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What was the most underrated ship in WWII?
The tanker SS Ohio.This tanker was built by the Texaco company and launched on 20 April 1940. She had a quiet life before becoming part of Operation Pedestal.Operation Pedestal was a British operation to carry supplies to the island of Malta in August 1942. The island served as base for fighters, ships and submarines attacking convoys supporting the Axis forces in North Africa. Two previous convoys to the island had suffered heavy loses and this convoy was desperately needed to prevent the island from surrendering to the axis forces besieging it. It was major operation with 4 carriers, 2 battleships, 7 light cruisers, 32 destroyers escorting 14 merchant ships including SS Ohio.SS Ohio was modified based on the experience her sister ship SS Kentucky had suffered. She sank after bomb hit close by ruptured steam piping and left her a sitting duck for follow on attacks. The engines were mounted on rubber blocks and all the steam piping had extra supports installed. Se was loaded with 11 500 tons kerosene and diesel fuels. She was the only ship in the convoy carrying this load.She arrived in Gibraltar on 10 August 1942.The next day the attacks started. The carrier HMS Eagle was torpedoed by U-73. On 12 August twenty Ju-88 attacked the convoy followed by more than 100 German and Italian aircraft in a second wave. SS Ohio was torpedoed at this point by the Italian submarine Axum. She was hit amidships and a fire started.SS Ohio being hit the first torpedoThe fire was put out, and she managed to make 13 knots afterwards. There was a 24′ by 27′ hole on the port side with a matching hole on the starboard side. The deck was broken and buckled from the force of the explosion.Further bombs hits close by buckled some of the hull plating, and the forward tank filled with water. The buckling of the deck caused the forward 3″ gun mount to be put out of action for the duration of the battle.A Ju-87 Stuka was shot down and crashed into the ship forward of the bridge and exploded. Luckily, the bomb it carried did not detonate. One of the wings took out the upper works of the bridge.As she turned, bombs fell on both sides of the ship, partially lifting her out of the water. A close bomb hit threw her to port and knocked out her master switches. The boiler fires had failed at this time and the crew raced to re-light the boilers before steam pressure fell too low to pump the fuel. Within 20 minutes she was making 16 knots.She was then hit again by bombs and the engines stopped again. The fuel pumps had been knocked out by the concussions from the bombs. The crew worked to re-wire the system using an auxiliary steam system. She was now making both white and black smoke. Her speed started to drop because of oil in the water pipes and loss of vacuum in the condenser.Her crew abandoned ship at this point to HMS Penn, a destroyer. HMS Penn attempted to tow SS Ohio, but an eastern wind actually forced them to drift backwards. Another attack then happened. SS Ohio’s gunners shot down an attacking Ju-87 but it released its bomb before being hit. The bomb stuck where she had been torpedoed. This effectively broke her back. The ship was abandoned again.The next day HMS Penn and HMS Rye (minesweeper) attempted to tow again. The started to make five knots but another attack broke the tow lines and immobilized her rudder. A bomb hit forced the crew to evacuate the engine room. Two more attacks occurred and it was obvious that her back was broken.Then HMS Penn, HMS Rye and HMS Ledbury (destroyer) attempted a tow again, HMS Rye in front and HMS Ledbury as stern tow. HMS Penn edged up against the starboard side of the stricken tanker to act a stabilizer. Another air attack was partially broken up by Spitfire fighters from Malta. However, a lone Ju-88 succeeded in dropping one bomb aft the tanker. This cause the tanker to surge forward, breaking the tow line to HMS Rye and causing HMS Ledbury to twist around and come up along side.It was decided to leave both destroyers secure against the tanker. She was just 45 miles from Malta at this point.SS Ohio with HMS Penn(left) and HMS Ledbury (right) alongside.She was now making five knots, her mid deck awash and slowly sinking. With the help of tugs, she was eased into the Grand Harbour. Crowds of people had gathered to see her arrival and cheer.She was sinking as she was unloaded with her keel settling on the bottom as she was emptied.Her captain, Dudley William Mason, was awarded the George Cross.It is not often that merchant ships are written about. SS Ohio was one of the thousands of ships that served in the warm, and were equally as important for victory as any warship was.
Why does China have so few nukes? If having 260 is enough, why does the US and Russia need more? If 260 is not enough, why doesn’t China get more?
All current other answers are not very accurate and lack detailed analysis.Things you need to know:China needs nukes, at least 2500 nukes. (I will explain later)Nukes are very easy to build if you know how to enrich Uranium (China knows it since 1960s). You can find the procedure in high school physics book.But nukes do not fly, you cannot throw a nuke from China to US by hand. They are carried by Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles(ICBM) or strategic bomber(a little bit outdated). Both of them are rather tricky to build :D. (I will provide more details later)Yes China has more than enough money.You can get filthy rich overnight, but engineering takes time.Russia cannot afford to maintain so many nukes and their inventory has been rapidly decreasing since 1991. This makes the world more and more dangerous.(keep reading)A nuclear power unbalanced world is dangerous since the Big Bro can do anything he wants and other nations cannot effectively defend themselves.Russia’s nuclear power is still quite significant today but it will be outmatched by US at around 2040, given its current economy tendency.So China has to take Russia’s position before that time to keep this world balanced.China builds nuclear weapons to keep this world safe.How to prevent a thermonuclear war?Answer: “Mutual assured destruction”, that is, both sides are able to completely destroy the opposite side but cannot defend themselves from being destroyed. This is the only way to ensure nukes are not used. It is ensured by InterContinental Ballistic Missiles(ICBM). 5 most advanced Land-based (land-based ICBMs are always much more powerful than sea-based ones in the same generation) ICBMs are: SS-18, SS-27 from Russia, DF-31, DF-41 from China, LGM-30 Minuteman from United States. There won’t be any significant new ones in the foreseeable future unless India is preparing a surprise for us. They all have global coverage (except DF-31, which cannot cover the entire US east coast), capable of multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle(MIRV) delivery and rapid launch (less than 30 minutes). Although the old DF-5 also covers the entire United States, it is actually pretty useless. It is liquid-fuel powered. Liquid fuel and missiles are stored separately. So it takes 60 minutes to fuel and another 30 minutes to launch. TOO LONG because there is simply no home to fight for after 90 minutes. United States has over 450 LGM-30s(entered service in 1970s). Although DF-41(entered service in 2016) is the most advanced land based ICBM in the world, China has only less than 40 of it, but she will have enough by 2030. With 3-10 warheads on each missile, at least 300 missiles are required to take out 90% population of United States because Americans have a pretty good National Missile Defense(NMD) system that can intercept (estimate) 75% of incoming war heads.What if the other side strikes first?United States can still count on their LGM-30s (and all sea-based missiles of course) due to their space-based infrared system (SBIRS) which is intended to replace (actually based on) the old Defense Support Program (DSP). It can detect a ballistic missile launch anywhere on this planet within 30 seconds. SBIRS currently has 8 satellites (last one launched in 2014) but I think there should be 2 more.China does not have this luxury. So we have to assume all land-based nuclear missiles (except some vehicle-based version) will be lost in the worst case. So China has to have sufficient Second-Strike Capability to prevent United States from trying to do pre-emptive nuclear strike. Second-Strike Capability is ensured by Submarine-launched ballistic missiles(SLBM). China’s current 093 and 094 subs have nice specifications on paper, but too noisy. They constantly get detected and followed by Japanese anti-submarine aircrafts.Fortunately the 096 subs are already in testing and will be at least as good as Ohio class. 096 carries 24 JL-3 SLBMs (will enter service in 2020) which will be at least as good as UGM-133 Trident II (entered service in 1990s, currently the most advanced SLBM in the world).US does not have any plan to replace UGM-133 Trident II and LGM-30s in the next 20 years. Columbia-class submarine, the replacement for the Ohio class will not touch water before 2030 and expected to serve until 2085. But it is irrelevant since China cannot sufficiently detect Ohio class anyway.So “Mutual assured destruction” can (hopefully) be achieved between US and China by 2030. Problem solved!Hopefully this explains every statement above.Strategic weapons are not built to use, but built not to use.This is my first answer on Quora, hopefully my English is good enough :D
Which countries have the Nuclear Triad capability? Which other countries has the technical prowess to build in a short time?
Which countries have the nuclear triad or have the ability to build one? (Paraphrase)Currently there are nine nuclear armed states on the planet. Countries with a triad or dyad capability have made staggeringly expensive decisions to ensure that their nuclear weapons can survive a 'bolt from the blue’ attack and still remain a potent retaliatory force.United States-Triad capability with Minuteman ICBM's, Ohio class SSBN's, and B-1, B-2, and B-52 bombers. (B-1 bombers presently are tasked with conventional missions only)Russia-Triad capability with Topol and SS-18 ICBM's, Delta and Borei class SSBN, and Tupelov Bear, Backfire, and Blackjack bombers.China-Triad capability with DF series ICBM's, Jin class Type 94 SSBN's, and H-6 medium bombers.India-Triad capability with Agni 5 LRBM's, Arihant SSBN's, and Mirage, Jaguar, and SU-30 deep strike aircraft equipped with gravity bombs (Mirage and Jaguar) or the Brahmos ALCM with a probable nuclear warhead on the SU-30.Pakistan-Suspected triad capability with Hatf series MRBM's, including the Shaheen 2, Agosta class SSK with probable nuclear tipped Babur cruise missiles, and Mirage 3 or F-16 aircraft for air dropped gravity bombs.These nations are the only known ones with an operational triad. Two other nations have a dyad system.France-Triomphant class SSBN's and air launched ASMP missiles from Mirages and Rafales. It's Pluton SRBM's and IRBM's were scrapped.Israel-Jericho LRBM's and Dolphin class SSK's equipped with suspected Popeye Turbo cruise missiles.The only confirmed advanced power with a monad (single) delivery system is the United Kingdom.It has 4 Vanguard class SSBN'S with Trident SLBM's. It's air dropped bombs and Vulcan bombers were withdrawn from service.One other nation, North Korea, is known to have nuclear weapons but it is a probable monad system, with an air dropped capability. Warheads for its Golf class submarines and ICBM's are not confirmed to be technically feasible as of yet.Lastly, nations such as Japan and Germany could in all probability develop a full triad system in a relatively short time, based on their advanced scientific and economic capabilities, while France, the UK, and Israel could easily move into a triad system if desired.(Pixabay photo)(Pixabay photo)(Photo Credit: YouTube. Nuclear Triad)