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Is it plagiarism to summarize an entire article in your own words and have the entire paragraph based on one source if you cite that source?

It is generally acceptable, and not plagiarism, to paraphrase material from any work with an appropriate citation for each paragraph, or for each element that is clearly attributed to the original author, with a reference listing at the end of the paper. Paraphrasing consists of different wording, wherein no more than two consecutive words are copied. The institution one is attending should provide guidance on formatting expectations, and the instructor should be consulted. Below is an abbreviated version of the American Psychological Association formatting guide I provided to graduate students in courses I taught.There are two commonly used academic formatting systems for scholarly works, to include the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, summarized below (a new edition has been subsequently published, and some formatting has been lost in uploading to Quora) and at:; and Modern Language Association (MLA) GuidelinesThis document attempts to provide the expected standards to achieve that level of work, and identifies common errors in adherence to the assignment writing requirements as stated in the Syllabus and American Psychological Association (APA) publication format as presented in the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (2001). It is also recommended that students review Common Errors in English (Brians, 2007). Another resource is the Guide to Grammar and Style, on the Rutgers University web site (Lynch, 2007) ( point of an academic institution being accredited is that the academic experience and academic rigor are generally equivalent among institutions. This facilitates a standard for acceptance of academic qualifications when it comes to teaching, research, and professional capabilities. “Rigor” concerns the requirement for students to conduct critical research of the literature, and demonstrate their skill through the incorporation of appropriate materials, notwithstanding the student’s location. That is not to say that allowances for extenuating circumstances should not be employed, they should. One way that is done is by offering a lenient course extension policy, allowing for the time consuming accumulation of appropriate references. But, devaluing the education provided by accepting substandard work does not serve the student well, and does not uphold the standards required for continued accreditation.Assignments will also be measured against the following criteria:1. Plagiarism results from failure to use quote marks and citations for the exact words of another and/or from failure to use citations when paraphrasing another author (i.e., summarizing, rearranging, or substituting for the words of another) (APA, 2001, sec. 8.05, Principle 6.22). See paragraphs 11-19 below for citation format, and paragraph 34 for the Reference list. The following are identified as academic dishonesty, which can result in penalties as severe as dismissal from the University:· Submitting another's work· Writing for someone else· Group effort without faculty consent· Buying a paper· Getting or giving outside help without faculty permission· Submitting the same work for different courses2. Please note that “primary sources” are an element of an exemplary paper. References like “Wikipedia,” “Psychology Today,” and “Court TV” are not primary sources, are not peer reviewed (reviewed for empirical integrity, accuracy, and authenticity), and are not appropriate references for scholarly writing (with the possible exception of use for anecdotal background information or case study information for course purposes). Primary sources consist of professional and scholarly journals and textbooks, they report empirical results, and they are peer reviewed for empirical integrity, accuracy, and authenticity. Establishing the credentials of the author is an important aspect of identifying appropriate sources. The authors of primary sources are established professionals and/or recognized authorities who present validated and verified theories. Journalists do not normally possess the professional qualifications necessary to evaluate the material they are presenting, and therefore should not be relied upon in essays for this course.3. Precision and clarity are called for by the APA. Economy of expression is necessary; avoid literary device, jargon, wordiness, anthropomorphism (human attributes attributed animals or objects), redundancy, cliché, colloquial expressions, euphemistic phrases, slang, and ambiguous comparisons. "Always" and "never" are seldom appropriate; most situations exist on a continuum. Verb tense should remain consistent throughout the essay, and past tense is appropriate for cited material. Use simple declarative sentences when possible, with simple and common words (APA, 2001, sec. 2.02-2.04). Hyperbole and superlatives are not appropriate for scholarly writing, and it is fine to “believe” something (as long as assertions are supported logically and/or empirically), but not to “feel.” Informally, "feel broadly substitutes for think or believe, but in scientific style such latitude is not acceptable" (APA, 2001, sec. 2.04).4. Passive voice may confuse the reader by de-emphasizing the actor and emphasizing the object. Clearly identify the subject, and place the subject before the verb. [Example: The bullet struck him in the head. Not: He was struck by the bullet.] [Example: Turvey (2001) has stated that the organized/disorganized dichotomy has no empirical support. Not: It has been argued the organized/disorganized dichotomy has no empirical support.] (APA, 2001, sec. 2.06).5. Unsupported generalizations and assertions will be challenged. If one has an opinion, it must be supported, and there is an expectation that reasons for belief will be articulated6. Many deficiencies result from lack of proofreading, it is a good idea to put the work aside, and then proofread before submission.7. Contractions are not used in scholarly writing.8. “It’s” is a contraction of it is, and does not show possession.9. Allot means to apportion or grant, “a lot” is an informal way to say “a great deal,” or “often,” do not use “a lot.” And, “allot” does not mean a lot.10. A series of elements must be in parallel in form, example: The results show that white becomes black and that red becomes green (APA, 2001, sec. 2.11).11. When another’s words are taken from a source (generally three or more consecutive words), quote marks must be used (see paragraph 1 re: plagiarism); and, authors, publication date (not the reprint date), and page numbers must be cited [Example: (Author, 2007, p. 1) (see paragraph 12 for more examples)]. Author and publication date must be included in a citation for each instance of paraphrased material unless it occurs within the same paragraph, then a citation with the author only is sufficient as long as it cannot be confused with other works. If a quote is used later in a paragraph where the source is cited and that is the only source, a page number citation is sufficient [e.g., (p. 5)]. The paragraph may be cited as the consecutively numbered paragraph following a particular heading (APA, 2001, sec. 3.34-3.94). Ellipses (...) are not used at the beginning of a quote, and the capitalization of first letter of the first word in a quote can be changed to match the placement in the essay. For the purposes of this course, in a four to five paragraph essay, a single citation in the first paragraph is sufficient if that is the only source. In electronic works, a paragraph number must be used if page numbers are unavailable [Example: (Holmes & Holmes, 2002, para. 3)]. Personal interviews are cited as:(Paragraph indented in total “block quote”)Supervisory Special Agent Rhonda Trahern, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), was queried concerning her position at the Behavioral Analysis Unit (BAU), National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime (NCAVC), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) (personal communication, February 12, 2008).12. Sentence punctuation follows the citation, except in block quotes (quotes of 40 or more words, see paragraph 19 below). [Examples: a. Holmes and Holmes (2002, p. 3) stated, “words.” b. Holmes and Holmes (2002) stated, “words” (p. 3). c. “Words” (Holmes & Holmes, 2002, p. 3) d. Holmes and Holmes stated, “words” (2002, p. 3). (APA, 2001, sec. 3.34 & 3.95). For a website list author or Corporate/Organizational author, no date, Section Heading, paragraph: Example (The Smoking Gun, n.d., The Telltale "Splotch," para. 2).]13. Sample citation, multiple authors: Smith, Jones, and Andrews (2004, p. 1) or (Smith, Jones, & Andrews, 2004, p. 1), after first use: Smith et al. (2004) or (Smith et al., 2004) (APA, 2001, sec. 3.95). Sample citation corporate or group author: first use: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2001), second use: (APA, 2001).14. Abbreviation for pages: pp. [(Holmes & Holmes, 2002, pp. 10-11)] (APA, 2001, sec. 3.28).15. If material is paraphrased, a citation must be used for each paragraph, unless it is sufficiently clear that the source remains the same. A page number is not required, and only a single citation is needed as long as it is clear that the source remains the same, per APA (2001, sec. 3.39). [Example: This is paraphrased (Holmes & Holmes, 2002).]16. Punctuation is placed within quote marks, unless the citation is at the end. Final sentence punctuation follows the citation enclosed in parentheses. And, an ampersand is only used within parentheses [Examples: Holmes and Holmes (2002, p.10) state, “Profiling: An art, not a science.” “Profiling: An art, not a science” (Holmes & Holmes, 2002, p. 10).] (APA, 2001, sec. 3.36 & 3.95).17. Secondary sources, authors referenced within another work, must be cited properly. References cited within a reference actually consulted (secondary sources) are not listed as a reference in the essay being written, to list a reference that has not been directly consulted in its original form may amount to academic dishonesty. [Example: Jones stated “that this …” (as cited in Smith, 2004, p. 1). The Smith source is listed as a reference.] (APA, 2001, sec. 4.16.A.22). If one is quoting material from a source, do not remove citations included in that material, but do not list that reference in the reference list unless it has been consulted directly for other areas of the essay (APA, 2001, sec. 3.40).18. When 40 or more words are taken from a source, an indented, double spaced block quote must be used, per APA (2001, sec. 3.34-3.41). In the block quote citation, the final sentence punctuation is before the citation in parentheses. Example:Students will write a scholarly paper that addresses one (or possibly a combination of two) of the COURSE LEARNING OBJECTIVES. This Research Review Paper will demonstrate the student’s ability to research and reason, incorporating the cognitive skills of analysis, synthesis, evaluation, defense of logic, and conclusions.19. Use of 12-pt Times Roman typeface is preferred (and will be used to judge the length of a paper), Courier is the only alternative (APA, 2001, sec. 5.02).20. The first line of every paragraph must be indented (APA, 2001, sec. 4.08).21. Double-spacing is used between all lines, to include between paragraphs (APA, 2001, sec. 5.03).22. The one-inch margins are justified only on the left (APA, 2001, sec. 5.04).23. Sections and sub-sections are continuous, they do not start on a new page (APA. 2001, sec. 5.17). Only the title page and reference list are separate pages.24. Headings are not labeled with numbers or letters (APA. 2001, sec. 3.30).25. Spacing & punctuation, single space after:· Commas, colons, and semicolons· End of sentence punctuation· After period in a person’s initials (e.g., D. L. Robb)· Except after internal abbreviation periods (e.g., U.S., D.C., p.m., i.e.) (APA, 2001, sec. 5.11)26. For a discussion of comma use see Common Errors in English (Brians, 2007), in general, use a comma:· Between elements and before the conjunction in a series of elements· Between nonessential clauses· After the year in dates (On January 1, 2000, a century began.) (APA, 2001, sec. 3.02)27. If what follows a colon stands as a sentence, the first word is capitalized (APA, 2001, sec. 3.12).28. A dash consists of 2 hyphens (APA, 2001, sec. 3.05), and is used to set off parenthetical material that consists of a strong interjection.29. Ellipsis points (…) are only used within quotes between quoted words where intervening words are not used. Quotes do not start or end with ellipsis points (APA, 2001, sec. 3.38).30. Quotation marks used to denote use of a word or phrase as being ironic, as being an invented expression, or as being slang should only be used in the first appearance of that word or phrase (APA, 2001, sec. 3.06) [Example: exhibited “normal” behavior].31. The first use of an acronym or abbreviation must be explained, spell out the words and place the acronym in parentheses (APA, 2001, sec. 3.21).32. Spell out numbers under 10, common fractions, and numbers that begin a sentence. Use figures for numbers that represent exact measurements, dates, rounded large numbers, numbers 10 and higher, and numbers below 10 when grouped with numbers 10 and higher· 3-year-old· 11th-grade student· Grade 6 (except: sixth grade)· in 2 years· age 5· 20 years old (APA. 2001, sec. 3.42-3.44).33. Plural numbers: 1970s, 10s, or 20s (APA, 2001, sec. 3.49)34. Percentages: 46% (APA, 2001, sec. 3.42d).35. In referencing gender, “he/she,” “his/her,” and similar combinations should be avoided, it is recommended that they, them, or their, be used (APA, 2001, sec. 2.13).36. Only use Latin abbreviations within parentheses (APA, 2001, sec. 3.24), etc. would be “and so forth,” e.g. would be “for example” (and e.g. denotes a partial list, therefore, adding “etc.” is redundant), and i.e. would be “that is.”37. The APA (2001) advised that the 10th edition of Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary is the standard source for spelling, pluralizing, hyphenating, and presumably Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (2004) is now the standard. The APA does not recommend that dictionary for definitions. Definitions for technology, science, research, and words specific to an academic discipline should be obtained from primary sources (i.e., recognized texts, peer-reviewed sources). If it is necessary to define a common word, the Collegiate Dictionary should be appropriate, although no examples come to mind.38. Reference format: alphabetical order, double space, hanging indent (APA, 2001, Chapter 4). Note that if a book has an editor, then there are other authors of the works within the book; the author of the actual article or chapter is listed in the citation and in the reference list.References (Examples) [I understand that some formatting is stripped on the Discussion Board submissions]:American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author. [corporate or group author]Author, A. A. (2000). Title of work. Location of publisher: Publisher. [Only the first word, the first word after a colon, and proper nouns are capitalized. For the location of the publisher, list city and state abbreviation unless it is a major city known for publishing (i.e., Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angles, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco).]Author, A. A., & Author, A. B. (2001). Article title [Only the first word, the first word after a colon, and proper nouns are capitalized.]. Journal Title (journal title capitalized first letter), xx, xxx-xxx [volume, (number), page number].Author, A. A., & Author, A. C. (2002). Chapter title. In A. Editor, & B. Editor (Eds.) Book Title (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.Author, B. A. (2003a). Title of work. Location: Publisher. [Citation for source by same author in same year: (Author, 2007a, p. 1)]Author, B. A. (2003b). Title of second work. Location: Publisher.References:American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.Brians, P. (2007). Common Errors in English. Retrieved on July 30, 2007, from, J. (2007). Guide to grammar and style. Rutgers University. Retrieved on December 31, 2007, from: Guide to Grammar and StyleRobb, D. L. (2007). Syllabus: Criminal Justice & Security, Course # CR531, Criminal Profiling. American Military University.Merriam-Webster. (2004). Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (11th Ed.). Springfield, MA: Author.

How do I differentiate between MLA and APA referencing?

Referencing is an essential aspect of academic writing. Every person should have a clear concept regarding the differences between each of the referencing styles, including the difference between MLA and APA. When a student gets enrolled in a university, he is made to study different subjects and topics from the field of study chosen by him. He has to attend lectures, do self-study, appear in various examinations and writing assignments. When it comes to writing assignments, the professors want the assignments to be well-structured and have well-researched content. He expects the students to follow the required format and search for different peer-reviewed articles, journals, websites, government reports, etc. A student cannot simply take content from any of the sources without giving it the due credit in his assignments. Referencing is a technique through which the students can provide due credit. But who will teach these students how to reference a source; there are no separate lectures or tutorials. Some professors guide their students about referencing styles, but it is not enough to train the latter on every minute details. There are many referencing styles, and each of the assignments comes up with one of these styles. The present blog will eliminate the confusion of students with regards to the difference between MLA and APA. We have chosen these two styles due to their excessive usage in the field of academics so let’s begun and explore the difference.MLA style of referencing and formattingMLA is an abbreviation of modern language association of America. It is a professional body for scholars studying language and literature. The purpose of this association is to promote the study and teaching of language and literature. The MLA style of referencing is quite common in assignments related to humanities. So a student studying humanities must be aware of this style. The style is usually applied while writing literature, or describing a theatrical work of art. Like any other referencing style, MLA also comes up with a unique citations style. Usually, the last page of any assignment has a heading, ‘Reference’ but if you are tasked with MLA referencing format then the last page will have a heading, ‘Works Cited’.Let’s explain this referencing style with some examples:“The strength of the company depends upon the type of service provided by it during the pandemic situation’’ (Grover 38).The above statement is supported by the citation (Grover 38), Grover is the author’s last name, and 38 is the page number. MLA style of referencing does not include the year of the reference; instead, it includes page numbers.Grover, Samson. Coping with pandemic related issues. Springer, 2020. Print.The above is the entry that will be made in the Works Cited page. The MLA style of referencing includes the last name and the first name of the authors. No initials are used in this referencing style. Grover is the last name followed by the first name, the name of the book, the publisher name, year and the word print which signifies that it is available in the print version. The name of the book has been italicized.MLA style of referencing has a unique feature of indentation of all entries in the Works Cited page. The above reference had less information, so there was no scope of indentation, but let’s take another example to understand this feature:Grover, Samson. Coping with pandemic related issues. Journal of Management and Justice, 56.4 (2020): 43.With the above example, we hope that you have understood about indentation. You can also note one thing in the above reference that the source’s entire name has not been italicized. Reference has been taken from a journal, and as per MLA guidelines, name of the journal should be italicized. In the above example, the Journal of Management and Justice is the name of the journal.But if in case there are two authors then the name of the first author will be reversed but the name of the second author will be included in the normal order that is the first name followed by the last name.When a reference has a number of authors, there are some referencing styles that ask the term, ‘et al.’ to be included with the first author’s name. Et al. is a Latin word signifying, ‘and others’. In the case of the MLA style of referencing, the term et al. is to be used when a reference has three or more authors. The term et al. signifies the contribution of other authors as well. Once you have entered the last name and first name of the first author, you can use the term et al. A period comes after the word et al. and the reference would look like the one mentioned below:Grover, Samson, et al. Coping with pandemic related issues. Journal of Management and Justice, 56.4 (2020): 43.APA style of referencing and formattingAPA is an abbreviation of modern American psychological association. It is a scientific organization consisting of psychologists from the field of science, education, medical, consultants, students, etc. This association aims to provide benefit and improve the lives of the people living in society. In the year 1929, an article was published in the Psychological Bulletin, which laid the foundation of APA style. The APA style of referencing is quite common in assignments related to social sciences, education and psychology. The last page of an assignment following APA format will have, ‘References’ or ‘Reference List’ as the last heading.Let’s explain this referencing style with some examples:“The strength of the company depends upon the type of service provided by it during the pandemic situation’’ (Grover, 2020).The above statement is supported by the citation (Grover, 2020), Grover is the author’s last name, and 2020 is the year. APA style of referencing includes the year of the reference. Page numbers are not necessary to be included in the citations, but it can be included if the volume of the source is large. If in case page numbers are included, then the citation will have the below format:“The strength of the company depends upon the type of service provided by it during the pandemic situation’’ (Grover, 2020, p. 38).Grover, S. (2020). Coping with pandemic related issues. Springer.The above entry will be made in the References page. The APA style of referencing includes the last name and the initials of the authors’ first name. S is the initial of the first name preceded by the last name then the year, name of the book and the publisher name. The name of the book has been italicized.Like MLA style of referencing as mentioned in this difference between MLA and APA blog, APA style also has the feature of indentation of all entries in the reference list. Let’s take an example to understand this feature:Grover, S. (2020). Coping with pandemic related issues. Journal of Management and Justice, 56(4), p. 43.In the above example, the journal’s name and the volume have been italicized as per the APA guidelines.As mentioned in the previous section of this blog on difference between MLA and APA, et al. is used in APA style of referencing but with a difference. It is not used in the reference list rather in the in-text citations section. As per the APA 7th edition guidelines, et al. is to be used when there are three or more than three authors in a reference.Page format difference between MLA and APAThere are some obvious differences between the two formats which will be discussed in the below section.In both the formatting styles, double space is used in line and paragraphing sections. A margin of 1 inch is left from all sides of the paper with a 12 font size. The text can be easily read in both styles. When a page is formatted as per the APA style, the following points should be noted:Title pageAbstract or an Executive summaryMain bodyReferencesWhen a page is formatted as per the MLA style, there is no requirement of any title page or an abstract. The following points should be noted:The main body of the paperWorks CitedMLA page formatAPA page formatThe difference between MLA and APA can also be seen in the formatting of the title page. In APA, the title page has all the details of the student and the university whereas in MLA, there is no title page and the first page of the document includes the details about the student and his university.Details to be filled on the title page under APA format are at the centre of the page whereas details to be filled on the first page of a document under MLA format are at left side of the page.The page header difference between MLA and APA is also obvious. Under APA page number comes at the right hand of the paper, but under MLA, the page number and the name of the student come at the right hand of the main page.There is running head difference between MLA and APA; the former has running head appearing on the left side of the title page, which follows all pages whereas MLA does not have a running head.Referencing difference between MLA and APAThe first difference between MLA and APA referencing format is the heading of the page, which includes the references. Under APA format, the page listing all the references is signified as References or Reference list whereas MLA lists all references with the heading, Works Cited.The second difference between MLA and APA referencing format is the format of the author’s name. Under APA, last name of the author is followed by initials of his first name and the middle name whereas, in MLA, the last name of the author is followed by the first name. Complete name is used in MLA and if in case there is more than one author, then the author’s second name is written in the normal order.The third difference between MLA and APA referencing format is the usage of et al. Under APA format et al. is never used in the reference list whereas et al. is very much used in MLA format when there are three or more than three authors in a reference.The fourth difference between MLA and APA referencing format can be found in the citation style. APA uses the author’s last name, the year and page number if required, whereas MLA uses last name of the author and the page number, there is no inclusion of year.The fifth difference between MLA and APA referencing format is the usage of the connector between two or more authors. Under APA ampersand and used in the reference list and in the in-text citations whereas in MLA, the word, ‘and’ is used in the in-text citations and references.The sixth difference between MLA and APA referencing format is the placement of the year in the references. In APA the year comes after the author’s name and before the details about the source whereas in MLA year comes at the end of source details followed by page number.The seventh difference between MLA and APA referencing format is the usage of parenthesis. APA uses parenthesis in its Reference List entries whereas there is no usage of parenthesis in the entries mentioned on Works Cited page.

If a paper has a sentence with some citations, how do I cite that passage?

This is a great question, because the answer can be tricky, and is rarely seen (though it probably actually happens more, and is cited incorrectly). In general, you should avoid doing this if possible. Get access to the original sources, confirm they say what you think they say, and then cite them directly (possibly with A as well, if A provides new information). If paper A provides direct evidence and/or expands on it, you may be able to just cite paper A (this is common when the citation in A is just to provide a background for what A also shows, or further tests). Some people cheat the system by making the same claim, but citing B, C, and D without reading them, which is plagiarism (perhaps unintentional, if they just don't know, but still plagiarism). They do this because it sounds like they've done more work than they have (and/or are familiar with more seminal work). A few might just cite the later work, which is not correct if that work is not making the claim, but rather relying on it. If it actually makes the claim on its own, and that's where you got the information, you can just cite it.However, sometimes you don't have access to B, C, and/or D (more commonly this would be for a single cite, however, and often for direct quotes in particular), and A is not sufficient as the source. Examples could be when the source is very old, it's out of print, or is in a language you can't read. In this case, you would include the quote/information, and write something along the lines of "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit" (qtd. in B 365). That's MLA format (with the page number specified). You could also write something along the lines of according to B, Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit (cited in B, 2012). That's APA format for a paraphrase (with the year specified - you would add a page if quoting, or could even if paraphrasing, if it would be helpful to find the information).Some useful resources, which I drew on in answering this (the "cited in" concept is widespread, but varies by citation style - I usually use a journal style for citations), are below.APA:How do you cite a source that you found in another source?How do I cite a source that I read about in a different source?APA Citation Style Guide, 6th ed.MLA:How do I cite a source that I read about in a different source?MLA Style, 7th EditionI also found this excerpt on the University of Chicago Press site[1], which I think explains it even better than I do:Q: What about citing a work I’ve found in someone else’s notes? Do I need to cite the place where I discovered the work?This issue comes up all the time because it’s one of the most important ways we learn about other works and other ideas. Reading a book by E. L. Jones, for example, you find an interesting citation to Adam Smith. As it turns out, you are more interested in Smith’s point than in Jones’s commentary, so you decide to cite Smith. That’s fine—you can certainly cite Smith—but how should you handle it?There’s a choice. One way is to follow the paper trail from Jones’s footnote to Adam Smith’s text, read the relevant part, and simply cite it, with no reference at all to Jones. That’s completely legitimate for books like Smith’s that are well known in their field. You are likely to come across such works in your normal research, and you don’t need to cite Jones as the guide who sent you there. To do that honestly, though, you have to go to Smith and read the relevant parts.The rule is simple: Cite only texts you have actually used and would have found in the normal course of your research, not obscure texts used by someone else or works you know about only secondhand. You don’t have to read several hundred pages of Adam Smith. You do have to read the relevant pages in Smith—the ones you cite. Remember the basic principle: When you say you did the work yourself, you actually did it.Alternatively, if you don’t have time to read Smith yourself (or if the work is written in a language you cannot read), you can cite the text this way: “Smith, Wealth of Nations, 123, as discussed in Jones, The European Miracle.” Normally, you don’t need to cite the page in Jones, but you can if you wish. An in-text citation would look different but accomplish the same thing: (Smith 123, qtd. in Jones).This alternative is completely honest, too. You are referencing Smith’s point but saying you found it in Jones. This follows another equally important principle: When you rely on someone else’s work, you cite it. In this case, you are relying on Jones, not Smith himself, as your source for Smith’s point.Follow the same rule if Jones leads you to a work that is unusual or obscure to you, a work you discovered only because Jones did the detailed research, found it, and told you about it. For example, one of Jones’s citations is to a 1668 book by Paul Rycaut, entitled The Present State of the Ottoman Empire. I’m not an expert on the Ottoman Empire and certainly would not have discovered that book myself. Frankly, I’d never even heard of it until Jones mentioned it. So I’d cite it as (Rycaut 54, cited in Jones). I can do that without going to the Rycaut book. On the other hand, if I were a student of Ottoman history and Jones had simply reminded me of Rycaut’s work, I would cite it directly. To do that honestly, however, I would need to go to the Rycaut volume and read the relevant passage.Some scholars, unfortunately, sneak around this practice. They don’t give credit where credit is due. They simply cite Rycaut, even if they’ve never heard of him before, or they cite Smith, even if they haven’t read the passage. One result (and it really happens!) could be that Jones made a mistake in his citation and the next scholar repeated the error. It’s really a twofold blunder: an incorrect footnote and a false assertion that the writer used Smith as a source.The specific rules here are less important than the basic concepts:Cite only texts you found in the normal course of your research and have actually used.Cite all your sources openly and honestly.Follow these and you’ll do just fine.Footnotes[1] Citation FAQ from Doing Honest Work in College by Charles Lipson

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