters of St.Mary kept their hospitals focused on serving the needy. The New York Times noted that nuns were trained to "see Jesus in the face of every patient."In the West, these institutions are increasingly run by lay-people after centuries of being run by priests, nuns and brothers, and while the profit motive has stepped in, it does mean more people are taking responsibility for caring for the poor than ever before. In Western nations, governments have increasingly taken up funding and organization of health services for the poor. In 1968, nuns or priests were the chief executives of 770 of America's 796 Catholic hospitals. By 2011, they presided over 8 of 636 hospitals.[12]All over the West, charity is now a societal standard that simply didn’t exist prior to Christianity’s existence.[13]"After the Battle of Gravelotte. The French Sisters of Mercy of St. Borromeo arriving on the battle field to succor the wounded." Unsigned lithograph, 1870 or 1871.Dark Ages and the Early Middle Ages (500–800) [14]Preservation of Literacy — After the Fall of Rome, culture in the west returned to a subsistence agrarian form of life. Church scholars preserved literacy in Western Europe at this time, saving and copying Greek and Roman texts in their scriptoriums. For centuries following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, small monastic communities were practically the only outposts of literacy in all of Western Europe.…all through Europe, matted, unwashed, barbarians descended on the Roman cities, looting artifacts and burning books, when the Irish, who were just learning to read and write, took up the great labor of copying all western literature – everything they could lay their hands on. These scribes then served as conduits through which the Greco-Roman and Judeo-Christian cultures were transmitted to the tribes of Europe, newly settled amid the rubble and ruined vineyards of the civilization they had overwhelmed. Without this Service of the Scribes, everything that happened subsequently would be unthinkable.[15]Monks and Nuns [16]Benedict’s Rule — The period between 500 and 700, often referred to as the "Dark Ages," could also be designated the "Age of the Monk." Christian aesthetes, like St.Benedict (480–543) vowed a life of chastity, obedience, and poverty, and after rigorous intellectual training and self-denial, lived by the principles ‘work and pray’ following the “Rule of Benedict.” This “Rule” became the foundation of thousands of monasteries that spread across what is modern day Europe; "...certainly there will be no demur in recognizing that St.Benedict's Rule has been one of the great facts in the history of western Europe, and that its influence and effects are with us to this day."[17]Spread Skills and Provided Education— Monasteries were self-supporting models of productivity and economic resourcefulness teaching their local communities animal husbandry, cheese making, wine making and various other skills. They were havens for the poor, hospitals, hospices for the dying, and schools. Medical practice was highly important in medieval monasteries, and they are best known for their contributions to medical tradition, but they also made some advances in other sciences such as astronomy. These monks had impact on every level of society both directly and indirectly since all leaders of this period were educated by monks.[18]Changed Social Structure — The monastic movement also changed our social structure in ways that continue to affect us today. The formation of these organized bodies of believers, free from the political authority and familial authority that normally had the power to control an individual’s choices, gradually carved out a series of social spaces with some amount of independence and autonomy, thereby revolutionizing social history.Charles Martel Stopped Islam — (c. 457-751 CE) and his family played a crucial role in Western Europe’s transition from “ancient” to “medieval.”[19]By 727, Charles — “the Hammer”—has become King of what will one day become the nation of France. Charles wages long campaigns against the pagan Germanic tribes who constantly raid his northern and eastern borders - Frisians, Saxons and Bavarians. He also lends strong support to the missionary activities of St. Boniface hoping that conversion to Christianity will tame the heathens enough to stop this raiding. It is not fully effective, but it sets the stage for his grandson’s actions that do change the landscape of Europe.The Hammer’s main positive role involves the Arabs who, since their arrival in 711, have gained a toehold on the European continent in the Spanish peninsula. The Arabs advanced rapidly northwards in their planned takeover of the continent and were soon beyond the Pyrenees. Narbonne was taken in 720 and an extended raid in 725 brought the Arabs briefly into Burgundy. There was a lull until 732 when a Muslim army took Bordeaux, destroyed a church near Poitiers and rode on towards Tours. Here the Arabs were confronted by an army of Franks led by Charles Martel and were stopped.It was a turning point in the attempted Muslim takeover of Europe.The Middle AgesSet of pictures of notable Scientists who self-identified as Christians: Isaac Newton (top left), Robert Boyle (top right), Francis Bacon (bottom left) and Johannes Kepler (bottom right).Science [20]Early in the eleventh century, the full writings of Aristotle were reclaimed in the West by intrepid monks who traveled to Spain to work with the Jews there translating Aristotle’s writings into Latin. (These writings had been mostly lost in the West but not in the East, and when the Muslims came to Europe, they brought their books.) The church’s study of these texts laid the foundation for the beginnings of modern science as well as our modern university system.Historians of science, including J.L.Heilbron, A.C.Crombie, David Lindberg, Edward Grant, Thomas Goldstein, and Ted Davis, have argued that the church promoted learning and science during the Middle Ages. Critics will raise the Church's condemnations of Copernicus, Galileo, and Johannes Kepler as evidence to the contrary— which is a valid criticism—but it should also be considered that these same men all considered themselves Christian, were influenced by their faith in their work, and were originally sponsored by their respective churches.The sheer number of scientists and the amount of scientific work and discovery done by Christians, (many of them funded and supported by the church), supports the assertion that, taking its failures into consideration, the church’s overall impact on science has still been positive.Saint Thomas Aquinas was one of the great scholars of the Medieval period.Thomas Aquinas—the friar—opened the door for the church’s promotion of scientific and intellectual development by arguing that reason is in harmony with faith, and that reason can contribute to a deeper understanding of revelation.[21] The church put that into practice. Churchmen such as the Augustinian abbot Gregor Mendel (pioneer in the study of genetics), the monk William of Ockham who developed Ockham’s Razor, Roger Bacon, (a Franciscan friar who was one of the early advocates of the scientific method), and the modern Belgian priest George Lemaître who was the first to propose the Big Bang theory, and others, have been among the leaders in astronomy, genetics, geomagnetism, meteorology, seismology, and solar physics, with many becoming the "fathers" of these sciences.Christians who influenced Western science include such notables as Isaac Newton and Robert Boyle, Albertus Magnus, Robert Grosseteste, Nicholas Steno, Francesco Grimaldi, Giambattista Riccioli, Roger Boscovich and Athanasius Kircher.[22]Henri Becquerel, discovered radioactivity; Galvani, Volta, Ampere, and Marconi, are pioneers in electricity and telecommunications; Lavoisier is the "father of modern chemistry"; Vesalius is the founder of the modern study of human anatomy; and Cauchy, is one of the mathematicians who laid the rigorous foundations of modern calculus.According to 100 Years of Nobel Prize (2005), (which is a review of Nobel prizes awarded between 1901 and 2000), 65.4% of all Nobel Prize Laureates have identified Christianity in its various forms as their religious preference (423 prizes). Overall, Christians have won a total of 78.3% of all the Nobel Prizes in Peace, 72.5% in Chemistry, 65.3% in Physics, 62% in Medicine, 54% in Economics and 49.5% of all Literature awards.[23]It is not too much to say that modern science may never have begun without the influence and support of the Christian church, and it most certainly would not be what it is today without it.[24]Universities - The church of the middle ages helped found and build the university system, which grew rapidly in Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Today, there are more universities in the West than any other part of the world and almost all of them were founded as Christian institutions.[25]Map of mediaeval universities established by Catholic students, faculty, monarchs, or priestsArts and Humanities [26]Painting, Sculpture and Architecture — Artists like Michaelangelo, Da Vinci and Raphael produced some of the most celebrated works of art in history sponsored and supported by the church.[In the West] with a single exception, the great artists of the time were all sincere, conforming Christians. Guercino spent much of his mornings in prayer; Bernini frequently went into retreats and practised the Spiritual Exercizes of St.Ignatius; Rubens attended Mass every morning before beginning work. The exception was Caravaggio, who was like the hero of a modern play, except that he happened to paint very well. This conformism was not based on fear, but on the perfectly simple belief that the faith which had inspired the great saints of the preceding generations was something by which a man should regulate his life.The cathedrals of the Late Middle Ages are among the most iconic feats of architecture ever produced by Western civilization.Music — Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern Western musical notation; there would be no modern music as we know it without this.An enormous body of religious music has been composed for the church, with its support, and this sacred music led directly to the emergence and development of European classical music, and its many derivatives.Ludwig van Beethoven, composed many Masses and religious works, including his Ninth Symphony Ode to Joy.Law and Human Rights [27]Church laws were the single Universal Law common to the different jurisdictions and peoples throughout Europe for much of European history.Human Value[28]If we turn to the roots of our western tradition, we find that in Greek and Roman times not all human life was regarded as inviolable and worthy of protection. Slaves and 'barbarians' did not have a full right to life and human sacrifices and gladiatorial combat were acceptable... Spartan Law required that deformed infants be put to death; for Plato, infanticide is one of the regular institutions of the ideal State; Aristotle regards abortion as a desirable option; and the Stoic philosopher Seneca writes unapologetically: "Unnatural progeny we destroy; we drown even children who at birth are weakly and abnormal.” And whilst there were deviations from these views..., it is probably correct to say that such practices...were less proscribed in ancient times. Most historians of western morals agree that the rise of ...Christianity contributed greatly to the general feeling that human life is valuable and worthy of respect.[29]Human Rights — Christian theology has strongly influenced Western philosophers and political activists in many ways, but nowhere more than in the area of human rights. Howard Tumber says, "human rights is not a universal doctrine, but is the descendent of one particular religion (Christianity)."" cannot and need not deny that Human Rights are of Western Origin. It cannot be denied, because they are morally based on the Judeo-Christian tradition and Graeco-Roman philosophy; they were codified in the West over many centuries, they have secured an established position in the national declarations of western democracies, and they have been enshrined in the constitutions of those democracies." [30]Saint Peter Claver worked for the alleviation of the suffering of African slaves brought to South America.Slavery — The Church initially accepted slavery as part of the social structure of society, campaigning primarily for humane treatment of slaves but also admonishing slaves to behave appropriately towards their masters.[31] However, historian Glenn Sunshine says,Christians were the first people in history to oppose slavery systematically. Early Christians purchased slaves in the markets simply to set them free.Later, in the seventh century, the Franks..., under the influence of its Christian queen, Bathilde, became the first kingdom in history to begin the process of outlawing slavery....In the 1200's, Thomas Aquinas declared slavery a sin.When the African slave trade began in the 1400's, it was condemned numerous times by the papacy.[32]The British became involved in the slave trade in the late 1500s, and by the 1700s, most people accepted slavery as a fact of life, until gradually, from the mid-1700s onwards, a Christian abolitionist movement began to take shape. It began with American Quakers.Slavery was also coming under attack from Enlightenment philosophers like Montesquieu and Rousseau, but it was Christian activists who initiated and organised an abolitionist movement.By the 1770s, Evangelicals were waking up to the seriousness of the issue – the British Methodist John Wesley and the American Presbyterian Benjamin Rush denounced the slave trade in influential pamphlets. Once the British Abolition Committee was established in 1787, abolitionism quickly became a mass movement. Within twenty years, the slave trade had been abolished throughout the British Empire. [33][34]Christianity was instrumental in stopping slavery. If you don’t think it was Christianity that made the difference, read this: John Dewar Gleissner's answer to What are some mind-blowing facts about slavery?Consistent with Calvin's political ideas, Protestants helped create both the English and the American democracies.Christianity is criticized for many things, some of them justly. David Gushee says Christianity has a "tragically mixed legacy" when it comes to the application of its own ethics, using the examples of three cases of "Christendom divided against itself": the crusades, and Frances of Assissi’s attempt at peacemaking with Muslims; Spanish conquerors and the killing of indigenous peoples, and the Christian protests and fights for Native rights; and the on-again, off-again, persecution and protection of Jews. [85]But we have also gotten a few things right here and there.I have borrowed from the article Role of Christianity in civilization - Wikipedia but I did attempt to limit myself to those sections of the article I wrote myself. Here are some of my references:Footnotes[1] From Shame to Sin: The Christian Transformation of Sexual Morality in Late Antiquity (Revealing Antiquity): Kyle Harper: 9780674072770: Books[2] A Short History of Christianity: Geoffrey Blainey: 9781442225893: Books[3] Sexual Morality in Ancient Rome (9780521859431): Rebecca Langlands: Books[4] The Reason for God: Belief in an Age of Skepticism: Timothy Keller: 9780525950493: Books[5] Early Christian Women and Pagan Opinion[6] Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia (Routledge Encyclopedias of the Middle Ages) (9780415969444): Margaret C. Schaus: Books[7] CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Abbess[8] Get the facts in order: A history of women's leadership[9] Society, Spirituality, and the Sacred: A Social Scientific Introduction, Second Edition: Donald S. Swenson: 9780802096807: Books[10] Christian Charity in the Ancient Church - Kindle edition by Gerhard Uhlhorn. Religion & Spirituality Kindle eBooks @[11] A Short History of Medical Ethics: 9780195134551: Medicine & Health Science Books @[12] Nuns, a ‘Dying Breed,’ Fade From Leadership Roles at Catholic Hospitals[13] Giving: Charity and Philanthropy in History: Robert H. Bremner: 9781560008842: Books[14] A History of Orthodox, Islamic, and Western Christian Political Values: Dennis J. Dunn: 9783319325668: Books[15] How the Irish Saved Civilization (Hinges of History Book 1) eBook: Thomas Cahill: Kindle Store[16] 9783319325668: Books[17] Benedictine Monachism[18] Christian Community in History: Volume 1: Historical Ecclesiology: Roger D. Haight: 9780826416308: Books[19] Charles Martel : the Military Leader and Frankish Defender: History and Civilization Collection: 9782366593624: Books[20] 100 Scientists Who Shaped World History[21] St. Thomas Aquinas and the Natural Law Tradition: Contemporary Perspectives: John Goyette, Mark S. Latkovic, Richard S. Myers: 9780813213781: Books[22] Faithful to Science[23] 100 Years of Nobel Prizes: Baruch Aba Shalev: 9780935047370: Books[24] 50 Nobel Laureates and Other Great Scientists Who Believe in God[25] A History of the University in Europe: Volume 1, Universities in the Middle Ages (9780521361057): Hilde de Ridder-Symoens: Books[26] The Western Humanities: The Complete Edition: Roy T. Matthews, F. Dewitt Platt: 9780874847857: Books[27] The Routledge Companion to Early Christian Thought (Routledge Religion Companions) (9780415442251): D. Jeffrey Bingham: Books[28] The Sacredness of Human Life: Why an Ancient Biblical Vision Is Key to the World's Future: David P. Gushee: 9780802844200: Books[29] Text, Cases and Materials on Medical Law and Ethics: Marc Stauch, Kay Wheat: 9781138024021: Books[30] The Routledge Companion to Media and Human Rights[31] The Truth About the Catholic Church and Slavery[32] Why You Think the Way You Do[33] The abolition of the slave trade: Christian conscience and political action by John Coffey - Jubilee Centre[34] The Abolitionists

How is the Coronavirus spreading all over the world so fast? Is there no cure for that?

So… You’re Likely Going to Get the Coronavirus; COVID19. But… Just Maybe Not This YearI’m a retired anesthesiologist, father, husband, caretaker to an elderly parent and basically your average disabled American digesting what’s happening on Earth in 2020. About a month ago I wrote about COVID19, on Facebook, although, at the time, it was called 2019-nCoV – “The Wuhan Coronavirus” but has been now officially labelled as COVID19.This is a long answer and meant for those that have some minutes to read and some minutes to digest it. First a short answer for those without the time right now.Short Answer:The bad news is that COVID19 is not going to be contained globally. The decent news is that the United States (and many other countries) has/have done some things correctly to slow the spread of the disease for this 2019-20 Season. Hindsight will be 20/20 on this one and there will have been mistakes made, however, in my opinion, preventing COVID19 in the United States will eventually be found to have been impossible.Why? Basically, two reasons for such a fast spread:1) It appears there is a long period of time (more than 72 hours) when one has COVID19 and is infectious to others. Hence, the 14-day quarantine model being used.2) Initial data shows that 80% of people get a mild to moderate illness, about 15% of people experience a severe illness and 5% get labelled critical. Hence, there are a bunch of people sick but not sick enough to avoid others.Example: You are feeling not-great, but it’s Friday and you have these one or two things that need done at work before the weekend. You go into work, have a great day ‘work-wise’ even though by the end of the day you are exhausted and ready for the weekend. On Sunday, you have a fever of 100.8, cough a bit, and know you are sick. Later, you find out you got it from the gal who did this the last Friday at your workplace. She got it from her kid the week before who could not miss the three tests in school that he had the Thursday (because he studied so hard for them) and… because he was going on a high school sports team trip over the weekend… etc. Yep, the whole sports team has it now, too. And… the other team has it, too. And… the other team’s parents.This is how the virus will spread so fast throughout the world. There is no cure for human-to-human contact, although the Chinese have tried! This is not the whole story, though.Long Answer:My own four kids have all used ‘being sick’ as a way to attempt to get out of school. Yep. Some more than others. Just as often, they have lied in the other direction, stating they are fine, about being not-being-sick because of the pain of make-up work. Especially during their junior and senior years of high school. Just imagine, in your mind, a high school hallway, thick with teen spirit and pheromones, between classes and a virus that is transmitted by air, on all those voices, all those laughs, a few coughs, numerous high fives, fist bumps and playful slaps and all of that in very close proximity. Inevitable.The distribution of mild/moderate, to severe to critical cases of COVID19 makes global spread inevitable. Four out of five people with COVID19 have symptoms like the common cold or mild flu. I would guess, at least 50% of those people will go to work (when maybe they should not), go to school (when maybe they should not), congregate with friends (when maybe they should not), visit family (when maybe they should not), or ‘get through’ their normal days without so much as a thought that they are really ‘that sick’ and the pattern will repeat for families, for communities and for cities and countries. Human Nature.Well, that sucks. It does. It has happened before and will happen again, just like every novel human illness before this one. Think of your own city. I look at my own hometown of Columbus, OH. The “Arnold Sports Festival” is March 5-8, 2020 and was already the largest multi-sport event in the world by 2018. This is an amazing experience with people who train year-round to compete. It’s a people watchers dream. Last year, in 2019, Columbus saw over 22,000 athletes competing! The event – which ran from Thursday, Feb. 28, 2019 to Sunday, March 3, 2019 – had an economic impact of $54.1 million on Columbus last year! Even if 50% of the athletes choose not to come and 50% of the crowds stay home and everyone washes their hands all the time… even then, this airborne virus will spread here in my hometown. Then, back to where everyone was coming from.Life continues; my wife travelled this week to Colorado, domestically, but there’s a lot of people between here, in Ohio, all the way by airport to Colorado and then back next weekend. The following week, our Spring Break, I, my wife and my two youngest will travel domestically. This whole week, those younger ones are attending school. My two eldest are in graduate school, attending classes and my eldest son is travelling with his NCAA Volleyball team. Life goes on. We have not stopped our lives.I fielded a bunch of medical questions in late January and early February. Since then, here are the top three I’ve received from non-medical people across multiple platforms:Should I wear a mask? The only mask that would help is what they call an N95 mask and that has to be fitted properly to work properly. Hospital employees will be using these when treating people with airborne illness, like COVID19. For the average person travelling or living their lives, masks will likely not prevent you from getting COVID19, but if you are sick with any cold or flu, wearing any mask may reduce the spread of your own infectious droplets (airborne or otherwise) to other people, surfaces, your own hands, etc. I say, may, because you have to be diligent not to spread your own germs.To be as safe as we can for all colds and flus, learn this, teach this to your kids:• WASH YOUR HANDS• TOUCH LESS THINGS AND PEOPLE• TOUCH YOUR FACE LESS• COUGH OR SNEEZE INTO ELBOWWhat’s the treatment? For the 80% of people that will have a mild to moderate illness when contracting COVID19, it’s fluids, rest and recover. Take your temperature every day and treat fevers, that means a temperature greater than 100.5 degrees, with Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or Ibuprofen (Advil).[ EDIT ADDED March 18, 2020 - There is a publication, that includes a warning by French Health Minister Veran that Advil (Ibuprofen) and other NSAIDs may make the course of COVID19 illness worse. The warning followed a recent study in The Lancet medical journal that hypothesised that an enzyme boosted by anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen could facilitate and worsen COVID-19 infections. Here is the paper: Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection? END EDIT ADDITION ~Chris ]For the 20% that get severe or critically sick; They are going to need the best care they can get and if they develop further disease, perhaps hospitalization. If you are older, or have cardiac issues, or lung issues, or just have had a chronic illness, like diabetes for decades, you will be at greater risk of getting more sick than the average person BUT that’s true of every cold and flu you get!Can my kids get it? It would appear that they can but the CDC states, “there is no evidence that children are more susceptible [to COVID19]. In fact, most confirmed cases of COVID-19 reported from China have occurred in adults. Infections in children have been reported, including in very young children. From limited information published from past Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreaks, infection among children was relatively uncommon.” *Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)This past week, I think for obvious reasons, the questions I received turned more financial than medical in nature!Except one new medical question this week: If I get COVID19, can I get it again? The truthful answer is there is not enough good data to give a definitive answer, yet. It’s true, this is a new, or novel, form of coronavirus, but our human race has encountered many novel illnesses over time and ones much worse than COVID19. My medical suspicion will be that most people who get this year’s COVID19 virus, will not likely get it again. It is also my suspicion that most Americans will get COVID19 next year, not this year, if they are going to contract it.As for economic impacts, watching $3.6 Trillion dollars of value vanish for the S&P 500 was difficult for most Americans with an IRA to watch. As an individual, one thing I have learned about investing is that you, an individual, cannot ‘time’ the market, you can only time yourself. I’ve counselled many young new doctors and dentists just beginning their retirement accounts to “Bet on the USA” because they are all “individually” about 30 years old and have 35 years before they retire. Their ‘timing’ of the markets is to buy every month with their IRA contributions. Lori and I are 50 years old, our ‘individual’ timing is different, we retire in 15 years. Our elderly parent is near 85 years old, his ‘individual’ timing is different.I’ve been asked for advice (financially) a bunch this past week: (This is what I tell almost everyone) and I rarely answer anything about finances.GENERALLY SPEAKING: If you are under 45 years old and have less than $500k in retirement, you should by the least expensive (fee-wise) S&P500 Index Fund (I believe that’s Vanguard as of today) and you do not need to look or to care until you hit $500k in your retirement accounts. No individual will out-guess the thousands of business leaders running America’s 500 best companies! If you are over 45 years old and/or have more than $500k then go interview (3) financial advisors, yes, (3) of them, and pick the one that you and your spouse like the most. From 45 to 65 years old, meet at least annually and plan your retirement path. It is a marathon, not a sprint. Lastly, if you work with an advisor, do a 3rd party audit every 3 to 5 years (no matter whom you work with, double check their work every 3 to 5 years)… which is simple because most financial advisors are happy to review what you are doing in hopes of landing future business with you or your family.That’s it. Yep, that’s it. Really. It is simple, actually, we (humans) just make it complicated because of fear, mostly, perhaps, greed, intermittently over our lives. Speaking of fear and money, here is a quick glance at the past global illnesses and the effects or impact on the stock market the past 40 years:Green is a good color here. I hope seeing all that ‘green’ in the picture above makes some of that fear go away. Go ahead, look again, there is a lot of green!That’s money, but if you don't have your health, who cares.2019-nCoV – “The Wuhan Coronavirus” and now known or relabeled as officially COVID19 is going to propagate through the end of April 2020 in the northern hemisphere of Earth. By the middle of May 2020, the new case numbers will fall off and continue to decline for the end of the 2019-2020 Cold/Flu Season.However, it will come back next year in the 2020-2021 Cold/Flu Season.How do I know this? To answer: How is the Corona virus spreading all over the world so fast? Is there no cure for that? more completely let’s look at few things about colds and flus.What is a Flu Season or The Cold & Flu Season? Well, microbes, like those that cause the cold or the flu, do not do well in UV radiation… sunlight kills microbes surprisingly well. For the northern hemisphere of Earth, this means basically from the middle of May through the first week in October there is so much sunlight and UV radiation where people are and interact or congregate that colds and flus, and the microbes responsible for them, just can’t really spread effectively. Every time humans walk outside, their skin, their clothes, all get naturally radiated… while it can give your skin a tan or a sunburn, to a cold or flu microbe, the sunlight is deadly. The warmer ambient air temperatures also cause droplets to vanish much faster in the summer months. That means all the surface-to-surface or people-to-people transmissions are reduced dramatically. However, starting in October and continuing to the follow middle of May, the power of the sun fades in the northern hemisphere, people meet indoors more than outdoors, droplets in cooler air linger longer before evaporating and transmission rates for microbes’ surface-to-surface or people-to-people increases.For the Flu: (AS AN EXAMPLE ONLY)The 40th week of the year, in the northern hemisphere, where the USA and a lot of the world’s population lives, is usually the first full week in October. This is when cases of the Flu begin to show up, usually. The 46th week of the year, which is the middle of November, is when Flu cases double and then climb into the “Flu Season” each year. The 20th week of the year ends in the middle of May and concludes the “Flu Season”. We are in the 10th week of 2020.Let’s first look at last year, the 2018-29 Season:Adopted from: National, Regional, and State Level Outpatient Illness and Viral SurveillanceFirst, notice, the “Flu” is really a number of different types of Influenza with (2) major types for last year. The Flu Shot you may elect to get each year usually has the 3 or 4 most likely flu variants or types most likely to cause the flu illnesses that next season. While the ‘effectiveness’ of the flu shot bounces between 20% and 50% (2005-2018), millions of people likely do not get the flu or get a milder version of it because of the vaccine and transmission rates, overall, are slowed considerably. So, the above picture is a snapshot of the 2018-29 Flu Season.This year is the ongoing 2019-20 Season:Again, adopted from: National, Regional, and State Level Outpatient Illness and Viral SurveillanceYou see different colors in the bar graph for this year, a different curve and timing to the shape of the overall curve and basically, a different flu season compared to last year.We will all see how this cold and flu season ends but, in my opinion, even flu infections are going to fall off sooner and faster than last year because many people are being way safer (because of the COVID19 outbreak and the news cycles about it) and maybe Spring will get here earlier, too:• WASH YOUR HANDS• TOUCH LESS THINGS AND PEOPLE• TOUCH YOUR FACE LESS• COUGH OR SNEEZE INTO ELBOW• HOPE FOR AN EARLY SUMMERTIME!!!If COVID19 is at least similar in transmission to the Flu(s) we get in American Society and everything else being about the same for society, then you are very likely to get COVID19 next season if you do not get it this year. “But… there will be a vaccine!”Maybe, but it may also only be 50% effective. And… honestly, there may not be an effective vaccine, or not enough can be made and/or distributed and/or injected in time for next season, or a hundred other little issues with vaccines, rates of distributions, effectiveness and so, we just do not know what we do not know for next year.We do know this about coronaviruses in general:From: Coronavirus National Trends showing the seasonality of coronaviruses (matches the classic Flu Season) and notice that different coronaviruses (different color lines) peak differently each year AND repeat from one year to the next.My bet is that COVID19 will be a big part of next year’s colds around the world and in the United States, but COVID19 does not look much more deadly than the flu based on what’s been reported. This is a very good thing for the future outlook of the disease.After that, assuming COVID19 does not mutate in some manner and assuming most, 99.9%, of healthy humans, once they get COVID19, form proper antibodies to COVID19 and cannot get it again or there is a vaccine distributed, each new cold/flu season will see less and less beginning 2021-22. COVID19 will fade into history after that.There is no ‘cure’ for the Cold & Flu Seasons on Earth, not yet.I wrote this answer today for those of you who want to know what you can do, today, right now:WASH YOUR HANDS – with warm water, soap for 20-30 seconds, thoroughly dry. Antimicrobial gels (alcohol based) can be used when mobile or interacting but the tried and true method of washing your hands regularly is the habit you should work on for yourself and your family.TOUCH LESS THINGS AND PEOPLE – not saying you need to go Howie Mandel, who’s phobia of touching exists secondary to his extreme case of obsessive-compulsive disorder – he claims he went eight years without shaking hands with others! The point is that you do not need to touch as many things as you do in a given day… but when you touch a bunch of stuff that is not yours, outside of your home… WASH YOUR HANDS.TOUCH YOUR FACE LESS – and this is a very hard habit to break! My method was to write on the back of my dominant hand “DO NOT TOUCH FACE” in a sharpie. However, if you need to touch your nose, lips, face or eyes… form the habit of excusing yourself, go to the washroom, wash your hands… THEN touch your face all you want.COUGH OR SNEEZE INTO ELBOW – this should become a habit for all of us!I also wrote this today to mention what I have written for years and years online – we can all do a better job of self-care. Including me. I’ve written the following ‘prescription,’ first in 2003 for a pain patient who was at her wit’s end and nothing worked to solve her pain. Online, the following, or something close to it, has appeared in hundreds of posts from me:EAT RIGHT — vegetables and fruits, rice and beans, some nuts to make up for calories. Pay attention to get at least 40-50 grams of protein each day from vegetable and grain sources. Little to no meats, almost no dairy, little to no alcohol, little salt and use spices for taste, avoid processed foods, especially sugars – this reduces your body’s inflammation state dramatically. Drink mostly water, black coffee or plain tea.SLEEP RIGHT — this means 7.5–8.5 hours per night. Most people need to discontinue screen time 35–45 minutes before they want to be asleep. THE BIGGEST KEY to sleeping right is waking up at the same time every day… that’s 6:06am for me… I know, yikes, coffee helps make the transition each morning, for me.EXERCISE RIGHT — I used to promote “walk every other day 25–35 minutes” but new research shows moving and walking around 6-10 minutes each hour of the day is far more effective. Swimming is a great alternative. Be smart about physical activity but do it consistently.Like I began with, this is a long Quora answer and meant for those that have some minutes to read and some minutes to digest it. I’m going to cover one more piece of this unfolding COVID19 story and that is Fear, itself.I’d be lying to you if I said that in the past six weeks, I had not experienced fear. Fear of the unknown. Check. For sure, that’s part of this human journey. Fear of what I know about medicine, people, human nature and a host of really bad thoughts and possibilities… all of which brought me some level of fear for myself, distantly, and my family, mostly my family, mostly my kids.The worst fear I experienced was the fear of the Present State of Communication(s), social media(s), news(s), paper(s) – dating myself with that one, forum(s), blog(s), etc… made for profit’s sake, for the sake of getting eyeballs to tune in, or finger(s) to click something… and everyone is likely aware, for political sake(s) or stake(s) on both sides of the aisle in an election year.Instead of pontificating over how I wish all our leaders might conduct themselves and how information should be disseminated about things like COVID19 – because I am not going to impact either… I can only tell you how I will conduct myself to be part of the solution:Right now, today:• WASH YOUR HANDS• TOUCH LESS THINGS AND PEOPLE• TOUCH YOUR FACE LESS• COUGH OR SNEEZE INTO ELBOWThis year, this Spring and Summer, learn to do this 6 of 7 days for all the rest of your days:• EAT RIGHT• SLEEP RIGHT• EXERCISEIf you get sick with the cold/flu sniffles, fever above 100.5 degrees, body aches and pains:• WASH YOUR HANDS• TOUCH LESS THINGS AND PEOPLE• TOUCH YOUR FACE LESS• COUGH OR SNEEZE INTO ELBOW• AVOID OTHERS AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE UNTIL NO FEVER FOR THREE DAYSDespite many unfortunate events in my own life, many of which fuel my passion to write, I continue to believe in the optimistic outcome for the human species. We will get there, better in the future than we have been in the past, of that, I have no doubt.Peace. Love & Life to you All.~Chris

What are some events and facts from world history which everyone must be aware of?

Can the soil from this churchyard fight bacteria? (The Grave That Heals: Irish Folktale Proven True as Soil from Priest’s Grave Shows Key to Fighting Drug-Resistant Bacteria)Traditionally, ancient folk remedies are not treated seriously by medical researchers and professionals. However, some scientists are taking a new look at these remedies because some are believed to hold the key to fighting deadly diseases and infections. In Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, there are real hopes that an ancient folk remedy may help in the battle against drug-resistant bacterium and viruses.The discovery was made in Boho, a sleepy village near the border with the Irish Republic. In the old churchyard, there is the grave of one Reverend James McGirr, the parish priest in 1803.[1] He was a respected figure in the community and on his deathbed he claimed that the earth from his grave had healing powers.[2] There is a long-standing belief in the locality and beyond that the earth from Father McGirr’s grave can heal and is very effective against infections.Monsignor’s apology to priest after giving TV crew access to ‘miracle soil’Sacred Heart Church stands on a site that has been used for Christian worship for more than 1,500 years. In a nearby field are 4,000 year old Neolithic Reyfad Stones.[3] The origin of the belief in the healing earth pre-dates the 19th century. Boho is located in an archaeologically rich area and it has been settled since at least the Bronze/Iron Age (Aghnaglack Tomb).[4]It is probable that the church was located on or near an ancient site such as a Celtic shrine or sanctuary. Some have speculated that the folk remedy can be traced back to the Druids who once occupied the land.[5]Little is known of Reverend James McGirr beyond where he is buried and what are considered his final words to his parishoners. "What he said was, 'after I die, the clay that covers me will cure anything that I cured when I was with you'.[6] He must obviously have had the facility to cure people and people must have thought very highly of him.Soil samples taken from Boho churchyard in County Fermanagh (Bacteria found in ancient Irish soil halts growth of superbugs-new hope for tackling antibiotic resistance)The cure involves taking some soil from the grave and bringing it to the home of a sick person. People would lie with the soil placed under a pillow wrapped in clot’, in order to help cure ailments such as toothache, throat and neck infections. After saying a prayer, the soil would eventually be returned to the grave of the parish priest.[7] There have been numerous claims that the soil has healed many down the centuries, even though it is not been investigated or sanctioned by the Catholic Church.Analysis of the ‘healing soil’ from the graveyard was carried out by a team of researchers from Swansea University Medical School including Dr Gerry Quinn, a senior microbiologist, looking for new antibiotics to treat the growing problem of drug-resistant bacteria.[8] He became interested in the folk remedy and he decided to take a sample of the healing earth. Dr. Quinn wanted to test the limestone enriched soil and clay to see if there was a scientific basis to the claims that it could cure illnesses. The Boho Highlands is an area of alkaline grassland and the soil is reputed to have healing properties.[9] What he discovered in his laboratory amazed him and the wider research community.In the sample, Dr Quinn found a previously unknown species of Streptomyces sp. myrophorea bacteria.[10] The new bacteria was tested, and found to contain new antibodies used by the body’s immune system to fight pathogens that cause disease. The microbiologist found that three particularly dangerous pathogens could be killed by the antibodies. It is believed to be effective against four of the top six superbugs, including MRSA.[11] These pathogens have been deemed to be a major threat to public health around the globe by the World Health Organization.This particular organism doesn't just produce one antibiotic, it actually produces 10, 20 antibiotics in one organism. Some of the Boho soils’ reputed curative properties may be linked to the ability of Streptomyces sp. myrophorea, isolate McG1 to inhibit ESKAPE pathogens. This yields something in the region of possibly a hundred different antibiotics, and what we need to do is identify these antibiotics and then conduct clinical trials.[12]Streptomyces sp. myrophorea bacteria (Bacteria found in ancient Irish soil halts growth of superbugs-new hope for tackling antibiotic resistance)Researchers anticipate that up to twenty antibiotics can be produced from the newly discovered bacteria. However, these will need to be tested in exhaustive clinical trials, that could take years. Nevertheless, the new antibiotics could prove to be crucial in the fight against drug resistant pathogens.Antibiotic-resistant superbugs are one of the biggest threats to global health today, putting millions of lives at risk as researchers frantically search for novel forms of antibiotics to combat the evolving scourge.Infections with multi-resistant pathogens are extremely hard to treat and may spread throughout a hospital or community environment. They usually require treatment with higher-tier antibiotics of last resort. Yet these give no guarantee of success. Worryingly, antibacterial resistance has now been detected for almost all new antibiotics, even those of last resort.[13]Because of the overuse of antibiotics, even relatively treatable conditions and infections could become resistant to treatment.[14] If people use too many antibiotics they can become less effective over time and this is expected to be one of the major public health problems in the coming decades.[15] Quite simply if there are no new antibiotics found, patients could die from what should be highly treatable infections. This is why the bacteria found in the soil of the grave of the Irish priest, is of immense importance. Scientists believe that the bacteria was responsible for the popularity of the folk cure and even explains why the location has been of great religious importance for centuries.The search for replacement antibiotics to combat multi-resistance has prompted researchers to explore new sources, including folk medicines: a field of study known as ethnopharmacology.[16] Emphasis is focused on niche environments (deserts, thermal vents and alkaline soils) where well-known antibiotic producers like Streptomyces can be found.[17]Today, villagers continue to swear to the curing power of the soil. It's part of their folk tradition, and you often hear the secrets of the cure passing down amongst family members. All indications are historically and anecdotally that there is something to the folk remedy, encouraging researchers to continue with their analyses.Locals have expressed concern about the number of people coming to the Church and taking soil from the grounds after the scientific discovery, while the researcher who carried out the research, Dr. Gerry Quinn, also stressed the importance of respecting the area following global reaction to the discovery in recent weeks.[18]The results indicate that folklore and traditional medicines are worth investigating in the search for new antibiotics. Scientists, historians and archaeologists all have something to contribute. Perhaps the answer to this very modern problem might lie in the wisdom of the past.Footnotes[1] The churchyard cure that really works[2] The Grave That Heals: Irish Folktale Proven True as Soil from Priest’s Grave Shows Key to Fighting Drug-Resistant Bacteria[3] Reyfad - Wikipedia[4] Boho, County Fermanagh - Wikipedia[5] Ancient Irish 'healing soil,' once used by Druids, really works[6] The Grave That Heals: Irish Folktale Proven True as Soil from Priest’s Grave Shows Key to Fighting Drug-Resistant Bacteria[7] The churchyard cure that really works[8] The Grave That Heals: Irish Folktale Proven True as Soil from Priest’s Grave Shows Key to Fighting Drug-Resistant Bacteria[9] Bacteria found in ancient Irish soil halts growth of superbugs-new hope for tackling antibiotic resistance[10] Bacteria found in ancient Irish soil halts growth of superbugs-new hope for tackling antibiotic resistance[11] Bacteria found in ancient Irish soil halts growth of superbugs-new hope for tackling antibiotic resistance[12] A Novel Alkaliphilic Streptomyces Inhibits ESKAPE Pathogens[13] Bacteria discovered in ancient Irish soil halts the growth of antibiotic-resistant superbugs[14] The Grave That Heals: Irish Folktale Confirmed True as Soil from Priest’s Grave Exhibits Key to Preventing Drug-Resistant Micro organism ⋆ Epeak . Independent news and blogs[15] Antibiotic resistance 'a public threat'[16] News and Articles on Science and Technology[17] Bacteria discovered in ancient Irish soil halts the growth of antibiotic-resistant superbugs[18] Monsignor’s apology to priest after giving TV crew access to ‘miracle soil’

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